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1.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 45(1): 16-22, jan.-abr. 2024. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553248

ABSTRACT

Os implantes dentários osseointegrados representam uma parte da reabilitação oral, sendo uma alternativa cada vez mais utilizada na Odontologia a fim de substituir dentes perdidos. À semelhança das doenças periodontais, o fator etiológico das doenças periimplantares é o acúmulo de biofilme ao redor dos implantes dentários. Esta patologia também é classificada de acordo com os tecidos acometidos por ela, em mucosite e periimplantite. Para um correto tratamento e sucesso na terapia periimplantar, o diagnóstico deve ser baseado na sua etiologia e, seu tratamento segue variando de acordo com cada caso e estágio da doença. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo relatar o tratamento de um caso de periimplantite por meio da descontaminação da superfície do implante através de uma cirurgia de acesso. Paciente leucoderma, com 56 anos, sexo feminino, procurou atendimento no curso de graduação em Odontologia do centro Universitário da Serra Gaúcha ­ FSG, com queixa de sangramento/supuração, dor e edema na região dos dentes 15 e 16, reabilitados com implantes, e exposição de componentes protéticos. A paciente foi diagnosticada com periimplantite. O plano de tratamento proposto foi de promover a descontaminação da superfície do implante por meio de acesso cirúrgico. Com base no caso clínico apresentado, foi possível concluir que a técnica de tratamento utilizada foi eficaz para a resolução da periimplantite, no período de acompanhamento do estudo (90 dias), demonstrando melhora nos parâmetros clínicos e radiográficos(AU)


Osseointegrated dental implants represent a part of oral rehabilitation, being an increasingly used alternative in Dentistry in order to replace lost teeth. Similar to periodontal diseases, the etiological factor of peri-implant diseases is the accumulation of biofilm around dental implants. This pathology is also classified according to the tissues affected by it, in mucositis and peri-implantitis. For a correct treatment and success in peri-implant therapy, the diagnosis must be based on its etiology, and its treatment continues to vary according to each case and stage of the disease. The present work aims to report the treatment of a case of peri-implantitis through the decontamination of the implant surface through an access surgery. Caucasian female patient, 56 years old, sought care at the graduation course in Dentistry at Centro Universitário da Serra Gaúcha ­ FSG, complaining of bleeding/suppuration, pain and edema in the region of teeth 15 and 16, rehabilitated with implants, and exposure of prosthetic components. The patient was diagnosed with peri-implantitis. The proposed treatment plan was to promote decontamination of the implant surface through surgical access. Based on the presented clinical case, it was possible to conclude that the treatment technique used was effective for the resolution of periimplantitis, in the follow-up period of the study (90 days), demonstrating improvement in clinical and radiographic parameters(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Decontamination , Peri-Implantitis/therapy , Dental Implantation , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Dental Plaque , Microbiota
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-9, jan.-dez. 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554635

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o perfil de micro-organismos presentes e resistência destes aos antimicrobianos em uroculturas de pacientes transplantados renais no período de 2021-2022. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal com análise quantitativa dos dados de uroculturas positivas de pacientes transplantados renais, acompanhados no Hospital Geral de Fortaleza entre janeiro de 2021 a dezembro de 2022. Foi empregado um instrumento de pesquisa elaborado, contendo variáveis classificatórias, e os dados foram obtidos por meio de registros das uroculturas existentes no sistema de prontuário eletrônico utilizado pelo hospital. Resultados: das 534 uroculturas solicitadas, 36,7% apresentaram resultado positivo, sendo 60,4% de mulheres com idades entre 20 e 59 anos. A maioria dos casos foram desenvolvidos por pacientes que receberam acompanhamento ambulatorial (56,2%). Os micro-organismos isolados foram, predominantemente, enterobactérias (81,34%), com prevalência de E.coli (69,30%). Os perfis de sensibilidade antimicrobiana variaram, com a resistência da E.coli a antibióticos como ampicilina, ácido nalidíxico, norfloxacino e ciprofloxacino. Conclusões: essas descobertas fornecem informações importantes sobre métodos clínicos específicos, métodos preventivos e melhorias na qualidade de vida dos transplantados renais.


Objective: to analyze the profile of microorganisms present and their resistance to antimicrobials in urocultures of renal transplant patients in 2021-2022. Methods: it is a cross-sectional study with quantitative data analysis from positive urocultures of renal transplant patients accompanied at the General Hospital of Fortaleza between January 2021 and December 2022. An elaborate research instrument containing classification variables was employed, and the data were obtained through records of the urocultures existing in the electronic checkbook system used by the hospital. Results: of the 534 urocultures requested, 36.7% showed a positive result, of which 60.4% were women aged between 20 and 59. Most cases were developed by patients who received outpatient follow-up (56.2%). The isolated microorganisms were predominantly enterobacteria (81.34%), with the prevalence of E.coli (69.30%). Antimicrobial sensitivity profiles varied, with E.coli resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: these findings provide important information about specific clinical methods, preventive methods, and improvements in the quality of life of renal transplant patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Microbiota , Transplant Recipients , Anti-Infective Agents , Patients , Kidney
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 950-956, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010103

ABSTRACT

Due to the advancement of 16S rRNA sequencing technology, the lower respiratory tract microbiota, which was considered non-existent, has been revealed. The correlation between these microorganisms and diseases such as tumor has been a hot topic in recent years. As the bacteria in the surrounding can infiltrate the tumors, researchers have also begun to pay attention to the biological behavior of tumor bacteria and their interaction with tumors. In this review, we present the characteristic of the lower respiratory tract bacteria and summarize recent research findings on the relationship between these microbiota and lung cancer. On top of that, we also summarize the basic feature of bacteria in tumors and focus on the characteristic of the bacteria in lung cancer. The relationship between bacteria in lung cancer and tumor development is also been discussed. Finally, we review the potential clinical applications of bacterial communities in the lower respiratory tract and lung cancer, and summarize key points of sample collection, sequencing, and contamination control, hoping to provide new ideas for the screening and treatment of tumors.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Microbiota , Respiratory System , Lung/microbiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010714

ABSTRACT

The reduction of nitrate to nitrite by the oral microbiota has been proposed to be important for oral health and results in nitric oxide formation that can improve cardiometabolic conditions. Studies of bacterial composition in subgingival plaque suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria are associated with periodontal health, but the impact of periodontitis on nitrate-reducing capacity (NRC) and, therefore, nitric oxide availability has not been evaluated. The current study aimed to evaluate how periodontitis affects the NRC of the oral microbiota. First, 16S rRNA sequencing data from five different countries were analyzed, revealing that nitrate-reducing bacteria were significantly lower in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05 in all five datasets with n = 20-82 samples per dataset). Secondly, subgingival plaque, saliva, and plasma samples were obtained from 42 periodontitis patients before and after periodontal treatment. The oral NRC was determined in vitro by incubating saliva with 8 mmol/L nitrate (a concentration found in saliva after nitrate-rich vegetable intake) and compared with the NRC of 15 healthy individuals. Salivary NRC was found to be diminished in periodontal patients before treatment (P < 0.05) but recovered to healthy levels 90 days post-treatment. Additionally, the subgingival levels of nitrate-reducing bacteria increased after treatment and correlated negatively with periodontitis-associated bacteria (P < 0.01). No significant effect of periodontal treatment on the baseline saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite levels was found, indicating that differences in the NRC may only be revealed after nitrate intake. Our results suggest that an impaired NRC in periodontitis could limit dietary nitrate-derived nitric oxide levels, and the effect on systemic health should be explored in future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nitrates , Nitric Oxide , Nitrites , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacteria , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 8-20, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007730

ABSTRACT

The intestine harbors a large population of microorganisms that interact with epithelial cells to maintain host healthy physiological status. These intestinal microbiota engage in the fermentation of non-digestible nutrients and produce beneficial metabolites to regulate host homeostasis, metabolism, and immune response. The disruption of microbiota, known as dysbiosis, has been implicated in many intestinal diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). As the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, CRC poses a significant health burden. There is an urgent need for novel interventions to reduce CRC incidence and improve clinical outcomes. Modulating the intestinal microbiota has emerged as a promising approach for CRC prevention and treatment. Current research efforts in CRC probiotics primarily focus on reducing the incidence of CRC, alleviating treatment-related side effects, and potentiating the efficacy of anticancer therapy, which is the key to successful translation to clinical practice. This paper aims to review the traditional probiotics and new interventions, such as next-generation probiotics and postbiotics, in the context of CRC. The underlying mechanisms of probiotic anti-cancer effects are also discussed, including the restoration of microbial composition, reinforcement of gut barrier integrity, induction of cancer cell apoptosis, inactivation of carcinogens, and modulation of host immune response. This paper further evaluates the novel strategy of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy in boosting the efficacy of chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Despite all the promising findings presented in studies, the evaluation of potential risks, optimization of delivery methods, and consideration of intra-patient variability of gut microbial baseline must be thoroughly interpreted before bench-to-bedside translation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Microbiota , Probiotics/therapeutic use
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 162-171, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Links between alterations in gut microbiota composition and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have previously been reported. This study aimed to examine the microbiota in the nasal cavity of ALS.@*METHODS@#Sixty-six ALS patients and 40 healthy caregivers who live in close proximity with patients were enrolled. High throughput metagenomic sequencing of the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) gene V3-V4 region of nasal microbiota was used to characterize the alpha and beta diversity and relative abundance of bacterial taxa, predict function, and conduct correlation analysis between specific taxa and clinical features.@*RESULTS@#The nasal microbiome of ALS patients showed lower alpha diversity than that of corresponding healthy family members. Genera Gaiella , Sphingomonas , Polaribacter _1, Lachnospiraceae _NK4A136_group, Klebsiella , and Alistipes were differentially enriched in ALS patients compared to controls. Nasal microbiota composition in ALS patients significantly differed from that in healthy subjects (unweighted UniFrac P = 0.001), while Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis indicated that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes dominated healthy nasal communities at the phylum level, whereas Actinobacteria was the predominant phylum and Thermoleophilia was the predominant class in ALS patients. Genus Faecalibacterium and Alistipes were positively correlated with ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R; rs = 0.349, P = 0.020 and rs = 0.393, P = 0.008), while Prevotella -9 and Bacteroides operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were positively associated with lung function (FVC) in ALS patients ( rs = 0.304, P = 0.045, and rs = 0.300, P = 0.048, respectively). Prevotella -1 was positively correlated with white blood cell counts (WBC, rs = 0.347, P = 0.021), neutrophil percentage (Neu%, rs = 0.428, P = 0.004), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, rs = 0.411, P = 0.006), but negatively correlated with lymphocyte percentage (Lym%, rs = -0.408, P = 0.006). In contrast, Streptococcus was negatively associated with Neu% ( rs = -0.445, P = 0.003) and NLR ( rs = -0.436, P = 0.003), while positively associated with Lym% ( rs = 0.437, P = 0.003). No significant differences in nasal microbiota richness and evenness were detected among the severe and mild ALS patients.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ALS is accompanied by altered nasal microbial community composition and diversity. The findings presented here highlight the need to understand how dysbiosis of nasal microbiota may contribute to the development of ALS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23272, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533988

ABSTRACT

Abstract The last decade provided significant advances in the understanding of microbiota and its role in human health. Probiotics are live microorganisms with proven benefits for the host and were mostly studied in the context of gut health, but they can also confer significant benefits for oral health, mainly in the treatment of gingivitis. Postbiotics are cell-free extracts and metabolites of microorganisms which can provide additional preventive and therapeutic value for human health. This opens opportunities for new preventive or therapeutic formulations for oral administration. The microorganisms that colonize the oral cavity, their role in oral health and disease, as well as the probiotics and postbiotics which could have beneficial effects in this complex environment were discussed. The aim of this study was to review, analyse and discuss novel probiotic and postbiotic formulations intended for oral administration that could be of great preventive and therapeutic importance. A special attention has been put on the formulation of the pharmaceutical dosage forms that are expected to provide new benefits for the patients and technological advantages relevant for industry. An adequate dosage form could significantly enhance the efficiency of these products.


Subject(s)
Oral Health/classification , Probiotics/analysis , Microbiota/immunology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Ligilactobacillus salivarius/classification , Mouth/injuries
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533992

ABSTRACT

Abstract For places where non-sterile drug production occurs, regulatory bodies recommend monitoring of the environmental bioburden. This procedure provides information regarding possible microbiological risks to which the products may be exposed, so that subsequent action measures may be implemented. The aim of the present work was to quantify and characterize the microorganisms present in Grade D (ISO 8) cleanrooms of a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, identifying any possible seasonal climatic influences on these environments. Sampling was performed by surface and air monitoring, over 12 months during the year 2019, in rooms that were in operation. For both sampling methods, no statistically significant differences in bacteria and fungi counts were found between months or seasonal periods. Microorganisms that presented higher incidence included Staphylococcus epidermidis (15%) and Micrococcus spp. (13%), common to the human microbiota, and the fungi Cladosporium sp. (23%) and Penicillium sp. (21%), typical of the external environment. The results showed that microbial contamination in the Grade D cleanrooms was within the permissible maximum levels and remained similar throughout the year. Microbiological quality control in the clean areas of the pharmaceutical industry investigated was considered effective, with regular maintenance being necessary to keep bioburden levels controlled.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Drug Industry/instrumentation , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Microbiota/immunology , Fungi/classification
9.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(5): 182-192, 20230000.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1523555

ABSTRACT

Las biopsias en el campo de la ortopedia se utilizan para guiar las opciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento para el proceso de la enfermedad que puede estar ocurriendo. La preparación de la piel de estas biopsias sigue la preparación estándar para un procedimiento quirúrgico, con el objetivo de disminuir la cantidad de microbiota que podría conducir a la contaminación del tejido de la biopsia e incluso a una posible infección. El tejido obtenido de la biopsia a menudo se somete a un studio histopatológico y cultivo. La tasa de contaminación bacteriana informada es aproximadamente inferior al 4%. Esta revisión cuestiona si las muestras de las biopsias se contaminan con la microbiota que permanece en la piel y cómo puede afectar el manejo. Además, qué técnicas o pasos pueden disminuir la tasa de contaminación al realizar una biopsia. Nuestra revisión bibliográfica identificó pocos estudios sobre la contaminación bacteriana de las biopsias. Identificamos diferentes factores implicados en el conocimiento de la microbiota de la piel: técnicas y soluciones de preparación de la piel, variación de la microbiota típica que coloniza la piel según la región anatómica, retención preoperatoria versus administración profiláctica de antibióticos y uso de diferentes hojas de bisturí para la piel superficial y para tejidos profundos, entre otros. Aunque no pudimos identificar ningún dato que proporcionara respuestas a nuestra pregunta original y cuantificar cada factor individualmente, la mayoría de los estudios en diferentes campos ortopédicos proporcionaron hallazgos significativos hasta cierto punto. Describimos algunas recomendaciones prácticas basadas en el consenso y la efectividad teórica para disminuir la tasa de contaminación. Se necesitan más investigaciones en el campo de la ortopedia que impliquen la contaminación por microbiota de la piel de una biopsia


Biopsies in the field of orthopaedics are used to guide diagnostics and treatment options for the disease process that may be occurring such as a tumor or infection. Skin preparation of these biopsies follows the standard skin preparation for a surgical procedure, with the aim to decrease the amount of microbiota that could lead to contamination of the tissue biopsy and even possible infection. The tissue obtained from the biopsy often undergoes pathology and culture. The reported bacterial contamination rate is roughly below 4%. This review questions how samples from the biopsies are getting contaminated by microbiota that remains on the skin and how it affects infection management. In addition, which techniques or steps can decrease the rate of contamination when performing a biopsy. Our review identified little to no data on investigating bacterial contamination of biopsies. In doing this, the review identified different factors implicated in skin microbiota awareness: skin preparation techniques and solutions, variation of typical microbiota that colonize the skin based on the anatomical region, preoperative withholding versus administrating antibiotics prophylactically and using different scalpel blades for superficial and deep incisions, among others. Although we failed to identify any data that provided answers to our original question and quantify each factor individually, most studies in different orthopaedic fields provided significant findings to some extent. We outline some practical recommendations based on consensus and theoretical effectiveness in decreasing the contamination rate. Further research entailing skin microbiota contamination of a biopsy is needed in the field of orthopaedics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthopedics , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Antisepsis/methods , Microbiota/immunology , Biopsy
10.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514483

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el estado de salud de los tejidos periimplantarios es de vital importancia en el éxito de la rehabilitación implantosoportada, por esta razón, es necesario observar todos aquellos factores que contribuyen a mantener este estado y dentro de ellos, principalmente: la higiene bucal. Objetivo: determinar la influencia de la higiene bucal en el estado de salud de los tejidos periimplantarios. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal en el servicio de Prótesis de la Facultad de Estomatología de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre los años 2017 y 2019. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 45 pacientes portadores de rehabilitaciones implantosoportadas; las unidades de análisis fueron los implantes y los tejidos que rodean a las 85 prótesis fijas realizadas a dichos pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se emplearon la observación clínica y radiográfica, y se elaboró un formulario como instrumento. Se evaluó la higiene bucal y el estado de los tejidos periimplantarios como principales variables. La información obtenida se recopiló en una base de datos, se procesó y se sometió a pruebas de independencia (el estadígrafo Ji cuadrado y su posibilidad asociada) para mostrar la relación entre las variables. Resultados: las variables analizadas evidenciaron una relación significativa de la higiene bucal con el estado de salud de los tejidos periimplantarios a favor de la buena higiene y los tejidos sanos. Conclusiones: la buena higiene bucal evidenciada contribuyó a que los tejidos periimplantarios se mantuvieran sanos.


Introduction: peri-implant tissue health state is of vital importance in the success of implant-supported rehabilitation; for this reason, it is necessary to observe all those factors that contribute to maintaining this state, mainly oral hygiene. Objective: to determine the influence of oral hygiene on peri-implant tissue health status. Methods: a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Prosthesis service at the Dental Faculty of Villa Clara between 2017 and 2019. The universe of study consisted of 45 patients with implant-supported rehabilitations; the units of analysis were the implants and the tissues surrounding the 85 fixed prostheses performed on those patients who met the inclusion criteria. Clinical and radiographic observations were used, and a form was developed as an instrument. Oral hygiene and peri-implant tissue state were evaluated as the main variables. The information obtained was compiled in a database as well as processed and subjected to independence tests (the Chi-square statistic and its associated possibility) to show the relationship among the variables. Results: the analyzed variables showed a significant relationship between oral hygiene and the peri-implant tissue health status in favour of good hygiene and healthy tissues. Conclusions: the evidenced good oral hygiene contributed to the maintenance of healthy peri-implant tissues.


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation , Dental Implants , Biofilms , Microbiota
11.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 44(2): 38-45, maio-ago. 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1428055

ABSTRACT

É sabido que a cavidade oral é a porta de entrada para muitos microrganismos e que possui alguns gêneros de bactérias que quando se associam ou proliferam em excesso, com a falta de higienização correta, fatores ambientais e imunológicos podem causar danos em algumas partes dos dentes como no tecido pulpar e canais radiculares. Neste sentido, a endodontia tem sido capaz de tratar pessoas com problemas dentários em fases muito precoces como as medidas profiláticas até casos infeciosos que afetam a polpa dos dentes causando as lesões perirradiculares que são infecções causadas por microrganismos, Para tanto, é necessário que a odontologia ofereça transformações positivas por meio de técnicas que sejam mais previsíveis para os tratamentos. A literatura tem indicado o uso da laserterapia como técnica auxiliar para o tratamento endodôntico pelo seu potencial mínimo invasivo, preciso e eficaz em menor tempo de cura de patologias orais como as lesões perirradiculares. Este estudo pretendeu abordar a importância da laserterapia sobre as variáveis patológicas de pacientes com lesão perirradiculares. Para realiza-lo foi necessário buscar na literatura estudos que associem este tipo de tratamento e sua eficiência no tratamento desta patologia. Para realizar esta pesquisa foi necessário buscar dados na literatura que tratam sobre o tema para investigar o tempo indicado ao tratamento com a laserterapia bem como o estágio em que as lesões podem ser tratadas com auxílio deste método. Corroborando com o estudo apresentamos um caso clínico(AU)


It is known that the oral cavity is the gateway to many microorganisms and that it has some genera of bacteria that when they associate or proliferate in excess, with the lack of correct hygiene, environmental and immunological factors can cause damage in some parts of the teeth such as in pulp tissue and root canals. In this sense, endodontics has been able to treat people with dental problems at very early stages such as prophylactic measures to infectious cases that affect the pulp of teeth causing perirradicular lesions that are infections caused by microorganisms, therefore, it is necessary that dentistry offer positive transformations through techniques that are more predictable for treatments. The literature has indicated the use of laser therapy as an auxiliary technique for endodontic treatment for its minimal invasive, precise and effective potential in shorter time of cure of oral pathologies such as perirradicular lesions. This study aimed to address the importance of laser therapy on the pathological variables of patients with perirradicular lesions. To accomplish this, it was necessary to seek studies in the literature that associate this type of treatment and its efficiency in the treatment of this pathology. To carry out this research it was necessary to seek data in the literature that deal with the subject to investigate the time indicated for treatment with laser therapy as well as the stage at which lesions can be treated with the aid of this method. Corroborating the study, we present a clinical case(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Root Canal Therapy , Laser Therapy , Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity/injuries , Dental Pulp Diseases , Microbiota , Mouth/microbiology
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 181-193, ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533903

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La colonización por microorganismos patógenos de los dispositivos médicos usados en las unidades de cuidados intensivos es un factor de riesgo para el aumento de infecciones asociadas con la atención en salud y, por lo tanto, al de la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los pacientes intubados. En Colombia, no se ha descrito la colonización por hongos de los tubos endotraqueales, con lo cual se podrían considerar nuevas opciones terapéuticas para el beneficio de los pacientes. Objetivo. Describir los hongos que colonizan los tubos endotraqueales de los pacientes en unidades de cuidados intensivos, junto con su perfil de sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, en dos centros hospitalarios durante 12 meses. Se recolectaron tubos endotraqueales de pacientes de las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Estos fueron procesados para cultivar e identificar hongos, y para establecer su perfil de sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Resultados. Se analizaron 121 tubos endotraqueales obtenidos de 113 pacientes. De estos, el 41,32 % se encontró colonizado por los hongos Candida albicans (64,61 %), C. no-albicans (30,77 %), Cryptococcus spp. (3,08 %) o mohos (1,54 %). Todos los hongos evaluados presentaron una gran sensibilidad a los antifúngicos, con un promedio del 91 %. Conclusión. Se encontró colonización fúngica en los tubos endotraqueales de pacientes con asistencia respiratoria mecánica. El perfil de sensibilidad en estos pacientes fue favorable. Se requiere un estudio clínico para correlacionar los microorganismos colonizadores y su capacidad de generar infección.


Introduction. Medical device colonization by pathogenic microorganisms is a risk factor for increasing infections associated with health care and, consequently, the morbidity and mortality of intubated patients. In Colombia, fungal colonization of endotracheal tubes has not been described, and this information could lead to new therapeutic options for the benefit of patients. Objective. To describe the colonizing fungi of the endotracheal tubes from patients in the intensive care unit, along with its antifungal sensitivity profile. Materials and methods. We conducted a descriptive, observational study in two health centers for 12 months. Endotracheal tubes were collected from patients in intensive care units. Samples were processed for culture, fungi identification, and antifungal sensitivity profile assessment. Results. A total of 121 endotracheal tubes, obtained from 113 patients, were analyzed: 41.32 % of the tubes were colonized by Candida albicans (64.62%), C. non-albicans (30.77%), Cryptococcus spp. (3.08%) or molds (1.54%). All fungi evaluated showed a high sensitivity to antifungals, with a mean of 91%. Conclusion. Fungal colonization was found in the endotracheal tubes of patients under invasive mechanical ventilation. The antifungal sensitivity profile in these patients was favorable. A clinical study is required to find possible correlations between the colonizing microorganisms and infectivity.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Mycobiome , Intensive Care Units
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 89-96, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533905

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las proteasas y las fosfolipasas son factores de virulencia de Candida spp. que cumplen un papel importante en la invasión de los tejidos. Entre los factores relacionados con el huésped, se encuentran algunos asociados con las características ambientales y otros con la colonización. Objetivo. Determinar la actividad de fosfolipasas y proteasas en aislamientos de especies colonizadoras y patógenas de Candida spp., aisladas de mujeres gestantes de Cartagena de Indias. Materiales y métodos. Se determinó la actividad de fosfolipasas y proteasas en 56 aislamientos mediante degradación del sustrato y cálculo del coeficiente de actividad enzimática. Se compararon las actividades de fosfolipasas y proteasas, entre los aislamientos colonizadores y los patógenos. Resultados. La actividad de la fosfolipasa fue "muy alta" (< 0,69) en 34 aislamientos e, igualmente, la de la proteasa en 14. No hubo diferencias significativas al comparar las actividades de las fosfolipasas y de las de las proteasas, entre los aislamientos colonizadores y los patógenos. Conclusiones. La actividad de las fosfolipasas predominó como factor de virulencia en los aislamientos estudiados. No obstante, no se encontró una diferencia significativa entre los grupos de aislamientos colonizadores y los patógenos, en cuanto a las actividades de fosfolipasas y proteasas.


Introduction. Proteases and phospholipases are virulence factors of Candida spp. that play an important role in tissue invasion. Among the factors related to the host some are associated with environmental characteristics and others with Candida colonization. Objectives. To determine phospholipase and protease activities in colonizing and pathogenic strains, isolated from pregnant women in Cartagena de Indias. Materials and methods. Phospholipase and protease activity was determined in 56 isolates, evaluating substrate degradation and calculating the enzyme activity coefficient. Phospholipase and protease activities were compared between colonizing and pathogenic strains. Results. "Very high" (<0.69) phospholipase and protease activity was found in 34 and 14 isolates, respectively. There was no significant difference when comparing phospholipase and protease activities between colonizing and pathogenic isolates. Conclusions. Phospholipase activity predominated as a virulence factor in the studied strains, but no significant difference was found between colonizing and pathogenic strains for phospholipase and protease activities.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Endopeptidases , Phospholipases , Candida , Virulence Factors , Microbiota
14.
Med. U.P.B ; 42(1): 49-56, ene.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1416179

ABSTRACT

Los alimentos de origen animal como la carne de pollo, res, pescado y cerdo poseen una amplia demanda en todo el mundo debido, entre otros aspectos, a su valor nutricional, asociado al alto contenido proteico. No obstante, este tipo de proteínas son susceptibles de sufrir reacciones de oxidación, las cuales pueden mediar procesos de fragmentación, agregación, pérdida de solubilidad, funcionalidad y digestibilidad proteica; eventos implicados en la pérdida de su valor nutricional. En este sentido, las proteínas agrega­das tienden a no ser digeridas en el tracto gastrointestinal y acumularse en el intestino (colon), donde la microbiota colónica las degrada a productos mutagénicos como fenol y p-cresol, lo que incrementa el riesgo de cáncer colorrectal. Por otra parte, los ami­noácidos o péptidos oxidados liberados en la digestión podrían incorporarse en las vías de señalización celular intestinal y favorecer o exacerbar procesos intestinales crónicos como colon irritable o enfermedad de Crohn. Debido al gran interés de esta temática en los últimos años, el objetivo de esta revisión es realizar una descripción general del impacto de proteínas oxidadas de origen animal sobre la salud intestinal.


Animal foods such as chicken, beef, fish and pork are in wide demand throughout the world due, among other things, to their nutritional value, associated with their high protein content. However, this type of protein is susceptible to oxidation reactions, which can mediate processes of fragmentation, aggregation, loss of solubility, functionality, and protein digestibility, which are events involved in the loss of their nutritional value. In this sense, aggregated proteins tend not to be digested in the gastrointestinal tract and accumulate in the intestine (colon), where the colonic microbiota degrades them into mutagenic products such as phenol and p-cresol, which increases the risk of colorectal cancer. On the other hand, the oxidized amino acids or peptides released in digestion could be incorporated into intestinal cell signaling pathways and favor or exacerbate chronic intestinal processes such as irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn's disease. Due to the great interest in this topic in recent years, the objective of this review is to provide a general overview of the impact of oxidized proteins of animal origin on intestinal health.


Alimentos de origem animal como frango, carne bovina, peixe e carne suína são muito procurados em todo o mundo devido, entre outros fatores, ao seu valor nutricional, associado ao seu alto teor de proteínas. No entanto, esse tipo de proteína é suscetível a reações de oxidação, que podem mediar processos de fragmentação, agregação, perda de solubilidade, funcionalidade e digestibilidade da proteína; eventos envolvidos na perda de seu valor nutritivo. Nesse sentido, as proteínas agregadas tendem a não ser digeridas no trato gastrointestinal e se acumulam no intestino (cólon), onde a microbiota colônica as degrada em produtos mutagênicos como fenol e p - cresol, aumentando o risco de câncer colorretal. Por outro lado, os aminoácidos ou peptídeos oxidados liberados na digestão poderiam ser incorporados às vias de sinalização das células intestinais e favorecer ou exacerbar processos intestinais crônicos, como a síndrome do intestino irritável ou a doença de Crohn. Devido ao grande interesse neste tema nos últimos anos, o objetivo desta revisão é fornecer uma descrição geral do impacto das proteínas oxidadas de origem animal na saúde intestinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Food , Colorectal Neoplasms , Proteins , Colon , Phenol , Digestion , Foods of Animal Origin , Microbiota , Red Meat
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009850

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is not considered a singular disease, but rather a collection of syndromes with multiple phenotypes and mechanisms that involve various signaling pathways. It typically emerges during the preschool years, and its etiology is intricate and diverse. In recent years, the advancement of high-throughput sequencing technology has revealed that early alterations in lung microbiota may be associated with asthma incidence and progression. Moreover, significant variations in lung microbiota have been observed among different airway inflammation profiles, known as asthma endotypes. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of lung microbiota in children with asthma can aid in managing disease progression and improving long-term prognosis. Additionally, such insights may spark novel approaches to diagnosing and treating childhood asthma.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Lung , Inflammation , Phenotype , Microbiota
16.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 557-563, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the possibility of using human skin and oral microorganisms to estimate the geographic origin of an individual through the sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene.@*METHODS@#Microbial DNA was extracted from the palm and oral microorganisms of the Han population in Shanghai and Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, and the composition and diversity of the microbiota were analyzed by full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Then, differential species were screened and a geographic location prediction model was constructed.@*RESULTS@#The compositions of palm and oral microorganisms between Shanghai and Chifeng samples were both different. The abundance and uniformity of palm side skin microorganisms were higher in Chifeng samples than in Shanghai samples, while there was no significant difference in oral microorganisms. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that th e β -diversity between the samples from the two places were statistically significant, and the coefficients of determination (R2) for skin and oral samples were 0.129 and 0.102, respectively. Through principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA), the samples from the two places could be preliminarily distinguished. The predictive model had the accuracies of 0.90 and 0.83 for the geographic origin using the skin and oral samples, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differences in the compositions of palm and oral microbiota between Han populations in Shanghai and Chifeng. The prediction model constructed by the random forest algorithm can trace the unknown individuals from the above two places.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Skin/microbiology , Forensic Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mouth/microbiology
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 399-405, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009372

ABSTRACT

The postmortem interval (PMI) estimation is a key and difficult point in the practice of forensic medicine, and forensic scientists at home and abroad have been searching for objective, quantifiable and accurate methods of PMI estimation. With the development and combination of high-throughput sequencing technology and artificial intelligence technology, the establishment of PMI model based on the succession of the microbial community on corpses has become a research focus in the field of forensic medicine. This paper reviews the technical methods, research applications and influencing factors of microbial community in PMI estimation explored by using high-throughput sequencing technology, to provide a reference for the related research on the use of microbial community to estimate PMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postmortem Changes , Artificial Intelligence , Autopsy , Cadaver , Microbiota
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981447

ABSTRACT

Dao-di medicinal materials produced in a specific environment always present excellent appearance and high quality. Because of the unique appearance, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma is regarded as a paradigm in the research on excellent appearance. This paper systematically summarized the research progress in the genetic and environmental factors influencing the formation of the excellent appearance of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, aiming to provide reference for the quality improvement of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and the scientific connotation of Dao-di Chinese medicinal materials. The Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma with high quality generally has a robust and long rhizome, a large angle between branch roots, and the simultaneous presence of a robust basal part of rhizome, adventitious roots, rhizome bark with circular wrinkles, and fibrous roots with pearl points. The cultivated and wild Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma have significant differences in the appearance and no significant difference in the population genetic diversity. The differences in the appearance are associated with cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation of genes involved in plant hormone transduction, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation. The rhizosphere soil microorganisms including Fusarium and Alternaria, as well as the endophytes Trichoderma hamatum and Nectria haematococca, may be the key microorganisms affecting the growth and development of Panax ginseng. Cultivation mode, variety, and root exudates may be the main factors influencing the stability of rhizosphere microbial community. Ginsenosides may be involved in the formation of the excellent appearance. However, most of the available studies focus on the partial or single factors in the formation of Dao-di medicinal materials, ignoring the relationship within the complex ecosystems, which limits the research on the formation mechanism of Dao-di medicinal materials. In the future, the experimental models for the research involving genetic and environmental factors should be established and mutant materials should be developed to clarify the internal relationship between factors and provide scientific support for the research on Dao-di medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Microbiota , Panax/genetics , Rhizome
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2719-2729, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981228

ABSTRACT

To investigate the bioelectrochemical enhanced anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) nitrogen removal process, a bioelectrochemical system with coupled anammox cathode was constructed using a dual-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Specifically, a dark incubation batch experiment was conducted at 30 ℃ with different influent total nitrogen concentrations under an applied voltage of 0.2 V, and the enhanced denitrification mechanism was investigated by combining various characterization methods such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and high-throughput sequencing methods. The results showed that the total nitrogen removal rates of 96.9%±0.3%, 97.3%±0.4% and 99.0%±0.3% were obtained when the initial total nitrogen concentration was 200, 300 and 400 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the cathode electrode biofilm showed good electrochemical activity. High-throughput sequencing results showed that the applied voltage enriched other denitrifying functional groups, including Denitratisoma, Limnobacter, and ammonia oxidizing bacteria SM1A02 and Anaerolineaceae, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrospira, besides the anammox bacteria. These electrochemically active microorganisms comprised of ammonium oxidizing exoelectrogens (AOE) and denitrifying electrotrophs (DNE). Together with anammox bacteria Candidatus Brocadia, they constituted the microbial community structure of denitrification system. Enhanced direct interspecies electron transfer between AOE and DNE was the fundamental reason for the further improvement of the total nitrogen removal rate of the system.


Subject(s)
Denitrification , Wastewater , Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation , Nitrogen , Oxidation-Reduction , Bioreactors/microbiology , Ammonium Compounds , Bacteria/genetics , Microbiota , Sewage
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2517-2545, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981215

ABSTRACT

There are a large number of natural microbial communities in nature. Different populations inside the consortia expand the performance boundary of a single microbial population through communication and division of labor, reducing the overall metabolic burden and increasing the environmental adaptability. Based on engineering principles, synthetic biology designs or modifies basic functional components, gene circuits, and chassis cells to purposefully reprogram the operational processes of the living cells, achieving rich and controllable biological functions. Introducing this engineering design principle to obtain structurally well-defined synthetic microbial communities can provide ideas for theoretical studies and shed light on versatile applications. This review discussed recent progresses on synthetic microbial consortia with regard to design principles, construction methods and applications, and prospected future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Microbial Consortia/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Microbiota , Models, Theoretical
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