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1.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 31(2): 51-56, 10-abr-2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1518760

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la cardiopatía isquémica fue la primera causa de muerte en México en el año 2020. Su prevalencia aumenta con la edad y es superior en los hombres que en las mujeres; se presenta mayormente en forma de infarto en edades entre 45 y 94 años. Objetivo: describir el caso de un paciente sometido a revascularización aorto-coronaria por cardiopatía isquémica con enfoque del proceso de atención de enfermería (PAE). Metodología: estudio de caso observacional y descriptivo con aplicación del PAE en el perioperatorio de un hombre de 50 años con cardiopatía isquémica crónica, enfermedad multivascular e hipertensión sistémica controlada de 6 años desde que inició, en un hospital público de tercer nivel en Mérida, Yucatán, México. Resultados: se demostró que si se aplica el PAE hay menor riesgo de shock hipovolémico ocasionado por sangrado activo y disminución de riesgo de infección del sitio de herida quirúrgica, evidenciado por el procedimiento quirúrgico extenso. Conclusiones: la metodología del PAE como método científico facilita innovaciones dentro de los cuidados enfermeros, además de las diferentes alternativas en las acciones a seguir para el tratamiento del paciente quirúrgico cardiovascular. También proporciona un método informativo para la atención de cuidados, desarrolla una autonomía para la enfermería y fomenta la consideración como profesional de salud.


Introduction: Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of death in Mexico in 2020. Its prevalence increases with age and it is higher in men than in women; it is presented mostly as a heart attack between the ages of 45 and 94 years. Objective: To describe the case of a patient undergoing aorto-coronary revascularization for ischemic heart disease with a nursing care process (NCP) approach. Methodology: Observational and descriptive case study with application of NCP in the perioperative period of a 50-year-old man with chronic ischemic heart disease, multivessel disease and controlled systemic hypertension of 6 years since its onset, in a third level public hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Results: It was demonstrated that by applying NCP there is a lower risk of hypovolemic shock caused by active bleeding and decreased risk of surgical wound site infection, evidenced by the extensive surgical procedure. Conclusions: The NCP methodology as a scientific method facilitates innovations within nursing care, in addition to the different alternatives in the actions to follow for the treatment of the cardiovascular surgical patient. It also provides an informative method for care, develops autonomy for nursing and promotes consideration as a health professional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1848-1854, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The HELIOS stent is a sirolimus-eluting stent with a biodegradable polymer and titanium oxide film as the tie-layer. The study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HELIOS stent in a real-world setting.@*METHODS@#The HELIOS registry is a prospective, multicenter, cohort study conducted at 38 centers across China between November 2018 and December 2019. A total of 3060 consecutive patients were enrolled after application of minimal inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF), defined as a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal target vessel myocardial infarction (MI), and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 1-year follow-up. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the cumulative incidence of clinical events and construct survival curves.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2998 (98.0%) patients completed the 1-year follow-up. The 1-year incidence of TLF was 3.10% (94/2998, 95% closed interval: 2.54-3.78%). The rates of cardiac death, non-fatal target vessel MI and clinically indicated TLR were 2.33% (70/2998), 0.20% (6/2998), and 0.70% (21/2998), respectively. The rate of stent thrombosis was 0.33% (10/2998). Age ≥60 years, diabetes mellitus, family history of coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction at admission, and device success were independent predictors of TLF at 1 year.@*CONCLUSION@#The 1-year incidence rates of TLF and stent thrombosis were 3.10% and 0.33%, respectively, in patients treated with HELIOS stents. Our results provide clinical evidence for interventional cardiologists and policymakers to evaluate HELIOS stent.@*CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03916432.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Polymers , Registries
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2459-2467, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We have recently developed a new Coronary Artery Tree description and Lesion EvaluaTion (CatLet) angiographic scoring system. Our preliminary studies have demonstrated its superiority over the the Synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score with respect to outcome predictions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. The current study hypothesized that the residual CatLet (rCatLet) score predicts clinical outcomes for AMI patients and that a combination with the three clinical variables (CVs)-age, creatinine, and ejection fraction, will enhance its predicting values.@*METHODS@#The rCatLet score was calculated retrospectively in 308 consecutively enrolled patients with AMI. Primary endpoint, major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE) including all-cause mortality, non-fatal AMI, transient ischemic attack/stroke, and ischemia-driven repeat revascularization, was stratified according to rCatLet score tertiles: rCatLet_low ≤3, rCatLet_mid 4-11, and rCatLet_top ≥12, respectively. Cross-validation confirmed a reasonably good agreement between the observed and predicted risks.@*RESULTS@#Of 308 patients analyzed, the rates of MACCE, all-cause death, and cardiac death were 20.8%, 18.2%, and 15.3%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves for all endpoints showed increasing outcome events with the increasing tertiles of the rCatLet score, with P values <0.001 on trend test. For MACCE, all-cause death, and cardiac death, the area under the curves (AUCs) of the rCatLet score were 0.70 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.63-0.78), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61-0.77), and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.63-0.79), respectively; the AUCs of the CVs-adjusted rCatLet score models were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78-0.89), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.92), and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.84-0.94), respectively. The performance of CVs-adjusted rCatLet score was significantly better than the stand-alone rCatLet score in terms of outcome predictions.@*CONCLUSION@#The rCatLet score has a predicting value for clinical outcomes for AMI patients and the incorporation of the three CVs into the rCatLet score will enhance its predicting ability.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#http://www.chictr.org.cn , ChiCTR-POC-17013536.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Death , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 143-150, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969756

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical features and long-term prognostic factors of diabetic patients with low or intermediate complexity coronary artery disease (CAD) post percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: This was a prospective, single-centre observational study. Consecutive diabetic patients with SYNTAX score (SS)≤32 undergoing PCI between January and December 2013 in Fuwai hospital were included in this analysis. The patients were divided into two groups based on SS, namely SS≤22 group and SS 23-32 group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to identify independent factors related to poor 5-year prognosis. The primary outcomes were cardiac death and recurrent myocardial infarction, the secondary outcomes were all cause death and revascularization. Results: Of the 3 899 patients included in the study, 2 888 were men (74.1%); mean age was 59.4±9.8 years. There were 3 450 patients in the SS≤22 group and 449 patients in the SS 23-32 group. Compared with SS≤22 group, the incidence of revascularization was higher in SS 23-32 group (18.9% (85/449) vs. 15.2% (524/3450), log-rank P=0.019). There was no significant difference in all-cause death, cardiac death and recurrent myocardial infarction between the two groups (log-rank P>0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (HR=1.05, 95%CI 1.02-1.08, P<0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR=3.12, 95%CI 1.37-7.07, P=0.007) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr)<60 ml/min (HR=3.67, 95%CI 2.05-6.58, P<0.001) were independent risk factors for 5-year cardiac death, while left ventricular ejection fraction (HR=0.94, 95%CI 0.91-0.96, P<0.001) was a protective factor. Previous PCI (HR=2.04, 95%CI 1.38-3.00, P<0.001), blood glucose level≥11.1 mmol/L on admission (HR=2.49, 95%CI 1.32-4.70, P=0.005) and CCr<60 ml/min (HR=1.85, 95%CI 1.14-2.99, P=0.012) were independent risk factors for 5-year recurrent myocardial infarction. The SS of 23-32 was independently associated with risk of revascularization (HR=1.54, 95%CI 1.09-2.16, P=0.014), after adjusting for residual SS. Residual SS was not a risk factor for 5-year prognosis. Conclusions: In diabetic patients with low-or intermediate complexity CAD, SS 23-32 is associated with increased risk of 5-year revascularization; the clinical characteristics of the patients are associated with the long-term mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction, but not related to revascularization.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Stroke Volume , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus
5.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 66-72, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969744

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and coronary angiography guided drug eluting stent (DES) implantation for the treatment of left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesions. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies, which compared IVUS with coronary angiography guided DES implantation for the treatment of LMCA lesions published before August 2021 were searched in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Baseline data, interventional procedures and endpoint events of each study were collected. The primary endpoint was major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE), and the secondary endpoints were all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel revascularization (TVR). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool were used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Results: Nine studies were included, including 3 RCT and 6 observational studies, with a total of 5 527 cases of LMCA. All the 6 observational studies had NOS scores≥6, and the 3 RCT had a low risk of overall bias. The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with coronary angiography guided group, MACE rate (OR=0.55, 95%CI 0.47-0.66, P<0.001), all-cause death (OR=0.56, 95%CI 0.43-0.74, P<0.001), cardiac death (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.30-0.61, P<0.001), MI (OR=0.64, 95%CI 0.52-0.79, P<0.001), TLR (OR=0.49, 95%CI 0.28-0.86, P=0.013) and TVR (OR=0.77, 95%CI 0.60-0.98, P=0.037) were all significantly lower in the IVUS guided group. Conclusions: Compared with angiography guided, IVUS guided PCI with DES implantation in LMCA lesions could significantly reduce the risk of MACE, death, MI, TLR and TVR. IVUS is thus superior to coronary angiography for guiding PCI treatment among patients with LMCA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Angiography , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Risk Factors , Myocardial Infarction/etiology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study assesses the impact of smoke-free legislation on the incidence rate for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke in Shenzhen.@*METHODS@#Data on ischemic ( n = 72,945) and hemorrhagic ( n = 18,659) stroke and AMI ( n = 17,431) incidence covering about 12 million people in Shenzhen from 2012 to 2016 were used. Immediate and gradual changes in incidence rates were analyzed using segmented Poisson regression.@*RESULTS@#Following the smoke-free legislation, a 9% (95% CI: 3%-15%) immediate reduction was observed in AMI incidence, especially in men (8%, 95% CI: 1%-14%) and in those aged 65 years and older (17%, 95% CI: 9%-25%). The gradual annual benefits were observed only in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke incidence, with a 7% (95% CI: 2%-11%) and 6% (95% CI: 4%-8%) decrease per year, respectively. This health effect extended gradually to the 50-64 age group. In addition, neither the immediate nor gradual decrease in stroke and AMI incidence rates did not show statistical significance among the 35-49 age group ( P > 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Smoke-free legislation was enforced well in Shenzhen, which would generate good experiences for other cities to enact and enforce smoke-free laws. This study also provided more evidence of the health benefits of smoke-free laws on stroke and AMI.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Stroke/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , China/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
7.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 702-708, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984707

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio with the severity of coronary artery disease and 2-yeat outcome in patients with premature coronary heart disease. Methods: This prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study is originated from the PROMISE study. Eighteen thousand seven hundred and one patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were screened from January 2015 to May 2019. Three thousand eight hundred and sixty-one patients with premature CHD were enrolled in the current study. According to the median LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (2.4), the patients were divided into two groups: low LDL-C/HDL-C group (LDL-C/HDL-C≤2.4, n=1 867) and high LDL-C/HDL-C group (LDL-C/HDL-C>2.4, n=1 994). Baseline data and 2-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were collected and analyzed in order to find the differences between premature CHD patients at different LDL-C/HDL-C levels, and explore the correlation between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio with the severity of coronary artery disease and MACCE. Results: The average age of the low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio group was (48.5±6.5) years, 1 154 patients were males (61.8%); the average age of high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio group was (46.5±6.8) years, 1 523 were males (76.4%). The number of target lesions, the number of coronary artery lesions, the preoperative SNYTAX score and the proportion of three-vessel coronary artery disease in the high LDL-C/HDL-C group were significantly higher than those in the low LDL-C/HDL-C group (1.04±0.74 vs. 0.97±0.80, P=0.002; 2.04±0.84 vs. 1.85±0.84, P<0.001; 13.81±8.87 vs. 11.70±8.05, P<0.001; 36.2% vs. 27.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and preoperative SYNTAX score, the number of coronary artery lesions, the number of target lesions and whether it was a three-vessel coronary artery disease (all P<0.05). The 2-year follow-up results showed that the incidence of MACCE was significantly higher in the high LDL-C/HDL-C group than that in the low LDL-C/HDL-C group (6.9% vs. 9.1%, P=0.011). There was no significant difference in the incidence of all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization and bleeding between the two groups. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has no correlation with 2-year MACCE, death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, stroke and bleeding events above BARC2 in patients with premature CHD. Conclusion: High LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is positively correlated with the severity of coronary artery disease in patients with premature CHD. The incidence of MACCE of patients with high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is significantly higher during 2 years follow-up; LDL-C/HDL-C ratio may be an indicator for evaluating the severity of coronary artery disease and long-term prognosis in patients with premature CHD.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Prospective Studies , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke , Risk Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ventricular remodeling after acute anterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (AAMI) is an important factor in occurrence of heart failure which additionally results in poor prognosis. Therefore, the treatment of ventricular remodeling needs to be further optimized. Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDP), a traditional Chinese medicine, exerts a protective effect on microcirculatory disturbance caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury and attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.@*OBJECTIVE@#This study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDDP in improving ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after AAMI on a larger scale.@*METHODS@#This study is a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. The total of 268 patients with AAMI after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) will be randomly assigned 1:1 to the CDDP group (n=134) and control group (n=134) with a follow-up of 48 weeks. Both groups will be treated with standard therapy of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), with the CDDP group administrating 20 tablets of CDDP before pPCI and 10 tablets 3 times daily after pPCI, and the control group treated with a placebo simultaneously. The primary endpoint is 48-week echocardiographic outcomes including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), and left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI). The secondary endpoint includes the change in N terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level, arrhythmias, and cardiovascular events (death, cardiac arrest, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, rehospitalization due to heart failure or angina pectoris, deterioration of cardiac function, and stroke). Investigators and patients are both blinded to the allocated treatment.@*DISCUSSION@#This prospective study will investigate the efficacy and safety of CDDP in improving ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in patients undergoing pPCI for a first AAMI. Patients in the CDDP group will be compared with those in the control group. If certified to be effective, CDDP treatment in AAMI will probably be advised on a larger scale. (Trial registration No. NCT05000411).


Subject(s)
Humans , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Remodeling , Prospective Studies , Microcirculation , Ventricular Function, Left , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
10.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 154-159, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935120

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the predictive value of ejection fraction for the postoperative myocardial infarction after coronary endarterectomy (CE) in patients with diffuse coronary artery disease (DCAD). Methods: Patients who underwent cardiac artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and CE in Beijing Anzhen Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University from May 2018 to December 2020 were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Baseline features including age, sex and echocardiography parameters were obtained. Left ventricular ejection fraction(EF) was measured by echocardiography. The patients were divided into postoperative myocardial infarction (PMI) group and non-PMI group according to PMI occurrence. Linear regression analysis, logistic regression model, and receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve were used to analyze the correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction and PMI and the influencing factors. Results: A total of 120 patients were enrolled in the study. There were 32 patients (27%) in the PMI group (male 27(84%), age (62±8)), inferior myocardial infarction occurred in 24 (75%) patients. There were 88 patients (73%) in the non-PMI group (male 70(80%), age (62±8)). EF (55% (49%, 64%) vs. 62% (55%, 67%), P=0.01) was significantly lower in the PMI group than in the non-PMI group. Perioperative TNI, IABP use and length of hospitalization were significantly higher in the PMI group than in the non-PMI group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that lower EF was an independent risk factor of PMI (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.89-0.98, P=0.01) after adjusting age, sex and body mass index. ROC curve analysis showed that EF<60% could sufficiently predict the occurrence of PMI (AUC= 0.67, sensitivity 64%, specificity 69%, P=0.01). Linear regression analysis showed that left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (OR=-0.52, 95%CI:-1.13-0.60, P<0.001), graft flow in left anterior descending (OR=-0.20, 95%CI:-0.15-0.01, P=0.02) and history of diabetes (OR=-0.28, 95%CI:-8.25-1.85, P=0.002) were negatively correlated with preoperative EF value. Conclusion: Lower preoperative EF is an independent risk factor for PMI after CABG and CE in DCAD patients, closely related to the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, graft flow in left anterior descending artery and diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Endarterectomy/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
11.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 37(87): 67-78, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551253

ABSTRACT

La periodontitis es una enfermedad no transmisible, con una alta prevalencia, que oscila entre el 45% y el 50% de la población mundial, ocupando el sexto lugar entre las enfermedades más frecuentes de la huma-nidad. Existe suficiente evidencia que avala la relación entre la enfermedad periodontal y la enfermedad car-diovascular, responsable de aproximadamente el 45% de las muertes en países desarrollados, compren-diendo en su causalidad al infarto de miocardio, el accidente cerebrovascular, la insuficiencia cardíaca y las arritmias, que causan alrededor del 95 % de las muertes relacionadas con la enfermedad cardiovas-cular. Ambas patologías presentan factores de riesgo comunes ampliamente reconocidos, como la diabetes y el tabaquismo, pero además manifiestan caracte-rísticas genéticas y epigenéticas que avalan distintos mecanismos etiopatológicos. Más allá de los factores de riesgo comunes, se han propuesto dos mecanis-mos para explicar la relación entre la enfermedad periodontal y las cardiovasculares. Uno de ellos, constituye la invasión directa de patógenos periodontales en las células endoteliales. El otro mecanismo sugerido (vía indirecta), ocasionado por la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica que resulta en niveles cróni-camente elevados de diferentes citoquinas, también relacionadas con la enfermedad vascular aterosclerotica como IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, PCR y la proteína quimioatrayente de monocitos, podría estar mediado por productos bacterianos, como los lipopolisacári-dos que alcanzarían la circulación induciendo una potente respuesta inmunitaria. Estos mecanismos pueden actuar inflamando las células endoteliales, modulando el metabolismo de los lípidos y aumentan-do el estrés oxidativo, favoreciendo la aterosclerosis, conformando la expresión de un fenotipo arterial in-flamatorio, generando el nexo entre la enfermedad periodontal y las patologías cardiovasculares (AU))


Periodontitis is a non-communicable disease which is highly prevalent worldwide. It was reported to range from 45% to 50% around the world and it was the sixth most prevalent condition of humanity. Consistent body of evidence explains the relationship between periodontal disease and other common systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Periodontitis is likely to cause a 45% of deaths in developed countries, including myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and arrhythmias that cause about a 95% of deaths related to cardiovascular disease.Both diseases share many risk factors, such as diabetes and smoking; but also, genetic, and epigenetic characteristics support several etiopathological mechanisms. Beyond the common risk factors, two mechanisms have been proposed to elucidate the relationship between the periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases. One of them supports the concept that periodontal pathogens are capable of the direct invasion of endothelial cells. The other mechanism suggested (indirect pathway), caused by the disease resulting in chronically elevation of CRP, inflammatory cytokines, the monocyte chemoattractant protein, could be mediated by bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharides, wich induce a potent immune response and can accelerate endothelial dysfunction. These mechanisms may act by inflaming endothelial cells, modulating lipid metabolism and increasing oxidative stress, favoring atherosclerosis, determining the expression of an inflammatory arterial phenotype, generating the link between periodontal disease and cardiovascular pathologies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Inflammation Mediators/physiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Risk Factors , Cytokines/physiology , Stroke/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Myocardial Infarction/etiology
12.
Femina ; 50(1): 61-64, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358222

ABSTRACT

O infarto agudo do miocárdio no período gravídico-puerperal é uma condição rara em que a principal causa é a dissecção espontânea da artéria coronária. É um evento comumente subdiagnosticado, com pouca literatura disponível e elevado índice de morbimortalidade. Esse relato descreve o caso de uma gestante de 36 semanas de gravidez gemelar, monocoriônica-diamniótica, com infarto agudo do miocárdio secundário à dissecção espontânea da artéria coronária. As equipes de cirurgia cardíaca e obstetrícia optaram pela realização de parto cesariano e histerectomia subtotal, seguido da revascularização da artéria mamária descendente anterior. Discutem-se as orientações adotadas na dissecção espontânea da artéria coronária, bem como a abordagem terapêutica e a conduta obstétrica, quando essa condição ocorre durante a gravidez.(AU)


Acute myocardial infarction in the pregnancy-puerperal period is a rare condition the main cause of which is the spontaneous coronary artery dissection. A commonly underdiagnosed event with little available literature and a high rate of morbidity and mortality. This case reports a 36-week pregnant woman of mono-chorionic-diamniotic pregnancy who had a myocardial infarction secondary to a spontaneous coronary artery dissection. In a joint discussion between the team of cardiac surgery and obstetrics, it was decided to perform a cesarean delivery and subtotal hysterectomy followed by revascularization of the mammary anterior descendant. It discusses the conducts to be adopted in a case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection as well as therapeutic approaches and obstetric conducts to be taken in a case of dissection during pregnancy.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/surgery , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Dissection/adverse effects , Acute Coronary Syndrome/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Cesarean Section , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pregnancy, Twin , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hysterectomy , Myocardial Infarction/etiology
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5,supl.1): 121-127, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346340

ABSTRACT

Abstract The association between periodontitis and myocardial infarction remains unclear in the literature. Few studies have addressed periodontitis exposure as a predisposing factor for the development of myocardial infarction. Therefore, the present systematic review aims to analyze the association between periodontitis and myocardial infarction. This meta-analysis systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, SCIELO, LILACS, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature for studies estimating the association between periodontitis and myocardial infarction. Quality of evidence was assessed for all studies. The meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models. Four of the six studies selected were included in the meta-analysis, including 1,035,703 subjects. The association between periodontitis and myocardial infarction was: RR: 5.99 (95% CI: 1.17-30.68), but with high heterogeneity (I2 = 100%; p <0.01). The results including only the highest quality articles, was lower: RR: 2.62 (95% CI: 1.47-4.70 3.83), but with lower heterogeneity (I2 = 85.5%; p < 0.01).The present systematic review with meta-analysis showed an association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction, but with a high level of heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Pulpitis/complications , Atherosclerosis/complications , Lipoproteins/analysis , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality
14.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(1): 59-64, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388079

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La disección coronaria espontánea ha surgido como una causa interesante y poco reconocida de síndrome coronario agudo no aterosclerótico. Ocurre más frecuentemente en mujeres jóvenes, donde de forma importante puede asociarse a anomalías arteriales no coronarias. La clave para un tratamiento oportuno es el diagnóstico precoz que impida su evolución a cuadros más severos. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 36 años con un síndrome coronario agudo secundario a una disección coronaria espontánea bi-arterial que evolucionó de forma grave a una insuficiencia cardíaca aguda. El objetivo es informar un cuadro poco usual y proporcionar evidencia que respalde el cómo debe enfrentarse.


Abstract: Spontaneous coronary dissection is an important cause of acute non-atherosclerotic coronary syndrome. It occurs more frequently in young women, often without significantly associated coronary arterial anomalies. Early diagnosis is a key to prompt treatment, in order to prevent severe complications. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with an acute coronary syndrome secondary to spontaneous bi-arterial coronary dissection progressing to severe acute heart failure. A discussion of the management of this condition is included.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Vascular Diseases/surgery , Vascular Diseases/complications , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/surgery , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/complications , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Vascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Stents , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021263, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249034

ABSTRACT

Blunt chest trauma (BCT) is one of the rarest causes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This paper reports the case of a young married man who suffered from AMI due to BCT sustained in a fight with his wife. The histopathology examination revealed a rupture of atherosclerotic plaque with superimposed thrombus in the proximal left anterior descending artery. This report also reviews previously reported BCT-induced AMI cases in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Thoracic Injuries/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Autopsy , Coronary Thrombosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Morphological and Microscopic Findings
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(10)oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389209

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction caused by thrombosis of left main coronary artery generate acute cardiac failure, cardiogenic shock and death. Along with the clinical history, the electrocardiogram (EKG) is the most useful tool for its recognition and timely management. Classically the EKG shows ST elevation > 1 mm in aVR or V1 with ST depression in the other leads. Urgent coronary angiography with percutaneous coronary angioplasty using drug eluting stents is recommended when the diagnosis is made. We report two cases to exemplify the clinical presentation, EKG and angiographic findings and therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombosis , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Myocardial Infarction , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessels , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(3): 134-138, mar 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361505

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre o índice de massa corporal e a gravidade das lesões coronarianas em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio. Métodos: Coorte aninhada ao Catarina Heart Study que avaliou 350 indivíduos durante o primeiro evento de infarto agudo do miocárdio e o 30º dia pós-infarto. As variáveis qualitativas foram analisadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Após o resultado da distribuição, a avaliação de variáveis quantitativas foi feita pelo teste de t de Student, pela correlação de Pearson, pelo teste de Mann-Whitney e pela correlação de Spearman. Resultados: Indivíduos com obesidade G2 (15,4%) tiveram maior probabilidade de trombose em 30 dias em comparação a indivíduos com índice de massa corporal normal (1,1%), com p=0,005. Indivíduos com obesidade grau 1 (6,0%) e obesidade grau 2 (7,7%) tiveram mais eventos de infarto agudo do miocárdio em 30 dias em comparação a indivíduos com índice de massa corporal normal (0,0%), com p=0,019 e p=0,009, respectivamente. Nenhuma associação significativa foi encontrada em termos de fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo, mortalidade e complexidade das lesões coronarianas (escore SYNTAX e TIMI frame count). Conclusão: A obesidade em diversos graus está diretamente associada a fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, como hipertensão arterial sistêmica, dislipidemia e tabagismo. Não houve associação entre o índice de massa corporal com a gravidade das lesões coronarianas ou a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo. Não houve diferença na mortalidade comparando-se indivíduos com índice de massa corporal elevado a pacientes com índice de massa corporal normal. Pacientes com obesidade tiveram mais desfechos cardiovasculares, como trombose e novo evento de infarto agudo do miocárdio em 30 dias, ao serem comparados a pacientes com índice de massa corporal normal. Outros desfechos de seguimento em 30 dias não estiveram associados ao índice de massa corporal.


Objective: To evaluate the association between body mass index and severity of coronary lesions in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: A cohort nested to Catarina Heart Study, which evaluated 350 individuals during the first event of myocardial infarction and the 30th day post-infarction. Qualitative variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test. After the distribution result, the evaluation of quantitative variables was done through Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation, Mann Whitney's test, and Spearman's correlation. Results: Individuals with G2 obesity (15.4%) had a greater probability of having thrombosis in 30 days compared to individuals with normal body mass index (1.1%), p=0.005. Individuals with G1 obesity (6.0%) and G2 obesity (7.7%) had more events of myocardial infarction in 30 days compared to individuals with normal body mass index (0.0%), with p=0.019 and p=0.009, respectively. No significant association was found in terms of left ventricle ejection fraction, mortality, and complexity of coronary lesions (SYNTAX score and TIMI frame count). Conclusion: Obesity in several degrees is directly associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking. There was no association between the body mass index and the severity of coronary lesions or left ventricle ejection fraction. There was no difference in mortality comparing individuals with high body mass index to patients with normal body mass index. Patients with obesity had more cardiovascular outcomes, such as thrombosis and a new event of myocardial infarction in 30 days when compared to patients with normal body mass index. Other follow-up outcomes in 30 days were not associated with body mass index


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Body Mass Index , Coronary Disease/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Incidence , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Troponin I/blood , Creatine Kinase/blood , Dyslipidemias/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hypertension/complications , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Obesity/complications
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