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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929067

ABSTRACT

Ascosphaera apis spores containing a dark-colored pigment infect honeybee larvae, resulting in a large-scale collapse of the bee colony due to chalkbrood disease. However, little is known about the pigment or whether it plays a role in bee infection caused by A. apis. In this study, the pigment was isolated by alkali extraction, acid hydrolysis, and repeated precipitation. Ultraviolet (UV) analysis revealed that the pigment had a color value of 273, a maximum absorption peak at 195 nm, and a high alkaline solubility (7.67%) and acid precipitability. Further chemical structure analysis of the pigment, including elemental composition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), proved that it was a eumelanin with a typical indole structure. The molecular formula of melanin is C10H6O4N2, and its molecular weight is 409 Da. Melanin has hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, and phenolic groups that can potentially chelate to metal ions. Antioxidant function analyses showed that A. apis melanin had a high scavenging activity against superoxide, hydroxyl, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and a high reducing ability to Fe3+. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that A. apis melanin was located on the spore wall. The spore wall localization, antioxidant activity, and metal ion chelating properties of fungal melanin have been suggested to contribute to spore pathogenicity. However, further infection experiments showed that melanin-deficient spores did not reduce the mortality of bee larvae, indicating that melanin does not increase the virulence of A. apis spores. This study is the first report on melanin produced by A. apis, providing an important background reference for further study on its role in A. apis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Larva , Melanins , Molecular Structure , Onygenales
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927986

ABSTRACT

The genus Rabdosia is famous for the abundance of diverse and novel ent-kaurane diterpenoids. However, only a few ent-kauranoids have been discovered from R. flexicaulis since the investigation on its chemical constituents is not systematic. To find novel bioactive diterpenoids, the ethyl acetate extract of the above ground part of R. flexicaulis in Daofu County, Sichuan Province was obtained by column chromatography. One new compound and five known ones were identified as flexicaulin E(1), forrestin B(2), inf-lexarabdonin D(3), 7α-hydroxydehydroabietic acid(4), 15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid(5), and pomiferin F(6) by spectral techniques. Compounds 1-3 were the ent-kaurane diterpenoids isolated from this species for the first time. Compounds 4-6, aromatic abie-tanoids, were isolated from the genus Rabdosia for the first time.


Subject(s)
Diterpenes , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Isodon/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts/chemistry
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939918

ABSTRACT

Four new diphenyl ethers, named epicoccethers K-N (1-4), were purified from the fermentation medium of a fungus Epicoccum sorghinum derived from Myoporum bontioides, and identified through HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectral analysis. Except that compound 1 showed moderate antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum and Fusarium graminearum, the other three compounds showed stronger activity against them than triadimefon. All of them showed moderate or weak antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with O6 and O78 serotypes except that 3 was inactive to E. coli O6.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Ascomycota , Escherichia coli , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Phenyl Ethers/chemistry
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939912

ABSTRACT

Five new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (1-5), ascyrones A-E, and four known compounds (6-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum ascyron. All of the isolates containing a bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione core and a benzoyl group, belonged to type B bicyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (BPAPs). Their structures and absolute configurations were established based on spectroscopic analyses and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. The anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cytotoxicity activities of compounds 1-4 and 6-9 were evaluated. Compound 6 exhibited obvious anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Compounds 1 and 9 exhibited slight cytotoxicity against Hep3B cells. Meanwhile, compound 1 showed mild neuroprotective activity against corticosterone (CORT)-induced PC12 cell damage at 10 μmol·L-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Hypericum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , PC12 Cells , Phloroglucinol/pharmacology , Rats
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19731, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394038

ABSTRACT

Abstract Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as the antifungal drug griseofulvin (GF), exhibit limited bioavailability, despite their high membrane permeability. Several technological approaches have been proposed to enhance the water solubility and bioavailability of GF, including micellar solubilization. Poloxamers are amphiphilic block copolymers that increase drug solubility by forming micelles and supra-micellar structures via molecular self-association. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate the water solubility increment of GF by poloxamer 407 (P407) and its effect on the antifungal activity against three Trichophyton mentagrophytes and two T. rubrum isolates. The GF water solubility profile with P407 revealed a non-linear behavior, well-fitted by the sigmoid model of Morgan-Mercer-Flodin. The polymer promoted an 8-fold increase in GF water solubility. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR Roesy) spectroscopy suggested a GF-P407 interaction, which occurs in the GF cyclohexene ring. These results were supported by an increase in the water solubility of the GF impurities with the same molecular structure. The MIC values recorded for GF ranged from 0.0028 to 0.0172 mM, except for T. Mentagrophytes TME34. Notably, the micellar solubilization of GF did not increase its antifungal activity, which could be related to the high binding constant between GF and P407.


Subject(s)
Solubility , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Trichophyton/classification , Poloxamer/analogs & derivatives , Griseofulvin/agonists , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Molecular Structure , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929254

ABSTRACT

Sarglanoids A-F, six new sesquiterpenoids belonging to eudesmane (1-5) and eremophilane (6) types, were isolated from the leaves of Sarcandra glabra, a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1-2 were rare N-containing eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids. Compound 3 exhibited inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values at 20.00 ± 1.30 μmol·L-1. These findings provide scientific evidence for sesquiterpenoids as the material foundation of S. glabra.


Subject(s)
Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes , Seeds , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929246

ABSTRACT

Three new ursane-type triterpenoids, 3-oxours-12-en-20, 28-olide (1), 3β-hydroxyurs-12-en-20, 28-olide (2) and 3β-hydroxyurs-11, 13(18)-dien-20, 28-olide (3), were isolated from a potent anti-inflammatory and antibacterial fraction of the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, MS data and comparisons with literature reports. Compounds 1-3 exhibited significantly inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, but no antibacterial activity was found at a concentration of 128 μg·mL-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Mice , Molecular Structure , Rosmarinus , Triterpenes/chemistry
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888792

ABSTRACT

A phytochemical investigation was carried out on the extract of a medicinal plant Callicarpa nudiflora, resulting in the characterization of five new 3, 4-seco-isopimarane (1-5) and one new 3, 4-seco-pimarane diterpenoid (6), together with four known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were fully elucidated by extensive analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculation of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, and DFT calculations for NMR chemical shifts and optical rotations.


Subject(s)
Abietanes/isolation & purification , Callicarpa/chemistry , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888791

ABSTRACT

Six new bisabolane-type phenolic sesquiterpenoids, including plakordiols A-D (1-4), (7R, 10R)-hydroxycurcudiol (5) and (7R, 10S)-hydroxycurcudiol (6) were isolated from the marine sponge Plakortis simplex collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were determined based on extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Their configurations were assigned by coupling constant analysis, NOESY correlations, and the modified Mosher's method. Furthermore, their cytotoxic and antibacterial activities were evaluated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , China , Molecular Structure , Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Pacific Ocean , Plakortis/chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888790

ABSTRACT

Three new coumarins, integmarins A-C (1-3), and a new coumarin glycoside, integmaside A (4) were isolated from the leaves and stems of Micromelum integerrimum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, and their absolute configurations were assigned according to the ECD data of the in situ formed transition metal complexes and comparison of experimental and calculated ECD data. Compounds 1 and 2 are two rare coumarins with butyl and propyl moieties at the C-6 position; compound 3 is a novel coumarin with a highly oxidized prenyl group, and compound 4 is a rare bisdihydrofuranocoumarin glycoside.


Subject(s)
Coumarins/isolation & purification , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Rutaceae/chemistry
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888778

ABSTRACT

Two new lignan glucosides, tinsinlignans A and B (1 and 2), two new oxyneolignans, tinsinlignans C and D (3 and 4), along with one known analogue (5), were isolated from the stems of Tinospora sinensis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on analysis of spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined through electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells and compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities with IC


Subject(s)
Animals , Glucosides/pharmacology , Lignans/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Tinospora/chemistry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888777

ABSTRACT

Six new oligomeric neolignans including two trimeric neolignans (1 and 2) and four dimeric neolignans (3-6) were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba. Their structures were determined based on HR-ESIMS and NMR data, as well as electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compound 1 is formed from two obovatol moieties directly linked to an aromatic ring of the remaining obovatol moiety, which is an unprecedented type of linkage between monomers. All isolates were assessed for their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 1 and 3 showed significantly inhibitory activities with IC


Subject(s)
Animals , Lignans/pharmacology , Magnolia/chemistry , Mice , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To verify a rare allele of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and analyze its inheritance and 3D molecular structure.@*METHODS@#PCR-sequence-based typing, PCR-single strand oligonucleotide polymorphism and single allele-specific sequencing were carried out to characterize the rare HLA-C allele and its transmission in the family. Its protein structure was modeled by using SWISS-MODEL, Phyre2 and FATCAT software.@*RESULTS@#Analysis indicated that the rare allele (HLA-C*08:84) has transmitted from the proband's mother and has differed from HLA-C*08:01 by a single base (g.512G>C), resulting in substitution of an amino acid (p.Trp147Ser). Modeling of the 3D structure of the encoded protein indicated that the amino acid residue variation is located at the alpha 2 helix, which participates the formation of pocket F. Modeling of the structures of C*08:84, C*08:01, C*08:02, C*08:03 and C*08:22 has suggested significant variation in the peptide binding regions of the backbone, with root mean square errors being 1.70 nm, 1.79 nm, 0.71 nm and 1.70 nm, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#A rare HLA-C*08:84 allele has been identified, and its clinical significance has been analyzed.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Base Sequence , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , Humans , Molecular Structure , Sequence Analysis, DNA
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888181

ABSTRACT

The 95% ethanol extract of Baphicacanthis Cusiae Rhizoma et Radix was purified by multi-chromatographic methods including microporous resin, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and C_(18) reversed-phase column chromatography. Fourteen compounds were isolated and structurally identified, including five phenylethanoid glycosides, five phenylpropanoids, one lupinane triterpene, two alkaloids, and one flavonoid, listed as follows: 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxo-1-propanol B(1), threo-2,3-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzene)-3-methoxypropanol(2), 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-ethanol-1-O-[3,4-O-di-acetyl-(1→3)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside(3), verbascoside(4), 2″,3″-di-O-acetyl martynoside(5),(+)-pinore-sinol(6), diospyrosin(7), daidzein(8), wiedemannioside B(9), buddlenol A(10), 2″-O-acetyl martyonside(11), lupeol(12), indirubin(13), and tryptanthrin(14). Compound 3 was a new phenylethanoid glycoside, and the other 10 compounds were isolated for the first time from Baphicacanthis Cusiae Rhizoma et Radix except compounds 12, 13, and 14.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Glycosides , Flavonoids , Glycosides , Molecular Structure , Phenylethyl Alcohol , Rhizome
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888180

ABSTRACT

Four new lanostane triterpenoids, 3β-hydroxy-12α-methoxylanosta-7,9(11),24-triene(1), 3β-hydroxy-12α-methoxy-24-methylene-lanost-7,9(11)-dien(2), 3,7-dioxo-lanosta-8,24-diene(3), and 3,7-dioxo-24-methylene-lanost-8-en(4), were isolated from the latex of Euphorbia resinifera with a variety of chromatography methods. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data and/or comparison with the data reported in previous research. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed moderate inhibition of LPS-induced NO production by RAW264.7, with IC_(50) of 30.4, 37.5, and 28.3 μmol·L~(-1), respectively.


Subject(s)
Euphorbia , Latex , Molecular Structure , Steroids , Triterpenes
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888143

ABSTRACT

The combination of normal-phase silica gel column chromatography, octadecyl silica(ODS) column chromatography, semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), etc. was employed to isolate and purify the chemical components from Euphorbia resinifera, and 7 triterpenoids were separated from the ethanol extract of the medicinal materials. Their structures were identified by various spectroscopy methods as cycloartan-1,24-diene-3-one(1), cycloartan-1,24-diene-3-ol(2), 3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-diene-11-one(3), lnonotusane C(4), eupha-8,24-diene-3β-ol-7,11-dione(5), eupha-24-methylene-8-ene-3β-ol-7,11-dione(6), and eupha-8,24-diene-3β,11β-diol-7-one(7). Compounds 1 and 2 are new compounds, and compound 3 is obtained from nature for the first time.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Euphorbia , Molecular Structure , Triterpenes
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888142

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents from the roots of Aconitum kongboense were studied. Twenty-five diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated from the 95% methanol extract of the roots of A. kongboense by silica gel, reverse-phase silica gel and basic alumina column chromatography. They included a new aconitine-type diterpenoid alkaloid, named as kongboensenine(1), and twenty-four known ones(2-25), i.e., acotarine F(2), acotarine G(3), 14-acetyltalatisamine(4), talatisamine(5), indaconitine(6), yunaconitine(7), chasmanine(8), 6-epi-foresticine(9), homochasmanine(10), 8-deacetyl-yunaconitine(11), chasmaconitine(12), ajaconine(13), franchetine(14), ezochasmanine(15), crassicautine(16), 14-O-deacylcrassicausine(17), genicunine A(18), falconeridine(19), sachaconitine(20), liljestrandisine(21), 8-methyl-14-acetyltalatisamine(22), kongboendine(23), 14-benzoylchasmanine(24) and pseudaconine(25). Their structures were elucidated by common spectroscopic methods including high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(HR-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) techniques. Compounds 2-4, 10, 13, 15-19 and 21-22 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Experimental results showed that all compounds did not have a significant inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase(AChE).


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Aconitum/metabolism , Alkaloids , Diterpenes , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888107

ABSTRACT

The lignans in Urtica cannabina were isolated by preparative HPLC, silica, and ODS column chromatographies, and identified by NMR and HR-MS. The inhibitory activities on 5α-reductase were evaluated in vitro. As a result, ten secolignans,(2R,4S)-2,4-bis(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-butoxypropanol(1), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl] butyrolactone(2), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl] butyrolactone(3), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[bis(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl] butyrolactone(trans urticol, 4), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl] butyrolactone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(5), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]butyrolactone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(6), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[bis(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]butyrolactone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(trans-urticol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 7), cycloolivil-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(8), isolariciresinol-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(9), and olivil-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(10), together with a polyphenol [α-viniferin(11)], were isolated from U. cannabina for the first time. Compound 1 was a new lignan. Compound 7 was potent in inhibiting 5α-reductase.


Subject(s)
5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors , Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Lignans/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Urticaceae/enzymology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888074

ABSTRACT

With repeated silica gel, octadecyl silica(ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, normal-phase and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), etc., a pair of new enantiomers and 5 known compounds were separated from the 95% ethanol extract of Chloranthus multistachys. These compounds were identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(including 1 D-NMR and 2 D-NMR), single-crystal X-ray diffraction, circular dichroism(CD) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry(MS), and some other methods as(1R,4R,5R,8S,10R)-chloraeudolide H(1 a),(1S,4S,5S,8R,10S)-chloraeudolide H(1 b), hydroxyisogermafurenolide(2), 4α-hydroxy-5α,8β(H)-eudesm-7(11)-en-8,12-olide(3), chloraniolide A(4), chlorantene D(5), 4α,8β-dihydroxy-5α(H)-eudesm-7(11)-en-8,12-olide(6). Compounds 1 a and 1 b are a pair of new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene enantiomers, and compounds 2-4 were isolated from C. multistachys for the first time.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Sesquiterpenes , Stereoisomerism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888073

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the research is to study the bioactive constituents of Callicarpa nudiflora. From the 65% ethanol extract of C. nudiflora leaves, ten compounds were isolated by macroporous adsorption resin, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, silica gel, and preparative HPLC. These compounds were identified as callicapene M6(1), sterebin A(2), isomartynoside(3), crenatoside(4), luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside(5), apigenin-7-O-β-D-neohesperidoside(6), isoacteoside(7), acteoside(8),(7R)-campneoside I(9), and(7S)-campneoside I(10) on the basis of NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and optical rotation data. Compound 1 was obtained as a new compound. Compounds 2 and 4 were isolated from the genus Callicarpa for the first time. Compounds 9 and 10 were isolated from C. nudiflora for the first time.


Subject(s)
Callicarpa , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diterpenes , Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves
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