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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 155-160, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374719

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Different theories have been proposed on the etiology of tinnitus, including metabolic and audiologic causes. We suggest that mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio levels change in tinnitus, indicating microcirculatory disturbance and inflammatory process in the etiopathogenesis of tinnitus. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with tinnitus in comparison to healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective case-control study. Two-hundred and eighty-seven patients aged 18-59 years and diagnosed with tinnitus in the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic between December 2014 and May 2017 (patient group) and 275 healthy individuals who applied for a hearing screening within the same time period (control group). Demographics, concomitant diseases, laboratory results, and audiometric data were recorded. Mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were the outcome measures. Patients with hearing loss due to presbycusis or another reasons, and patients with anatomical disorders in the external and middle ear were excluded from the study by using physical examinations, pure audio audiometry results and radiological imaging. The upper age limit was set at 59 to exclude presbycusis patients. Results: The ratio of female patients was higher in patient group than control group (58.5%, n = 168 vs. 49.4%, n= 127; respectively; p = 0.033). The mean age of patient group was significantly higher than those of control group (44.89 ± 10.96 years and 38.37 ± 10.65 years, respectively; p = 0.001). The percentage of subjects with high mean platelet volume level was significantly higher in patient group than control group (9.4%, n = 27, and 3.1%, n = 8 respectively; p = 0.008). The mean neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in patients with tinnitus than control group (1.95 ± 1.02 and 1.67 ±0.57, p = 0.012). A neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio level of 2.17 and above is associated with 1.991 times higher risk of tinnitus (odds ratio = 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.31-3.02). Conclusion: High mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio values are associated with idiopathic tinnitus, suggesting the role of vascular pathologies in etiology of tinnitus. Tinnitus may be a sign of underlying systemic or local disorders. Therefore, patients with tinnitus should undergo detailed evaluation including hematological indices.


Resumo Introdução: Diferentes teorias já foram propostas sobre a etiologia do zumbido, inclusive causas metabólicas e audiológicas. Acreditamos que os níveis do volume plaquetário médio e da relação neutrófilos/linfócitos se alteram no zumbido, sugerem distúrbio microcirculatório e processo inflamatório na etiopatogenia do zumbido. Objetivo: Avaliar o volume plaquetário médio e a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos em pacientes com zumbido em comparação com controles saudáveis. Método: Estudo de caso-controle retrospectivo, com 287 pacientes entre 18 e 59 anos e diagnosticados com zumbido na Clínica de Otorrinolaringologia entre dezembro de 2014 e maio de 2017 (grupo pacientes) e 275 indivíduos saudáveis que solicitaram uma triagem auditiva no mesmo período (grupo controle). Foram registrados dados demográficos, doenças concomitantes, resultados laboratoriais e dados audiométricos. O volume plaquetário médio e a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos foram as medidas de desfecho. Pacientes com perda auditiva por presbiacusia ou por outros motivos e pacientes com distúrbios anatômicos na orelha externa e média foram excluídos do estudo por meio de exame físico, resultados de audiometria tonal pura e imagens radiológicas. O limite de idade superior foi fixado em 59 anos para excluir pacientes com presbiacusia. Resultados: A proporção de pacientes do sexo feminino foi maior no grupo de pacientes do que no grupo controle (58,5%, n = 168 vs. 49,4%, n = 127; respectivamente; p = 0,033). A média de idade do grupo de pacientes era significantemente maior do que a do grupo controle (44,89 ± 10,96 anos e 38,37 ± 10,65 anos, respectivamente; p = 0,001). A porcentagem de indivíduos com nível alto de volume plaquetário médio foi significantemente maior no grupo de pacientes do que no grupo controle (9,4%, n = 27 e 3,1%, n = 8, respectivamente; p = 0,008). A relação neutrófilos/linfócitos média foi maior nos pacientes com zumbido do que no grupo controle (1,95 ± 1,02 e 1,67 ±0,57, p = 0,012). Um nível de relação neutrófilos/linfócitos de 2,17 e acima está associado a um risco 1,991 vez maior de zumbido (odds ratio = 1,99, Intervalo de Confiança de 95% 1,31 a 3,02). Conclusão: Altos valores de volume plaquetário médio e relação neutrófilos/linfócitos estão associados ao zumbido idiopático, sugerem o papel de doenças vasculares na etiologia do zumbido. O zumbido pode ser um sinal de distúrbios sistêmicos ou locais subjacentes. Portanto, pacientes com zumbido devem ser submetidos a uma avaliação detalhada, inclusive índices hematológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Presbycusis , Tinnitus/diagnosis , Lymphocytes , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Mean Platelet Volume , Microcirculation , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the influence of acupuncture on microcirculation perfusion of the pericardium meridian and heart in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats and evaluate whether acupuncture can simultaneously affect the meridians and corresponding viscera. Additionally, acupoints at different meridians were compared and whether they exert the same effects was discussed.@*METHODS@#Totally 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) ligation to develop an AMI model. Rats were divided into 4 groups, including AMI, acupuncture Neiguan (PC 6), Lieque (LU 7) and Qiansanli (LI 10) groups (n=8). Eight rats received only thoracotomy (sham-operated group). The rats in the acupuncture groups received manual acupuncture at PC 6, LU 7 and LI 10 acupoints for 15 min, respectively. The microcirculation perfusion of pericardium meridian and heart was monitored by laser speckle perfusion imager (LSPI) before, during and after acupuncture manipulation for 15 min. Subsequently, the perfusion unit (PU) was calculated and analyzed by PSI System.@*RESULTS@#After LAD, compared to pre-acupuncture stage, the heart microcirculation perfusion (HMP) in the AMI group decreased continuously at during-acupuncture (P>0.05) and post-acupuncture stages (P0.05). Compared to pre-acupuncture stage, the PMP and HMP in PC 6 group significantly increased during acupuncture manipulation (both P0.05); however, they were significantly reduced after acupuncture manipulation (both P<0.05). Additionally, HMP of LI 10 group was decreased significantly during acupuncture, especially compared to pre-acupuncture stage (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Acupuncture at PC 6 obviously increased the PMP and HMP in AMI rats, and the effects were superior to at LU 7 and LI 10 acupoints. It was further confirmed that acupuncture promoted qi and blood circulation, indicating that acupoint specificity exists and features a meridian-propagated effect.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Meridians , Microcirculation , Myocardial Ischemia , Perfusion , Pericardium , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929044

ABSTRACT

The dysfunction of coronary microcirculation is an important cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is a quantitative evaluation of coronary microcirculatory function, which provides a significant reference for the prediction, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of CAD. IMR also plays a key role in investigating the interaction between epicardial and microcirculatory dysfunctions, and is closely associated with coronary hemodynamic parameters such as flow rate, distal coronary pressure, and aortic pressure, which have been widely applied in computational studies of CAD. However, there is currently a lack of consensus across studies on the normal and pathological ranges of IMR. The relationships between IMR and coronary hemodynamic parameters have not been accurately quantified, which limits the application of IMR in computational CAD studies. In this paper, we discuss the research gaps between IMR and its potential applications in the computational simulation of CAD. Computational simulation based on the combination of IMR and other hemodynamic parameters is a promising technology to improve the diagnosis and guide clinical trials of CAD.


Subject(s)
Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Circulation , Humans , Microcirculation , Predictive Value of Tests , Vascular Resistance
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927669

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to examine the effects of microcirculatory dysfunction and 654-1 intervention after cardiopulmonary resuscitation on myocardial injury.@*Methods@#Landrace pigs were divided into a sham operation group (S group, n= 6), ventricular fibrillation control group (VF-C group, n= 8) and 654-1 intervention group (VF-I group, n= 8). Hemodynamics was recorded at baseline, at recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h thereafter. Sidestream dark field (SDF) technology was used to evaluate and monitor the microcirculation flow index, total vessel density, perfusion vessel ratio, De-Backer score, and perfusion vessel density in animal viscera at various time points.@*Results@#After administration of 654-1 at 1.5 h post-ROSC, the hemodynamics in the VF-I group, as compared with the VF-C group, was significantly improved. The visceral microcirculation detected by SDF was also significantly improved in the VF-I group. As observed through electron microscopy, significantly less myocardial tissue injury was present in the VF-I group than the VF-C group.@*Conclusion@#Administration of 654-1 inhibited excessive inflammatory by improving the state of visceral microcirculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Microcirculation , Swine , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 137-144, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927515

ABSTRACT

Fluid resuscitation is an essential intervention in critically ill patients, and its ultimate goal is to restore tissue perfusion. Critical illnesses are often accompanied by glycocalyx degradation caused by inflammatory reactions, hypoperfusion, shock, and so forth, leading to disturbed microcirculatory perfusion and organ dysfunction. Therefore, maintaining or even restoring the glycocalyx integrity may be of high priority in the therapeutic strategy. Like drugs, however, different resuscitation fluids may have beneficial or harmful effects on the integrity of the glycocalyx. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of different resuscitation fluids on the glycocalyx. Many animal studies have shown that normal saline might be associated with glycocalyx degradation, but clinical studies have not confirmed this finding. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), rather than other synthetic colloids, may restore the glycocalyx. However, the use of HES also leads to serious adverse events such as acute kidney injury and bleeding tendencies. Some studies have suggested that albumin may restore the glycocalyx, whereas others have suggested that balanced crystalloids might aggravate glycocalyx degradation. Notably, most studies did not correct the effects of the infusion rate or fluid volume; therefore, the results of using balanced crystalloids remain unclear. Moreover, mainly animal studies have suggested that plasma may protect and restore glycocalyx integrity, and this still requires confirmation by high-quality clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colloids , Crystalloid Solutions/therapeutic use , Fluid Therapy , Glycocalyx , Humans , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives , Isotonic Solutions , Microcirculation , Resuscitation
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 959-967, nov. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248915

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Para pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST (IAMCST) que sofrem de obstrução coronariana microvascular funcional e estrutural (OCM) subsequente, nenhuma abordagem terapêutica específica e definitiva de atenuação foi comprovada como válida em testes de larga escala atuais, o que destaca a necessidade de abordar seu reconhecimento precoce. Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar o desempenho de dois escores de risco clínico com uma medida objetiva de OCM durante intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) em casos de IAMCST Métodos: A medição do índice de resistência microcirculatória (IRM) foi realizada e os parâmetros clínicos e angiográficos basais também foram registrados. Os pacientes foram divididos em entre os grupos OM (obstrução microvascular) e NOM (não-obstrução microvascular), de acordo com o valor de IRM pós-procedimento. O risco de OCM foi avaliado para todos os participantes pelos escores preditivos SAK e ATI, respectivamente. Cada sistema foi calculado somando-se as pontuações de todas as variáveis. As curvas de características do operador receptor (ROC) e a área sob a curva (AUC) de dois modelos de risco foram utilizadas para avaliar o desempenho discriminatório. Um ecocardiograma foi realizado sete dias após o procedimento para avaliar a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE). Um valor P bicaudal de <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Entre os 65 pacientes elegíveis com IAMCST, 48 foram alocados no grupo NOM e 17 no grupo OM, com uma incidência de OCM de 26,15%. Não houve diferença significativa na AUC entre os dois escores. A FEVE avaliada para o grupo NOM foi maior do que para o grupo OM. Conclusão: Os escores SAK e ATI tiveram bom desempenho para estimar o risco de OCM após ICP primário para pacientes com IAMCST.


Abstract Background: For patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that are suffering from subsequent coronary microvascular functional and structural obstruction (CMVO), no specific and definitive therapeutic approaches of attenuation have been proven valid in up-to-date large-scale tests, which highlights the urge to address its early recognition. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the performance of two clinical risk scores with an objective measurement of CMVO during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with STEMI. Methods: The Index of Microcirculatory Resistance (IMR) measurement was conducted and the baseline clinical and angiographic parameters were also recorded. The patients were divided into MO (Microvascular obstruction) or NMO (Non-microvascular obstruction) groups according to the post-procedure IMR value. The CMVO risk was evaluated for all participants by SAK and ATI predictive scores, respectively. Each system was calculated by summing the scores of all variables. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) of two risk models were used to evaluate the discriminatory performance. An echocardiography was performed seven days after the procedure to evaluate left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). A two-sided P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the 65 eligible STEMI patients, 48 patients were allocated in the NMO group and 17 in the MO group, with a CMVO incidence of 26.15%. There was no significant difference in the AUC between both scores. The LVEF evaluated for the NMO group was higher than that of MO group. Conclusion: Both SAK and ATI scores performed well in estimating CMVO risk after primary PCI for STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Circulation , Microcirculation
7.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(1): e500, Jan.-Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149798

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hemodynamic monitoring of a critically ill patient is an indispensable tool both inside and outside intensive care; we currently have invasive, minimally invasive and non-invasive devices; however, no device has been shown to have a positive impact on the patient's evolution; arterial and venous blood gases provide information on the patient's actual microcirculatory and metabolic status and may be a hemodynamic monitoring tool. We aimed to carry out a non-systematic review of the literature of hemodynamic monitoring carried out through the variables obtained in arterial and venous blood gases. A non-systematic review of the literature was performed in the PubMed, OvidSP and ScienceDirect databases with selection of articles from 2000 to 2019. It was found that there are variables obtained in arterial and venous blood gases such as central venous oxygen saturation (SvcO2), venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide pressure (Δpv-aCO2), venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide pressure/arteriovenous oxygen content difference (Δpv-aCO2/ΔCavO2) that are related to cellular oxygenation, cardiac output (CO), microcirculatory veno-arterial flow and anaerobic metabolism and allow to assess tissue perfusion status. In conclusion, the variables obtained by arterial and venous blood gases allow for non-invasive, accessible and affordable hemodynamic monitoring that can guide medical decision-making in critically ill patients.


Resumen El monitoreo hemodinámico de un paciente en estado crítico es una herramienta indispensable tanto dentro como fuera de la terapia intensiva; actualmente se cuenta con dispositivos invasivos, mínimamente invasivos y no invasivos; sin embargo, ningún dispositivo ha demostrado tener impacto positivo en la evolución del paciente; la gasometría arterial y venosa proporcionan información del estado microcirculatorio y metabólico real del paciente pudiendo ser una herramienta de monitoreo hemodinámico. El objetivo de esta revisión fue realizar una revisión no sistemática de la literatura del monitoreo hemodinámico realizado mediante las variables obtenidas en la gasometría arterial y venosa. Se estudiaron las bases de datos de PubMed, OvidSP y ScienceDirect con selección de artículos del 2000 al 2019. Se encontró que hay variables obtenidas en la gasometría arterial y venosa como la saturación venosa central de oxígeno (SvcO2), la diferencia de presión venoarterial de dióxido de carbono (Δpv-aCO2), la diferencia de presión venoarterial de dióxido de carbono/diferencia del contenido arteriovenoso de oxígeno (Δpv-aCO2/ΔCa-vO2) que están relacionadas con la oxigenación celular, con el gasto cardiaco (GC), con el flujo venoarterial microcirculatorio y con el metabolismo anaerobio que permiten realizar una valoración del estado de perfusión tisular. En conclusión, las variables obtenidas por gasometría arterial y venosa permiten realizar un monitoreo hemodinámico no invasivo, accesible y asequible que pueden guiar la toma de decisiones médicas en el paciente en estado crítico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Gas Analysis , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Microcirculation , Carbon Dioxide , Decision Making
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 154-166, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289057

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Considera-se que a transfusão de eritrócitos melhora a respiração celular durante o choque séptico. Contudo, seu impacto agudo no transporte e no metabolismo de oxigênio nessa condição ainda é amplamente debatido. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto da transfusão de eritrócitos na microcirculação e no metabolismo do oxigênio em pacientes com sepse e choque séptico. Conduzimos um levantamento nas bases de dados MEDLINE®, Elsevier e Scopus. Incluímos estudos realizados com seres humanos adultos com sepse e choque séptico. Realizamos uma revisão sistemática e metanálise com utilização do modelo de efeitos aleatórios de DerSimonian e Laird. Consideramos significante valor de p < 0,05. Incluíram-se na análise 19 manuscritos, correspondentes a 428 pacientes. As transfusões de eritrócitos se associaram com aumento de 3,7% na média combinada de saturação venosa mista de oxigênio (p < 0,001), diminuição de razão de extração de oxigênio de -6,98 (p < 0,001) e nenhum efeito significante no índice cardíaco (0,02 L/minuto; p = 0,96). Obtiveram-se resultados similares em estudos que incluíram mensurações simultâneas de saturação venosa mista de oxigênio, razão de extração de oxigênio e índice cardíaco. As transfusões de eritrócitos levaram a aumento significante na proporção de pequenos vasos perfundidos (2,85%; p = 0,553), enquanto os parâmetros de oxigenação tissular revelaram aumento significante no índice de hemoglobina tissular (1,66; p = 0,018). Estudos individuais relataram melhoras significantes na oxigenação tissular e nos parâmetros microcirculatórios sublinguais em pacientes com microcirculação alterada na avaliação inicial. A transfusão de eritrócitos pareceu melhorar o metabolismo sistêmico de oxigênio com aparente independência de variações no débito cardíaco. Observaram-se alguns efeitos benéficos para a oxigenação tissular e parâmetros microcirculatórios, em particular em pacientes com alterações iniciais mais graves. São necessários mais estudos para avaliar seu impacto clínico e individualizar as decisões relativas à transfusão.


ABSTRACT Red blood cell transfusion is thought to improve cell respiration during septic shock. Nevertheless, its acute impact on oxygen transport and metabolism in this condition remains highly debatable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of red blood cell transfusion on microcirculation and oxygen metabolism in patients with sepsis and septic shock. We conducted a search in the MEDLINE®, Elsevier and Scopus databases. We included studies conducted in adult humans with sepsis and septic shock. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Nineteen manuscripts with 428 patients were included in the analysis. Red blood cell transfusions were associated with an increase in the pooled mean venous oxygen saturation of 3.7% (p < 0.001), a decrease in oxygen extraction ratio of -6.98 (p < 0.001) and had no significant effect on the cardiac index (0.02L/minute; p = 0,96). Similar results were obtained in studies including simultaneous measurements of venous oxygen saturation, oxygen extraction ratio, and cardiac index. Red blood cell transfusions led to a significant increase in the proportion of perfused small vessels (2.85%; p = 0.553), while tissue oxygenation parameters revealed a significant increase in the tissue hemoglobin index (1.66; p = 0.018). Individual studies reported significant improvements in tissue oxygenation and sublingual microcirculatory parameters in patients with deranged microcirculation at baseline. Red blood cell transfusions seemed to improve systemic oxygen metabolism with apparent independence from cardiac index variations. Some beneficial effects have been observed for tissue oxygenation and microcirculation parameters, particularly in patients with more severe alterations at baseline. More studies are necessary to evaluate their clinical impact and to individualize transfusion decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Septic/therapy , Sepsis/therapy , Oxygen , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Microcirculation
9.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021262, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249006

ABSTRACT

We performed autopsies on two cases of COVID-19. The microcirculations of all organs were the site of the pathological findings. Thrombotic microangiopathy was found in the brain and also the kidneys. Vasculitis was also a feature of the autopsy findings, together with portal triaditis of the liver. The major pathological findings in both cases were fibrin deposits. Within the lung, the fibrin deposits were observed in the alveolar microcirculation in sub-endothelial locations of capillaries, arterioles, post capillary venules, and the adventitia of larger vessels. These fibrin deposits in the lungs occurred at the sites where pericytes are located in these vessels. The pericyte with its high concentration of ACE-2 receptors and its procoagulant state may represent one of the primary sites of action of SARS-CoV-2. A review of pericytes in health and disease is undertaken. COVID-19 is a disease of the microcirculation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Aged, 80 and over , Pericytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Microcirculation , Autopsy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of Danhong Injection (, DH) on the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and myocardial injury in patients with unstable angina undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).@*METHODS@#Seventy-eight patients with unstable angina were randomly divided into DH group (39 cases) and the control group (39 cases) during elective PCI. Randomization was performed using a random-number table. The DH group received DH at a dosage of 40 mL (mixed with 250 mL saline, covered by a light-proof bag, intravenous drip) during PCI and daily for 7 consecutive days, while the control group only received the same dosage of saline. Both groups received standardized treatment. The IMR and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were measured at maximal hyperemia before and after PCI. Myocardial markers, including myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), and coronary troponin T (cTnT) values were measured at baseline and 24 h after PCI.@*RESULTS@#Among the 78 patients enrolled, the baseline and procedural characteristics were similar between the two groups. There was no significant difference in pre-PCI myocardial markers and coronary physiological indexes between the two groups. However, post-PCI CK and CK-MB levels in the DH group were significantly lower than those in the control group (111.97 ± 80.97 vs. 165.47 ± 102.99, P=0.013; 13.08 ± 6.90 vs. 19.75 ± 15.49, P=0.016). Post-PCI myoglobin and cTNT-positive tend to be lower in the DH group than in the control group but did not reach statistical significance (88.07 ± 52.36 vs. 108.13 ± 90.94, P=0.52; 2.56% vs.7.69%, P=0.065). Compared with the control group, the post-IMR levels of the DH group tended to decrease, but there was no statistical difference (20.73 ± 13.15 vs. 26.37 ± 12.31, P=0.05). There were no statistical differences in post-FFR in both groups. The peri-procedural myocardial injury of the DH group was significantly lower than that of the control group (2.56% vs. 15.38%, P=0.025). During the 30-d follow-up period, no major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in either group.@*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrated benefit of DH in reducing myocardial injury and potential preserving microvascular function in patients with unstable angina undergoing elective PCI.


Subject(s)
Angina, Unstable/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Humans , Microcirculation , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10577, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285665

ABSTRACT

Endothelial dysfunction is a well-known component of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), with proven prognostic value. Dietary supplementation with whey protein (WP) has been widely used to increase skeletal muscle mass, but it also has vascular effects, which are less understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of WP supplementation on the systemic microvascular function of HF patients. This was a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effects of 12-week WP dietary supplementation on systemic microvascular function, in patients with HF New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes I/II. Cutaneous microvascular flow and reactivity were assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging, coupled with pharmacological local vasodilator stimuli. Fifteen patients (aged 64.5±6.2 years, 11 males) received WP supplementation and ten patients (aged 68.2±8.8 years, 8 males) received placebo (maltodextrin). The increase in endothelial-dependent microvascular vasodilation, induced by skin iontophoresis of acetylcholine, was improved after WP (P=0.03) but not placebo (P=0.37) supplementation. Moreover, endothelial-independent microvascular vasodilation induced by skin iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside, was also enhanced after WP (P=0.04) but not placebo (P=0.42) supplementation. The results suggested that dietary supplementation with WP improved systemic microvascular function in patients with HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Vasodilation , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Skin , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , Pilot Projects , Dietary Supplements , Whey Proteins/pharmacology , Microcirculation
12.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292404

ABSTRACT

Objective: to study the relationship between microvascular lesions of Diabetes Mellitus and alterations in the nailfold capillaroscopy. Subjects and Methods: cross-sectional study including 140 individuals (70 with Diabetes Mellitus and 70 controls). Epidemiological and clinical variables were collected from patient's charts. Fundus ophthalmoscopy, nailfold capillaroscopy, analysis of microalbuminuria and renal clearance as well as fasting glycaemia and HbA1c values were studied simultaneously. Results: capillary density was reduced, and vascular dilatation was increased in Diabetes Mellitus patients when compared to controls (both with p<0.0001). In diabetic individuals the number of dermal papillary capillaries/mm3 correlated negatively with microalbuminuria (p=0.02), patient's age (p=0.03), values of HbA1c (p=0.03). Patients with diabetic retinopathy and using antiplatelet agents had lower capillary density (p<0.0001 and 0.04 respectively). Capillary dilatation was associated with disease duration (p=0.04). Conclusion: microvascular disease in Diabetes Mellitus is reflected in nailfold capillaroscopy. Decreased capillary density, increased number of ectasias and increased presence of avascular areas were observed in patients with diabetes when compared to controls. In the present study, capillary density correlated/associate with age, retinopathy, use of antiplatelet medication, HbA1c, microalbuminuria and diabetes duration. Ectasias or dilatations were related to retinopathy, glomerular filtration rate and longer disease duration.


Objetivo: estudar a relação entre lesões microvasculares do Diabetes Mellitus e alterações na capilaroscopia ungueal. Sujeitos e Métodos: estudo transversal incluindo 140 indivíduos (70 com Diabetes Mellitus e 70 controles). Variáveis epidemiológicas e clínicas foram coletadas dos prontuários dos pacientes. A oftalmoscopia de fundo, capilaroscopia ungueal, análise de microalbuminúria e depuração renal, bem como glicemia de jejum e valores de HbA1c foram estudados simultaneamente. Resultados: a densidade capilar foi reduzida e a dilatação vascular aumentada em pacientes com Diabetes Mellitus quando comparados aos controles (ambos com p <0,0001). Em indivíduos diabéticos, o número de capilares papilares dérmicos/ mm3 correlacionou-se negativamente com microalbuminúria (p = 0,02), idade do paciente (p = 0,03), valores de HbA1c (p = 0,03). Pacientes com retinopatia diabética e em uso de antiagregante plaquetário apresentaram menor densidade capilar (p <0,0001 e 0,04 respectivamente). A dilatação capilar foi associada ao tempo de doença (p = 0,04). Conclusão: a doença microvascular no Diabetes Mellitus reflete-se na capilaroscopia ungueal. Diminuição da densidade capilar, aumento do número de ectasias e aumento da presença de áreas avasculares foram observados em pacientes com diabetes quando comparados aos controles. No presente estudo, a densidade capilar se correlacionou/ se associou com idade, retinopatia, uso de antiagregante plaquetário, HbA1c, microalbuminúria e tempo de diabetes. Ectasias ou dilatações foram relacionadas à retinopatia, à taxa de filtração glomerular e a maior duração da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus , Ophthalmoscopy , Microscopic Angioscopy , Diabetic Retinopathy , Microcirculation
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879463

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effect of modified transverse tibial bone transfer microcirculation reconstruction in treating end-stage diabetic foot.@*METHODS@#From August 2016 to June 2018, 87 patients with diabetic foot treated with modified tibial transverse bone removal and microcirculation reconstruction, inclduing 54 males and 33 females;aged from 39 to 95 years old with an average of (68.9±11.3) years old;2 patients were grade 2, 37 patients were grade 3 and 50 patients were grade 4 according to Wagner's classification;the courses of diabetic were for 10 to 16 years with an average of (13.0±2.2) years;the courses of diabetic feet were for 21 to 48 days with an avergae of (34.2±8.6) days. Postoperative comlications were observed. Skin temperature, visual analogue scale(VAS) and ankle brachial index(ABI) and wound healing were recorded before and 3 months after operation.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 4 to 19 months with an average of (12.6±2.8) months. Two patients occurred subcutaneous tissue liquefaction and seepage under needle passage during bone transfer, and scabed without special treatment. One patient was performed amputation above 5 cm of ankle joint because of severe infection, and 1 patient occurred re-ulceration at 1 year after wound healing, bone transfer was performed again at the same site, and was completely healed at 8 weeks after operation. The healing time of wound ranged from 3 to 24 weeks with an average of (11.9± 3.8) weeks. Foot skin temperature before operation was (28.9±0.91) ℃, and increased to (31.70±0.32)℃ at 3 months after operation(@*CONCLUSION@#Modified lateral tibial bone transfer could effectively reconstruct microvascular network under lower leg, promote recovery of peripheral blood vessels, and promote wound healing of foot, reduce or avoid amputation. At the same time, the improved osteotomy is one of the effective methods for the treatment of diabetic foot which has advantags of less trauma, simple opertaion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Female , Humans , Male , Microcirculation , Middle Aged , Tibia , Treatment Outcome
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 917-925, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921296

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to observe the characteristics of sublingual microcirculation and the changes of humoral factors in healthy people of three different high altitude populations. Three groups of healthy subjects in Guoluo area of Qinghai province (4 100 m) were included: Tibetan group: 30 Tibetans, (45.62 ± 10.15) years old; Han group: 22 two-generation of Han immigrants, (46.23 ± 8.59) years old; migrant group: 23 migrants living at high altitude for 2-5 years, (43.45 ± 8.31) years old. Blood routine test was performed to determine white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT) count, and neutrophil (NEUT) count. The changes of serum humoral factors including endothelin-1 (ET-1), CD31, CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nitric oxide (NO) and noradrenaline (NE) were detected by ELISA. Continuous noninvasive hemodynamics monitor was used to continuously measure the changes of systemic circulation indexes: cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), pulse pressure variation (PPV), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Blood oxygen was measured by pulse oximeter. Sublingual microcirculation indexes including total vascular density (TVD), perfused vessel density (PVD), proportion of perfused vessels (PPV), and microvascular flow index (MFI) were determined by sidestream dark field imaging. The results showed that there were no difference in systemic circulation among the 3 groups. Compared with Tibetan group, TVD and PVD of microcirculation in Han group and migrant group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with Tibetan group and Han group, WBC, RBC, HGB and HCT of migrant group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with Han group and Migrant group, PLT of Tibetan group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the Tibetan group, the levels of serum humoral factors CD105 and VEGF were significantly higher in the migrant group (P < 0.05), while compared with Han and migration groups, NO in Tibetan group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). It is suggested that there were significant differences in microcirculation (TVD, PVD), blood routine (WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT) and humoral factors (CD105, VEGF) among different populations in high altitude area. Importantly, the increased microcirculation, erythrocytosis and increased pro-angiogenic factors due to hypoxic environment were observed in long-term residents and migrants, except for permanent residents. These physiological changes have clinical significance in the treatment of septic shock and chronic altitude sickness for different plateau populations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Altitude , China , Hemoglobins , Humans , Hypoxia , Microcirculation , Middle Aged , Tibet , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 517-525, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153088

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate vascular density in super­ficial and deep capillary plexuses of the retina, measured using optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Affected eyes were compared with the contralateral eye of the same patient and both were compared with normal eyes. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 16 previously untreated patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Patients with poor quality examinations, bilateral disease, high refractive error, or any other retinal or choroidal disease were excluded. A total of 31 patients without eye disease were also selected as a comparison group. All participants underwent five optical coherence tomography angiographies, and only those with at least two good quality examinations were selected. The Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Vascular density was lower in affected eyes compared with contralateral eyes: whole density (p=0.020 for capillary plexuses superficial; p=0.049 for deep capillary plexuses) and parafoveal density (p=0.020 for capillary plexuses superficial; p=0.011 for deep capillary plexuses). Vascular density was also lower in affected eyes compared with normal eyes: whole density (p<0.001 for capillary plexuses superficial and deep) and parafoveal density (p<0.001 for capillary plexuses superficial and deep). Whole density (p=0.001 for capillary plexuses superficial and deep) and parafoveal density (p=0.001 for capillary plexuses superficial; p<0.001 for deep capillary plexuses) were both lower in the contralateral eyes compared with normal eyes. Following adjustment for arterial hypertension, this difference was no longer observed. Conclusions: Vascular density in capillary plexuses and deep capillary plexuses was lower in the eyes affected by branch retinal vein occlusion. Furthermore, the lower vascular density noted in the contralateral eyes indicates that changes most likely occurred in these eyes prior to the appearance of any clinically detectable alterations, reflecting the early signs of hypertensive retinopathy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a densidade vascular do plexo capilar superficial e profundo da retina, usando angiografia por tomografia de coerência óptica em pacientes com oclusão de ramo da veia central da retina, comparando o olho afetado com o contralateral do mesmo paciente e ambos com olhos normais. Métodos: Estudo transversal. Incluídos dezesseis pacientes com oclusão de ramo da veia central da retina sem tratamento prévio. Pacientes com exames de baixa qualidade, altas ametropias, outras patologias de retina ou coróide foram excluídos. Para comparação, trinta e um pacientes sem doença ocular foram selecionados. Todos foram submetidos a cinco exames angiografia por tomografia de coerência óptica, apenas aqueles com pelo menos dois exames de boa qualidade permaneceram no estudo. Os testes Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, e Mann-Whitney foram utilizados. Resultados: Densidades vasculares mais baixas do plexo capilar superficial e plexo capilar profundo foram observadas quando olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia central da retina foram comparados com os contralaterais: densidade total (p=0,02 para plexo capilar superficial, p=0,049 para plexo capilar profundo), densidade parafoveal (p=0,02 para plexo capilar superficial, p=0,011 para plexo capilar profundo). Comparando olhos acometidos com olhos normais, também foram observadas densidades vasculares mais baixas de plexo capilar superficial e plexo capilar profundo: densidade total (ambos com p<0,001) e densidade parafoveal (ambos com p<0,001). Quando os olhos contralaterais foram comparados aos normais, tanto a densidade total do plexo capilar superficial e plexo capilar profundo (ambos com p=0,001) quanto a densidade parafoveal (plexo capilar superficial com p=0,001, plexo capilar profundo com p<0,001) foram menores. Ao se realizar uma subanálise, minimizando o fator hipertensão arterial, esta diferença não se manteve. Conclusões: Densidades vasculares mais baixas do plexo capilar superficial e do plexo capilar profundo foram observadas em olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia central da retina. Além disso, a presença de densidades vasculares mais baixas nos olhos contralaterais mostra que já existem altera­ções nesses olhos antes das alterações clínicas, devido a al­terações inicias da retinopatia hipertensiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Capillaries/diagnostic imaging , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Visual Acuity , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Retinal Vein Occlusion/physiopathology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fundus Oculi , Microcirculation/drug effects
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1094-1101, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152945

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A doença de Chagas (DC) constitui uma causa potencial negligenciada de doença microvascular coronariana (DMC). Objetivos Comparar pacientes com DMC relacionada à DC (DMC-DC) com pacientes com DMC ligada a outras etiologias (DMC-OE). Métodos De 1292 pacientes estáveis, encaminhados para angiografia coronária invasiva para elucidar o padrão hemodinâmico e a causa de angina, 247 apresentaram coronárias subepicárdicas normais, e 101 foram incluídos após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão. Desses, 15 compuseram o grupo de DMC-DC e suas características clínicas, hemodinâmicas, angiográficas, e cintilográficas foram comparadas às do grupo de 86 pacientes com DMC-OE. O nível de significância estatística para todas as comparações adotado foi de 0,05. Resultados Pacientes com suspeita de DMC-DC apresentaram características antropométricas, clínicas e angiográficas, além de alterações hemodinâmicas e de perfusão miocárdica estatisticamente comparáveis às detectadas nos 86 pacientes com DMC-OE. Disfunção ventricular diastólica, expressa por elevada pressão telediastólica do ventrículo esquerdo, foi igualmente encontrada nos dois grupos. Entretanto, em comparação a esse grupo com DMC-OE, o grupo com DMC-DC exibiu fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda mais baixa (61,1 ± 11,9 vs 54,8 ± 15,9; p= 0,049) e mais elevado escore de mobilidade da parede ventricular (1,77 ± 0,35 vs 1,18 ± 0,26; p= 0,02). Conclusão A cardiomiopatia crônica da doença de Chagas esteve associada à etiologia de possível doença microvascular coronariana em 15% de amostra de 101 pacientes estáveis, cujo sintoma principal era angina requerendo elucidação por angiografia invasiva. Embora os grupos DMC-DC e DMC-OE apresentassem características clínicas, hemodinâmicas, e de perfusão miocárdica em comum, a disfunção global e segmentar do ventrículo esquerdo foi mais grave nos pacientes com DMC associada à DC em comparação à DMC por outras etiologias. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1094-1101)


Abstract Background Chagas disease (CD) as neglected secondary form of suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). Objectives Comparison of patients with CMD related to CD (CMD-CE) versus patients with CMD caused by other etiologies (CMD-OE). Methods Of 1292 stable patients referred for invasive coronary angiography to elucidate the hemodynamic pattern and the cause of angina as a cardinal symptom in their medical history, 247 presented normal epicardial coronary arteries and 101 were included after strict exclusion criteria. Of those, 15 had suspected CMD-CE, and their clinical, hemodynamic, angiographic and scintigraphic characteristics were compared to those of the other 86 patients with suspected CDM-OE. Level of significance for all comparisons was p < 0.05. Results Patients with suspected CMD-CE showed most anthropometric, clinical, angiographic hemodynamic and myocardial perfusion abnormalities that were statistically similar to those detected in the remaining 86 patients with suspected CMD-OE. LV diastolic dysfunction, expressed by elevated LV end-diastolic pressure was equally found in both groups. However, as compared to the group of CMD-OE the group with CMD-CE exhibited lower left ventricular ejection fraction (54.8 ± 15.9 vs 61.1 ± 11.9, p= 0.049) and a more severely impaired index of regional wall motion abnormalities (1.77 ± 0.35 vs 1.18 ± 0.26, p= 0.02) respectively for the CMD-OE and CMD-CE groups. Conclusion Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy was a secondary cause of suspected coronary microvascular disease in 15% of 101 stable patients whose cardinal symptom was anginal pain warranting coronary angiography. Although sharing several clinical, hemodynamic, and myocardial perfusion characteristics with patients whose suspected CMD was due to other etiologies, impairment of LV segmental and global systolic function was significantly more severe in the patients with suspected CMD related to Chagas cardiomyopathy. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1094-1101)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Circulation , Microcirculation
18.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(5): 392-399, oct. 31, 2020. graf, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179028

ABSTRACT

Background: Oral mucositis (OM) is an inflammation of the oral mucosa due to cancer therapy that compromises the patient's quality of life. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method to monitor microvascular blood flow (BF) in real-time. Purpose: Develop a method to evaluate BF in the genian region cheek in patients undergoing chemotherapy by LDF and compare the degrees of OM and pain with evaluation of BF. Material and methods: Evaluation of OM was performed using the World Health Organization (WHO) and Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS) scales and the visual analog scale for pain evaluation. For flowmetry analysis, a laser Doppler flowmeter (moorVMSTM™, 780 nm wavelength and VP3 probe), fixed by an acrylic resin support was used; VP3 probe was positioned on the genian region and the patient's head was stabilized with a neck pillow for an accurate measurement. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the flowmetry results at the studied times. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate relationships between BF and the WHO, OMAS and visual analog scales. Results: Eleven patients of both sexes, aged between 30 and 78 years, with OM were included. An increase in cutaneous BF was observed at the initial times of OM, with progressive reduction during the chemotherapy cycle. There was a statistical difference (p<0.05) between time point T0 (first consultation) and time point T6 (last consultation). Conclusion: The method developed in this pilot study is effective, reliable, and reproducible, and allows the evaluation of BF dynamics in the genian region using LDF of patients undergoing chemotherapy at risk of developing OM.


Antecedentes: La mucositis oral (MO) es una inflamación de la mucosa oral debido a la terapia del cáncer, que compromete la calidad de vida del paciente. La flujometría láser Doppler (FLD) es un método no invasivo para monitorear el flujo sanguíneo microvascular (FS) en tiempo real. Objetivo: Desarrollar un método para evaluar la FS en la mejilla de la región geniana en pacientes sometidos a quimioterapia por FLD y comparar los grados de MO y dolor con la evaluación del FS. Material y Métodos: La evaluación de la MO se realizó utilizando las escalas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y la Escala de Evaluación de la Mucositis Oral (OMAS) y la escala analógica visual para la evaluación del dolor. Para el análisis de flujometría se utilizó un flujómetro láser Doppler (moorVMSTM™, longitud de onda de 780 nm y sonda VP3), fijado por un soporte de resina acrílica; La sonda VP3 se colocó en la región geniana y la cabeza del paciente se estabilizó con una almohada para el cuello para una medición precisa. Se utilizó la prueba de Wilcoxon para comparar los resultados de la flujometría en los tiempos estudiados. Se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para evaluar las relaciones entre FS y las escalas de la OMS, OMAS y analógicas visuales. Resultados: Se incluyeron 11 pacientes de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 30 y 78 años, con MO. Se observó un aumento del FS cutáneo en los momentos iniciales de la MO, con reducción progresiva durante el ciclo de quimioterapia. Hubo una diferencia estadística (p<0.05) entre el momento T0 (primera consulta) y el momento T6 (última consulta). Conclusión: El método desarrollado en este estudio piloto es efectivo, confiable y reproducible, y permite evaluar la dinámica del FS en la región geniana utilizando FLD de pacientes sometidos a quimioterapia con riesgo de desarrollar MO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomatitis/etiology , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pain , Quality of Life , Microcirculation , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
20.
Clinics ; 75: e1212, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the findings of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). METHOD: From our outpatient neurotology clinic, we selected patients (using the criteria proposed by Grad and Baloh) with a clinical diagnosis of VBI. We excluded patients with any definite cause for vestibular symptoms, a noncontrolled metabolic disease or any contraindication to MRA or TCD. The patients in the study group were sex- and age-matched with subjects who did not have vestibular symptoms (control group). Our final group of patients included 24 patients (study, n=12; control, n=12). RESULTS: The MRA results did not demonstrate significant differences in the findings between our study and control groups. TCD demonstrated that the systolic pulse velocity of the right middle cerebral artery, end diastolic velocity of the basilar artery, pulsatility index (PI) of the left middle cerebral artery, PI of the right middle cerebral artery, and PI of the basilar artery were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group, suggesting abnormalities affecting the microcirculation of patients with a clinical diagnosis of VBI compared with controls. CONCLUSION: MRA failed to reveal abnormalities in patients with a clinical diagnosis of VBI compared with controls. The PI of the basilar artery, measured using TCD, demonstrated high sensitivity (91%) and specificity (91%) for detecting clinically diagnosed VBI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Basilar Artery/diagnostic imaging , Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial/methods , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Blood Flow Velocity , Microcirculation
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