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2.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 377-381, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346260

ABSTRACT

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematological malignancies characterized by dysplasias, ineffective hematopoiesis and risk of acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Approximately 90% of MDS patients present mutations in genes involved in various cell signaling pathways. Specialized DNA polymerases, such as POLN, POLI, POLK, POLQ, POLH, POLL and REV3L, insert a nucleotide opposite replication-blocking DNA lesions in an error-prone manner and, in this way, sometimes can actively promote the generation of mutation. For the best of our knowledge, has not been described the mutations of these genes in MDS. DNA target sequencing CDS regions of the REV3L gene was performed in a 58-year-old man diagnosed as High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome. The patient presented very low hemoglobin, increased number of blasts, karyotype:47,XY,+8[6]/47,XY,del(7)(q32),+8[7], no response to hypomethylating therapy (decitabine), all markers of poor prognosis. Target sequencing identified a mutation c.9253-6T>C REV3L (Substitution - intronic) with VAF (variant allele frequency) = 16% considered pathogenic according to Functional Analysis through. Hidden Markov Models (FATHMM). This is the first evidence of REV3L mutation in MDS and, of utmost importance, associated with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Prognosis
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 438-451, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346482

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones fúngicas invasoras (IFI) constituyen una de las principales complicaciones infecciosas en pacientes oncohematológicos y con trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH), ocasionando alta morbimortalidad e incrementando significativamente los costos de atención y la estadía hos pitalaria. La epidemiología de las IFI ha cambiado en las últimas décadas, siendo los hongos filamentosos, particularmente Aspergillus spp., los principales agentes etiológicos. Existen múltiples factores de riesgo para una IFI; pero la neutropenia profunda y prolongada, y la inmunodeficiencia celular severa siguen siendo los más importantes. Por este motivo, la población de mayor riesgo la constituyen los pacientes con leucemias agudas, mielodisplasias y TCPH alogénicos con enfermedad injerto contra huésped (EICH), en tratamiento con corticoides. Numerosos ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y metaanálisis han demostrado que la profilaxis antifúngica primaria (PAF) reduce significativamente la incidencia de IFI, tanto de aquellas causadas por Candida spp. como por Aspergillus spp., la mortalidad relacionada a IFI y la mortalidad global en algunos grupos de pacientes. Asimismo, en enfermos de alto riesgo, en donde se espera una incidencia de IFI elevada, es una estrategia costo-efectiva. Varios antifúngicos han demostrado beneficio clínico y pueden utilizarse como estrategia de PAF en diferentes escenarios, presentando ventajas y desventajas que deben ser tenidas en cuenta al momento de indicar una PAF. Para esto, sociedades científicas nacionales e internacionales, han emitido recomendaciones de indicación de PAF. Se analizan los aspectos relacionados con la eficacia clínica de los diferentes antifúngicos según la población de riesgo, las potenciales desventajas, momento y forma de administración.


Abstract Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are among the main infectious complications in patients with hema tological malignancies and with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), causing high morbidity and mortality and significantly increasing the healthcare cost and hospital stay. The epidemiology of IFIs has changed in recent decades, with filamentous fungi, particularly Aspergillus spp., being the main etiological agents. There are multiple risk factors for having an IFI; however, the most important are profound and prolonged neutropenia and severe cellular immunodeficiency. For this reason, the population at greatest risk is made up of patients with acute leukemias, myelodysplasias and allogeneic HSCT with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) treated with cortico steroids. Numerous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that primary antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) significantly reduces the incidence of IFI, particularly those caused by Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., IFI-related mortality, and overall mortality in some group of patients. Likewise, in high-risk patients, where a high incidence of IFI is expected, it is a cost-effective strategy. Several antifungals have demonstrated clinical benefit. They can be used as a AFP strategy in different settings, presenting advantages and disadvantages that must be taken into account in each case. For this, national and international scientific societies have issued recom mendations for the indication of AFP. Aspects related to the different antifungals' clinical efficacy are analyzed considering the population at risk, the potential disadvantages, timing, and form of administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(1): 35-42, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154289

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematological diseases. In addition to defects in hematologic progenitor and stem cells, dysfunctions in the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) participate in the MDS pathogenesis. Furthermore, the immune response is deregulated by the pro-inflammatory response prevailing in low-risk MDS, while immunosuppression predominates in high-risk MDS. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), part of the BMM, are characterized by plastic adherent growth and multipotentiality. They exhibit immunomodulatory properties and sustain hematopoiesis. There is conflicting evidence regarding their status in MDS. The aim of this study was to characterize MDS-MSC and evaluate the effect of 5-Azacytidine. Methods: The MSC from MDS patients and controls were cultured and characterized according to the International Society of Cell Therapy recommendations. Immunomodulatory properties were assessed by studying the MSD cytokine production, using the cytometric bead array. We evaluated the effect of 5-Azacytidine on the MSC cytokine production. Results: We included 35 MDS patients and 22 controls. The MSC from patients and controls were cultured and characterized. The MSC from patients showed morphological differences, but there were no differences in immunophenotype or multipotentiality. The interleukin 6 (IL-6) was the main MSC secreted cytokine. The MDS-MSC produced higher levels of IL-6, IL-17, interferon gamma, or interferon γ (INF-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The in vitro 5-Azacytidine treatment induced a significant decrease in the IL-6 production by MDS-MSC. Conclusions: The MDS-MSC show an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The in vitro treatment with 5-Azacytidine lead to a significant reduction in the IL-6 production by the MDS-MSC, restoring the IL-6 levels to those found in controls. The MSC produced inflammatory cytokines involved in the MDS pathogenesis, representing a potential future therapeutic target. Moreover, 5-Azacytidine may have a stromal effect, modulating the immune response in MDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Azacitidine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Interleukin-6 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cytokines , Immunity
6.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1310, ene.-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251720

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los síndromes mielodisplásicos constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de desórdenes hematológicos clonales adquiridos, que afectan la célula madre. Se caracterizan morfológicamente por: hematopoyesis ineficaz, citopenias periféricas progresivas, displasia en uno o más linajes celulares y tendencia evolutiva a leucemia aguda. Los avances recientes en la comprensión de los mecanismos genéticos y moleculares de los síndromes mielodisplásicos, han revelado la asociación entre alteraciones inmunológicas y las mutaciones recurrentes. Las células de la respuesta inmune innata y adaptativa, así como diversos mediadores solubles liberados por ellas, pueden establecer una respuesta antitumoral protectora o, por el contrario, inducir eventos de inflamación crónica que favorezcan la promoción y progresión de esta enfermedad. Objetivos: Resumir los conocimientos actuales de la relación sistema inmune-síndromes mielodisplásicos, enfatizando en las células inmunes del microambiente de la médula ósea y su importancia en la clínica de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se realizó investigación bibliográfica-documental acerca del tema. Se consultaron las bases de datos Scielo y Pubmed. Conclusiones: La comprensión de la función dual que ejerce el sistema inmune en los síndromes mielodisplásicos, constituye un desafío y son necesarios estudios clínicos rigurosos para poder establecer el valor de la manipulación del sistema inmune como una forma posible de tratamiento de esta enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) constitute a heterogeneous group of acquired clonal hematological disorders that affect the stem cell. These are characterized morphologically and clinically by: ineffective hematopoiesis, progressive peripheral cytopenia, dysplasia in one or more cell lineages, in most of cases and evolutionary tendency to acute leukemia. Recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms of MDS have revealed the association between immunological alterations and recurrent mutations. Cells of the innate and adaptive immune response, as well as various soluble mediators released by them, can establish a protective antitumor response or, on the contrary, induce events of chronic inflammation that favor the promotion and progression of this disease. Objective: To summarize the current knowledge of the immune system-MDS relationship, emphasizing the immune cells of the bone marrow microenvironment and their importance in the clinic of the disease. Methods: A bibliographic-documentary research was carried out on the subject. The Scielo and Pubmed databases were consulted. Conclusions: Understanding the dual role of the immune system in MDS constitutes a challenge and rigorous clinical studies are necessary to establish the value of manipulating the immune system as a possible form of treatment of this disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Stem Cells , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/complications , Leukemia , Adaptive Immunity , Hematopoiesis/genetics , Immune System/physiopathology , Inflammation/diagnosis
7.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 26-30, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178336

ABSTRACT

El pioderma gangrenoso ampollar es una variedad infrecuente de pioderma gangrenoso, que se asocia en el 50-70% de los casos con trastornos oncohematológicos. Se comunica el caso de una paciente de 59 años, que consultó por fiebre y ampollas purpúricas de rápida progresión, con compromiso cutáneo mucoso. Con sospecha de una enfermedad neutrofílica, ampollar, o infección por gérmenes oportunistas, se realizó biopsia de piel para estudio histopatológico, inmunofluorescencia directa y cultivo. Los cultivos y la inmunofluorescencia directa fueron negativos, y la anatomía patológica reveló un denso infiltrado inflamatorio con predominio neutrofílico en dermis. Ante el diagnóstico de pioderma gangrenoso ampollar, se realizó una punción-aspiración de médula ósea cuyo resultado fue compatible con leucemia mieloide aguda. Se instauró tratamiento con corticosteroides sistémicos, a pesar de lo cual la paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente y falleció a los 15 días de su ingreso hospitalario. Este caso ilustra la asociación de esta enfermedad cutánea con trastornos oncohematológicos y el mal pronóstico que esto implica a corto plazo. (AU)


Bullous pyoderma gangrenosum is an infrequent type of pyoderma gangrenosum, associated with onco hematological diseases in 50-70% of cases. We present the case of a 59-year-old patient with fever and mucocutaneous hemorrhagic bullous of rapid progression. A biopsy for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and skin culture was made, considering the possibility of neutrophilic dermatoses, bullous dermatosis or an opportunistic infection. The results of both the culture and the DIF were negative. The histopathological examination of the specimen revealed a dense dermal polymorphic infiltrate composed primarily of neutrophils. Considering bullous pyoderma gangrenosum as a potential diagnosis, a bone-marrow biopsy was performed. This study revealed an acute myeloid leukemia. Although systemic corticosteroid therapy was begun, the patient presented an unfavorable evolution that led to her death 15 days after her admission at the hospital. This case shows the association between bullous pyoderma gangrenosum and onco hematological diseases. In addition, it highlights the poor prognosis related to these diseases in the short term. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/diagnosis , Paraneoplastic Syndromes/pathology , Respiration, Artificial , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Acyclovir/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftazidime/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Imipenem/administration & dosage , Sweet Syndrome/etiology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/etiology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/pathology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Meropenem/administration & dosage
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1231-1235, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the diagnostic value of peripheral blood cell parameters for early recognition of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients.@*METHODS@#The clinical and laboratory data of 86 patients with MDS and 72 patients with non-malignant clonal anemia treated in first diagnosed in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017 was retrospectively analyzed. The peripheral blood cell parameters of the patients in two groups were analyzed, generated the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) from the statistically significant parameters, the binary logistic model was build to calculate and compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) combined with multiple indicators and individual indicators, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic accuracy, the diagnostic efficacy of the patients was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with patients in the non-malignant clonal anemia group ,white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil percentage (NE%), eosinophil percentage (E%), eosinophil absolute value (E#), platelet count (PLT), platelet specific volume (PCT%) in the MDS patients were significantly reduced; while percentage of lymphocytes (LY%), basophilic percentage (B%), and the width of platelet distribution (PDW) significantly increased. The several ROC curves with the above indicators were established, which showed that AUC@*CONCLUSION@#PDW, B% and LY% in peripheral blood cell parameters have certain diagnostic value for early recognition of MDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1224-1230, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the proliferation potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).@*METHODS@#The MSC derived from the 24 patients with newly diagnosed MDS (MDS-MSC group) and MSC derived from 15 patients with nutritional anemia (control group) in the Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University were used as the research objects. The proliferation potential of MSC was analyzed by colony-forming unit assay, doubling time, cumulative passaging, cell number after 10 days of culture with equal amount of MSC and MTT experiment. The mechanism of abnormal proliferation was analyzed by cell cycle experiment, apoptosis experiment and p21 gene expression assay.@*RESULTS@#In the colony forming unit assay, the number of MDS-MSC colonies was 4.44±2.51, which was significantly lower than that of the control group (12.44±2.55)(P<0.01); the doubling time of MDS-MSC group was significantly longer than that of the control group (7.80±3.26 vs 3.63±0.85) (P<0.01); the number of MDS-MSC in 5×10@*CONCLUSION@#The proliferative capability of MDS-MSC is significantly reduced, which relates with the arrest of cell cycle in G


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Bone Marrow Cells , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features and prognosis of childhood acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 14 children who were diagnosed with AML-MRC from June 2014 to March 2020, including clinical features, laboratory examination results, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#Among the 14 children with AML-MRC, there were 9 boys and 5 girls, with a median age of 11 years (range: 1-17 years), a median leukocyte count of 8.3×10@*CONCLUSIONS@#Childhood AML-MRC is often observed in boys, and AML-M5 is the most common type based on FAB classification. Such children tend to have a poor prognosis. HSCT is expected to improve the poor prognosis of children with AML-MRC. However due to the small number of cases, it is necessary to increase the number of cases for further observation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Male , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1851-1857, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid single or combination of decitabine on tumor cells of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and explore its related mechanism.@*METHODS@#The human MDS cell lines SKM-1 and MUTZ-1 were treated with different concentrations of ascorbic acid, and the cell proliferation activity was detected by the CCK-8 assay. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, labile iron pool (LIP), cell cycle, and apoptosis of SKM-1 and MUTZ-1 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The control group, ascorbic acid monotherapy group, decitabine monotherapy group, and combination group of ascorbic acid and decitabine were set up, the cell proliferation activity and apoptosis were detected in each group.@*RESULTS@#High-dose ascorbic acid could reduce the cell proliferation activity of SKM-1 (R=0.886, p=0.000) and MUTZ-1 (R=0.880, p=0.000). With the increase of ascorbic acid concentration, the ROS level in SKM-1 and MUTZ-1 cells increased (r=0.816, r=0.942), the proportion of cells stagnation in G@*CONCLUSION@#High-dose ascorbic acid shows a cytotoxic effect on MDS tumor cells, inhibiting cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis. Ascorbic acid combined decitabine have a synergistic effect of anti-MDS tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Decitabine , Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1845-1850, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients treated by different doses of decitabine (DAC) and its safety.@*METHODS@#Thirty patients with high-risk MDS were all treated by demethylation drug DAC. According to the doses of DAC, 30 patients were divided into 10-day regimen [6 mg/(m@*RESULTS@#The patients were followed up to May 2020, in the 10-day regimen group, 10 cases achieved complete remission (CR), 3 cases achieved partial remission (PR), and 2 cases were progressive disease (PD). Four cases died, including 1 case for heart failure, 2 cases for respiratory failure and 1 case for serious infection. In the 5-day regimen group, 11 cases achieved CR, 1 case achieved PR, 3 cases were PD. Five cases died, including 2 cases for heart failure and 3 for serious infection. The CR rate and ORR of the patients in the two groups were 66.67% vs 73.33%, 86.67% vs 80.00%, respectively, which showed no significant differences, and the efficacy also showed no significant difference. After treatment, the levels of WBC, NE, Hb and PLT of the patients in 10-day regimen group were higher than those in 5-day regimen. In the 10-day regimen group, there were 11 cases of pneumonia, 2 cases of bacteremia, 1 case of skin infection and 1 case of urinary tract infection. While in the 5-day regimen group, 13 cases of pneumonia, 5 cases bacteremia, 1 case of skin infection and 3 cases of urinary tract infection. There were 2 cases with mild gastrointestinal response in the 10-day regimen group, and 7 cases with obvious nausea and anorexia in the 5-day regimen group. The symptoms were relieved after the treatment of acid suppression, stomach protection and antiemetic. The liver, kidney and heart function were monitored. One case liver function damage and 2 cases cardiac insufficiency were observed in the 10-day regimen group. Seven cases regimen cardiac insufficiency and 4 cases regimen liver function damage were observed in the 5-day regimen group.@*CONCLUSION@#10-day regimen and 5-day regimen are equally effective, but 10-day regimen is less myelosuppressive and more safer, which can be applied in clinical.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1757-1762, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) based on morphology define.@*METHODS@#A total of 180 newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed, and marrow cell morphology of 126 patients were re-evaluated. The clinical and cytogenetic characteristics, including ages, sex, WBC count, HGB level, PLT count, blasts percentage, abnormal karyotype detection rate of the patients in AML with multilineage dysplasia (AML-MRC-1), secondary AML from myelodysplastic/ myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) (AML-MRC-2), and AML not otherwise specified (AML-NOS) groups were investigated.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant differences between the patients in three groups in terms of sex, age and platelet count (P=0.898, P=0.365, P=0.853), but AML-MRC-2 group (73.2%) was higher than AML-MRC-1 (60.0%) and AML-NOS (56.4%) in the percentages of patients over 60 years old (P=0.228); there were statistically significant differences on WBC count, HGB level, and blasts percentage (P=0.000, P=0.022, P=0.000, AML-MRC-2

Subject(s)
Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Middle Aged , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Retrospective Studies
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1528-1532, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with chromosome 21 karyotype abnormality.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 155 patients with MDS were retrospectively analyzed, the clinical characteristics, survival and factors affecting prognosis of chromosome 21 karyotype abnormality patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among 155 MDS patients, 4 were 5q- syndrome, 41 were MDS-EB-I, 35 were MDS-EB-II, 27 were MDS-SLD, 46 were MDS-MLD, 1 was MDS-RS-SLD, and 1 was MDS-U. The median follow-up time was 11.0(0.1-120.9) months. Among 155 MDS patients, 13 (9.0%) showed chromosome 21 abnormalities. Among the 13 patients with chromosome 21 karyotype abnormalities, there were 5 cases with simple +21 karyotype, 1 case with del (21q12), 1 case with +8, +21, 1 case with i(21q), 1 case with 20q-, +21, and 4 cases with complex karyotype involving chromosome 21; including 2 cases of MDS-SLD, 4 cases of MDS-MLD, 5 cases of MDS-EB-I and 2 cases of MDS-EB-II. The median survival time of the patients was 3.1 (0.1-6.7) months.@*CONCLUSION@#Chromosome 21 karyotype abnormality is rare in MDS, and the prognosis is worse than the patients without chromosome 21 abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 , Humans , Karyotype , Karyotyping , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Retrospective Studies
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1967-1971, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922233

ABSTRACT

Thalidomide and its derivatives have been used in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) because of their anti-angiogenic and immunomodulatory effects. In recent years, some studies have found that thalidomide and its derivatives not only showed significant efficacy in lower-risk MDS patients with del (5q), but also showed advantages in non-del (5q) MDS patients. In addition, the discovery of its molecular targets and new substrates makes it possible to develop a new generation of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and to design IMiDs-based proteolysis-targeting chimeras. In this review, the new progress in mechanism and clinical application of thalidomide and its derivatives were summarized briefly, so as to provide a more scientific, reasonable and effective scheme to the treatment of MDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Thalidomide/therapeutic use
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1923-1928, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the characteristics of platelet antibody in patients with hematological diseases, so as to research the effect of immunized platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) on the prognosis of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recepients with malignant hematological diseases patients.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of platelet antibody positive patients tested by Capture-P in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from July 1, 2014 to July 1, 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including sex, age, disease, platelet transfusion assessments, CD34@*RESULTS@#In 5 years, 913 (7.28%) hematologic patients with platelet antibody positive were identified, the detection rate of females (513 cases) were higher than males (400 cases). Among the 913 patients, the antibody positive rates of 520 patients with malignant hematological diseases (acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome) showed significantly statistical different (10.27%, 8.01%, and 7.20%) (P<0.01), and the positive rate of the acute myeloid leukemia of those patients was higher than myelodysplastic syndrome patients(α<0.0125). There were 35 cases diagnosed as immunized PTR before allo-HSCT, the platelet increments, 14 h correct count increment, progression-free survival rate and overall survival rate of those patients were significantly lower than those in negative transfusion effective patients (P<0.01), while the percentage of ABO matching was significantly higher (α<0.0125).@*CONCLUSION@#The positive rate of platelet antibody identification is high in females and acute myeloid leukemia patients, and immunized PTR caused by antibody is a risk factor for poor prognosis of allo-HSCT in malignant hematological disease patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Male , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Platelet Transfusion , Retrospective Studies
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1864-1868, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the characteristics of gene mutations in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and its prognostic significance.@*METHODS@#High-throughput sequencing was used to detect 34 blood tumor-related genes in 210 patients with MDS, and the relationship with the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) and the impact on prognosis of the patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 210 MDS patients, 142 cases (67.6%) showed mutations, and the first six genes with the highest mutation detection rate were ASXL1(20.5%), TET2(17.1%), U2AF1(14.3%), DNMT3A (11.9%), TP53(10.5%) and RUNX1(10.0%). The gene mutation rate of the patients in IPSS-R relatively high-risk group was higher than those in relatively low-risk group (P=0.001). Both TP53 and BCOR genes showed higher mutation rates in the higher risk group than in the lower risk group (P<0.05). Survival time of the patients in TP53 mutant group was lower than those in non-mutant group (P<0.001), survival time of patients in SF3B1 mutant group was higher than those in non-mutant group (P=0.018). According to the number of gene mutations, the patients could be divided into groups with 0-1, 2 and ≥3 gene mutations, and the median OS of the three groups were not reached, 43 and 27 months, respectively (P=0.004). The Multivariate analysis showed that the increasing number of gene mutations and TP53 mutation was the independent risk factors affecting prognosis of the patients, while SF3B1 mutation was the independent protective factor for the prognosis of the patients.@*CONCLUSION@#The gene mutation rate was higher in MDS patients. And the increasing numbers of gene mutation, TP53 and SF3B1 were the influence factors of prognosis in the patients.


Subject(s)
Genes, Regulator , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Prognosis
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1002-1006, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880183

ABSTRACT

Emerging data have demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in the progression of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Experiments in vitro have showed that MSCs derived from MDS patients (MDS-MSC) exhibit the biological characteristics of cell senescence. Although the underlying mechanisms that regulate cell senescence need to be further elucidated, existing researches indicate that the mechanisms of MDS-MSC senescence have significant heterogeneity. Depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in cell senescence of MDS-MSC are crucial to explore the potential therapeutic target of MDS. Therefore, this review summarizes research advances related with MSC senescence, such as MDS-MSC intrinsic changes in telomere shortening, DNA methylation status, oxidative stress and signal pathways regulating cell senescence in recent years.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Cellular Senescence , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with medium and high risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).@*METHODS@#97 MDS patients above the age of 60 treated in Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from February 2011 to August 2020 were enrolled. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of the MDS patients with medium risk, high risk or very high risk based on IPSS-R category were retrospectively analyzed. According to the difference of treatment regimes, the patients were divided into the transplantation group, chemotherapy group and other treatment group, and the efficacy among the patients in the 3 groups were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#MDS with excess blast (MDS-EB) in the elderly patients with medium and high risk MDS were the most common, 47.4% of the patients with abnormal chromosome karyotypes, and 23.7% with complex karyotypes (≥3). 97.3% of the patients showed at least one gene mutation, and TP53 mutations were detected in nearly 20% of the patients with medium and high risk. Multivariate analysis showed that IPSS-R category and treatment regimes were the factors affecting the prognosis of elderly patients with medium and high risk MDS. The median overall survival (OS) time of the patients in the 3 groups showed significant difference (P=0.012), and the median OS of the patients in the transplantation group was significantly longer than that in the chemotherapy group and other group (P=0.003,P=0.014,respectively), while there was no significant difference in median OS between chemotherapy group and other treatment group (P=0.685).@*CONCLUSION@#Elderly MDS patients with medium and high risk can benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which will prolong their OS.


Subject(s)
Aged , Chromosome Aberrations , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the quantitative expression of immunophenotype of CD34@*METHODS@#Multi-parameter flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the proportion and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of each antigen of bone marrow CD34@*RESULTS@#Bone marrow blast cell proportion (P<0.01), RBC level (P<0.01), and Hb level (P<0.05) of high-risk MDS patients were higher, while EPO level (P<0.05) was lower than those of low-risk patients. The proportion of CD34@*CONCLUSION@#The immunophenotype of CD34


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD34 , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
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