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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 715-725, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345249

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos A L-carnitina (LC) tem muitos efeitos benéficos em animais diabéticos e humanos, mas seu efeito regulatório sobre a quemerina como uma citocina inflamatória e seu receptor no estado diabético são desconhecidos. Objetivos O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito regulatório da LC na expressão do receptor semelhante ao de quimiocina 1 e quemerina (CMKLRI) em tecidos adiposo e cardíaco de camundongos diabéticos. Métodos Sessenta camundongos NMARI foram divididos em quatro grupos, incluindo controle, diabético, diabético + suplementação com LC e controle + suplementação com LC. O diabetes foi induzido pela alimentação dos animais com dieta hipercalórica por 5 semanas e injeção de estreptozotocina. Os animais foram tratados com 300 mg/kg de LC por 28 dias. Nos dias 7, 14 e 28 após o tratamento, os níveis de mRNA e proteína da quemerina e CMKLRI nos tecidos cardíacos e adiposos de animais foram determinados utilizando análise por qPCR e ELISA. Os índices de resistência à insulina também foram medidos em todos os grupos experimentais. A diferença com p<0,05 foi considerada significativa. Resultados A expressão de quemerina e CMKLRI aumentou nos tecidos cardíaco e adiposo de camundongos diabéticos nos dias 14 e 28 após a indução do diabetes, concomitantemente com a incidência de resistência à insulina e níveis aumentados de quemerina circulante (p<0,05). O tratamento com LC causou uma diminuição significativa na expressão de ambos os genes nos tecidos estudados e redução dos sintomas de resistência à insulina e dos níveis séricos de quemerina (p<0,05). Conclusão Os resultados sugerem que o tratamento com LC pode diminuir a expressão de quemerina e CKLR1 em tecidos cardíacos e adiposos de animais experimentais obesos e diabéticos.


Abstract Background L-carnitine (LC) has many beneficial effects on diabetic animals and humans, but its regulatory effect on chemerin as an inflammatory cytokine, and its receptor in diabetes status is unknown. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of LC on the expression of chemerin and chemokine-like receptor I (CMKLRI) in adipose and cardiac tissues of diabetic mice. Methods Sixty NMARI mice were divided into four groups including control, diabetic, diabetic + LC supplementation and control + LC supplementation. Diabetes was induced by feeding the animals a high-calorie diet for 5 weeks and injection of Streptozotocin. The animals were treated with 300 mg/kg LC for 28 days. On days 7, 14, and 28 after treatment, the mRNA and protein levels of chemerin and CMKLRI in the cardiac and adipose tissues of the animals were determined using qPCR analysis and ELISA. Insulin resistance indices were also measured in all experimental groups. Differences with p <0.05 were considered significant. Results Chemerin and CMKLRI expressions levels were increased in cardiac and adipose tissues of diabetic mice on days 14 and 28 after diabetes induction, concurrent with the incidence of insulin resistance and increased levels of circulating chemerin (p<0.05). The treatment with LC caused a significant decrease in the expression of both genes in studied tissues and the reduction of insulin resistance symptoms and serum chemerin levels (p<0.05). Conclusion The results suggest that LC treatment were able to downregulate the expression of chemerin and CKLR1 in cardiac and adipose tissues of obese, diabetic experimental animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Receptors, Chemokine , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Carnitine/pharmacology , Chemokines , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Mice, Obese , Obesity/drug therapy
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupoint thread-embedding at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Fenglong" (ST 40) on the macrophage polarization of epididymis adipose tissue in obese mice, and to explore the action mechanism of acupoint thread-embedding on weight control.@*METHODS@#Among 30 male C57BL/6 mice, 10 mice were randomly selected and fed with normal diet, and the remaining 20 mice were fed with high-fat diet to establish the obesity model. Sixteen mice with successful obesity model were randomly divided into a model group and an acupoint thread-embedding group, 8 mice in each group. Eight mice were selected from mice which were fed with normal diet as the normal group. On the next day of successful modeling, acupoint thread-embedding was performed at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Fenglong" (ST 40) in the acupoint thread-embedding group, once every 10 days for 4 times. The body weight was recorded at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 days into intervention; the level of glucose metabolism was compared after intervention; the level of lipid metabolism and weight of epididymal adipose tissue were compared at the end of the intervention; the mRNA expression of M1 and M2 macrophage-related cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were detected by real-time PCR; the mRNA and protein expression of M1 macrophage labeled inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and M2 macrophage labeled arginase-1 (Arg-1) were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the body weight at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 days into intervention in the model group was increased (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupoint thread-embedding at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Fenglong" (ST 40) may play a role in weight control by regulating the polarization of macrophages.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Epididymis , Macrophages , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese
3.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 439-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergic effects of a novel oral supplement formulation, containing prebiotics, yeast β-glucans, minerals and silymarin (Silybum marianum), on lipid and glycidic metabolism, inflammatory and mitochondrial proteins of the liver, in control and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.@*METHODS@#After an acclimation period, 32 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups: nonfat diet (NFD) vehicle, NFD supplemented, high-fat diet (HFD) vehicle and HFD supplemented. The vehicle and experimental formulation were administered orally by gavage once a day during the last four weeks of the diet (28 consecutive days). We then evaluated energy homeostasis, inflammation, and mitochondrial protein expression in these groups of mice.@*RESULTS@#After four weeks of supplementation, study groups experienced reduced glycemia, dyslipidemia, fat, and hepatic fibrosis levels. Additionally, proliferator-activated receptor-α, AMP-activated protein kinase-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A expression levels were augmented; however, levels of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase subunit α and p65 nuclear factor-κB expression, and oxidative markers were reduced. Notably, the cortisol/C-reactive protein ratio, a well-characterized marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis immune interface status, was found to be modulated by the supplement.@*CONCLUSION@#We discovered that the novel supplement was able to modify different antioxidant, metabolic and inflammatory pathways, improving the energy homeostasis and inflammatory status, and consequently alleviated hepatic steatosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Dietary Supplements , Glucans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Milk Thistle , Minerals , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Prebiotics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879136

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of nuciferine on alleviating obesity based on modulating gut microbiota, ameliorating chronic inflammation, and improving gut permeability. In this study, the obese model mice were induced by high-fat diet and then randomly divided into model group, and nuciferine group; some other mice of the same week age were fed with normal diet as normal group. In the modeling process, the mice were administered intragastrically(ig) for 12 weeks. In the course of both modeling and treatment, the body weight and food intake of mice in each group were measured weekly. After modeling and treatment, the Lee's index, weight percentage of inguinal subcutaneous fat, and the level of blood lipid in each group were measured. The pathological changes of adipocytes were observed by HE staining to evaluate the efficacy of nuciferine treatment in obese model mice. 16 S rRNA sequencing analysis was conducted to study the changes in diversity and abundance of gut microbiota after nuciferine treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) and quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(qPCR) were used to detect the levels of inflammatory factors interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and the expression of related genes in adipose tissue of mice in each group, so as to evaluate the effect of nuciferine on chronic inflammation of mice in obese model group. qPCR was used to detect the expression of occludin and tight junction protein 1(ZO-1)gene in colon tissure, so as to evaluate the effect of nuciferine on intestinal permeability of mice in obese group. Nuciferine decreased the body weight of obese mice, Lee's index, weight percentage of inguinal subcutaneous fat(P<0.05), and reduced the volume of adipocytes, decreased the level of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)(P<0.05) in serum, improved dysbacteriosis, increased the relative abundance of Alloprevotella, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus, lowered the relative abundance of Helicobac-ter, decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α genes in adipose tissue(P<0.01), decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in serum(P<0.05), and increased the expression of occludin and ZO-1 genes related to tight junction in colon tissue(P<0.01). Nuciferine could treat obesity through modulating gut microbiota, decreasing gut permeability and ameliorating inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aporphines , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878926

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the effect and mechanism of fucoxanthin on insulin resistance of obese mice induced by high-fat diet. Fifty C57 BL/6 J male mice were randomly divided into control group and high-fat diet group. The insulin resistance model was induced with high-fat diet for 12 weeks, and model mice were randomly divided into model group, fucoxanthin-0.2% group, fucoxanthin-0.4% group and metformin group. After dietary treatment for 6 weeks, the body weight and epididymal fat weight in each group were measured. Fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(FINS), total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein(LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein(HDL-C) were measured, and insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR) was calcula-ted. The pathological morphology in liver was observed by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the expressions of some key proteins in insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS-1)/posphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3 K)/serine-threonine kinase(Akt) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ(PPARγ)/sterol regulatory element binding protein-1(SREBP-1)/fatty acid synthetase(FAS) pathways in liver were detected by Western blot. According to the findings, compared with the model group, levels of body weight, epididymal fat weight, FBG, FINS, TC, TG, LDL-C and HOMA-IR, as well as protein expressions of PPARγ, SREBP-1 and FAS in liver were significantly reduced(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while level of HDL-C and protein expressions of p-IRS-1, IRS-1, PI3 K and p-Akt in liver were signi-ficantly increased after treatment with fucoxanthin(P<0.05 or P<0.01). And the pathological changes of liver tissue in fucoxanthin-treated mice were also improved obviously. The results showed that fucoxanthin could improve obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, and alleviate insulin resistance in obese mice, and its mechanism is possibly related to the regulation of IRS-1/PI3 K/Akt and PPARγ/SREBP-1/FAS pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Obese , Xanthophylls
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039736

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. Methods Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. Results Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. Conclusion Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos de três tipos de treinamentos de resistência na adiposidade, na inflamação e na ação da insulina em camundongos Swiss obesos por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos Swiss machos magros e obesos foram selecionados e posteriormente separados em oito grupos com oito animais em cada: dieta padrão + não treinado; dieta padrão + treinamento de resistência muscular; dieta padrão + treinamento de hipertrofia; dieta padrão + treinamento de força; dieta hiperlipídica + não treinado; dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de resistência muscular; dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de hipertrofia; e dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de força. O protocolo de treinamento consistiu em escaladas, por um período de 10 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para análises de lactato, glicemia e teste de tolerância à insulina. Após eutanásia, os tecidos adiposos foram retirados e pesados para determinar o índice de adiposidade. Em seguida, parte do tecido adiposo epididimal foi emblocado para análises histológicas, e outra parte foi homogeneizada para análises de fator de necrose tumoral alfa por ELISA. Resultados O volume total de treinamento e a concentração sanguínea de lactato não diferiram entre os três treinos resistidos, sugerindo similaridade entre eles. Nos animais obesos, as três modalidades de treinamento reduziram o peso corporal, a área adipocitária e o índice de adiposidade. Os três tipos de treinamentos ainda melhoraram a tolerância à insulina e reduziram a inflamação. Conclusão Os protocolos de treinamento resistido foram igualmente efetivos em reduzir a adiposidade, a inflamação e a resistência à ação da insulina em camundongos obesos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Adiposity/physiology , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Hypertrophy/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Adipose Tissue, White/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Diet, High-Fat , Mice , Mice, Obese
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039734

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da sericina extraída de casulos de Bombyx mori na morfofisiologia de camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos machos C57Bl6, com 9 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em Grupos Controle e Obeso, que receberam ração padrão para roedores ou dieta hiperlipídica por 10 semanas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, os animais foram redistribuídos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada: Controle, Controle-Sericina, Obeso e Obeso-Sericina. Os animais permaneceram recebendo ração padrão ou hiperlipídica por 4 semanas, período no qual a sericina foi administrada oralmente na dose de 1.000mg/kg de massa corporal aos Grupos Controle-Sericina e Obeso-Sericina. Parâmetros fisiológicos, como ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, peso das fezes em análise de lipídios fecais, motilidade intestinal e tolerância à glicose foram monitorados. Ao término do experimento, o plasma foi coletado para dosagens bioquímicas e fragmentos de tecido adiposo branco; fígado e jejuno foram processados para análises histológicas, e amostras hepáticas foram usadas para determinação lipídica. Resultados Camundongos obesos apresentaram ganho de peso e acúmulo de gordura significativamente maior que os controles, aumento do colesterol total e glicemia. Houve hipertrofia dos adipócitos retroperitoneais e periepididimais, instalação de esteatose e aumento do colesterol e triglicerídeos hepáticos, bem como alteração morfométrica da parede jejunal. Conclusão O tratamento com sericina não reverteu todas as alterações fisiológicas promovidas pela obesidade, mas restaurou a morfometria jejunal e aumentou a quantidade de lipídios eliminados nas fezes dos camundongos obesos, apresentando-se como potencial tratamento para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anti-Obesity Agents/therapeutic use , Sericins/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Time Factors , Triglycerides/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Transit/drug effects , Weight Gain/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Cholesterol/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Sericins/pharmacology , Eating/drug effects , Fatty Liver/pathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glucose Tolerance Test , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/physiopathology
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786117

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sprouts of evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata, OL) were reported to have high contents of flavonoids and potent antioxidant activity. This study examined the antioxidant and antiobesity activities of OL sprouts to determine if they could be a natural health-beneficial resource preventing obesity and oxidative stress.METHODS: OL sprouts were extracted with 50% ethanol, evaporated, and lyophilized (OLE). The in vitro antioxidant activity of OLE was examined using four different tests. The antiobesity activity and in vivo antioxidant activity from OLE consumption were examined using high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice.RESULTS: The IC₅₀ for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities of OLE were 26.2 µg/mL and 327.6 µg/mL, respectively. OLE exhibited the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity of 56.7 µg ascorbic acid eq./mL at 100 µg/mL, and an increased glutathione level by 65.1% at 200 µg/mL compared to the control in the hUC-MSC stem cells. In an animal study, oral treatment with 50 mg or 100 mg of OLE/kg body weight for 14 weeks reduced the body weight gain, visceral fat content, fat cell size, blood leptin, and triglyceride levels, as well as the atherogenic index compared to the high fat diet control group (HFC) (p < 0.05). The blood malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the catalase and SOD-1 activities in adipose tissue were reduced significantly by the OLE treatment compared to HFC as well (p < 0.05). In epididymal adipose tissue, the OLE treatment reduced the mRNA expression of leptin, PPAR-γ and FAS significantly (p < 0.05) compared to HFC while it increased adiponectin expression (p < 0.05).CONCLUSION: OLE consumption has potent antioxidant and antiobesity activities via the suppression of oxidative stress and lipogenesis in DIO mice. Therefore, OLE could be a good candidate as a natural resource to develop functional food products that prevent obesity and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Ascorbic Acid , Body Weight , Catalase , Diet, High-Fat , Ethanol , Flavonoids , Functional Food , Glutathione , In Vitro Techniques , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Leptin , Lipogenesis , Malondialdehyde , Mice , Mice, Obese , Natural Resources , Obesity , Oenothera biennis , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells , Superoxide Dismutase , Triglycerides
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776907

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia and liver steatosis is becoming prevalent all over the world. Herein, a water insoluble polysaccharide (WIP) was isolated and identified from the sclerotium of Poria cocos, a widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. WIP was confirmed to be a (1-3)-β-D-glucan with an average Mw of 4.486 × 10 Da by NMR and SEC-RI-MALLS analyses. Furthermore, oral treatment with WIP from P. cocos significantly improved glucose and lipid metabolism and alleviated hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice. 16S DNA sequencing analysis of cecum content from WIP-treated mice indicated the increase of butyrate-producing bacteria Lachnospiracea, Clostridium. It was also observed that WIP treatment elevated the level of butyrate in gut, improved the gut mucosal integrity and activated the intestinal PPAR-γ pathway. Fecal transplantation experiments definitely confirmed the causative role of gut microbiota in mediating the benefits of WIP. It is the first report that the water insoluble polysaccharide from the sclerotium of P. cocos modulates gut microbiota to improve hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Thereby, WIP from P. cocos, as a prebiotic, has the potential for the prevention or cure of metabolic diseases and may elucidate new mechanism for the efficacies of this traditional herbal medicine on the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria , Classification , Genetics , Metabolism , Butyrates , Metabolism , Fatty Liver , Drug Therapy , Fungal Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genetics , Hyperglycemia , Drug Therapy , Hyperlipidemias , Drug Therapy , Intestines , Microbiology , Male , Metabolic Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Mice , Mice, Obese , Prebiotics , Wolfiporia , Chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772949

ABSTRACT

Inulin has been used as a prebiotic to alleviate glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in mice and humans by modulating the gut microbiota. However, the mechanism underlying the alleviation of metabolic disorders by inulin through interactions between the gut microbiota and host cells is unclear. We use ob/ob mice as a model to study the effect of inulin on the cecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and its interaction with host cells by transcriptomics. The inulin-supplemented diet improved glucose and lipid metabolism disorder parameters in ob/ob mice, alleviating fat accumulation and glucose intolerance. The α diversity of gut microbial community of ob/ob mice was reduced after inulin treatment, while the β diversity tended to return to the level of wild type mice. Interestingly, Prevotellaceae UCG 001 (family Prevotellaceae) was obviously enriched after inulin treatment. A comparative analysis of the gene expression profile showed that the cecal transcriptome was changed in leptin gene deficiency mice, whereas the inulin-supplemented diet partially reversed the changes in leptin gene-related signaling pathways, especially AMPK signaling pathway, where the levels of gene expression became comparable to those in wild type mice. Further analysis indicated that Prevotellaceae UCG 001 was positively correlated with the AMPK signaling pathway, which was negatively correlated with markers of glycolipid metabolism disorders. Our results suggest that the inulin-supplemented diet alleviates glucose and lipid metabolism disorders by partially restoring leptin related pathways mediated by gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Animals , Cecum , Metabolism , Microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inulin , Therapeutic Uses , Leptin , Genetics , Male , Metabolic Diseases , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Microbiology , Mice , Mice, Obese , Prebiotics , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761802

ABSTRACT

Obesity causes inflammation and impairs thermogenic functions in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The adipokine lipocalin 2 (LCN2) has been implicated in inflammation and obesity. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of caloric restriction (CR) on LCN2-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress in the BAT of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were fed a HFD for 20 weeks and then either continued on the HFD or subjected to CR for the next 12 weeks. CR led to the browning of the white fat-like phenotype in HFD-fed mice. Increased expressions of LCN2 and its receptor in the BAT of HFD-fed mice were significantly attenuated by CR. Additionally, HFD+CR-fed mice had fewer neutrophils and macrophages expressing LCN2 and iron-positive cells than HFD-fed mice. Further, oxidative stress and mitochondrial fission induced by a HFD were also significantly attenuated by CR. Our findings indicate that the protective effects of CR on inflammation and oxidative stress in the BAT of obese mice may be associated with regulation of LCN2.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Adipose Tissue, Brown , Animals , Caloric Restriction , Diet, High-Fat , Inflammation , Lipocalins , Macrophages , Mice , Mice, Obese , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neutrophils , Obesity , Oxidative Stress , Phenotype
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761787

ABSTRACT

Fumigaclavine C (FC), an active indole alkaloid, is obtained from endophytic Aspergillus terreus (strain No. FC118) by the root of Rhizophora stylosa (Rhizophoraceae). This study is designed to evaluate whether FC has anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether it ameliorates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. FC notably increased the levels of glycerol in the culture supernatants and markedly reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FC differentially inhibited the expressions of adipogenesis-related genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor proteins, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins, and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. FC markedly reduced the expressions of lipid synthesis-related genes, such as the fatty acid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and fatty acid synthase. Furthermore, FC significantly increased the expressions of lipolysis-related genes, such as the hormone-sensitive lipase, Aquaporin-7, and adipose triglyceride lipase. In HFD-induced obese mice, intraperitoneal injections of FC decreased both the body weight and visceral adipose tissue weight. FC administration significantly reduced lipid accumulation. Moreover, FC could dose-dependently and differentially regulate the expressions of lipid metabolism-related transcription factors. All these data indicated that FC exhibited anti-obesity effects through modulating adipogenesis and lipolysis.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipogenesis , Animals , Aspergillus , Body Weight , Carrier Proteins , Diet, High-Fat , Glycerol , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Lipase , Lipolysis , Lipoprotein Lipase , Mice , Mice, Obese , Peroxisomes , Rhizophoraceae , Sterol Esterase , Transcription Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719634

ABSTRACT

The global obesity epidemic and associated metabolic diseases require alternative biological targets for new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we show that a phytochemical sulfuretin suppressed adipocyte differentiation of preadipocytes and administration of sulfuretin to high fat diet-fed obese mice prevented obesity and increased insulin sensitivity. These effects were associated with a suppressed expression of inflammatory markers, induced expression of adiponectin, and increased levels of phosphorylated ERK and AKT. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of sulfuretin in adipocytes, we performed microarray analysis and identified activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) as a sulfuretin-responsive gene. Sulfuretin elevated Atf3 mRNA and protein levels in white adipose tissue and adipocytes. Consistently, deficiency of Atf3 promoted lipid accumulation and the expression of adipocyte markers. Sulfuretin’s but not resveratrol’s anti-adipogenic effects were diminished in Atf3 deficient cells, indicating that Atf3 is an essential factor in the effects of sulfuretin. These results highlight the usefulness of sulfuretin as a new anti-obesity intervention for the prevention of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 3 , Adipocytes , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Diet , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Diseases , Mice , Mice, Obese , Microarray Analysis , Obesity , RNA, Messenger
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from its blood pressure-lowering effect by blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), exhibits various ancillary effects including cardiovascular protective effects in vitro. Nonetheless, the protective effects of telmisartan in cerebrocardiovascular diseases are somewhat variable in large-scale clinical trials. Dysregulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)-derived NO contributes to the developments of various vascular diseases. Nevertheless, the direct effects of telmisartan on endothelial functions including NO production and vessel relaxation, and its action mechanism have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which telmisartan regulates NO production and vessel relaxation in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: We measured nitrite levels in culture medium and mouse serum, and performed inhibitor studies and western blot analyses using bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and a hyperglycemic mouse model. To assess vessel reactivity, we performed acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vessel relaxation assay on isolated rat aortas. RESULTS: Telmisartan decreased NO production in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic BAECs, which was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser¹¹⁷⁹ (p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹). Telmisartan increased the expression of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) and co-treatment with okadaic acid completely restored telmisartan-inhibited NO production and p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ levels. Of the ARBs tested (including losartan and fimasartan), only telmisartan decreased NO production and p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ levels, and enhanced PP2Ac expression. Co-treatment with GW9662 had no effect on telmisartan-induced changes. In line with in vitro observations, telmisartan reduced serum nitrite and p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ levels, and increased PP2Ac expression in high fat diet-fed mice. Furthermore, telmisartan attenuated ACh-induced rat aorta relaxation. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that telmisartan inhibited NO production and vessel relaxation at least in part by PP2A-mediated eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ dephosphorylation in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-independent manner. These results may provide a mechanism that explains the inconsistent cerebrocardiovascular protective effects of telmisartan.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Aorta , Blotting, Western , Catalytic Domain , Endothelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques , Losartan , Mice , Mice, Obese , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Nitric Oxide , Okadaic Acid , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Protein Phosphatase 2 , Rats , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Relaxation , Renin-Angiotensin System , Vascular Diseases
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to explore the impacts of periodontitis on the visceral weight and weight percentage of obese animal models.@*METHODS@#A total of 64 C57BL/6J mice were divided into the following diet groups: high-fat diet (HFD) group (n=36), which was fed with high-fat diet to induce obesity, and low-fat diet (LFD) group (n=28), which was fed with low-fat diet as the control. After 16 weeks on diet, each diet group was divided into periodontitis (P) and control (C) groups. The P groups were induced for periodontitis by ligation with Porphyromonas gingivalis-adhered silk for 5 or 10 days, and the C groups were sham-ligated as the control. Visceral organs were resected and weighed. The organ weight percentage was calculated.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the LFD group, the HFD group significantly upregulated the weight and weight percentage of visceral adipose tissue and spleen (P<0.05), upregulated the weight of liver and kidney (P<0.05), and downregulated the weight percentage of liver and kidney (P<0.01). In the HFD group, the weight and weight percentage of spleen were downregulated in the P group (P<0.05), but were upregulated in the 10-day group compared with the 5-day group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Periodontitis can affect the general morphology of the viscera (especially spleen) in obese animal models. Pathological indications in terms of immunometabolism might be present in the correlation between obesity and periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity , Organ Size , Periodontitis
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study intended to screen differentially expressed genes and pathways in Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) of obese mice after the intervention of hypoxia by mRNA expression profile microarray, exploring the mechanism of hypoxia activated BAT.@*METHODS@#Thirty C57BL/6J male mice were divided into the normal diet control group (N, =8), high-fat diet control group (OB, =8) and high-fat diet hypoxia group (H, =8). Group H was intervened by hypoxia exposure in the oxygen concentration of 11.2% of the normal oxygen and hypoxia for 8 h/d, 6 d/w of 4 weeks. Blood lipid and blood glucose were detected after intervention; RNA microarray scan and bioinformation analysis were done of BAT from scapula. Genes significantly ( ≤ 0.05) regulated more than 1.5 fold were chosen to do Gene Ontology and enrichment analysis by KOBAS 2.0, and confirmation of genes participating in key biological process (BP) and pathway was done by real time qPCR.@*RESULTS@#After intervention, the body weight and blood lipid and glucose levels in group H were significantly lower than those of group OB. Comparing with group N, 802 genes were significantly up-regulated and 1 175genes were down-regulated. The BP of these genes mainly concerned with glucose and lipid metabolic process and inflammatory reaction. Comparing with group OB, 297 genes were significantly up-regulated and 228 genes were down-regulated. These genes participated in glucose and lipid metabolic process, lipid transport, muscle system process and cardiovascular system development. The pathways of regulating BAT by hypoxia exposure mainly concentrated on the HIF-1, PI3K-AKT, FoxO and ErbB signaling pathways.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A series of genes and pathways in BAT could be adjusted by hypoxia exposure, so that hypoxia could improve the activity of BAT, promoting obese organism to lose weight.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Brown , Metabolism , Animals , Hypoxia , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740544

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer, which is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in developing and developed countries, is highly associated with obesity. The association is largely attributed to changes to western style diets in those countries containing high-fat and high-energy. Luteolin (LUT) is a known potent inhibitor of inflammation, obesity, and cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of LUT on chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. METHODS: Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg body weight. Mice were then divided into four groups (n = 10) that received one of the following diets for 11 weeks after the AOM injection: normal diet (ND); HFD; HFD with 0.0025% LUT (HFD LL); HFD with 0.005% LUT (HFD HL). One week after AOM injection, animals received 1~2% dextran sodium sulfate in their drinking water over three cycles consisting of five consecutive days each that were separated by 16 days. RESULTS: Body weight, ratio of colon weight/length, and tumor multiplicity increased significantly in the HFD group compared to the ND group. Luteolin supplementation of the HFD significantly reduced the ratio of colon weight/length and colon tumors, but not body weight. The levels of plasma TNF-α and colonic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 protein increased in response to HFD, but were suppressed by LUT supplementation. Immunohistochemistry analysis also showed that iNOS expression was decreased by LUT. CONCLUSION: Consumption of LUT may reduce the risk of obesity-associated colorectal cancer by suppression of colonic inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azoxymethane , Body Weight , Carcinogenesis , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Developed Countries , Dextrans , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Drinking Water , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Luteolin , Male , Mice , Mice, Obese , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Obesity , Plasma , Sodium
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gelidium amansii (GA) contains plenty of agars and various biological substances, which make them a popular functional food to control body weight in previous studies. Unlike previous studies focused on agar in GA, objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of agar-free GA extract (AfGAE) on preventive and treatment models by using diets-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: AfGAE were used to test their effects on the prevention (Exp-1) and treatment (Exp-2) against obesity after pilot study in DIO mice. The weight changes of the body and fat tissues and protein expression related to lipid metabolism and inflammation as well as plasma lipid profile and insulin were detected. RESULTS: Although AfGAE did not prevent long-term DIO, it did increase the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine production and lipolysis protein. We further evaluated various doses of AfGAE in preventive and treatment models. As a result, our findings suggested that an AfGAE administration as a preventive model might be a better approach to achieve its anti-inflammatory and lipolysis-promoting effects in DIO mice. CONCLUSION: Although future studies to investigate the target materials such as polyphenols in AfGAE are required, the result suggests that GA without agar might be a therapeutic tool to improve health conditions related to inflammation.


Subject(s)
Agar , Animals , Body Weight , Functional Food , Inflammation , Insulin , Interleukin-10 , Lipid Metabolism , Lipolysis , Mice , Mice, Obese , Obesity , Pilot Projects , Plasma , Polyphenols
19.
Immune Network ; : e47-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718580

ABSTRACT

One-fifth of cancer deaths are associated with obesity. Because the molecular mechanisms by which obesity affects the progression of ovarian cancer (OC) are poorly understood, we investigated if obesity could promote the progression of OC cells using the postmenopausal ob/ob mouse model and peritoneal dissemination of mouse ID8 OC cells. Compared to lean mice, obese mice had earlier OC occurrence, greater metastasis throughout the peritoneal cavity, a trend toward shorter survival, and higher circulating glucose and proinflammatory chemokine CXCL1 levels. Ascites in obese mice had higher levels of macrophages (Mφ) and chemokines including CCL2, CXCL12, CXCL13, G-CSF and M-CSF. Omental tumor tissues in obese mice had more adipocytes than lean mice. Our data suggest that obesity may accelerate the peritoneal dissemination of OC through higher production of pro-inflammatory chemokines and Mφ recruitment.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Animals , Ascites , Chemokine CXCL1 , Chemokines , Glucose , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Mice , Mice, Obese , Neoplasm Metastasis , Obesity , Ovarian Neoplasms , Peritoneal Cavity
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740097

ABSTRACT

Obesity is currently one of the most serious public health problems and it can lead to numerous metabolic diseases. Leucrose, d-glucopyranosyl-α-(1-5)-d-fructopyranose, is an isoform of sucrose and it is naturally found in pollen and honey. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leucrose on metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) that lead to obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed a 60% HFD or a HFD with 25% (L25) or 50% (L50) of its total sucrose content replaced with leucrose for 12 weeks. Leucrose supplementation improved fasting blood glucose levels and hepatic triglyceride content. In addition, leucrose supplementation reduced mRNA levels of lipogenesis-related genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1C, and fatty acid synthase in HFD mice. Conversely, mRNA levels of β oxidation-related genes, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A and acyl CoA oxidase, returned to control levels with leucrose supplementation. Taken together, these results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of leucrose to prevent metabolic abnormalities by mediating regulation of plasma glucose level and hepatic triglyceride accumulation.


Subject(s)
Acyl-CoA Oxidase , Animals , Blood Glucose , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase , Diet, High-Fat , Fasting , Honey , Lipogenesis , Liver , Metabolic Diseases , Mice , Mice, Obese , Negotiating , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Pollen , Public Health , RNA, Messenger , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Sucrose , Triglycerides
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