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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 216-224, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528818

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Senile osteoporosis is mainly caused by reduced osteoblast differentiation and has become the leading cause of fractures in the elderly worldwide. Natural organics are emerging as a potential option for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. This study was designed to study the effect of resveratrol on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in osteoporosis mice. A mouse model of osteoporosis was established by subcutaneous injection of dexamethasone and treated with resveratrol administered by gavage. In vivo and in vitro, we used western blot to detect protein expression, and evaluated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by detecting the expression of osteogenic differentiation related proteins, calcium deposition, ALP activity and osteocalcin content. Resveratrol treatment significantly increased the body weight of mice, the level of serum Ca2+, 25(OH)D and osteocalcin, ration of bone weight, bone volume/total volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular spacing and cortical thickness in osteoporosis mice. In BMSCs of osteoporosis mice, resveratrol treatment significantly increased the expression of Runx2, osterix (OSX) and osteocalcin (OCN) protein, the level of calcium deposition, ALP activity and osteocalcin content. In addition, resveratrol treatment also significantly increased the expression of SIRT1, p-PI3K / PI3K and p-AKT / AKT in BMSCs of osteoporosis mice. In vitro, resveratrol increased the expression of SIRT1, p-PI3K / PI3K and p-AKT / AKT, Runx2, OSX and OCN protein, the level of calcium deposition, ALP activity and osteocalcin content in BMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, while SIRT1 knockdown significantly reversed the effect of resveratrol. Resveratrol can attenuate osteoporosis by promoting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of SIRT1/PI3K/AKT pathway.


La osteoporosis senil es causada principalmente por una diferenciación reducida de osteoblastos y se ha convertido en la principal causa de fracturas en las personas mayores en todo el mundo. Los productos orgánicos naturales están surgiendo como una opción potencial para la prevención y el tratamiento de la osteoporosis. Este estudio fue diseñado para estudiar el efecto del resveratrol en la diferenciación osteogénica de las células madre mesenquimales de la médula ósea (BMSC) en ratones con osteoporosis. Se estableció un modelo de osteoporosis en ratones mediante inyección subcutánea de dexametasona y se trató con resveratrol administrado por sonda. In vivo e in vitro, utilizamos Western blot para detectar la expresión de proteínas y evaluamos la diferenciación osteogénica de BMSC detectando la expresión de proteínas relacionadas con la diferenciación osteogénica, la deposición de calcio, la actividad de ALP y el contenido de osteocalcina. El tratamiento con resveratrol aumentó significativamente el peso corporal de los ratones, el nivel sérico de Ca2+, 25(OH)D y osteocalcina, la proporción de peso óseo, el volumen óseo/ volumen total, el espesor trabecular, el número trabecular, el espaciado trabecular y el espesor cortical en ratones con osteoporosis. En BMSC de ratones con osteoporosis, el tratamiento con resveratrol aumentó significativamente la expresión de las proteínas Runx2, osterix (OSX) y osteocalcina (OCN), el nivel de deposición de calcio, la actividad de ALP y el contenido de osteocalcina. Además, el tratamiento con resveratrol también aumentó significativamente la expresión de SIRT1, p-PI3K/PI3K y p-AKT/AKT en BMSC de ratones con osteoporosis. In vitro, el resveratrol aumentó la expresión de las proteínas SIRT1, p-PI3K/PI3K y p- AKT/AKT, Runx2, OSX y OCN, el nivel de deposición de calcio, la actividad de ALP y el contenido de osteocalcina en BMSC de manera dependiente de la concentración, mientras que La caída de SIRT1 revirtió significativamente el efecto del resveratrol. El resveratrol puede atenuar la osteoporosis al promover la diferenciación osteogénica de las células madre mesenquimales de la médula ósea, y el mecanismo puede estar relacionado con la regulación de la vía SIRT1/PI3K/AKT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Disease Models, Animal , Sirtuin 1 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 127-136, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528822

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic wound healing potential and molecular mechanisms of shikonin as small molecules in vitro. A mouse burn model was used to explore the potential therapeutic effect of shikonin; we traced proliferating cells in vivo to locate the active area of skin cell proliferation. Through the results of conventional pathological staining, we found that shikonin has a good effect on the treatment of burned skin and promoted the normal distribution of skin keratin at the damaged site. At the same time, shikonin also promoted the proliferation of skin cells at the damaged site; importantly, we found a significant increase in the number of fibroblasts at the damaged site treated with shikonin. Most importantly, shikonin promotes fibroblasts to repair skin wounds by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study shows that shikonin can effectively promote the proliferation of skin cell, and local injection of fibroblasts in burned skin can play a certain therapeutic role.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el potencial terapéutico de cicatrización de heridas y los mecanismos moleculares de la shikonina como moléculas pequeñas in vitro. Se utilizó un modelo de quemaduras en ratones para explorar el posible efecto terapéutico de la shikonina; Rastreamos las células en proliferación in vivo para localizar el área activa de proliferación de células de la piel. A través de los resultados de la tinción para patología convencional, encontramos que la shikonina tiene un buen efecto en el tratamiento de la piel quemada y promueve la distribución normal de la queratina de la piel en el sitio dañado. Al mismo tiempo, la shikonina también promovió la proliferación de células de la piel en el sitio dañado. Es importante destacar que encontramos un aumento significativo en la cantidad de fibroblastos en el sitio dañado tratado con shikonina. Lo más importante es que la shikonina promueve la función reparadora de fibroblastos en las heridas de la piel regulando la vía de señalización PI3K/ AKT. Este estudio muestra que la shikonina puede promover eficazmente la proliferación de células de la piel y que la inyección local de fibroblastos en la piel quemada puede desempeñar un cierto papel terapéutico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Wound Healing/drug effects , Burns/drug therapy , Naphthoquinones/administration & dosage , Skin , In Vitro Techniques , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Fibroblasts , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aim of this study was to assess the impact of bisphenol A (BPA) and its substitute, bisphenol F (BPF), on the colonic fecal community structure and function of mice.@*METHODS@#We exposed 6-8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice to 5 mg/(kg∙day) and 50 μg/(kg∙day) of BPA or BPF for 14 days. Fecal samples from the colon were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Gut microbiome community richness and diversity, species composition, and function were significantly altered in mice exposed to BPA or BPF. This change was characterized by elevated levels of Ruminococcaceae UCG-010 and Oscillibacter and decreased levels of Prevotella 9 and Streptococcus. Additionally, pathways related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism showed substantial enrichment.@*CONCLUSION@#Mice exposed to different BP analogs exhibited distinct gut bacterial community richness, composition, and related metabolic pathways. Considering the essential role of gut bacteria in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, our study highlights the intestinal toxicity of BPs in vertebrates.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Bacteria/genetics , Phenols
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011012

ABSTRACT

Pathological vascular remodeling is a hallmark of various vascular diseases. Previous research has established the significance of andrographolide in maintaining gastric vascular homeostasis and its pivotal role in modulating endothelial barrier dysfunction, which leads to pathological vascular remodeling. Potassium dehydroandrographolide succinate (PDA), a derivative of andrographolide, has been clinically utilized in the treatment of inflammatory diseases precipitated by viral infections. This study investigates the potential of PDA in regulating pathological vascular remodeling. The effect of PDA on vascular remodeling was assessed through the complete ligation of the carotid artery in C57BL/6 mice. Experimental approaches, including rat aortic primary smooth muscle cell culture, flow cytometry, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, Boyden chamber cell migration assay, spheroid sprouting assay, and Matrigel-based tube formation assay, were employed to evaluate the influence of PDA on the proliferation and motility of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Molecular docking simulations and co-immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to examine protein interactions. The results revealed that PDA exacerbates vascular injury-induced pathological remodeling, as evidenced by enhanced neointima formation. PDA treatment significantly increased the proliferation and migration of SMCs. Further mechanistic studies disclosed that PDA upregulated myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) expression in SMCs and interacted with T-cadherin (CDH13). This interaction augmented proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix deposition, culminating in pathological vascular remodeling. Our findings underscore the critical role of PDA in the regulation of pathological vascular remodeling, mediated through the MyD88/CDH13 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Rats , Animals , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Vascular Remodeling , Cell Proliferation , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Carotid Artery Injuries/pathology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Movement , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction , Succinates/pharmacology , Potassium/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Diterpenes , Cadherins
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 17-34, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010650

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease, mediated by pathogenic T helper 17 (Th17) cells. However, the therapeutic effect is accompanied by the fluctuation of the proportion and function of Th17 cells, which prompted us to find the key regulator of Th17 differentiation in MS. Here, we demonstrated that the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2), a modulator of pattern recognition receptors on innate immune cells, was highly expressed on pathogenic CD4-positive T lymphocyte (CD4+ T) cells in both patients with MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse models. Conditional knockout of Trem-2 in CD4+ T cells significantly alleviated the disease activity and reduced Th17 cell infiltration, activation, differentiation, and inflammatory cytokine production and secretion in EAE mice. Furthermore, with Trem-2 knockout in vivo experiments and in vitro inhibitor assays, the TREM-2/zeta-chain associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signal axis was essential for Th17 activation and differentiation in EAE progression. In conclusion, TREM-2 is a key regulator of pathogenic Th17 in EAE mice, and this sheds new light on the potential of this therapeutic target for MS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Multiple Sclerosis , Th1 Cells/pathology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009469

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the phenotypic conversion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the lungs of mice with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)-affected mice. Methods A total of 20 newborn C57BL/6 mice were divided into air group and hyperoxia group, with 10 mice in each group. The BPD model was established by exposing the newborn mice to hyperoxia. Lung tissues from five mice in each group were collected on postnatal days 7 and 14, respectively. Histopathological changes of the lung tissues was detected by HE staining. The expression level of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in the lung tissues was examined by Western blot analysis. Flow cytometry was performed to assess the proportion of FOXP3+ Tregs and RORγt+FOXP3+ Tregs in CD4+ lymphocytes. The concentrations of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-6 in lung homogenate were measured by using ELISA. Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between FOXP3+Treg and the expression of SP-C and the correlation between RORγt+FOXP3+ Tregs and the content of IL-17A and IL-6. Results The hyperoxia group exhibited significantly decreased levels of SP-C and radical alveolar counts in comparison to the control group. The proportion of FOXP3+Tregs was reduced and that of RORγt+FOXP3+Tregs was increased. IL-17A and IL-6 concentrations were significantly increased. SP-C was positively correlated with the expression level of RORγt+FOXP3+ Tregs. RORγt+FOXP3+ Tregs and IL-17A and IL-6 concentrations were also positively correlated. Conclusion The number of FOXP3+ Tregs in lung tissue of BPD mice is decreased and converted to RORγt+ FOXP3+ Tregs, which may be involved in hyperoxy-induced lung injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Interleukin-17 , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3 , Hyperoxia , Interleukin-6 , Forkhead Transcription Factors , Lung
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009468

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the expression of adhesion molecule CD226 on the small intestinal group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in mice. Methods The bioinformatics was used to analyze the expression of CD226 on murine ILCs. Small intestinal mucosal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) were isolated from wild-type C57BL/6J mice, and the expression of CD226 on ILC1 and ILC3 was detected by flow cytometry. A mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was constructed to observe the changes in the expression of CD226 on ILC3. Results Both ILC1 and ILC3 in the mice small intestine expressed CD226 molecules; the proportion of ILC3 was reduced, while the expression level of CD226 on ILC3 was increased in the colitis model. Conclusion CD226 is expressed on the small intestines of mice, and although the proportion of ILC3 decreases in the DSS-induced colitis, the expression of CD226 on ILC3 increases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis/chemically induced , Immunity, Innate , Intestine, Small , Lymphocytes , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To Investigate the effects of lithocholic acid (LCA) on the balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).@*METHODS@#Twelve 10-week-old SPF C57BL/6J female mice were randomly divided into an experimental group (undergoing bilateral ovariectomy) and a control group (only removing the same volume of adipose tissue around the ovaries), with 6 mice in each group. The body mass was measured every week after operation. After 4 weeks post-surgery, the weight of mouse uterus was measured, femur specimens of the mice were taken for micro-CT scanning and three-dimensional reconstruction to analyze changes in bone mass. Tibia specimens were taken for HE staining to calculate the number and area of bone marrow adipocytes in the marrow cavity area. ELISA was used to detect the expression of bone turnover markers in the serum. Liver samples were subjected to real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to detect the expression of key genes related to bile acid metabolism, including cyp7a1, cyp7b1, cyp8b1, and cyp27a1. BMSCs were isolated by centrifugation from 2 C57BL/6J female mice (10-week-old). The third-generation cells were exposed to 0, 1, 10, and 100 μmol/L LCA, following which cell viability was evaluated using the cell counting kit 8 assay. Subsequently, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and oil red O staining were conducted after 7 days of osteogenic and adipogenic induction. RT-qPCR was employed to analyze the expressions of osteogenic-related genes, namely ALP, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin (OCN), as well as adipogenic-related genes including Adiponectin (Adipoq), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the body mass of the mice in the experimental group increased, the uterus atrophied, the bone mass decreased, the bone marrow fat expanded, and the bone metabolism showed a high bone turnover state. RT-qPCR showed that the expressions of cyp7a1, cyp8b1, and cyp27a1, which were related to the key enzymes of bile acid metabolism in the liver, decreased significantly ( P<0.05), while the expression of cyp7b1 had no significant difference ( P>0.05). Intervention with LCA at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 μmol/L did not demonstrate any apparent toxic effects on BMSCs. Furthermore, LCA inhibited the expressions of osteogenic-related genes (ALP, Runx2, and OCN) in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a reduction in ALP staining positive area. Concurrently, LCA promoted the expressions of adipogenic-related genes (Adipoq, FABP4, and PPARγ), and an increase in oil red O staining positive area.@*CONCLUSION@#After menopause, the metabolism of bile acids is altered, and secondary bile acid LCA interferes with the balance of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, thereby affecting bone remodelling.


Subject(s)
Female , Mice , Animals , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/pharmacology , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Cell Differentiation , Osteogenesis , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Bile Acids and Salts/pharmacology , Bone Marrow Cells , Cells, Cultured , Azo Compounds
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 591-599, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440342

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity is commonly associated with chronic tissue inflammation and skeletal muscle dysfunction. The study aimed to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval training (HIIT) on myokines and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress of diet- induced obese (DIO) mice. Three-month-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a control (C) diet (n=20) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n=20) for 16 weeks. Then, half of the groups underwent HIIT (treadmill running) for an additional four weeks. HIIT increased calf muscles' contribution to BW (+24 %) and reduced weight gain in HF/HIIT than in HF (-120 %). Intramuscular fat accumulation was observed in HF and HF/ HIIT. Peak velocity was higher in HF/HIIT compared to HF (+26 %). Plasma insulin did not change, but glycemia was lower in HF/HIIT than in HF (-30 %). Fndc5 (+418 %) and Irisin (+72 %) were higher in HF/HIIT than in HF. Muscle Fgf21 was higher in HF/HIIT compared to HF (+30 %). In addition, NfKb (-53 %) and Tnfa (-63 %) were lower in HF/HIIT than in HF. However, Il1b (-86 %), Il6 (- 48 %), Il7 (-76 %), and Il15 (-21 %) were lower in HF/HIIT than in HF. Finally, HIIT reduced ER stress in HF/HIIT compared to HF: Atf4, -61 %; Chop, -61 %; Gadd45, -95 %. In conclusion, HIIT leads to weight loss and avoids muscle depletion. HIIT improves blood glucose, Irisin-Fndc5, and peak velocity. In addition, HIIT mitigates muscle inflammation and ER stress.


La obesidad es asociada comúnmente con inflamación tisular crónica y disfunción del músculo esquelético. El estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos del entrenamiento de intervalos de alta intensidad (HIIT) en las mioquinas y el estrés del retículo endoplásmico (ER) de ratones obesos inducidos por dieta (DIO). Se alimentó a ratones macho C57BL/6 de tres meses de edad con una dieta control (C) (n=20) o una dieta rica en grasas (HF) (n=20) durante 16 semanas. Luego, la mitad de los grupos se sometieron a HIIT (carrera en una trotadora) durante cuatro semanas más. HIIT aumentó la contribución de los músculos de la pantorrilla al BW (+24 %) y redujo el aumento de peso en HF/HIIT en HF (-120 %). Se observó acumulación de grasa intramuscular en HF y HF/HIIT. La velocidad máxima fue mayor en HF/HIIT en comparación con HF (+26 %). La insulina plasmática no cambió, pero la glucemia fue menor en HF/HIIT que en HF (-30 %). Fndc5 (+418 %) e Irisin (+72 %) fueron mayores en HF/HIIT que en HF. El Fgf21 muscular fue mayor en HF/ HIIT en comparación con HF (+30 %). Además, NfKb (-53 %) y Tnfa (-63 %) fueron menores en HF/HIIT que en HF. Sin embar- go, Il1b (-86 %), Il6 (-48 %), Il7 (-76 %) e Il15 (-21 %) fueron más bajos en HF/HIIT que en HF. Finalmente, HIIT redujo el estrés de RE en HF/HIIT en comparación con HF: Atf4, -61 %; Picar, - 61 %; Gadd45, -95 %. En conclusión, HIIT conduce a la pérdida de peso y evita el agotamiento muscular. HIIT mejora la glucosa en sangre, Irisin-Fndc5 y la velocidad máxima. Además, HIIT mitiga la inflamación muscular y el estrés ER.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cytokines/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training , Obesity , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Biology
10.
Biol. Res ; 56: 17-17, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous spheroid culture is a novel three-dimensional (3D) culture strategy for the rapid and efficient selection of progenitor cells. The objectives of this study are to investigate the pluripotency and differentiation capability of spontaneous spheroids from alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AB-MSCs); compare the advantages of spontaneous spheroids to those of mechanical spheroids; and explore the mechanisms of stemness enhancement during spheroid formation from two-dimensional (2D) cultured cells. METHODS: AB-MSCs were isolated from the alveolar bones of C57BL/6 J mice. Spontaneous spheroids formed in low-adherence specific culture plates. The stemness, proliferation, and multi-differentiation capacities of spheroids and monolayer cultures were investigated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and oil-red O staining. The pluripotency difference between the spontaneous and mechanical spheroids was analyzed using RT-qPCR. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIFs) inhibition experiments were performed to explore the mechanisms of stemness maintenance in AB-MSC spheroids. RESULTS: AB-MSCs successfully formed spontaneous spheroids after 24 h. AB-MSC spheroids were positive for MSC markers and pluripotency markers (Oct4, KLF4, Sox2, and cMyc). Spheroids showed higher Ki67 expression and lower Caspase3 expression at 24 h. Under the corresponding conditions, the spheroids were successfully differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. AB-MSC spheroids can induce neural-like cells after neurogenic differentiation. Higher expression of osteogenic markers, adipogenic markers, and neurogenic markers (NF-M, NeuN, and GFAP) was found in spheroids than in the monolayer. Spontaneous spheroids exhibited higher stemness than mechanical spheroids did. HIF-1α and HIF-2α were remarkably upregulated in spheroids. After HIF-1/2α-specific inhibition, spheroid formation was significantly reduced. Moreover, the expression of the pluripotency genes was suppressed. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous spheroids from AB-MSCs enhance stemness and pluripotency. HIF-1/2α plays an important role in the stemness regulation of spheroids. AB-MSC spheroids exhibit excellent multi-differentiation capability, which may be a potent therapy for craniomaxillofacial tissue regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Spheroids, Cellular , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis/genetics , Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Hypoxia/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
11.
Biol. Res ; 56: 14-14, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429914

ABSTRACT

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates energy metabolism, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and exerts its actions mainly through the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1). Likewise, autophagy is involved in several cellular processes. It is required for the normal development of muscle mass and metabolism, and its deregulation is associated with diseases. It is known that the CB1 regulates signaling pathways that control autophagy, however, it is currently unknown whether the ECS could regulate autophagy in the skeletal muscle of obese mice. This study aimed to investigate the role of the CB1 in regulating autophagy in skeletal muscle. We found concomitant deregulation in the ECS and autophagy markers in high-fat diet-induced obesity. In obese CB1-KO mice, the autophagy-associated protein LC3 II does not accumulate when mTOR and AMPK phosphorylation levels do not change. Acute inhibition of the CB1 with JD-5037 decreased LC3 II protein accumulation and autophagic flux. Our results suggest that the CB1 regulates autophagy in the tibialis anterior skeletal muscle in both lean and obese mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cannabinoids/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008122

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of shionone(SHI)on motor function in the mouse model of spinal cord injury(SCI)and probe into the underlying molecular mechanism.Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated to induce the SCI model and then assigned into a model group(SCI group),a SCI+SHI group,and a sham surgery(control)group.The Basso mouse scale(BMS)score was determined to evaluate the recovery of motor function in SCI mice.Hematoxylin-eosin(HE)staining,Nissl staining,and immunofluorescence staining were employed to examine the fibrosis,morphological changes of neurons,and neuron apoptosis in the spinal cord tissue of SCI mice,respectively.The mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22 was cultured in vitro and then classified into tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α)induction and SHI groups.Western blotting was employed to determine the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins.Network pharmacology,gene ontology annotation,and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment were employed to predict the possible molecular targets and signaling pathways of SHI in promoting functional recovery from SCI.Furthermore,the prediction results were verified by in vitro and in vivo experiments.Results Compared with the SCI group,the SCI+SHI group showed increased BMS score on days 21,28,35,and 42(P=0.003,P=0.004,P=0.023,and P=0.007,respectively),reduced area of spinal cord fibrosis(P=0.021),increased neurons survived(P=0.001),and down-regulated expression of cleaved cysteine aspastic acid-specific protease 3(cleaved Caspase-3)(P=0.017).Compared with the TNF-α group,the SHI group presented down-regulated expression levels of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax(P=0.010,P=0.001)and up-regulated expression level of Bcl-2(P=0.001).The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that SHI might improve the motor function of SCI mice via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt)signaling pathway.The results of in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that SHI inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt in SCI mice or HT22 cells exposed to TNF-α(all P<0.05).The number of apoptotic HT22 cells after treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 was higher than that in the SHI group(P=0.003).Conclusion SHI may inhibit neuron apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway,thereby promoting the recovery of motor function in SCI mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spinal Cord Injuries , Apoptosis , Neurons/pathology , Fibrosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007919

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to explore the functions and potential regulatory targets of local macrophages in nonalcoholic fatty liver combined with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis)infection.@*METHODS@#Single-cell RNA sequencing was used to analyze the phenotypes and functional changes in various cells in the liver tissue of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mice fed with P. gingivalis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence staining were applied to observe the inflammation and expression levels of macrophage antigen presenting functional markers in the NASH liver. Oil red staining was performed to observe the accumulation of local adipose tissue in the NASH liver. Results were verified through RT-PCRand RNA sequencing using P. gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide treated mouse peritoneal macrophages.@*RESULTS@#In comparison with healthy livers with Kupffer cells, the NASH liver combined with P. gingivalis infection-related macrophages showed significant heterogeneity. C1qb, C1qc, Mafb, Apoe, and Cd14 were highly expressed, but Cd209a, H2-Aa, H2-Ab1, and H2-DMb1, which are related to the antigen presentation function, were weakly expressed. Further in vivo and in vitro investigations indicated that the activation and infiltration of these macrophages may be due to local P. gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide accumulation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#P. gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide induces a local macrophage immunotolerance phenotype in nonalcoholic fatty liver, which may be the key mechanism of periodontitis pathogen infection that promotes NASH inflammation and pathogenesis. This study further clarifies the dysfunction and regulatory mechanisms of macrophages in the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis-infected NASH, thereby providing potential therapeutic targets for its clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Kupffer Cells/pathology , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007879

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether the protein Deglycase protein 1 (DJ1) can ameliorate Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology in Amyloid Precursor Protein/Presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice and its possible mechanism to provide a theoretical basis for exploring the pathogenesis of AD.@*METHODS@#Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) of DJ1-overexpression or DJ1-knockdown were injected into the hippocampus of 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice to construct models of overexpression or knockdown. Mice were divided into the AD model control group (MC), AAV vector control group (NC), DJ1-overexpression group (DJ1 +), and DJ1-knockdown group (DJ1 -). After 21 days, the Morris water maze test, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blotting were used to evaluate the effects of DJ1 on mice.@*RESULTS@#DJ1 + overexpression decreased the latency and increased the number of platform traversals in the water maze test. DJ1 - cells were cured and atrophied, and the intercellular structure was relaxed; the number of age spots and the expression of AD-related proteins were significantly increased. DJ1 + increased the protein expression of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), light chain 3 (LC3), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), and B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), as well as the antioxidant levels of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), while decreasing the levels of Kelch-like hydrates-associated protein 1 (Keap1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p62/sequestosome1 (p62/SQSTM1), Caspase3, and malondialdehyde (MDA).@*CONCLUSION@#DJ1-overexpression can ameliorate learning, memory, and AD-like pathology in APP/PS1 mice, which may be related to the activation of the NRF2/HO-1 and AMPK/mTOR pathways by DJ1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Presenilin-1/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 636-646, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007779

ABSTRACT

The objective of present study was to develop a simple and reliable voiding spot assay (VSA) system to evaluate the lower urinary tract function of mice, and to establish it as a standardized protocol. Ultraviolet (UV) light was used to screen out the filter paper without autofluorescence and with optimal urine diffusion properties. Next, the appropriate wavelength of UV was determined based on the quality of the photographic image of urine spots on the filter paper. To confirm that the urine stain area on the filter paper was correlated with the amount of urine, a volume-area standard curve was constructed. The utility of this VSA system was validated using female wild-type C57BL/6J mice aged 12-13 weeks, and the data generated under identical procedural settings were compared among laboratories. Furthermore, this VSA system was employed to analyze the changes in voiding patterns in mice with urinary tract infections or transportation stress. No. 4 filter paper with a thickness of 0.7 mm was identified as the most suitable material for VSA, exhibiting no autofluorescence and facilitating optimal urine diffusion. The filter paper retained its integrity during the assay, and there was a linear correlation between urine volume and stained area under 365 nm UV light. Utilizing this VSA system, we determined that female wild-type C57BL/6J mice produced approximately 695.8 μL total urine and 5.5 primary voiding spots (PVS) with an average size of 126.4 μL/spot within 4-h period. Over 84% of PVS volumes ranged from 20 to 200 μL. Notably, PVS volumes of mice were similar across different laboratories. Mice with urinary tract infections or transportation stress exhibited significant changes in VSA parameters, including increased voiding frequency, PVS number, and decreased PVS volume. Therefore, this VSA system can be used to evaluate the urinary function of normal mice, as well as those with urinary tract infection or transportation stress.


Subject(s)
Mice , Female , Animals , Urodynamics , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Urination , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Tract Infections
17.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 635-641, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012205

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effect of platelets on hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) implantation in mice with radiation-induced bone marrow injury and bone marrow transplantation models. Methods: ①Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into a single irradiation group and a radiation infusion group after receiving (60)Co semimyeloablative irradiation for 18-10 weeks. The irradiation infusion group received 1×10(8) platelets expressing GFP fluorescent protein. ② The allogeneic bone marrow transplantation model was established. The experimental groups included the simple transplantation group (BMT) and the transplantation infusion group (BMT+PLT). The BMT group was infused through the tail vein only 5 × 10(6) bone marrow cells, the BMT+PLT group needs to be infused with bone marrow cells at the same time 1× 10(8) platelets. ③ Test indicators included peripheral blood cell and bone marrow cell counts, flow cytometry to detect the proportion of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and hematopoietic progenitor cells, bone marrow cell proliferation and apoptosis, and pathological observation of vascular niche damage and repair. Results: ①On the 3rd, 7th, 14(th), and 21st days after irradiation, the bone marrow cell count of the infusion group was higher than that in the single irradiation group (P<0.05), and the peripheral blood cell count was also higher. A statistically significant difference was found between the white blood cell count on the 21st day and the platelet count on the 7th day (P<0.05). In the observation cycle, the percentage of bone marrow cell proliferation in the infusion group was higher, while the percentage of apoptosis was lower. ② The results of bone tissue immunofluorescence after irradiation showed that the continuity of hematopoietic niche with red fluorescence was better in the irradiation infusion group. ③The chimerism percentage in the BMT+PLT group was always higher than that in the BMT group after transplantation.④ The BMT+PLT group had higher bone marrow cell count and percentage of bone marrow cell proliferation on the 7th and 28th day after transplantation than that in the BMT group, and the percentage of bone marrow cell apoptosis on the 14th day was lower than that in the BMT group (P<0.05). After the 14th day, the percentage of stem progenitor cells in the bone marrow cells of mice was higher than that in the BMT group (P<0.05). ⑤The immunohistochemical results of bone marrow tissue showed that the continuity of vascular endothelium in the BMT+PLT group was better than that in the BMT group. Conclusion: Platelet transfusion can alleviate the injury of vascular niche, promotes HSC homing, and is beneficial to hematopoietic reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Bone Marrow , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Bone Marrow Diseases , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Mice, Inbred BALB C
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010994

ABSTRACT

In the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by dysregulated lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, the quest for safe and effective therapeutics targeting lipid metabolism has gained paramount importance. Sanhuang Xiexin Tang (SXT) and Baihu Tang (BHT) have emerged as prominent candidates for treating metabolic disorders. SXT combined with BHT plus Cangzhu (SBC) has been used clinically for Weihuochisheng obese patients. This retrospective analysis focused on assessing the anti-obesity effects of SBC in Weihuochisheng obese patients. We observed significant reductions in body weight and hepatic lipid content among obese patients following SBC treatment. To gain further insights, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of SBC in HFD-fed mice. The results demonstrated that SBC treatment mitigated body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation in HFD-fed mice. Pharmacological network analysis suggested that SBC may affect lipid metabolism, mitochondria, inflammation, and apoptosis-a hypothesis supported by the hepatic transcriptomic analysis in HFD-fed mice treated with SBC. Notably, SBC treatment was associated with enhanced hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and the inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/NF-κB pathways. In conclusion, SBC treatment alleviates NAFLD in both obese patients and mouse models by improving lipid metabolism, potentially through enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis. These effects, in turn, ameliorate inflammation in hepatocytes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Organelle Biogenesis , Retrospective Studies , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/metabolism , Liver , Inflammation/metabolism , Body Weight , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010988

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota dysbiosis is an avenue for the promotion of atherosclerosis (AS) and this effect is mediated partly via the circulating microbial metabolites. More microbial metabolites related to AS vascular inflammation, and the mechanisms involved need to be clarified urgently. Paeonol (Pae) is an active compound isolated from Paeonia suffruticoas Andr. with anti-AS inflammation effect. However, considering the low oral bioavailability of Pae, it is worth exploring the mechanism by which Pae reduces the harmful metabolites of the gut microbiota to alleviate AS. In this study, ApoE-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish an AS model. AS mice were administrated with Pae (200 or 400 mg·kg-1) by oral gavage and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was conducted. 16S rDNA sequencing was performed to investigate the composition of the gut microbiota, while metabolomics analysis was used to identify the metabolites in serum and cecal contents. The results indicated that Pae significantly improved AS by regulating gut microbiota composition and microbiota metabolic profile in AS mice. We also identified α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA) as a harmful microbial metabolite reduced by Pae. HIBA supplementation in drinking water promoted AS inflammation in AS mice. Furthermore, vascular endothelial cells (VECs) were cultured and stimulated by HIBA. We verified that HIBA stimulation increased intracellular ROS levels, thereby inducing VEC inflammation via the TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway. In sum, Pae reduces the production of the microbial metabolite HIBA, thus alleviating the ROS/TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway-mediated endothelial inflammation in AS. Our study innovatively confirms the mechanism by which Pae reduces the harmful metabolites of gut microbiota to alleviate AS and proposes HIBA as a potential biomarker for AS clinical judgment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Diet, High-Fat , Endothelial Cells , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010986

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, Tripterygium hypoglaucum (Levl.) Hutch (THH) are widely used in Chinese folk to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to investigate whether the anti-RA effect of THH is related with the gut microbiota. The main components of prepared THH extract were identified by HPLC-MS. C57BL/6 mice with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) were treated with THH extract by gavage for one month. THH extract significantly alleviated swollen ankle, joint cavity exudation, and articular cartilage destruction in AIA mice. The mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory mediators in muscles and plasma indicated that THH extract attenuated inflammatory responses in the joint by blocking TLR4/MyD88/MAPK signaling pathways. THH extract remarkably restored the dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in AIA mice, featuring the increases of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, and Lactobacillus and the decreases of Butyricimonas, Parabacteroides, and Anaeroplasma. Furthermore, the altered bacteria were closely correlated with physiological indices and drove metabolic changes of the intestinal microbiota. In addition, antibiotic-induced pseudo germ-free mice were employed to verify the role of the intestinal flora. Strikingly, THH treatment failed to ameliorate the arthritis symptoms and signaling pathways in pseudo germ-free mice, which validates the indispensable role of the intestinal flora. For the first time, we demonstrated that THH extract protects joint inflammation by manipulating the intestinal flora and regulating the TLR4/MyD88/MAPK signaling pathway. Therefore, THH extract may serve as a microbial modulator to recover RA in clincial practice.ver RA in clincial practice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Tripterygium , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy
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