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1.
Biol. Res ; 53: 44, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is the main pathological basis of coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction and peripheral vascular disease, which seriously endanger people's life and health. In recent years, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been found to be involved in gene expression regulation, but the research on AS is still in the initial stage. In this study, we mainly studied the role of HCG11 in patients with AS. Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of HCG11 and miR-144 in the serum of AS patients and healthy volunteers. Oxidation Low Lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) radiation were used to establish human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro model. Cell proliferation was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry (FACS) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL) staining. The expression levels of Forkhead box protein F1 (FOXF1), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and BCL2-Associated X (Bax) were detected by qRT-PCR. Luciferase gene reporter and RNA pull down experiments confirmed the relationship between HCG11 and miR-144, miR-144 and FOXF1. RESULTS: This study showed that HCG11 was significantly upregulated in patients with AS, while miR-144 was down-regulated in patients with AS. Ox-LDL and IL-6 in VSMCs induced up-regulation of HCG11 and down-regulation of miR-144. Overexpression of HCG11 promoted the proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of VSMCs. Luciferase gene reporter gene assay showed that HCG11 could bind to miR-144, and miR-144 could bind to FOXF1. Overexpression of miR-144 reversed the effect of HCG11 on VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA HCG11 regulates proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cell through targeting miR-144-3p/FOXF1 axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology
2.
Biol. Res ; 50: 1, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration after vascular injury promotes the development of occlusive vascular disease. Therefore, an effective chemical agent to suppress aberrant proliferation and migration of VSMCs can be a potential therapeutic modality for occlusive vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. To find an anti-proliferative chemical agent for VSMCs, we screened an in-house small molecule library, and the selected small molecule was further validated for its anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs using multiple approaches, such as cell proliferation assays, wound healing assays, transwell migration assays, and ex vivo aortic ring assay. RESULTS: Among 43 initially screened small molecule inhibitors of kinases that have no known anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs, a spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor (BAY61-3606) showed significant anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs. Further experiments indicated that BAY61 attenuated the VSMC proliferation in both concentration- and time-dependent manner, and it also significantly suppressed the migration of VSMCs as assessed by both wound healing assays and transwell assays. Additionally, BAY61 suppressed the sprouting of VSMCs from endothelium-removed aortic rings. CONCLUSION: The present study identified a Syk kinase inhibitor as a potent VSMC proliferation and migration inhibitor and warrants further studies to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms, such as its primary target, and to validate its in vivo efficacy as a therapeutic agent for restenosis and atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Syk Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Wound Healing/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Cell Migration Assays , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 234-240, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126252

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. This study investigated the role of miR-379 on proliferation, invasion, and migration of VSMCs and explored underlying mechanisms thereof. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MicroRNA, mRNA, and protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. The proliferative, invasive, and migratory abilities of VSMCs were measured by CCK-8, invasion, and wound healing assay, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the target of miR-379. RESULTS: Platelet-derived growth factor-bb was found to promote cell proliferation and suppress miR-379 expression in VSMCs. Functional assays demonstrated that miR-379 inhibited cell proliferation, cell invasion, and migration. Flow cytometry results further showed that miR-379 induced apoptosis in VSMCs. TargetScan analysis and luciferase report assay confirmed that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) 3'UTR is a direct target of miR-379, and mRNA and protein levels of miR-379 and IGF-1 were inversely correlated. Rescue experiments showed that enforced expression of IGF-1 sufficiently overcomes the inhibitory effect of miR-379 on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in VSMCs. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that miR-379 plays an important role in regulating VSMCs proliferation, invasion, and migration by targeting IGF-1.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Movement/physiology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Humans , Insulin , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/physiology , MicroRNAs/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis/physiology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sincalide/physiology , Wound Healing/physiology
4.
J. bras. nefrol ; 38(2): 153-160, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787878

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: p-cresol (PC) e p-cresil sulfato (PCS) são responsáveis por muitas das consequências clínicas uremia, tais como a aterosclerose em pacientes com Doença Renal Crônica (DRC). Objetivos: No presente trabalho, investigamos in vitro o impacto de PC e PCS na expressão da quimiocina monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) via NF-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 em VSMC. Métodos: O PCS foi sintetizado por sulfatação do PC. As VSMC foram extraídas por digestão enzimática da veia do cordão umbilical e caracterizadas por imunofluorescência através do anticorpo α-actina. As células foram tratadas com PC e PCS em suas concentrações normal (n), urêmica (u) e urêmica máxima (m). A viabilidade celular foi avaliada pelo ensaio de MTT. A expressão de MCP-1 foi investigada por ELISA em sobrenadantes de células após o tratamento com as toxinas, com ou sem o inibidor de NF-κB p65. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa na viabilidade das células após o tratamento com toxinas para todas as concentrações testadas. Houve um aumento significativo na expressão de MCP-1 em células tratadas com PCu e PCm (p < 0,001) e PCSn, PCSu e PCSm (p < 0,001), em comparação com o controle. Quando as VSMC foram tratadas com o inibidor de NF-κB p65 mais PCu e PCm, houve uma diminuição significativa na produção de MCP-1 (p < 0,005). Este efeito não foi observado com PCS. Conclusões: VSMC estão envolvidas na formação da lesão aterosclerótica e produção de MCP-1, o que contribui para o início da resposta inflamatória. Os nossos resultados sugerem que a PC medeia a produção de MCP-1 em VSMC, provavelmente através da via NF-κB p65 e que PCS atue através de uma subunidade diferente da via, uma vez que o inibidor da porção p65 não foi capaz de inibir a produção de MCP-1.


ABSTRACT Introduction: p-cresol (PC) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are responsible for many of the uremia clinical consequences, such as atherosclerosis in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Objectives: We investigate the in vitro impact of PC and PCS on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression via NF-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 in VSMC. Methods: PCS was synthesized by PC sulfatation. VSMC were extracted by enzymatic digestion of umbilical cord vein and characterized by immunofluorescence against α-actin antibody. The cells were treated with PC and PCS at their normal (n), uremic (u) and maximum uremic concentrations (m). Cell viability was assessed by MTT. MCP-1 expression was investigated by ELISA in cells supernatants after toxins treatment with or without the NF-κB p65 inhibitor. Results: There was no significant difference in cell viability after toxins treatment for all concentrations tested. There was a significant increase in MCP-1 expression in cells treated with PCu and PCm (p < 0.001) and PCSn, PCSu and PCSm (p < 0.001), compared with the control. When VSMC were treated with the NF-κB p65 inhibitor plus PCu and PCm, there was a significant decrease in MCP-1 production (p < 0.005). This effect was not observed with PCS. Conclusions: VSMC are involved in atherosclerosis lesion formation and production of MCP-1, which contributes to the inflammatory response initiation. Our results suggest that PC mediates MCP-1 production in VSMC, probably through NF-κB p65 pathway, although we hypothesize that PCS acts through a different subunit pathway since NF-κB p65 inhibitor was not able to inhibit MCP-1 production.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sulfuric Acid Esters/pharmacology , Chemokine CCL2/biosynthesis , Chemokine CCL2/drug effects , Cresols/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Transcription Factor RelA/physiology
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 373-381, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147352

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. Rutin is a major representative of the flavonol subclass of flavonoids and has various pharmacological activities. Currently, data are lacking regarding its effects on VSMC proliferation induced by intermittent hyperglycemia. Here, we demonstrate the effects of rutin on VSMC proliferation and migration according to fluctuating glucose levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary cultures of male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat VSMCs were obtained from enzymatically dissociated rat thoracic aortas. VSMCs were incubated for 72 h with alternating normal (5.5 mmol/L) and high (25.0 mmol/L) glucose media every 12 h. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs, the proliferative molecular pathway [including p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), p38 MAPK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and Akt], the migratory pathway (big MAPK 1, BMK1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptotic pathway were analyzed. RESULTS: We found enhanced proliferation and migration of VSMCs when cells were incubated in intermittent high glucose conditions, compared to normal glucose. These effects were lowered upon rutin treatment. Intermittent treatment with high glucose for 72 h increased the expression of phospho-p44/42 MAPK (extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, ERK1/2), phospho-MEK1/2, phospho-PI3K, phospho-NF-kappaB, phospho-BMK1, and ROS, compared to treatment with normal glucose. These effects were suppressed by rutin. Phospho-p38 MAPK, phospho-Akt, JNK, and apoptotic pathways [B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-xL, Bcl-2, phospho-Bad, and caspase-3] were not affected by fluctuations in glucose levels. CONCLUSION: Fluctuating glucose levels increased proliferation and migration of OLETF rat VSMCs via MAPK (ERK1/2), BMK1, PI3K, and NF-kappaB pathways. These effects were inhibited by the antioxidant rutin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , MAP Kinase Kinase 1 , Male , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Inbred OLETF , Rats, Long-Evans , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rutin/pharmacology , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
6.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(6): 450-456, nov.-dic. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-788102

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO:Investigar el patrón de distribución espacial de la tasa de homicidios y su relación con las características sociodemográficas en las delegaciones de Benito Juárez, Coyoacán y Cuauhtémoc de la Ciudad de México en el año 2010. MÉTODOS: Estudio inferencial de corte transversal que usa métodos de análisis espacial para estudiar la asociación espacial de la tasa de homicidios y las características demográficas. La asociación espacial fue determinada a través del cociente de localización, análisis de regresión múltiple y el uso de la regresión geográficamente ponderada. RESULTADOS: Los homicidios muestran un patrón de localización heterogéneo con altas tasas en zonas con uso del suelo no residencial, con baja densidad de población y baja marginación. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de herramientas de análisis espacial son instrumentos poderosos para el diseño de políticas de seguridad pública preventiva y recreativa que busquen reducir la mortalidad por causas externas como homicidios.


OBJECTIVE:Investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the homicide rate and its relation to sociodemographic features in the Benito Juárez, Coyoacán, and Cuauhtémoc districts of Mexico City in 2010. METHODS: Inferential cross-sectional study that uses spatial analysis methods to study the spatial association of the homicide rate and demographic features. Spatial association was determined through the location quotient, multiple regression analysis, and the use of geographically weighted regression. RESULTS: Homicides show a heterogeneous location pattern with high rates in areas with non-residential land use, low population density, and low marginalization. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial analysis tools are powerful instruments for the design of prevention- and recreation-focused public safety policies that aim to reduce mortality from external causes such as homicides.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Female , Humans , Male , Rats , Hypoxia/metabolism , Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Hypertension, Pulmonary/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Animals, Congenic , Hypoxia/genetics , Arterioles/metabolism , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Chronic Disease , Cation Transport Proteins/deficiency , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Chromosomes, Mammalian/genetics , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Homeostasis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/genetics , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Rats, Inbred WKY , Zinc/metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186437

ABSTRACT

Leptin is a peptide hormone, which has a central role in the regulation of body weight; it also exerts many potentially atherogenic effects. Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) has been approved for antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether FAEE can inhibit the atherogenic effects of leptin and the possible molecular mechanism of its action. Both of cell proliferation and migration were measured when the aortic smooth muscle cell (A10 cell) treated with leptin and/or FAEE. Phosphorylated p44/42MAPK, cell cycle-regulatory protein (for example, cyclin D1, p21, p27), beta-catenin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) proteins levels were also measured. Results demonstrated that leptin (10, 100 ng ml-1) significantly increased the proliferation of cells and the phosphorylation of p44/42MAPK in A10 cells. The proliferative effect of leptin was significantly reduced by the pretreatment of U0126 (0.5 muM), a MEK inhibitor, in A10 cells. Meanwhile, leptin significantly increased the protein expression of cyclin D1, p21, beta-catenin and decreased the expression of p27 in A10 cells. In addition, leptin (10 ng ml-1) significantly increased the migration of A10 cells and the expression of MMP-9 protein. Above effects of leptin were significantly reduced by the pretreatment of FAEE (1 and 10 muM) in A10 cells. In conclusion, FAEE exerts multiple effects on leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration, including the inhibition of p44/42MAPK phosphorylation, cell cycle-regulatory proteins and MMP-9, thereby suggesting that FAEE may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of obese vascular disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aorta/cytology , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Leptin/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , Rats , beta Catenin/metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57306

ABSTRACT

Scoparone, which is a major constituent of Artemisia capillaries, has been identified as an anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, vasorelaxant, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drug, and it is used for the traditional treatment of neonatal jaundice. Therefore, we hypothesized that scoparone could suppress the proliferation of VSMCs by interfering with STAT3 signaling. We found that the proliferation of these cells was significantly attenuated by scoparone in a dose-dependent manner. Scoparone markedly reduced the serum-stimulated accumulation of cells in the S phase and concomitantly increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase, which was consistent with the reduced expression of cyclin D1, phosphorylated Rb and survivin in the VSMCs. Cell adhesion markers, such as MCP-1 and ICAM-1, were significantly reduced by scoparone. Interestingly, this compound attenuated the increase in cyclin D promoter activity by inhibiting the activities of both the WT and active forms of STAT3. Similarly, the expression of a cell proliferation marker induced by PDGF was decreased by scoparone with no change in the phosphorylation of JAK2 or Src. On the basis of the immunofluorescence staining results, STAT3 proteins phosphorylated by PDGF were predominantly localized to the nucleus and were markedly reduced in the scoparone-treated cells. In summary, scoparone blocks the accumulation of STAT3 transported from the cytosol to the nucleus, leading to the suppression of VSMC proliferation through G1 phase arrest and the inhibition of Rb phosphorylation. This activity occurs independent of the form of STAT3 and upstream of kinases, such as Jak and Src, which are correlated with abnormal vascular remodeling due to the presence of an excess of growth factors following vascular injury. These data provide convincing evidence that scoparone may be a new preventative agent for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Animals , Biomarkers , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Coumarins/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis/metabolism , Rats , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transcription, Genetic
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30206

ABSTRACT

Elevated plasma concentration of native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) is associated with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the mechanisms of superoxide generation and its contribution to pathophysiological cell proliferation in response to nLDL stimulation. Lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence was used to measure nLDL-induced superoxide production in human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs). Superoxide production was increased by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and decreased by NADPH oxidase inhibitors in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMC and hAoSMC homogenates, as well as in prepared membrane fractions. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), protein kinase C-theta (PKCtheta) and protein kinase C-beta (PKCbeta) were phosphorylated and maximally activated within 3 min of nLDL stimulation. Phosphorylated Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase, PKCtheta and PKCbeta stimulated interactions between p47phox and p22phox; these interactions were prevented by MEK and PKC inhibitors (PD98059 and calphostin C, respectively). These inhibitors decreased nLDL-dependent superoxide production and blocked translocation of p47phox to the membrane, as shown by epifluorescence imaging and cellular fractionation experiments. Proliferation assays showed that a small interfering RNA against p47phox, as well as superoxide scavenger and NADPH oxidase inhibitors, blocked nLDL-induced hAoSMC proliferation. The nLDL stimulation in deendothelialized aortic rings from C57BL/6J mice increased dihydroethidine fluorescence and induced p47phox translocation that was blocked by PD98059 or calphostin C. Isolated aortic SMCs from p47phox-/- mice (mAoSMCs) did not respond to nLDL stimulation. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was responsible for superoxide generation and cell proliferation in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMCs. These data demonstrated that NADPH oxidase activation contributed to cell proliferation in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/cytology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxides/metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50918

ABSTRACT

In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-gamma1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-gamma1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-gamma1 silencing. Increased PLC-gamma1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-gamma1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca2+]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-gamma1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-alpha activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-gamma1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-gamma1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia-ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca2+]i and induced PKC-alpha activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-gamma1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Adult , Apoptosis , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Collagen Type I/analysis , Female , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Phospholipase C gamma/genetics , Pre-Eclampsia/blood , Pregnancy , Protein Kinase C-alpha/metabolism , RNA Interference , Signal Transduction , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83998

ABSTRACT

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is a neurotransmitter that regulates a variety of functions in the nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Despite such importance, 5-HT signaling pathways are not entirely clear. We demonstrated previously that 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels determine the resting membrane potential of arterial smooth muscle cells and that the Kv channels are inhibited by 5-HT, which depolarizes the membranes. Therefore, we hypothesized that 5-HT contracts arteries by inhibiting Kv channels. Here we studied 5-HT signaling and the detailed role of Kv currents in rat mesenteric arteries using patch-clamp and isometric tension measurements. Our data showed that inhibiting 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels contracted arterial rings, whereas inhibiting Ca2+-activated K+, inward rectifier K+ and ATP-sensitive K+ channels had little effect on arterial contraction, indicating a central role of Kv channels in the regulation of resting arterial tone. 5-HT-induced arterial contraction decreased significantly in the presence of high KCl or the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) inhibitor nifedipine, indicating that membrane depolarization and the consequent activation of VGCCs mediate the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction. The effects of 5-HT on Kv currents and arterial contraction were markedly prevented by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists ketanserin and spiperone. Consistently, alpha-methyl 5-HT, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, mimicked the 5-HT action on Kv channels. Pretreatment with a Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, prevented both the 5-HT-mediated vasoconstriction and Kv current inhibition. Our data suggest that 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels are the primary regulator of the resting tone in rat mesenteric arteries. 5-HT constricts the arteries by inhibiting Kv channels via the 5-HT2A receptor and Src tyrosine kinase pathway.


Subject(s)
4-Aminopyridine/pharmacology , Action Potentials , Animals , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Ketanserin/pharmacology , Male , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Nifedipine/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A/metabolism , Serotonin/pharmacology , Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Spiperone/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction , src-Family Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210924

ABSTRACT

The balance between tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates fibrinolysis. PAI-1 expression increases in atherosclerotic arteries and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are one of major constituents of atheroma. We investigated the impact of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), an active component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, on the plasminogen activator system of the rat VSMCs. The lysoPC stimulated the protein and gene expressions of PAI-1 but did not affect the protein expression of t-PA. Fibrin overlay zymography revealed that lysoPC increased the activity of PAI-1 in the conditioned media, while concurrently decreasing that of free t-PA. Vitamin E inhibited the lysoPC-induced PAI-1 expression. Further, lysoPC increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, blocked this lysoPC effect. Indeed, lysoPC induced the NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional activity as measured by luciferase reporter assay. In addition, genistein, an inhibitor of protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK), diminished the lysoPC effect, while 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, a stimulator of PTK, stimulated PAI-1 production. In conclusion, lysoPC does not affect t-PA expression but induces PAI-1 expression in the VSMC by mediating NF-kappaB and the genistein-sensitive PTK signaling pathways via oxidative stress. Importantly, lysoPC stimulates the enzyme activity of PAI-1 and suppresses that of t-PA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benz(a)Anthracenes/pharmacology , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Genistein/pharmacology , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Lysophosphatidylcholines/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/agonists , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186639

ABSTRACT

We previously reported the successful establishment of embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like multipotent spermatogonial stem cells (mSSCs) from neonatal mouse testis. Here, we examined the ability of mSSCs to differentiate into vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and compared to that of mouse ESCs. We used real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to examine gene expression profiles of mSSCs and ESCs during in vitro vascular differentiation. Both mSSCs and ESCs exhibited substantial increase in the expression of mesodermal markers, such as Brachyury, Flk1, Mesp1, Nkx2.5, and Islet1, and a decrease in the expression of pluripotency markers, such as Oct3/4 and Nanog during the early stage of differentiation. The mRNA levels of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and CD31 gradually increased in both differentiated mSSCs and ESCs. VE-cadherin- or CD31-positive cells formed sprouting branch-like structures, as observed during embryonic vascular development. At the same time, vascular smooth muscle cell-specific markers, such as myocardin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), were also highly expressed in differentiated mSSCs and ESCs. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the differentiated cells expressed both alpha-SMA and SM22-alpha proteins, and exhibited the intracellular fibril structure typical of smooth muscle cells. Overall, our findings showed that mSSCs have similar vascular differentiation abilities to those of ESCs, suggesting that mSSCs may be an alternative source of autologous pluripotent stem cells for vascular regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spermatogonia/cytology , Testis/cytology
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 842-848, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93569

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pulmonary Kv channels are thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that fluoxetine upregulated the expression of Kv1.5 and prevented pulmonary arterial hypertension in monocrotaline-induced or hypoxia-induced rats and mice. The current study was designed to test how fluoxetine regulates Kv1.5 channels, subsequently promoting apoptosis in human PASMCs cultured in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human PASMCs were incubated with low-serum DMEM, ET-1, and fluoxetine with and without ET-1 separately for 72 h. Then the proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of TRPC1 and Kv1.5 were detected. RESULTS: In the ET-1 induced group, the upregulation of TRPC1 and down regulation of Kv1.5 enhanced proliferation and anti-apoptosis, which was reversed when treated with fluoxetine. The decreased expression of TRPC1 increased the expression of Kv1.5, subsequently inhibiting proliferation while promoting apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The results from the present study suggested that fluoxetine protects against big endothelin-1 induced anti-apoptosis and rescues Kv1.5 channels in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, potentially by decreasing intracellular concentrations of Ca2+.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Endothelin-1/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Humans , /genetics , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Pulmonary Artery/cytology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190966

ABSTRACT

Recent epidemiologic studies clearly showed that early intensive glucose control has a legacy effect for preventing diabetic macrovascular complications. However, the cellular and molecular processes by which high glucose leads to macrovascular complications are poorly understood. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction due to high glucose is a characteristic of diabetic vascular complications. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) may play a key role in the regulation of inflammation and proliferation of VSMCs. We examined whether VSMC proliferation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression induced by high glucose were mediated by NF-kappaB activation. Also, we determined whether selective inhibition of NF-kappaB would inhibit proliferation and PAI-1 expression in VSMCs. VSMCs of the aorta of male SD rats were treated with various concentrations of glucose (5.6, 11.1, 16.7, and 22.2 mM) with or without an inhibitor of NF-kappaB or expression of a recombinant adenovirus vector encoding an IkappaB-alpha mutant (Ad-IkappaBalphaM). VSMC proliferation was examined using an MTT assay. PAI-1 expression was assayed by real-time PCR and PAI-1 protein in the media was measured by ELISA. NF-kappaB activation was determined by immunohistochemical staining, NF-kappaB reporter assay, and immunoblotting. We found that glucose stimulated VSMC proliferation and PAI-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner up to 22.2 mM. High glucose (22.2 mM) alone induced an increase in NF-kappaB activity. Treatment with inhibitors of NF-kappaB such as MG132, PDTC or expression of Ad-IkappaB-alphaM in VSMCs prevented VSMC proliferation and PAI-1 expression induced by high glucose. In conclusion, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity prevented high glucose-induced VSMC proliferation and PAI-1 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/cytology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Diabetes Complications/prevention & control , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose/immunology , Leupeptins/pharmacology , Male , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/genetics , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Thiocarbamates/pharmacology
16.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. 108 f p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756636

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares representam a principal causa de morte nos países ocidentais. Dentre essas doenças, a aterosclerose é que mais se destaca, sendo caracterizada pelo acúmulo de células musculares lisas vasculares (CMLV). O efeito patológico das CMLV em resposta a diferentes estímulos pode acarretar em disfunções nestas células. É notável que a aterosclerose ocorra principalmente em vasos sinuosos onde ocorre um forte turbilhonamento do fluxo sanguíneo, que pode acarretar em hemólise e, consequentemente, acúmulo de heme livre. Além disso, no processo de aterogênese as moléculas de adesão, principalmente integrinas, são de crucial importância durante a resposta de CMLV. Nesse trabalho nosso objetivo inicial foi avaliar o efeito do heme livre nas funções de CMLV, bem como os mecanismos moleculares por trás desses efeitos. Em uma segunda parte, investigamos o envolvimento da integrina α1ß1 no efeito da Angiotensina II (Ang II) em CMLV. Nós observamos que o heme livre é capaz de induzir a proliferação e migração de CMLV via espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO) provenientes da NADPHoxidase (NADPHox). Adicionalmente vimos que o heme ativa vias de sinalização redox-sensíveis relacionadas à proliferação celular, como MAPKinases e o fator de transcrição NFκB. Também observamos que há uma ligação entre a NADPHox e o sistema heme oxigenase (HO), uma vez que o heme induz a expressão de HO-1 e o pré-tratamento das CMLV com inibidores de HO levam ao aumento tanto o efeito proliferação quanto a indução de ERO promovidas pelo heme. Além disso, vimos que o efeito contra-regulatório promovido pela HO ocorre devido as metabolites do heme: biliverdina, bilirrubina e monóxido de carbono. Por último, quando bloqueamos tanto a NADPHox quanto o sistema HO o heme não teve efeito algum na proliferação de CMLV...


Cardiovascular diseases represent the major mortality reason in western countries. Among these diseases, atherosclerosis is the most prominent one, which is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) accumulation. The pathological effect of VSMC in response to different stimuli is able to induce VSMC dysfunctions. Notably, this cardiovascular disease occurs mainly in sinuous vessels with turbulent blood flow, which may lead to hemolysis and consequent free heme accumulation. Furthermore, in atherogenesis the adhesion molecule, mainly integrins, were of crucial importance during the VSMC response. In this work our aim was to elucidate the effect of free heme in VSMC, as well the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. In a second part, we investigated the role of α1ß1 integrin in Angiotensin II (Ang II) effect on VSMC. We observed that free heme is able to induce VSMC proliferation in a Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) derived from NADPHoxidase (NADPHox) dependent manner. Additionally, heme activates proliferation-relationed redox-sensitive signaling routes, such as MAPKinases and the transcription factor NFκB. It was also observed a critical crosstalk between NADPHox and heme oxygenase (HO) system, once heme induces HO-1 expression and VSMC pretreatment with HO inhibitors increased heme proliferative effect and ROS production. Accordingly, we observed that the counter-regulatory effect promoted by HO occurs due heme metabolites: biliverdin, bilirubin and carbon monoxide. Finally, when both NADPHox and HO system were blocked, heme had no effect on VSMC proliferation...


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Heme , Homeostasis , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/physiopathology , NADP , Antigenic Modulation , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Integrins/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 413-419, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95679

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Stimulation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs) with native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) induced the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) that is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, the process of signal transduction of nLDL was currently uncharacterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the signal transduction pathway of nLDL-dependent IL-8 production and the effect of IL-8 on hAoSMCs migration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: nLDL was prepared by ultracentrifugation with density-adjusted human serum of normocholesterolemia. In hAoSMCs, IL-8 secreted to medium was measured using ELISA assay, and Western blot analysis was performed to detect p38 MAPK activation as a key regulator of IL-8 production. nLDL-dependent H2O2 generation was determined by microscopic analysis using 2',7'-dichlorofluoroscein diacetate (DCF-DA). IL-8-induced migration of hAoSMCs was evaluated by counting the cell numbers moved to lower chamber using Transwell plates. RESULTS: nLDL-induced IL-8 production was completely blocked by preincubation of hAoSMCs with pertussis toxin (PTX), which inhibited nLDL-dependent p38 MAPK phosphorylation. PTX-sensitive G-protein coupled receptor was responsible for nLDL-dependent H2O2 generation that was abrogated with preincubation of the cells with of polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-Cat). Pretreatment of PEG-Cat prevented nLDL-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IL-8 production, which was partly mimicked by treatment with exogenous H2O2. Finally, IL-8 increased hAoSMCs migration that was completely blocked by incubation with IL-8 neutralizing antibody. CONCLUSION: PTX-sensitive G-protein coupled receptor-dependent H2O2 generation by nLDL plays a critical role in IL-8 production in hAoSMC, and IL-8 may contribute to atherogenesis through increased migration of hAoSMCs.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Interleukin-8/biosynthesis , Lipoproteins, LDL/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , Pertussis Toxin/pharmacology , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/physiology , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(1): 17-24, Jan. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-535634

ABSTRACT

We have demonstrated that a synthetic DNA enzyme targeting early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) can inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury. However, the detailed mechanism of this inhibition is not known. Thus, the objective of the present study was to further investigate potential inhibitory mechanisms. Catalytic DNA (ED5) and scrambled control DNA enzyme (ED5SCR) were synthesized and transfected into primary cultures of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis were analyzed by the MTT method and BrdU staining, respectively. Egr-1, TGF-â1, p53, p21, Bax, and cyclin D1 expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Apoptosis and cell cycle assays were performed by FACS. Green fluorescence could be seen localized in the cytoplasm of 70.6 ± 1.52 and 72 ± 2.73 percent VSMCs 24 h after transfection of FITC-labeled ED5 and ED5SCR, respectively. We found that transfection with ED5 significantly inhibited cultured VSMC proliferation in vitro after 24, 48, and 72 h of serum stimulation, and also effectively decreased the uptake of BrdU by VSMC. ED5 specifically reduced serum-induced Egr-1 expression in VSMCs, further down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1 and TGF-â1, and arrested the cells at G0/G1, inhibiting entry into the S phase. FACS analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in the rate of apoptosis between ED5- and ED5SCR-transfected cells. Thus, ED5 can specifically inhibit Egr-1 expression, and probably inhibits VSMC proliferation by down-regulating the expressions of cyclin D1 and TGF-â1. However, ED5 has no effect on VSMC apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D1/metabolism , Early Growth Response Protein 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Apoptosis/physiology , Blotting, Western , Catalytic Domain/physiology , Cyclin D1/physiology , DNA , Down-Regulation/physiology , Hyperplasia/prevention & control , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tunica Intima/pathology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104282

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II is a major effector molecule in the development of cardiovascular disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II promotes cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation through the upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression. Previously, we demonstrated that small heterodimer partner (SHP) represses PAI-1 expression in the liver through the inhibition of TGF-beta signaling pathways. Here, we investigated whether SHP inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated PAI-1 expression in VSMCs. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SHP (Ad-SHP) in VSMCs inhibited angiotensin II- and TGF-beta-stimulated PAI-1 expression. Ad-SHP also inhibited angiotensin II-, TGF-beta- and Smad3-stimulated PAI-1 promoter activity, and angiotensin II-stimulated AP-1 activity. The level of PAI-1 expression was significantly higher in VSMCs of SHP-/- mice than wild type mice. Moreover, loss of SHP increased PAI-1 mRNA expression after angiotensin II treatment. These results suggest that SHP inhibits PAI-1 expression in VSMCs through the suppression of TGF-beta/Smad3 and AP-1 activity. Thus, agents that target the induction of SHP expression in VSMCs might help prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Animals , Blotting, Northern , Cells, Cultured , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Rats , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Smad3 Protein/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(9): 844-853, Sept. 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-524316

ABSTRACT

Multiple cell membrane alterations have been reported to be the cause of various forms of hypertension. The present study focuses on the lipid portion of the membranes, characterizing the microviscosity of membranes reconstituted with lipids extracted from the aorta and mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive control rat strains (WKY and NWR). Membrane-incorporated phospholipid spin labels were used to monitor the bilayer structure at different depths. The packing of lipids extracted from both aorta and mesenteric arteries of normotensive and hypertensive rats was similar. Lipid extract analysis showed similar phospholipid composition for all membranes. However, cholesterol content was lower in SHR arteries than in normotensive animal arteries. These findings contrast with the fact that the SHR aorta is hyporeactive while the SHR mesenteric artery is hyperreactive to vasopressor agents when compared to the vessels of normotensive animal strains. Hence, factors other than microviscosity of bulk lipids contribute to the vascular smooth muscle reactivity and hypertension of SHR. The excess cholesterol in the arteries of normotensive animal strains apparently is not dissolved in bulk lipids and is not directly related to vascular reactivity since it is present in both the aorta and mesenteric arteries. The lower cholesterol concentrations in SHR arteries may in fact result from metabolic differences due to the hypertensive state or to genes that co-segregate with those that determine hypertension during the process of strain selection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/chemistry , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cholesterol/analysis , Hypertension/metabolism , Mesenteric Arteries/chemistry , Phospholipids/analysis , Cholesterol/chemistry , Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hypertension/etiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/chemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Phospholipids/chemistry , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY
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