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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06672, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279529

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lumbar myelography on subarachnoid pressure, cardiorespiratory parameters and pressure-volume index in sheep. Eight sheep were evaluated. The animals were submitted to puncture of the cisterna magna for monitoring of subarachnoid pressure (SaP). Lumbar myelography was performed through applying Iohexol (0.4mL/kg). ToC, PAS, PAD, MAP, InspISO, FeISO, SaP and CPP were recorded immediately after anesthetic stabilization (M0), during lumbar puncture (M1), and two, four and six minutes after contrast application (M2, M3 and M4, respectively). Blood pressure initially increased, then decreased, returning to basal level, similarly observed for InspISo and FeISo. The SaP rose initially thereafter remaining stable. Despite of the effect on subarachnoid pressure, lumbar myelography can be considered safe in sheep.(AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos da mielografia lombar na pressão subaracnóidea, parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios e índice pressão-volume em ovinos. Oito ovelhas foram avaliadas. Os animais foram submetidos à punção da cisterna magna para monitoramento da pressão subaracnoidea (SaP). A mielografia lombar foi realizada com a aplicação de Iohexol (0,4mL/kg). Os momentos estudados foram: imediatamente após a estabilização anestésica (M0), durante a punção lombar (M1), dois, quatro e seis minutos após a aplicação do contraste (M2, M3 e M4, respectivamente), para avaliar as seguintes variáveis: ToC, PAS, PAD, MAP, InspISO, FeISO, Sap e CPP. A pressão arterial aumentou inicialmente, depois diminuiu, retornando aos valores iniciais, padrão também observado para o InspISo e o FeISo. O SaP subiu inicialmente, posteriormente, permanecendo estável. A mielografia lombar, apesar de influenciar a pressão subaracnoidea, pode ser considerada segura em ovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Blood Pressure , Sheep , Myelography/adverse effects , Intracranial Pressure , Lumbosacral Region
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(4): 222-226, DEZ 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361635

ABSTRACT

O mieloma múltiplo é uma neoplasia progressiva e incurável de células B, caracterizado pela proliferação desregulada e clonal de plasmócitos na medula óssea. A síndrome de hiperviscosidade é uma das complicações relacionadas às gamopatias monoclonais, sendo considerada emergência oncológica. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o quadro clínico de um paciente diagnosticado com mieloma múltiplo que apresentou síndrome de hiperviscosidade, avaliando a prevalência de sinais e sintomas, bem como características fisiopatológicas dessa entidade clínica. Foi revisado o prontuário de um paciente internado na enfermaria da Clínica Médica do Hospital Regional do Cariri (CE) no período de junho a julho de 2018. Além disso, foi realizada revisão de literatura em base de dados (PubMed®) direcionada ao tema proposto. O diagnóstico de mieloma múltiplo foi comprovado por mielograma, sendo prontamente iniciada a corticoterapia e avaliada a resposta clínica após essa terapêutica. Apesar de incomum e menos frequentemente relacionada ao mieloma múltiplo, a síndrome de hiperviscosidade está relacionada a uma grande taxa de mortalidade quando apresenta diagnóstico tardio. A terapia de primeira linha indicada para a síndrome de hiperviscosidade foi a plasmaferese, no entanto, as condições clínicas (instabilidade hemodinâmica) impossibilitaram sua realização. O desfecho deste caso foi o óbito do paciente. Concluiu-se que o diagnóstico precoce e a intervenção terapêutica estão diretamente relacionados à ocorrência de menor incidência de complicações relacionadas ao mieloma múltiplo e à síndrome de hiperviscosidade.


Multiple myeloma is a progressive and incurable B-cell neoplasm characterized by unregulated and clonal proliferation of plasmocytes in the bone marrow. Hyperviscosity syndrome is one of the complications related to monoclonal gammopathies and is considered an oncological emergency. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical condition of a patient diagnosed with multiple myeloma who presented hyperviscosity syndrome, evaluating the prevalence of symptoms and signs, as well as the pathophysiological characteristics of this clinical entity. The medical records of a patient admitted to the Internal Medicine ward of the Hospital Regional do Cariri (CE) from June to July of 2018 were reviewed. In addition, we conducted a literature review in a database (PubMed®) directed to the theme proposed. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was confirmed by myelogram, and corticosteroid therapy was promptly initiated and the clinical response was evaluated after this therapy. Although uncommon and less frequently related to multiple myeoloma, hyperviscosity syndrome is related to a high mortality rate when diagnosed late. The first line therapy indicated to hyperviscosity syndrome was plasmapheresis; however, the clinical conditions (hemodynamic instability) precluded its performance. The outcome of this case was the patient's death. Thus, it was concluded that early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention are directly related to the occurrence of lower incidence of complications related to multiple myeloma and hyperviscosity syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Viscosity , Melena/etiology , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/complications , Hypergammaglobulinemia/etiology , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Palliative Care , Blood Protein Electrophoresis , gamma-Globulins/analysis , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Myelography , Radiography , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , beta 2-Microglobulin/analysis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Fatal Outcome , Hypergammaglobulinemia/diagnosis , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology , Intestinal Perforation/etiology , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/surgery , Ischemia/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/blood , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1206-1212, July-Aug. 2020. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131485

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar em quais projeções foi possível identificar compressão da medula espinhal em cães com doença do disco intervertebral (DDIV) cervical e propor um sequenciamento das projeções a ser realizado no exame mielográfico dessa região. Foram avaliadas quatro projeções mielográficas (lateral, ventrodorsal e oblíquas esquerda e direita) de 41 pacientes diagnosticados com DDIV cervical. Em 40 pacientes (97,5%), foi possível identificar compressão da medula espinhal na projeção lateral; em 22 (53,6%), nas oblíquas; e em 11 (26,8%), na ventrodorsal (P<0,05). Havia lateralização da compressão em 22 (53,6%) pacientes; 100% delas (n=22) foram detectadas pelas projeções oblíquas e 50% (n=11) pela ventrodorsal. Em 10 (24,4%) cães, foi observado mais que um local de compressão, tendo as projeções ventrodorsal e oblíquas auxiliado na definição do local de compressão em 50% e 70%, respectivamente. Pode-se concluir que todas as projeções mielográficas estudadas permitem identificar compressão na medula espinhal em cães com DDIV cervical, sendo a incidência lateral a que mais a revelou, seguida das oblíquas e da ventrodorsal, estabelecendo-se, assim, uma proposta de sequenciamento das projeções mielográficas a serem realizadas para essa região.(AU)


The aim of this study was to verify in which of the myelographic views it was possible to identify spinal cord compression in dogs with cervical intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and to establish a sequence in which myelographic views should be obtained for this region. Four myelographic views (lateral, ventrodorsal, left oblique and right oblique) of 41 patients diagnosed with cervical IVDD were evaluated. In 40 patients (97.5%) it was possible to identify spinal cord compression by lateral view, 22 (53.6%) by the oblique view, and 11 (26.8%) by the ventrodorsal view (P< 0.05). There were lateralized compressions in 22 (53.6%) patients, detected by all oblique views (100%) and by 11 (50%) of the ventrodorsal views. In 10 (24.4%) dogs, more than one compression site was observed, where the ventrodorsal view helped to decide the site in 50% of the cases and oblique in 70%. It can be concluded that all the tested myelographic views allow the identification of spinal cord compressions in dogs with cervical IVDD, the lateral view being the most relevant, followed by the oblique and ventrodorsal view, therefore establishing a sequence of myelographic views should be obtained for this region.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Spinal Cord Compression/diagnostic imaging , Intervertebral Disc/pathology , Myelography/veterinary
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(1): 37-41, marco 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361304

ABSTRACT

Os receptores de transplante renal são mais suscetíveis a infecções, entre elas o parvovírus B19, que pode ser transmitido por via respiratória, adquirido por meio do enxerto ou por reativação de infecção latente. A anemia normocítica normocrômica, com diminuição dos reticulócitos e resistência ao tratamento com eritropoietina, é a principal forma de apresentação da infecção por parvovírus B19 em transplante renal. O diagnóstico requer alto índice de suspeição clínica e realização de testes diagnósticos selecionados. Tratamento com imunoglobulina e suspensão dos imunossupressores durante a infecção mostraram-se eficazes. Os autores relatam sua experiência com cinco casos de infecção por parvovírus B19 em receptores de transplante renal de um hospital universitário. Os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos são revistos.


Kidney transplant recipients are more susceptible to infections, including by parvovirus B19, spread through the respiratory tract, acquired through the graft or reactivation of latent infection. Normocytic normochromic anemia, with decreased reticulocytes and resistance to erythropoietin treatment, is the most common presentation of Parvovirus B19 infection in renal transplant. Diagnosis requires a higher clinical suspicion and the performance of selected diagnostic tests. Treatment with immunoglobulin and suspension of immunosuppressive therapy during the infection may be effective. The authors report five cases of PB19 infection in kidney transplant patients at a hospital. The clinical, diagnostic, and treatment features are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Parvovirus B19, Human/isolation & purification , Parvoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Pancytopenia/diagnosis , Biopsy, Needle , Bone Marrow/virology , Serologic Tests , Myelography , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Parvoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Parvoviridae Infections/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anemia/diagnosis
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1217-1226, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038608

ABSTRACT

Due to the scarcity of myelogenous studies in cattle, the present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and distribution of iopamidol and iohexol contrast agents in calves, in order to determine guidelines for obtaining diagnostic radiographs of spinal cord disorders in these animals. Ten healthy Holstein calves, seven days to two months of age, were divided into two groups, according to the contrast medium applied. Myelographic studies of the spine were performed with the calves in lateral recumbency, with radiographs repeated 20 times during a two-hour period. On the radiographs, the contrast medium was analyzed for opacity, detail of the image, distension of the medullary canal, and progression of the contrast line. After seven days, the myelographic studies were repeated, with the contrast media exchanged between the groups. There were no significant differences in the quality of the images and speed of the spinal column filling between the two contrast media. Furthermore, the best quality radiographic images were obtained six to eight minutes after injection of the contrast in the cervical spinal segment, 80 minutes in the thoracic, and 20 minutes in the lumbar, sacral, and cauda equina segments.(AU)


Devido à escassez de estudos mielográficos em bovinos e relatos de complicações no procedimento, o presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia e a distribuição dos meios de contraste iopamidol e ioexol em bezerros, a fim de nortear a melhor conduta para o diagnóstico de afecções vertebrais e medulares nesses animais. Foram utilizados 10 bezerros Holandeses, hígidos, com idade entre sete dias e dois meses, distribuídos em dois grupos, conforme o meio de contraste aplicado. O estudo mielográfico da coluna vertebral foi realizado na posição laterolateral, repetido em 20 momentos, durante o período de duas horas. Nas radiografias, analisou-se o meio de contraste quanto à opacidade, detalhes da imagem, distensão do canal medular e progressão da linha de contraste. Após sete dias, foi realizado o segundo período experimental, que compreendeu a troca do meio de contraste dentro de cada grupo. Não houve diferenças significativas em relação à qualidade da imagem e à velocidade do preenchimento da coluna medular entre os dois meios de contraste. A partir da administração dos meios de contraste, a obtenção de imagens radiográficas de melhor qualidade deu-se após seis a oito minutos no segmento medular cervical, 80 minutos no torácico e 20 minutos nos segmentos lombar, sacral e cauda equina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Iopamidol/analysis , Myelography/methods , Myelography/veterinary , Contrast Media
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728856

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension in childhood is rare, and a few cases have been reported as a cause of headache in children. A 9-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with a 3-day history of new-onset headache that worsened upon standing or walking, and aggravating low back pain. No medical history of injury, connective tissue disorder or migraine was detected. A neurological examination revealed neck stiffness. His initial blood tests suggested acute kidney injury by increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Brain computed tomography (CT) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analysis were normal: however, opening pressure was low (< 60 mm H₂O). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine showed a collection of cerebral spinal fluid in the dorsal extradural space throughout the entire thoracic and lumbar spine level. The patient was diagnosed as having spontaneous intracranial hypotension accompanied by acute kidney injury. Magnetic resonance myelography and spinal MRI performed 14 days later did not show any cerebrospinal fluid leak. The headache and back pain were alleviated with strict bed rest and hydration. He remained free of headache and back pain at the 2-month follow-up. Here, we report a case of a 9-year-old boy with spontaneous intracranial hypotension.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Back Pain , Bed Rest , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Child , Connective Tissue , Creatinine , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Intracranial Hypotension , Low Back Pain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Migraine Disorders , Myelography , Neck , Neurologic Examination , Spine , Walking
8.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 37(3): 280-283, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362869

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare cause of progressivemyelopathy, especially in the absence of a history of spinal or surgical trauma. The radiological diagnosis ismade through a myelography or an MRI exam. The spinal cord is pushed anteriorly, buffering the dural defect and leading inmost cases to Brown-Séquard syndrome. The present study describes the case of a male patient with a clinical picture of progressive thoracicmyelopathy. In the clinical and radiological investigation, an idiopathic spinal cord herniation on the chest level was identified. During the surgery, the spinal cord was reduced to the natural site, taking its usual elliptical shape, and the dural defect was repaired with a dural substitute. The numbness of the patient improved, and the shocks in the lower limbs disappeared. A postoperative MRI confirmed the surgical reduction of the herniation and the restoration of the anterior cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) column to the spinal cord. The authors describe the clinical, radiological, intraoperative, and postoperative evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Spinal Cord Diseases/surgery , Spinal Cord Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Herniorrhaphy , Hernia/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord Diseases/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelography , Diagnosis, Differential
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(3): 613-617, jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846901

ABSTRACT

O cisto aracnoide medular (CAM) é uma doença que pode ocorrer em humanos e animais, podendo causar sinais clínicos neurológicos. A origem dessa enfermidade ainda é desconhecida assim como sua patofisiologia. Acredita-se que pode ser congênita ou adquirida. Até o momento, não foi verificada predileção por raça, sexo ou idade. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso de CAM lombar em um cão com 13 anos de idade, que causou paralisia dos membros pélvicos. Ao exame clínico, o paciente apresentava dor lombar na palpação epaxial, incontinência urinária e fecal, com paraplegia de membros pélvicos. A sintomatologia progrediu durante oito meses, com histórico de trauma. Na mielografia, foi identificado um CAM na região lombar (L1-L2) lateralizado para a esquerda. O tratamento instituído foi a laminectomia e a durectomia. A paciente apresentou melhora dos sinais clínicos após 11 dias da realização da cirurgia. O tratamento cirúrgico obteve bons resultados para essa enfermidade. O CAM pode ocorrer em cães geriátricos ou com paraplegia de membros, assim deve ser incluído na lista de diagnóstico diferencial das mielopatias lombares compressivas.(AU)


Medullary arachnoid cyst (MAC) is a disease that occurs in humans and animals, and may cause neurological clinical signs. The origin of this disease, as well as its pathophysiology, are still unknown. It is believed that it can be congenital or acquired. No predilection for race, sex, or age has been verified. The aim of this paper is to report a lumbar MAC case in a dog at 13 years of age that caused paralysis of the pelvic limbs. At the clinical examination the patient had back pain on the lumbar region, urinary and fecal incontinence, and paraplegia on the pelvic members. The symptoms were progressing for eight months with history of trauma. In myelography a MAC in the lumbar region (L1- L2) lateralized to left was identified. For treatment laminectomy and durectomy were established. The patient showed improvement of clinical signs eleven days after surgery. The surgical treatment achieved good results for this type of disease. MAC can occur in geriatric or member paraplegia dogs, so it must be included in the differential diagnosis list of the lumbar compressive myelopathy.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Arachnoid Cysts/veterinary , Lumbosacral Region/pathology , Laminectomy/veterinary , Myelography/veterinary , Paraplegia/veterinary
10.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 133-138, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222739

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Myelography has been shown to highlight foraminal and lateral recess stenosis more readily than computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It also has the advantage of providing dynamic assessment of stenosis in the loaded spine. The advent of weight-bearing MRI may go some way towards improving assessment of the loaded spine and is less invasive, however availability remains limited. This study evaluates the potential role of myelography and its impact upon surgical decision making. METHODS: Of 270 patients undergoing myelography during 2006–2009, a period representing peak utilisation of this imaging modality in our unit, we identified 21 patients with degenerative scoliosis who fulfilled our inclusion criteria. An operative plan was formulated by our senior author based initially on interpretation of an MRI scan. Subsequent myelogram and CT myelogram investigations were scrutinised, with any additional abnormalities noted and whether these impacted upon the operative plan. RESULTS: From our 21 patients, 18 (85.7%) had myelographic findings not identified on MRI. Of note, in 4 patients, supine CT myelography yielded additional information when compared to supine MRI in the same patients. The management of 7 patients (33%) changed as a result of myelographic investigation. There were no complications of myelography of the total 270 analysed. CONCLUSION: MRI scan alone understates the degree of central and lateral recess stenosis. In addition to the additional stenosis displayed by dynamic myelography in the loaded spine, we have also shown that static myelography and CT myelography are also invaluable tools with regards to surgical planning in these patients.


Subject(s)
Congenital Abnormalities , Constriction, Pathologic , Decision Making , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelography , Scoliosis , Spine , Weight-Bearing
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100902

ABSTRACT

Brachial plexus injury is regarded as one of the most devastating injuries of the upper extremity. Accurate diagnosis is important to obtain the successful results. Basic preoperative evaluation includes simple radiography, cervical myelography. Magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, electrophysiologic studies and intraoperative studies. Furthermore, proper timing of surgery, surgical indication, plan and sufficient understanding of patients about the prognosis are the key for the satisfactory outcomes. This article provides an overview of the evaluation, diagnosis, intraoperative monitoring, and proper surgical planning for the treatment of posttraumatic brachial plexus injuries.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Brachial Plexus , Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Myelography , Prognosis , Radiography , Upper Extremity
12.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 198-203, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10352

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective study designed to assess interobserver agreement. PURPOSE: To investigate if interobserver agreement using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of lumbar spinal canal stenosis and root compression can be improved upon combination with magnetic resonance myelography (MRM). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: The interpretation of lumbar spinal MRI, which is the imaging modality of choice, often has a significant influence on the diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. However, using MRI alone, substantial interobserver variability has been reported in the evaluation of lumbar spinal canal stenosis and nerve root compression. METHODS: Hardcopies of 30 lumbar spinal MRI (containing a total of 150 disk levels) as well as MRM films were separately reviewed by two radiologists and a neurosurgeon. At each intervertebral disk, the observers were asked to evaluate the thecal sac for the presence and degree of spinal stenoses (mild, moderate, or severe) and presence of root canal compression. Interobserver agreement was measured using weighted kappa statistics. RESULTS: Regarding lumbar spinal canal stenosis, interobserver agreement between the two radiologists was moderate (kappa, 0.4) for MRI and good (kappa, 0.6) for combination with MRM. However, the agreement between the radiologist and neurosurgeon remained fair for MRI alone or in combination with MRM (kappa, 0.38 and 033, respectively). In the evaluation of nerve root compression, interobserver agreement between the radiologists improved from moderate (kappa, 0.57) for MRI to good (kappa, 0.73) after combination with MRM; moderate agreement between the radiologist and neurosurgeon was noted for both MRI alone and after combination with MRM (kappa, 0.58 and 0.56, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Interobserver agreement in the evaluation of lumbar spinal canal stenosis and root compression between the radiologists improved when MRM was combined with MRI, relative to MRI alone.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Dental Pulp Cavity , Diagnosis , Intervertebral Disc , Low Back Pain , Lumbosacral Region , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelography , Neurosurgeons , Observer Variation , Radiculopathy , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Canal , Spinal Stenosis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of computed tomography-myelography (CTM) compared to that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with lumbar radiculopathy. METHODS: The study included 91 patients presenting with radicular leg pain caused by herniated nucleus pulposus or lateral recess stenosis in the lumbar spine. The degree of nerve root compression on MRI and CTM was classified into four grades. The results of each imaging modality as assessed by two different observers were compared. Visual analog scale score for pain and electromyography result were the clinical parameters used to evaluate the relationships between clinical features and nerve root compression grades on both MRI and CTM. These relationships were quantified by calculating the receiver-operating characteristic curves, and the degree of relationship was compared between MRI and CTM. RESULTS: McNemar's test revealed that the two diagnostic modalities did not show diagnostic concurrence (p<0.0001). Electromyography results did not correlate with grades on either MRI or CTM. The visual analog pain scale score results were correlated better with changes of the grades on CTM than those on MRI (p=0.0007). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that CTM could better define the pathology of degenerative lumbar spine diseases with radiculopathy than MRI. CTM can be considered as a useful confirmative diagnostic tool when the exact cause of radicular pain in a patient with lumbar radiculopathy cannot be identified by using MRI. However, the invasiveness and potential complications of CTM are still considered to be pending questions to settle.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Electromyography , Humans , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelography , Pain Measurement , Pathology , Radiculopathy , Spine , Visual Analog Scale
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(4): 901-906, jul.-ago. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792482

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a case of a rare variant of the cervical spinal cord astrocytoma diagnosed in a dog with progressive neurological signs, initially asymmetrical, not ambulatory tetraparesis, segmental reflexes and normal muscle tone in all four limbs and absence of pain upon palpation of the cervical spine. Myelography revealed attenuation of the ventral and dorsal contrast line in the third region of the fifth cervical vertebra. At necropsy intramedullary cylindrical mass that stretched from the third to the sixth cervical vertebra, which replaced all the gray matter of the spinal cord was observed. In the histological study, there was the replacement of the substance by neoplastic cells mantle arranged loosely. The cells were large and slightly rounded. The eosinophilic cytoplasm was well defined, sometimes forming processes interconnecting cells. The nucleus was eccentric, round, oval or kidney-shaped, and the nucleolus was evident. Thus, the microscopic changes observed in the cervical spinal cord were consistent with gemistocytic astrocytoma.(AU)


Relata-se um caso de uma variante rara de astrocitoma na medula cervical, diagnosticado em cadela com sinais neurológicos progressivos, inicialmente assimétricos, de tetraparesia não ambulatória, com reflexos segmentares e tônus muscular normais nos quatro membros e ausência de dor à palpação da coluna cervical. A mielografia revelou atenuação da linha de contraste ventral e dorsal na região da terceira à quinta vértebra cervical. À necropsia, foi observada massa cilíndrica intramedular que se estendia da terceira à sexta vértebra cervical, a qual substituía toda a substância cinzenta da medula espinhal. No estudo histológico, observou-se substituição da substância por manto de células neoplásicas arranjadas frouxamente. As células eram grandes e levemente arredondadas. O citoplasma eosinofílico, bem delineado, por vezes formava processos interligando as células. O núcleo era excêntrico, redondo, oval ou reniforme, e o nucléolo evidente. Logo, as alterações microscópicas observadas na medula espinhal cervical foram compatíveis com astrocitoma gemistocítico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Astrocytoma/veterinary , Spinal Cord Neoplasms/veterinary , Myelography/veterinary
15.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 1132-1140, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43913

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between ligamentum flavum (LF) thickening and lumbar segmental instability and disc degeneration and facet joint osteoarthritis. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Posterior spinal structures, including LF thickness, play a major role in lumbar spinal canal stenosis pathogenesis. The cause of LF thickening is multifactorial and includes activity level, age, and mechanical stress. LF thickening pathogenesis is unknown. METHODS: We examined 419 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) myelography and magnetic resonance imaging after complaints of clinical symptoms. To investigate LF hypertrophy, 57 patients whose lumbar vertebra had normal disc heights at L4–5 were selected to exclude LF buckling as a hypertrophy component. LF thickness, disc space widening angulation in flexion, segmental angulation, presence of a vacuum phenomenon, and lumbar lordosis at T12–S1 were investigated. Disc and facet degeneration were also evaluated. Facet joint orientation was measured via an axial CT scan. RESULTS: The mean LF thickness in all patients was 4.4±1.0 mm at L4–5. There was a significant correlation between LF thickness and disc degeneration; LF thickness significantly increased with severe disc degeneration and facet joint osteoarthritis. There was a tendency toward increased LF thickness in more sagittalized facet joints than in coronalized facet joints. Logistic regression analysis showed that LF thickening was influenced by segmental angulation and facet joint osteoarthritis. Patient age was associated with LF thickening. CONCLUSIONS: LF hypertrophy development was associated with segmental instability and severe disc degeneration, severe facet joint osteoarthritis, and a sagittalized facet joint orientation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Constriction, Pathologic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypertrophy , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Ligamentum Flavum , Logistic Models , Lordosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelography , Osteoarthritis , Spinal Canal , Spinal Stenosis , Spine , Stress, Mechanical , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vacuum , Zygapophyseal Joint
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(10): 844-852, out. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-767746

ABSTRACT

As neoplasias no sistema nervoso central (SNC) de animais de companhia são frequentemente diagnosticadas, no entanto dados sobre prevalência são escassos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente a ocorrência de neoplasias primárias de SNC em cães atendidos em um Hospital-Escola Veterinário e descrever aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos dos tumores mais frequentes. Quatorze casos (prevalência de 0,27%) de neoplasias primárias de SNC foram identificados no período de 1998 a 2013 e destes, 11 tiveram o diagnóstico de meningiomas. A idade média dos animais com meningioma foi 10 anos, sendo machos (7/11) e a raça Boxer (3/11) os mais afetados. Sete meningiomas eram espinhais e quatro intracranianos, sendo os principais sinais clínicos alteração na locomoção e convulsões, respectivamente. Metástase pulmonar ocorreu em dois casos. Em seis animais com meningioma espinhal foi realizada a mielografia, sendo que em um também foi realizada a tomografia. Em todos os casos os exames foram efetivos na visualização de desvio ou interrupção da coluna de contraste, com alterações sugestivas da presença de massa. Em cinco animais realizou-se cirurgia exploratória visando a confirmação da suspeita clínica ou retirada da massa, sendo que a sobrevida variou de 85 a 960 dias. Na avaliação histopatológica, os meningiomas foram classificados em transicional (4/11), meningotelial (2/11), papilar (2/11), angiomatoso (1/11), microcístico (1/11) e anaplásico (1/11). Destes, oito (8/11) apresentaram marcação positiva para tricrômio de Masson e um para vermelho congo nas técnicas histoquímicas. No painel imuno-histoquímico, todos os casos apresentaram imunomarcação positiva para vimentina, mas imunomarcação negativa para fator VIII e p53. A imunomarcação para S100 (6/11), GFAP (5/11) e pancitoqueratina (3/11) foi de intensidade variável. Na graduação histológica, dez meningiomas eram grau I e um grau III. O índice médio de proliferação...


Neoplasias of the central nervous system (CNS) of small animals are frequently diagnosed; however, data relative to prevalence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the occurrence of primary CNS tumors in dogs in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital and describe clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of the most common tumors. Fourteen cases of CNS primary neoplasia (prevalence of 0.27%) were identified from 1998 to 2013; from these 11 were diagnosed as meningiomas. The mean age of dogs with meningiomas was 10 years; male (7/11) and the Boxer breed (3/11) were most commonly represented. Seven meningiomas were located in the spinal cord and four intracranially; the main clinical signs were impaired locomotion and seizures, respectively. Pulmonary metastasis was found in two cases. Myelography was performed in six dogs with spinal meningiomas. In these cases it was effective in demonstrating the deviation or interruption of the contrast column. Exploratory surgery to confirm diagnosis or remove the tumor was performed in five animals and the survival rate varies 85 to 960 days. Meningiomas were histologically classified as transitional (4/11), meningothelial (2/11), papillary (2/11), angiomatous (1/11), microcystic (1/11) and anaplastic (1/11). Evaluation of histological grade was performed; 10 meningiomas were classified as grade I and one as grade III. The neoplastic cells of eight tumors (8/11) were positive for Masson's trichrome and one with the Congo red histochemical techniques. The immunohistochemical assays revealed in all tumors a positive immunoreactivity for vimentin but negative staining for factor VIII and p53. Immunolabelling for S100 (6/11), GFAP (5/11) and pancytokeratin (3/11) showed a variable staining intensity. The mean cell proliferation index was 3.2 mitotic figures and 3.4% for Ki-67 immunostaining. The results confirmed that meningiomas are the most frequent primary CNS neoplasia...


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Meningioma/diagnosis , Meningioma/veterinary , Central Nervous System/pathology , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Myelography/veterinary , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/veterinary , Histological Techniques/veterinary
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(3): 216-221, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741032

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes of contractility and reactivity in isolated lymphatics from hemorrhagic shock rats with resuscitation. METHODS: Six rats in the shock group suffered hypotension for 90 min by hemorrhage, and resuscitation with shed blood and equal ringer's solution. Then, the contractility of lymphatics, obtained from thoracic ducts in rats of the shock and sham groups, were evaluated with an isolated lymphatic perfusion system using the indices of contractile frequency (CF), tonic index (TI), contractile amplitude (CA) and fractional pump flow (FPF). The lymphatic reactivity to substance P (SP) was evaluated with the different volume of CF, CA, TI and FPF between pre- and post-treatment of SP at different concentrations. RESULTS: The CF, FPF, and TI of lymphatics obtained from the shocked rats were significantly decreased than that of the sham group. After SP stimulation, the ∆CF (1×10-8, 3×10-8, 1×10-7, 3×10-7 mol/L), ∆FPF (1×10-8, 3×10-8, 1×10-7 mol/L), and ∆TI (1×10-8 mol/L) of lymphatics in the shock group were also obviously lower compared with the sham group. In addition, there were no statistical differences in CA and ∆CA between two groups. CONCLUSION: Lymphatic contractility and reactivity to substance P appears reduction following hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Guideline Adherence , Myelography/standards , Neuroradiography/standards , Neuroradiography/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Radiology/standards , Spinal Puncture/standards , Congresses as Topic , Health Care Surveys , Internationality , Masks/standards , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Myelography/statistics & numerical data , Needles/standards , Needles/statistics & numerical data , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Radiology/statistics & numerical data , Spinal Puncture/statistics & numerical data
18.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 928-934, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126906

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective comparative study. PURPOSE: To compare the incidence and severity of adverse reactions associated with myelography performed in outpatients vs. in inpatients and report the safety and usefulness of outpatient myelography in Japanese patients. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Myelography is normally performed as an inpatient procedure in most hospitals in Japan. No studies have reported the usefulness and adverse effects of outpatient myelography in Japanese patients. METHODS: We performed 221 myelography procedures. Eighty-five of the 221 patients underwent outpatient myelography using our new protocol. The incidence and severity of adverse reactions were compared with the other 136 patients, who underwent conventional inpatient myelography. We further compared the cost of outpatient and inpatient myelography. RESULTS: The overall rate of adverse effects was 9.4% in outpatients, as compared with 7.4% in inpatients. Overall, 1.2% of outpatients and 0.74% inpatients experienced "severe" adverse effects (requiring hospitalization). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in either the overall rate of adverse effects or the rate of "severe" adverse effects. Moreover, the average outpatient procedure cost was only one-third to one-half that of the inpatient procedure. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study to address the safety and usefulness of outpatient myelography in Japanese patients. If selected according to proper inclusion criteria for outpatient procedure, no significant differences were observed in the adverse effects between inpatients and outpatients. The outpatient procedure is more economical and has the added benefit of being more convenient and time-efficient for the patient.


Subject(s)
Asians , Health Care Costs , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , Japan , Myelography , Outpatients , Prospective Studies
19.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 217-220, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16946

ABSTRACT

Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEACs) are relatively rare cause of compressive myelopathy. SEACs can be either congenital or acquired, but the etiology and the mechanism for their development are still unclear. A number of cases have been reported in the literature, and the one-way valve mechanism is the most widely accepted theory which explains the expansion of cysts and spinal cord compression. We report two cases of SEAC in this article. Patients had intermittent, progressive cord compressing symptoms. MRI image showed large SEAC which caused compression of the spinal cord. Pre-operative cystography and CT myelography were performed to identify the communicating tract. Pre-operative epidural cystography showed a fistulous tract. The patients underwent primary closure of the dural defect which was a communicating tract. The operative finding (nerve root herniation through the tract) suggested that the SEAC developed through a check-valve mechanism. Postoperatively, the patients had no surgical complications and symptoms were relieved. Based on our experience, preoperative identification of the communicating tract is important in surgical planning. Although surgical excision is the standard surgical treatment, primary closure of the dural defect which was a communicating tract can be an acceptable surgical strategy.


Subject(s)
Arachnoid Cysts , Arachnoid , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningocele , Myelography , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Compression
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Spinal intramedullary tuberculoma (SIMT) is rare, accounting for 2/100,000 cases of tuberculosis and only 0.2% of all cases of central nervous system(CNS) tuberculosis. We share our experiences of 11 cases of this entity for improving diagnosis and conceptualize the management of this rare disease. METHODS: The clinical profile, radiological data and management of 11 cases of SIMT which were managed either conservatively or by surgical intervention during last 27 years (1987-2014) were analysed. RESULTS: Male:female ratio was 1.75:1. Five cases had associated pulmonary Koch's. Most common site was thoracic cord. Two cases had concurrent multiple intracranial tuberculoma. Most common presentation was paraparesis. X-ray myelography was performed in two patients in the initial period of study suggesting intramedullary pathology. In the subsequent nine cases who had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), seven showed typical "target sign" and conglomerate ring lesion. Out of 8 surgically managed patients, 6 cases improved rapidly and in 2 patients gradual improvement was seen in follow-up. Most common indication of surgical excision was rapid neurological deterioration followed by diagnosis in doubt. Histopathology confirmed tuberculous etiology of the intramedullary lesion in all. Clinical and radiological improvement was seen in all 3 conservatively managed patients in follow-up. CONCLUSION: MRI findings of SIMT were specific and proven histologically correct. Surgical intervention may be indicated if there is no response to chemotherapy, the diagnosis is in doubt, or there is a rapid deterioration in neurological function because surgical outcome is good in these circumstances.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelography , Paraparesis , Pathology , Rare Diseases , Tuberculoma , Tuberculoma, Intracranial , Tuberculosis
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