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1.
Geriatr Gerontol Aging ; 18: e0000044, Apr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556342

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o uso de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados (MPIs) e o uso de medicamentos usados em terapia de suporte que requerem cautela em idosos com câncer (MTSRCICs), determinando os fatores associados. Visou-se também determinar a concordância entre os critérios explícitos empregados na identificação de MPI. Metodologia: Estudo transversal com indivíduos com mieloma múltiplo (MM), idade ≥ 60 anos em tratamento ambulatorial. Os MPI foram identificados de acordo com os critérios AGS Beers 2019, PRISCUS 2.0 e o Consenso Brasileiro de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados (CBMPI). Os MTSRCIC foram definidos de acordo com a National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Os fatores associados ao uso de MPI e MTSRCIC foram identificados por regressão logística múltipla. O grau de concordância entre os três critérios explícitos empregados no estudo foi mensurado pelo coeficiente kappa Cohen. Resultados: As frequências de MPI foram 52,29% (AGS Beers 2019), 62,74% (CBMPI), 65,36% (PRISCUS 2.0) e 52,29% (MTSRCICs). As concordâncias entre AGS Beers 2019 com PRISCUS 2,0 e com CBMPI foram altas, enquanto a concordância entre CBMPI e PRISCUS 2.0 foi excelente. No modelo final de regressão logística polifarmácia foi associada positivamente ao uso de MPI por idosos para os três critérios explícitos utilizados, além de associado à utilização de MTSRCICs. Conclusões: A frequência do uso de MPI e de MTSRCIC foi elevada. A concordância em relação ao uso de MPI entre os critérios AGS Beers 2019, CBMPI e PRISCUS 2.0 foi alta ou excelente. A polifarmácia apresentou associação independente e positiva com uso de MPIs e de MTSRCICs por pacientes idosos com MM. (AU)


Objectives: To analyze the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and medications used in supportive therapy that require caution in older adults with cancer, in addition to determining associated factors the agreement between criteria sets used to identify PIMs. Methods: This cross-sectional study included individuals with multiple myeloma aged ≥ 60 years who were undergoing outpatient treatment. PIMs were identified according to American Geriatric Society Beers 2019, PRISCUS 2.0, and Brazilian Consensus on Potentially Inappropriate Medicines criteria. Medications of concern were defined according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. Factors associated with the use of PIMs and medications of concern were identified using multiple logistic regression. The degree of agreement between the 3 criteria sets was measured using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results: The frequency of PIM use was 52.29% according to American Geriatric Society Beers criteria, 62.74% according to Brazilian Consensus criteria, and 65.36% according to PRISCUS criteria, while 52.29% of the patients were using medications of concern. Agreement between American Geriatric Society Beers, PRISCUS, and Brazilian Consensus criteria was high, while it was excellent between Brazilian Consensus and PRISCUS criteria. In the final logistic regression model, polypharmacy was associated with PIM use according to each criteria set, as well as the use of medications of concern. Conclusions: The frequency of PIMs and medications of concern was high. Agreement about PIM use between the American Geriatric Society Beers, Brazilian Consensus, and PRISCUS criteria was high or excellent. There was an independent association between polypharmacy and the use of PIMs and medications of concern by older patients with multiple myeloma. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Inappropriate Prescribing , Multiple Myeloma
2.
Braz. J. Oncol ; 20: e-20240443, 20240101.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552608

ABSTRACT

A systematic review of published articles based on randomized clinical trials was conducted to ascertain the efficacy or perspective of using CAR-T cell therapy for refractory multiple myeloma. The PubMed database was searched with the combination of terms "multiple myeloma", "refractory multiple myeloma", "CAR T-cell", and the PRISMA criteria were followed. Of the 78 articles found, only 5 were selected. The studies used different treatment protocols and four different types of CAR-T cells. All studies obtained interesting results in terms of increased progression-free survival and negative minimal residual disease responses. Some authors detected an expansion of CAR-T cells and noted dose-dependent relationship between treatment effectiveness and serum BCMA levels. Although the results were promising, a small number of patients still relapsed a few months after CAR-T cell infusion. Therefore, this new line of therapy should be further investigated, as it significantly increases progression-free survival and improves quality of life.


Uma revisão sistemática de artigos publicados com base em ensaios clínicos randomizados foi realizada para verificar a eficácia ou perspectiva do uso da terapia com células CAR-T para mieloma múltiplo refratário. Foi pesquisada a base de dados PubMed com a combinação dos termos "multiple myeloma", "refratory multiple myeloma", "CAR T-cell" e foram seguidos os critérios PRISMA. Dos 78 artigos encontrados, apenas 5 foram selecionados. Os estudos utilizaram diferentes protocolos de tratamento e quatro tipos diferentes de células CAR-T. Todos os estudos obtiveram resultados interessantes em termos de aumento da sobrevida livre de progressão e respostas negativas à doença residual mínima. Alguns autores detectaram uma expansão das células CAR-T e observaram uma relação dose-dependente entre a eficácia do tratamento e os níveis séricos de BCMA. Embora os resultados tenham sido promissores, um pequeno número de pacientes ainda apresentou recaída alguns meses após a infusão de células CAR-T. Portanto, esta nova linha de terapia deve ser mais investigada, pois aumenta significativamente a sobrevida livre de progressão e melhora a qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Multiple Myeloma , Neoplasms
3.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 70(1)Jan-Mar. 2024.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1537408

ABSTRACT

A trombose representa um desafio no cenário do mieloma múltiplo. O avanço no arsenal terapêutico para o tratamento desse câncer trouxe aumento de sobrevida, mas paralelamente acarretou aumento na incidência dos eventos trombóticos, com impacto na morbidade e na mortalidade. Além disso, o perfil epidemiológico dessa população favorece a coexistência de doença cardiovascular, que compartilha com o câncer mecanismos fisiopatológicos trombogênicos. Assim, apesar do uso de anticoagulantes e antiagregantes plaquetários, a estratégia ideal para profilaxia permanece obscura e o desafio vai além da padronização do modelo de avaliação de risco e da terapia anticoagulante. Este trabalho buscou apresentar o estado da arte sobre o tema com o objetivo de discutir a tromboprofilaxia no mieloma múltiplo, enfatizando a abordagem da doença cardiovascular como parte integrante da estratégia.


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second main cause of death of cancer patients and can be the first manifestation of neoplasms or occur at any time point of the course of the disease1-3. Subgroups have different risks with higher rates observed in specific cancers, including pancreas, stomach and multiple myeloma (MM)1.Associated with higher risk of death, thrombotic events do have an important adverse impact as they may lead to treatment interruption, increased morbidity and economic burden4. In this scenario, MM is challenging, it is the second most common hematologic cancer with a risk of VTE nine-fold higher than in the general population1,5. The high-risk results from patient, treatment and disease-related factors. The epidemiologic profile of the patient with MM favors the coexistence of additional thromboembolic risks, nevertheless, advances of oncologic treatment increased global survival and thrombotic risk4. It is known that 10% of the population with MM will develop VTE at some time point of the disease's course4,6, with high incidence in the first six months post-diagnosis5.Inconsistencies in applying the current thromboprophylaxis recommendations have been found. Due to the lack of robust data and standardized models of risk stratification, many physicians tend to rely on their clinical experience7.The ideal thromboprophylaxis of MM remains unknown


Subject(s)
Multiple Myeloma , Primary Prevention , Thromboembolism
4.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530146

ABSTRACT

Fig A) Radiografía de cráneo en proyección lateral: se observan múltiples lesiones radiolúcidas distribuidas en todo el cráneo. B) Acercamiento donde se evidencian múltiples lesiones en sacabocado, compatibles con mieloma múltiple(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging
5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(3): 368-377, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449823

ABSTRACT

Abstract The increase in life expectancy of the world population has led to a concomitant increase in the prevalence of multiple myeloma (MM), a disease that usually affects the elderly population. Bone lesions are frequent in patients with this condition, demanding an early approach, from drug treatment, through radiotherapy to orthopedic surgery (prophylactic or therapeutic) with the objective of preventing or delaying the occurrence of fracture, or, when this event has already occurred, treat it through stabilization or replacement (lesions located in the appendicular skeleton) and/or promote stabilization and spinal cord decompression (lesions located in the axial skeleton), providing rapid pain relief, return to ambulation and resocialization, returning quality of life to patients. The aim of this review isto update the reader on the findings of pathophysiology, clinical, laboratory and imaging, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach of multiple myeloma multiple myeloma bone disease (MMBD).


Resumo O aumento da expectativa devida da população mundial levou a incremento concomitante na prevalência de mieloma múltiplo (MM), patologia que geralmente afeta a população idosa. Lesões ósseas são frequentes nos portadores desta condição, demandando abordagem precoce, desde o tratamento medicamentoso, passando pela radioterapia até a cirurgia ortopédica (profilática ou terapêutica) com os objetivos de prevenir ou retardar a ocorrência de fratura, ou, quando este evento já ocorreu, tratá-la mediante estabilização ou substituição (lesões situadas no esqueleto apendicular) e/ou promover estabilização e descompressão medular (lesões situadas no esqueleto axial), proporcionando rápido alívio da dor, retorno à deambulação e ressocialização, devolvendo a qualidade de vida aos pacientes. O objetivo desta revisão é atualizar o leitor sobre a fisiopatologia, a clínica, exames laboratoriais e de imagem, diagnóstico diferencial e abordagem terapêutica da doença óssea no mieloma múltiplo (DOMM).


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiotherapy , Orthopedic Procedures , Diphosphonates , Prophylactic Surgical Procedures , Fractures, Spontaneous , Multiple Myeloma
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(3): 361-367, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449818

ABSTRACT

Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by unregulated and clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow; these cells produce and secrete an anomalous monoclonal immunoglobulin, or a fragment of this, called M protein. The clinical manifestations of MM result from the proliferation of these plasmocytes, the excessive production of monoclonal immunoglobulin and the suppression of normal humoral immunity, leading to hypercalcemia, bone destruction, renal failure, suppression of hematopoiesis and humoral immunity, increasing the risk for the development of infections. The increase in life expectancy of the world population led to a concomitant increase in the prevalence of MM, a pathology that usually affects the elderly population. The aim of this review is to update the reader on epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis with other monoclonal gam-mopathies, systemic treatment and prognosis of MM.


Resumo O mieloma múltiplo (MM) constitui neoplasia maligna de origem hematológica caracterizada pela proliferação desregulada e clonal de plasmócitos na medula óssea; estas células produzem e secretam imunoglobulina monoclonal anômala, ou um fragmento desta, denominado proteína M. As manifestações clínicas do MM decorrem da proliferação destes plasmócitos, da produção excessiva de imunoglobulina monoclonal e da supressão da imunidade humoral normal, levando à hipercalcemia, destruição óssea, insuficiência renal, supressão da hematopoiese e da imunidade humoral,aumentandooriscoparaodesenvolvimento de infecções. O aumento na expectativa de vida da população mundial levou a concomitante incremento na prevalência do MM, patologia que habitualmente acomete a população idosa. O objetivo desta revisão é atualizar o leitor sobre a epidemiologia, critérios diagnósticos, diagnóstico diferencial com outras gamopatias monoclonais, tratamento sistêmico e prognóstico do MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthopedic Procedures , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Prophylactic Surgical Procedures , Fractures, Spontaneous/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Myeloma/radiotherapy
7.
Salud mil ; 42(1): e302, 05/05/2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1531521

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el mieloma múltiple es un trastorno hematológico maligno y el segundo cáncer de la sangre más frecuente. El proceso de la angiogénesis tumoral es fundamental para el crecimiento y metástasis de muchos tipos de tumores, incluido en mieloma múltiple. Se sabe que la sobreexpresión del factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular se encuentra asociado a un mal pronóstico en esta patología, representando un blanco clave para la terapia anti-angiogénica en mieloma múltiple. El anticuerpo monoclonal Bevacizumab es capaz de unirse con gran afinidad al factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular bloqueando su acción. Objetivo: evaluar el Fab(Bevacizumab) marcado con 99mTc o Cy7 como potenciales agentes de imagen moleculares de la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular en mieloma múltiple. Material y métodos: la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular fue analizada mediante citometría de flujo en la línea celular huaman de mieloma múltiple, la MM1S. Fab(Bevacizumab) fue producido mediante digestión de Bevacizumab con papaína, conjugado a NHS-HYNIC-Tfa y radiomarcado con 99mTc. Se realizaron estudios de biodistribución y de tomografía computarizada por emisión del fotón simple. A su vez, Fab(Bevacizumab) fue marcado con Cy7 para obtener imágenes de fluorescencia in vivo hasta 96 horas. Resultados: el análisis por citometría de flujo en la línea celular MM1S reveló que la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular es predominantemente intracelular. Los estudios de biodistribución y SPECT/CT del complejo 99mTc-HYNIC-Fab(Bevacizumab) mostraron una rápida eliminación sanguínea y una significativa captación a nivel renal y tumoral. Las imágenes por fluorescencia empleando Cy7-Fab(Bevacizumab) permitieron la visualización tumoral hasta 96 h p.i. Conclusiones: logramos visualizar la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular in vivo en mieloma múltiple mediante el empleo del fragmento Fab del anticuerpo anti-VEGF (Bevacizumab) marcado con 99mTc y Cy7. Estos nuevos agentes de imagen molecular podrían ser empleados potencialmente en el ámbito clínico para la estadificación y el seguimiento de pacientes con mieloma múltiple, mediante la visualización radioactiva in vivo de la expresión de factor de crecimiento endothelial vascular en todo el cuerpo. La imagen óptica de estos trazadores mejoraría el muestreo tumoral y podría guiar la extirpación quirúrgica.


Introduction: Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy and the second most common blood cancer. The process of tumor angiogenesis is central to the growth and metastasis of many types of tumors, including multiple myeloma. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor is known to be associated with poor prognosis in this pathology, representing a key target for anti-angiogenic therapy in multiple myeloma. The monoclonal antibody Bevacizumab is able to bind with high affinity to vascular endothelial growth factor blocking its action. Objective: to evaluate 99mTc- or Cy7-labeled Fab(Bevacizumab) as potential molecular imaging agents of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in multiple myeloma. Methods: Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was analyzed by flow cytometry in the multiple myeloma huaman cell line, MM1S. Fab(Bevacizumab) was produced by digestion of Bevacizumab with papain, conjugated to NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabeled with 99mTc. Biodistribution and single photon emission computed tomography studies were performed. In turn, Fab(Bevacizumab) was labeled with Cy7 to obtain in vivo fluorescence images up to 96 hours. Results: Flow cytometry analysis in the MM1S cell line revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor expression is predominantly intracellular. Biodistribution and SPECT/CT studies of the 99mTc-HYNIC-Fab(Bevacizumab) complex showed rapid blood clearance and significant renal and tumor uptake. Fluorescence imaging using Cy7-Fab(Bevacizumab) allowed tumor visualization up to 96 h p.i. Conclusions: we were able to visualize vascular endothelial growth factor expression in vivo in multiple myeloma using the Fab fragment of the anti-VEGF antibody (Bevacizumab) labeled with 99mTc and Cy7. These new molecular imaging agents could potentially be employed in the clinical setting for staging and monitoring of patients with multiple myeloma by in vivo radioactive visualization of vascular endothelial growth factor expression throughout the body. Optical imaging of these tracers would improve tumor sampling and could guide surgical excision.


Introdução: O mieloma múltiplo é uma malignidade hematológica e o segundo câncer de sangue mais comum. O processo de angiogênese tumoral é fundamental para o crescimento e a metástase de muitos tipos de tumores, incluindo o mieloma múltiplo. Sabe-se que a superexpressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular está associada a um prognóstico ruim no mieloma múltiplo, representando um alvo importante para a terapia antiangiogênica no mieloma múltiplo. O anticorpo monoclonal Bevacizumab é capaz de se ligar com alta afinidade ao fator de crescimento endotelial vascular e bloquear sua ação. Objetivo: avaliar o Fab(Bevacizumab) marcado com 99mTc ou Cy7 como possíveis agentes de imagem molecular da expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular no mieloma múltiplo. Métodos: A expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular foi analisada por citometria de fluxo na linha celular de mieloma múltiplo MM1S. O Fab(Bevacizumab) foi produzido pela digestão do Bevacizumab com papaína, conjugado com NHS-HYNIC-Tfa e radiomarcado com 99mTc. Foram realizados estudos de biodistribuição e tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único. Por sua vez, o Fab(Bevacizumab) foi marcado com Cy7 para geração de imagens de fluorescência in vivo por até 96 horas. Resultados: A análise de citometria de fluxo na linha celular MM1S revelou que a expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular é predominantemente intracelular. Os estudos de biodistribuição e SPECT/CT do complexo 99mTc-HYNIC-Fab(Bevacizumab) mostraram uma rápida depuração sanguínea e uma captação renal e tumoral significativa. A imagem de fluorescência usando Cy7-Fab(Bevacizumab) permitiu a visualização do tumor até 96 horas p.i. Conclusões: Conseguimos visualizar a expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular in vivo no mieloma múltiplo usando o fragmento Fab do anticorpo anti-VEGF (Bevacizumab) marcado com 99mTc e Cy7. Esses novos agentes de imagem molecular poderiam ser usados no cenário clínico para o estadiamento e o monitoramento de pacientes com mieloma múltiplo, visualizando radioativamente a expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular in vivo em todo o corpo. A geração de imagens ópticas desses traçadores melhoraria a amostragem do tumor e poderia orientar a excisão cirúrgica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Technetium/pharmacokinetics , Molecular Imaging/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Bevacizumab/pharmacokinetics , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors , Mice, Inbred BALB C
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981902

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aims to construct and identify the chimeric antigen receptor NK92 (CAR-NK92) cells targeting NKG2D ligand (NKG2DL) (secreting IL-15Ra-IL-15) and verify the killing activity of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells against multiple myeloma cells. Methods The extracellular segment of NKG2D was employed to connect 4-1BB and CD3Z, as well as IL-15Ra-IL-15 sequence to obtain a CAR expression framework. The lentivirus was packaged and transduced into NK92 cells to obtain NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells. The proliferation of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay, IL-15Ra secretion was detected by ELISA and killing efficiency was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The molecular markers of NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, the ratio of apoptotic cell population, CD107a, and the secretion level of granzyme B and perforin were detected using flow cytometry. In addition, the cytotoxic mechanism of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells on the tumor was verified by measuring the degranulation ability. Moreover, after NKG2D antibody inhibited effector cells and histamine inhibited tumor cells, LDH assay was utilized to detect the effect on cell-killing efficiency. Finally, the multiple myeloma tumor xenograft model was constructed to verify its anti-tumor activity in vivo. Results Lentiviral transduction significantly increased NKG2D expression in NK92 cells. Compared with NK92 cells, the proliferation ability of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells was weaker. The early apoptotic cell population of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells was less, and NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells had stronger cytotoxicity to multiple myeloma cells. Additionally, IL-15Ra secretion could be detected in its culture supernatant. NKp44 protein expression in NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells was clearly increased, demonstrating an enhanced activation level. Inhibition test revealed that the cytotoxicity of CAR-NK92 cells to MHC-I chain-related protein A (MICA) and MICB-positive tumor cells was more dependent on the interaction between NKG2D CAR and NKG2DL. After stimulating NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells with tumor cells, granzyme B and perforin expression increased, and NK cells obviously upregulated CD107α. Furthermore, multiple myeloma tumor xenograft model revealed that the tumors of mice treated with NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells were significantly reduced, and the cell therapy did not sensibly affect the weight of the mice. Conclusion A type of CAR-NK92 cell targeting NKG2DL (secreting IL-15Ra-IL-15) is successfully constructed, indicating the effective killing of multiple myeloid cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Interleukin-15 , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K/metabolism , Granzymes , Cell Line, Tumor , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Perforin
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1916-1920, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010060

ABSTRACT

Iron metabolism is involved in the development and drug resistance of many malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Based on recent studies on iron metabolism and MM, this paper reviews the relationship between iron metabolism and disease process of MM in terms of iron overload leading to ferroptosis in MM cells, the role of iron deficiency in oxidative respiration and proliferation of MM cells, and the interaction between ferroptosis and autophagy in the disease process. The mechanisms by which iron metabolism-related substances lead to MM cells' resistance to proteasome inhibitors (PI) through inducing redox imbalance and M2 macrophage polarization are also briefly described, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the application of iron metabolism-related drugs to the clinical treatment of MM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy , Disease Progression , Iron/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1771-1779, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#to analyze the effect of circulating plasma cells(CPC) on the prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma(MM) in the era of new drugs, and to explore the new definition standard of primary plasma cell leukemia(pPCL).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 321 patients with newly diagnosed MM and 21 patients with pPCL admitted to our hospital from January 2014 to May 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the proportion of CPC in peripheral blood smears, all patients were divided into 4 groups: CPC 0% group(211 cases), CPC 1%-4% group(69 cases), CPC 5%-19% group(41 cases) and CPC≥20% group(21 cases). The clinical features of patients in each group were compared and the prognosis fators was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The median OS of the four groups were 44.5,21.3,24.6 and 12.8 months, respectively. Among them, 295 patients(86.3%) were treated with new drugs, and the median OS of the four groups were not reached, 26.7, 24.6 and 14.9 months, respectively. As the survival curves of CPC 5%-19% group and CPC≥20% group were similar, the patients were divided into CPC<5% group and CPC≥5% group, the median OS of CPC<5% group was better than that in CPC≥5% (43.5 vs 22.3 months, P<0.001). In addition, the median OS of patients in the CPC 1%-4% group was also significantly lower than that in the CPC 0% group and similar to that in the CPC≥5% group. Multivariate analysis showed that 1%-4% CPC was an independent risk factor for the OS of patients with CPC<5%. The patients with CPC<5% were stratified by R-ISS staging, and the OS of R-ISS stage Ⅰ or stage Ⅱ with 1%-4% CPC was similar to that of R-ISS stage Ⅲ. The newly defined pPCL patients showed increased tumor load and obvious invasive characteristics. Multivariate analysis showed no independent prognostic factors for pPCL, and high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities(HRCA) had no significant effect on the prognosis.@*CONCLUSION@#The validity of IMWG's new pPCL definition standard was verified, and it was found that the survival of MM with 1%-4% CPC also is poor and the prognosis is very close to pPCL. In addition, the newly defined pPCL has unique clinical and biological characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Plasma Cells/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Leukemia, Plasma Cell/diagnosis
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1764-1770, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the significance of Tim-3 and Galectin-9 in Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).@*METHODS@#55 newly diagnosed MM patients and 20 healthy controls were included. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of Tim-3 on CD4+T cells, the proportion of Th1, Th2, Tim-3+Th1 and Tim-3+Th2 cells in peripheral blood. ELISA was used to detect the levels of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 in serum, and PCR was used to detect the level of Galectin-9 mRNA. Then the correlations between Galectin-9 mRNA expression and Th-cell subsets and related cytokine levels, as well as the relationship between Tim-3+Th1/Tim-3+Th2 ratio and corresponding clinical features were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the expression of Tim-3 on CD4+T cells in peripheral blood of MM patients was significantly increased (P<0.05), the proportions of Tim-3+Th1 cells, Tim-3+Th2 cells and Tim-3+Th1/Tim-3+Th2 ratio in MM patients were also increased (P<0.05), while the proportion of Th1 cells and Th1/Th2 ratio in MM patients were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The level of cytokine IFN-γ and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in MM patients were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the level of cytokine IL-4 was increased (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of Galectin-9 in MM patients were significantly increased (P<0.05). The levels of Galectin-9 mRNA were positively correlated with Tim-3+CD4+T cells (r=0.663), Tim-3+Th2 cells (r=0.492) and IL-4 (r=0.470), while negatively correlated with IFN-γ (r=-0.593). The ratios of Tim-3+Th1/Tim-3+Th2 in MM patients were positively correlated with ISS stage (r=0.511), osteolytic damage (r=0.556) and chromosome abnormality (r=0.632).@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that Tim-3 and Galectin-9 are involved in Th1/Th2 imbalance in MM patients, and the high ratio of Tim-3+Th1/Tim-3+Th2 is associated with poor clinical prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines/metabolism , Galectins/metabolism , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Ligands , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th2 Cells/metabolism
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1757-1763, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the correlation of peripheral blood platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with Treg and Th17 and its influence on prognosis in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM).@*METHODS@#One hundred thirty-five newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients admitted to the Department of Hematology of Zhengzhou People's Hospital from June 2015 to October 2022 were selected as MM group. Clinical data included sex, age, immune typing, ISS stage, blood calcium (Ca), albumin (ALB), hemoglobin (Hb), PLR, LDH, β2 microglobulin (β2-MG), Treg and Th17 levels. Sixty healthy volunteers who underwent physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as the control group. PLR, Treg and Th17 levels in MM group and control group were compared. Pearson was used to analyze the correlation between PLR and Treg, Th17. The relationship between MM patients with different PLR and clinical features and prognosis was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The PLR and Th17 of MM patients were significantly higher than that of control group, and Treg was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05). In MM patients, PLR was negatively correlated with Treg (r=-0.616), and PLR was positively correlated with Th17 (r=0.555). Using mean PLR=132.72 as the boundary, 135 MM patients were divided into high PLR group (n=54) and low PLR group (n=81). In MM patients with high PLR, ISS stage, ALB and Treg were significantly higher than those in low PLR group, while Th17 was significantly lower than those in low PLR group (P<0.05). By univariate and COX regression analysis, PLR was an independent prognostic risk factor for newly diagnosed MM patients (P<0.05). MM patients with high PLR had better PFS and OS, and the difference was statistically significant compared with MM patients with low PLR (P<0.05). 65 patients admitted from June 2015 to December 2018 were used as the training set, and 70 patients admitted from January 2019 to October 2022 were used as the validation set. The OS of MM patients with different PLR were compared respectively. The results showed that the conclusions of the training set and the validation set were consistent. PLR with high expression had higher OS (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#PLR is correlated with Treg and Th17 in newly diagnosed MM patients, and high PLR has better prognosis. PLR can be used to evaluate the prognosis of MM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Blood Platelets , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Prognosis , Th17 Cells , Retrospective Studies
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1750-1756, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010033

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the genetic results of whole exome sequencing of bone marrow from new onset multiple myeloma (MM) patients to analyze the process of genetic clonal evolution in MM patients.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from bone marrow samples of 15 MM patients and the whole exomes sequencing was performed using next generation sequencing technology. Using own buccal cells as germline controls, combinated with clinical information, the mutation profile of genes from high-risk asymptomatic myeloma to symptomatic myeloma were analyzed, and genes that may be associated with the efficacy and side effects of bortezomib were screened.@*RESULTS@#Except for two patients in whom no peripheral neuropathy was observed after a short treatment period, other patients peripheral neuropathy developed of various degrees during treatment with bortezomib containing chemotherapy, and the vast majority of patients achieved remission after receiving this bortezomib-related chemotherapy regimen. All patients had comparable levels of the inherited mutations number, but the somatic mutations was correlated with disease evolution.@*CONCLUSION@#different gene "mutational spectra" exist in myeloma patients at different stages and are associated with progression through all stages of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow , Exome Sequencing , Mouth Mucosa , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1745-1749, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010032

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish a MM patient-derived tumor xenograft model (MM-PDX) in zebrafish, and to evaluate the anti-myeloma activity of indirubin-3'-monoxime(I3MO) using this model.@*METHODS@#Zebrafish embryos 2 days after fertilization were transplanted with fluorescence labeled myeloma primary tumor cells, the survival of primary tumor cells in zebrafish was observed at 0,16 and 24 hours after cell injection. The zebrafish embryos after tumor cell transplantation were randomly divided into control group, BTZ treatment and I3MO treatment group. Before and 24 hours after treatment with BTZ and I3MO, the positive area with calcein or Dil in zebrafish were observed under fluorescence microscope to reflect the survival of tumor cells, and it was verified.@*RESULTS@#MM patient derived tumor cells survived in zebrafish. The construction of MM-PDX was successful. Compared with control group, the fluo- rescence area of the BTZ and I3MO treatment groups in zebrafish were significantly decreased(P<0.05), and BTZ and I3MO significantly inhibited the survival of MM cells in zebrafish.@*CONCLUSION@#MM-PDX model was successfully established. Zebrafish model derived from tumor cells of MM patients can be used as a tool for drug screening of MM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Heterografts , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays , Zebrafish
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1739-1744, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the expression level of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) in multiple myeloma (MM), its relationship with clinical indicators, prognosis and potential role.@*METHODS@#Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of NAMPT in bone marrow biopsies of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) and patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) hospitalized during the same period. According to the median expression level of NAMPT, NDMM patients were divided into high expression group and low expression group. The correlation between NAMPT expression level and clinical baseline data was analyzed, and survival analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between NAMPT expression level and prognosis. The GSE24080 and GSE19784 datasets were used to analyze the effect of NAMPT on the prognosis. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) explored the possible mechanism of NAMPT involved in MM cell function.@*RESULTS@#The mean staining intensity of NAMPT in bone marrow tissue of 31 NDMM patients was 0.007±0.002, and that of 10 IDA patients was 0.002±0.002 (P < 0.05). The median expression level of NAMPT was 0.0041 in NDMM patients, and the mean staining intensity of high expression group and low expression group was 0.007±0.005 and 0.002±0.001, respectively (P < 0.001). There were certain differences in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and ISS staging between high expression group and low expression group (P < 0.001), while no significant differences in other indicators. The overall response rate (ORR) of high expression group was significantly lower than that of low expression group (P < 0.001). The median survival time of patients in high expression group was significantly shorter than that in low expression group (P =0.024). The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that the event-free survival (EFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate of low NAMPT group were both higher than high NAMPT group (P =0.037, P =0.009), and NAMPT was an independent prognostic factor for EFS and OS (P =0.006, P =0.020). GSEA suggested that NAMPT might affect MM cell function through mTORC1 signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The expression level of NAMPT in bone marrow of NDMM patients is significantly higher than that of IDA patients, and the high expression of NAMPT may be correlated with late ISS stage, and high level of LDH and CRP. Patients with high expression of NAMPT have worse response to bortezomib and survival time may be shorter. NAMPT may be involved in the occurrence and development of MM through mTORC1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , Bone Marrow/pathology , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase , Clinical Relevance , Prognosis , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
16.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 48-54, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969707

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) admitted at Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine. We compared the clinical characteristics and prognoses among patients with non-extramedullary disease (EMD), bone-related extramedullary (EM-B) disease, and extraosseous extramedullary (EM-E) disease and further explored the effects of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for EMD. Methods: From January 2015 to January 2022, data of 114 patients (22%) with EMD out of 515 patients with NDMM were retrospectively analyzed; 91 (18%) and 23 (4%) patients comprised the EM-B and EM-E groups, respectively. The clinical characteristics of patients in all groups were compared with the Chi-square test. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Independent prognostic factors were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: There were no significant differences in age, gender, ISS stage, light chain, creatinine clearance, cytogenetic risk, 17p deletion, ASCT, and induction regimens among the three groups. Overall, 13% of EM-E patients had IgD-type M protein, which was significantly higher than that in EM-B patients (P=0.021). The median PFS of patients in the non-EMD, EM-B, and EM-E groups was 27.4, 23.1, and 14.0 months; the median OS was not reached, 76.8 months, and 25.6 months, respectively. The PFS (vs non-EMD, P=0.004; vs EM-B, P=0.036) and OS (vs non-EMD, P<0.001; vs EM-B, P=0.002) were significantly worse in patients with EM-E, while those were not significantly different between patients with EM-B and those with non-EMD. In the multivariate analysis, EM-E was an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with NDMM (HR=8.779, P<0.001) and negatively impacted PFS (HR=1.874, P=0.050). In those who did not undergo ASCT, patients with EM-B had significantly worse OS than those with non-EMD (median 76.8 months vs. not reached, P=0.029). However, no significant difference was observed in the PFS and OS of patients with EM-B and those with non-EMD who underwent ASCT. Conclusions: Compared to patients with either non-EMD or EM-B, those with EM-E had the worst prognosis. EM-E was an independent risk factor for OS in patients with NDMM. ASCT can overcome the poor prognosis of EM-B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Retrospective Studies , China , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Prognosis , Transplantation, Autologous
17.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 141-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969690

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the causative factors of renal function in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients with renal inadequacy. Methods: 181 MM patients with renal impairment from August 2007 to October 2021 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited, whose baseline chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage was 3-5. Statistical analysis was performed based on laboratory tests, treatment regimens, hematological responses, and survival among various renal function efficacy groups. A logistic regression model was employed in multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 181 patients were recruited, and 277 patients with CKD stages 1-2 were chosen as controls. The majority choose the BCD and VRD regimens. The progression-free survival (PFS) (14.0 months vs 24.8 months, P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (49.2 months vs 79.7 months, P<0.001) of patients with renal impairment was considerably shorter. Hypercalcemia (P=0.013, OR=5.654) , 1q21 amplification (P=0.018, OR=2.876) , and hematological response over a partial response (P=0.001, OR=4.999) were independent predictive factors for renal function response. After treatment, those with improvement in renal function had a longer PFS than those without (15.6 months vs 10.2 months, P=0.074) , but there was no disparity in OS (56.5 months vs 47.3 months, P=0.665) . Conclusion: Hypercalcemia, 1q21 amplification, and hematologic response were independent predictors of the response of renal function in NDMM patients with renal impairment. MM patients with CKD 3-5 at baseline still have worse survival. Improvement in renal function after treatment is attributed to the improvement in PFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Hypercalcemia , Prognosis , Chromosome Aberrations , Kidney/physiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
18.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 112-117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969685

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the advantages and safety of Plerixafor in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in autologous hematopoietic stem cell mobilization of lymphoma. Methods: Lymphoma patients who received autologous hematopoietic stem cell mobilization with Plerixafor in combination with G-CSF or G-CSF alone were obtained. The clinical data, the success rate of stem cell collection, hematopoietic reconstitution, and treatment-related adverse reactions between the two groups were evaluated retrospectively. Results: A total of 184 lymphoma patients were included in this analysis, including 115 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (62.5%) , 16 cases of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (8.7%) , 11 cases of follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.0%) , 10 cases of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (5.4%) , 6 cases of mantle cell lymphoma (3.3%) , and 6 cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (3.3%) , 6 cases of NK/T-cell lymphoma (3.3%) , 4 cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (2.2%) , 8 cases of other types of B-cell lymphoma (4.3%) , and 2 cases of other types of T-cell lymphoma (1.1%) ; 31 patients had received radiotherapy (16.8%) . The patients in the two groups were recruited with Plerixafor in combination with G-CSF or G-CSF alone. The baseline clinical characteristics of the two groups were basically similar. The patients in the Plerixafor in combination with the G-CSF mobilization group were older, and the number of recurrences and third-line chemotherapy was higher. 100 patients were mobilized with G-CSF alone. The success rate of the collection was 74.0% for one day and 89.0% for two days. 84 patients in the group of Plerixafor combined with G-CSF were recruited successfully with 85.7% for one day and 97.6% for two days. The success rate of mobilization in the group of Plerixafor combined with G-CSF was substantially higher than that in the group of G-CSF alone (P=0.023) . The median number of CD34(+) cells obtained in the mobilization group of Plerixafor combined with G-CSF was 3.9×10(6)/kg. The median number of CD34(+) cells obtained in the G-CSF Mobilization group alone was 3.2×10(6)/kg. The number of CD34(+) cells collected by Plerixafor combined with G-CSF was considerably higher than that in G-CSF alone (P=0.001) . The prevalent adverse reactions in the group of Plerixafor combined with G-CSF were grade 1-2 gastrointestinal reactions (31.2%) and local skin redness (2.4%) . Conclusion: The success rate of autologous hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in lymphoma patients treated with Plerixafor combined with G-CSF is significantly high. The success rate of collection and the absolute count of CD34(+) stem cells were substantially higher than those in the group treated with G-CSF alone. Even in older patients, second-line collection, recurrence, or multiple chemotherapies, the combined mobilization method also has a high success rate of mobilization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Heterocyclic Compounds/adverse effects , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Lymphoma, T-Cell/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Autologous
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2285-2296, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007595

ABSTRACT

Cellular therapies have revolutionized the treatment of hematological malignancies since their conception and rapid development. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy is the most widely applied cellular therapy. Since the Food and Drug Administration approved two CD19-CAR-T products for clinical treatment of relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma in 2017, five more CAR-T cell products were subsequently approved for treating multiple myeloma or B cell malignancies. Moreover, clinical trials of CAR-T cell therapy for treating other hematological malignancies are ongoing. Both China and the United States have contributed significantly to the development of clinical trials. However, CAR-T cell therapy has many limitations such as a high relapse rate, adverse side effects, and restricted availability. Various methods are being implemented in clinical trials to address these issues, some of which have demonstrated promising breakthroughs. This review summarizes developments in CAR-T cell trials and advances in CAR-T cell therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/etiology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2834-2838, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There is limited data to comprehensively evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of multiple myeloma (MM) in China; therefore, this study determined the characteristics of the disease burden of MM at national and provincial levels in China.@*METHODS@#The burden of MM, including incidence, mortality, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), with a 95% uncertainty interval (UI), was determined in China following the general analytical strategy used in the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019. The trends in the burden of MM from 1990 to 2019 were also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#There were an estimated 347.45 thousand DALYs with an age-standardized DALY rate of 17.05 (95% UI, 12.31-20.77) per 100,000 in 2019. The estimated number of incident case and deaths of MM were 18,793 and 13,421, with age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of 0.93 (95% UI, 0.67-1.15) and 0.67 (95% UI, 0.50-0.82) per 100,000, respectively. The age-specific DALY rates per 100,000 increased to more than 10.00 in the 40 to 44 years age group reaching a peak (93.82) in the 70 to 74 years age group. Males had a higher burden than females, with approximately 1.5- to 2.0-fold sex difference in age-specific DALY rates in all age groups. From 1990 to 2019, the DALYs of MM increased 134%, from 148,479 in 1990 to 347,453 in 2019.@*CONCLUSION@#The burden of MM has doubled over the last three decades, which highlights the need to establish effective disease prevention and control strategies at both the national and provincial levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Global Burden of Disease , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Global Health , Incidence , Prevalence , Risk Factors , China/epidemiology
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