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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010723

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has long been considered a risk factor in implant therapy and impaired wound healing in soft and hard oral tissues. Magnesium has been proved to promote bone healing under normal conditions. Here, we elucidate the mechanism by which Mg2+ promotes angiogenesis and osseointegration in diabetic status. We generated a diabetic mice model and demonstrated the alveolar bone healing was compromised, with significantly decreased angiogenesis. We then developed Mg-coating implants with hydrothermal synthesis. These implants successfully improved the vascularization and osseointegration in diabetic status. Mechanically, Mg2+ promoted the degradation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and the nucleation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by up-regulating the expression of sestrin 2 (SESN2) in endothelial cells, thus reducing the elevated levels of oxidative stress in mitochondria and relieving endothelial cell dysfunction under hyperglycemia. Altogether, our data suggested that Mg2+ promoted angiogenesis and osseointegration in diabetic mice by regulating endothelial mitochondrial metabolism.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Magnesium/metabolism , Osseointegration , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism
2.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 177-185, March-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439592

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The precise underlying mechanism of antioxidant effects of dexmedetomidine-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia has not yet been fully elucidated. Activation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) represents a major antioxidant-defense mechanism. Therefore, we determined whether dexmedetomidine increases Nrf2/HO-1 expression after global transient cerebral ischemia and assessed the involvement of Protein Kinase C (PKC) in the dexmedetomidine-related antioxidant mechanism. Methods Thirty-eight rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sham (n = 6), ischemic (n = 8), chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor; 5 mg.kg-1 IV administered 30 min before cerebral ischemia) (n = 8), dexmedetomidine (100 µg.kg-1 IP administered 30 min before cerebral ischemia (n = 8), and dexmedetomidine + chelerythrine (n = 8). Global transient cerebral ischemia (10 min) was applied in all groups, except the sham group; histopathologic changes and levels of nuclear Nrf2 and cytoplasmic HO-1 were examined 24 hours after ischemia insult. Results We found fewer necrotic and apoptotic cells in the dexmedetomidine group relative to the ischemic group (p< 0.01) and significantly higher Nrf2 and HO-1 levels in the dexmedetomidine group than in the ischemic group (p< 0.01). Additionally, chelerythrine co-administration with dexmedetomidine attenuated the dexmedetomidine-induced increases in Nrf2 and HO-1 levels (p< 0.05 and p< 0.01, respectively) and diminished its beneficial neuroprotective effects. Conclusion Preischemic dexmedetomidine administration elicited neuroprotection against global transient cerebral ischemia in rats by increasing Nrf2/HO-1 expression partly via PKC signaling, suggesting that this is the antioxidant mechanism underlying dexmedetomidine-mediated neuroprotection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/pharmacology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Oxidative Stress , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/pharmacology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007879

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether the protein Deglycase protein 1 (DJ1) can ameliorate Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology in Amyloid Precursor Protein/Presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice and its possible mechanism to provide a theoretical basis for exploring the pathogenesis of AD.@*METHODS@#Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) of DJ1-overexpression or DJ1-knockdown were injected into the hippocampus of 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice to construct models of overexpression or knockdown. Mice were divided into the AD model control group (MC), AAV vector control group (NC), DJ1-overexpression group (DJ1 +), and DJ1-knockdown group (DJ1 -). After 21 days, the Morris water maze test, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blotting were used to evaluate the effects of DJ1 on mice.@*RESULTS@#DJ1 + overexpression decreased the latency and increased the number of platform traversals in the water maze test. DJ1 - cells were cured and atrophied, and the intercellular structure was relaxed; the number of age spots and the expression of AD-related proteins were significantly increased. DJ1 + increased the protein expression of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), light chain 3 (LC3), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), and B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), as well as the antioxidant levels of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), while decreasing the levels of Kelch-like hydrates-associated protein 1 (Keap1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p62/sequestosome1 (p62/SQSTM1), Caspase3, and malondialdehyde (MDA).@*CONCLUSION@#DJ1-overexpression can ameliorate learning, memory, and AD-like pathology in APP/PS1 mice, which may be related to the activation of the NRF2/HO-1 and AMPK/mTOR pathways by DJ1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Presenilin-1/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 877-886, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007797

ABSTRACT

The imbalance of redox homeostasis is a major characteristic of aging and contributes to the pathogenesis of various aging-related diseases. As a regulatory hub of redox homeostasis, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) can attenuate oxidative stress by activating the transcription of many antioxidant enzymes. China is the birthplace of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which has been wildly used as medicine for thousands of years. Recently, TCM as anti-aging medicine has attracted enormous attention. Focusing on the NRF2 signaling pathway, this paper summarizes the correlation between various anti-aging TCM and the NRF2 signaling, and discusses the common key mechanisms by which TCM slows the aging process by targeting the NRF2 signaling network.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Signal Transduction
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008866

ABSTRACT

This study explored the effect and mechanism of Maiwei Yangfei Decoction(MWYF) on pulmonary fibrosis(PF) mice. MWYF was prepared, and its main components were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS). Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a pirfenidone(PFD) group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose MWYF groups, with 10 mice in each group. The PF model was induced in mice except for those in the control group by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin(BLM), and model mice were treated with saline or MWYF or PFD by gavage the next day. The water consumption, food intake, hair, and activity of mice were observed daily. The pathological changes in lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, Masson staining, and CT scanning. The level of hydroxyproline(HYP) in lung tissues was detected by alkaline hydrolysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of collagen type Ⅲ(COL3) and fibronectin. The mRNA expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen α1(COL1α1), COL3, and vimentin were detected by reverse transcription real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR). Superoxide dismutase(SOD) and malondialdehyde(MDA) kits were used to detect oxidative stress indicators in lung tissues and serum. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2(Nrf2) protein was detected by immunofluorescence. The protein and mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, catalase(CAT), and heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) in lung tissues were detected by Western blot and RT-qPCR. Twelve chemical components were detected by UPLC-MS/MS. Animal experiments showed that MWYF could improve alveolar inflammation, collagen deposition, and fibrosis in PF mice, increase body weight of mice, and down-regulate the expression of fibrosis indexes such as HYP, α-SMA, COL1α1, COL3, fibronectin, and vimentin in lung tissues. In addition, MWYF could potentiate the activity of SOD in lung tissues and serum of PF mice, up-regulate the expression level of Nrf2, and promote its transfer to the nucleus, up-regulate the levels of downstream antioxidant target genes CAT and HO-1, and then reduce the accumulation of lipid metabolite MDA. In summary, MWYF can significantly improve the pathological damage and fibrosis of lung tissues in PF mice, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of the Nrf2 pathway to regulate oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Fibronectins/metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism , Chromatography, Liquid , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Oxidative Stress , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008836

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis before and after compatibility against triptolide(TP)-induced hepatotoxicity. The experiment was divided into a blank group, model group, Astragalus membranaceus group, Angelica sinensis group, and compatibility groups with Astragalus membranaceus/Angelica sinensis ratio of 1∶1, 2∶1, and 5∶1. TP-induced hepatotoxicity model was established, and corresponding drug intervention was carried out. The levels of alanine transaminase(ALT), aspartate transaminase(AST), and alkaline phosphatase(ALP) in serum were detected. Pathological injuries of livers were detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The levels of malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione(GSH) in the liver were measured. Wes-tern blot method was used to detect the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator-1 alpha(PGC-1α), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1(NQO1) in livers. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of Nrf2 and PGC-1α in livers. The results indicated that Astragalus membranaceus/Angelica sinensis ratio of 2∶1 and 5∶1 could significantly reduce the levels of serum AST, ALT, and ALP, improve the pathological damage of liver tissue, increase the levels of GSH and GSH-Px, and reduce the content of MDA in liver tissue. Astragalus membranaceus/Angelica sinensis ratio of 1∶1 and 2∶1 could significantly improve the level of SOD. Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis before and after compatibility significantly increased the protein expression of HO-1 and NQO1, improved the protein expression of Nrf2 and PGC-1α, and decreased the protein expression of Keap1 in liver tissue. The above results confirmed that the compatibility of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis had antioxidant effects by re-gulating Keap1/Nrf2/PGC-1α, and the Astragalus membranaceus/Angelica sinensis ratio of 2∶1 and 5∶1 had stronger antioxidant effect and significantly reduced TP-induced hepatoto-xicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astragalus propinquus , Angelica sinensis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Diterpenes , Epoxy Compounds , Phenanthrenes
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982721

ABSTRACT

Lignans derived from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (Eucommia lignans) inhibit the progression of inflammatory diseases, while their effect on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remained unclear. This work was designed to assess the function of Eucommia lignans in DN. The major constituents of Eucommia lignans were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. The binding between Eucommia lignans and aldose reductase (AR) was predicted by molecular docking. Eucommia lignans (200, 100, and 50 mg·kg-1) were used in model animals to evaluate their renal function changes. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) were transfected with sh-AR, sh-AMPK, and oe-AR in the presence of high glucose (HG) or HG combined with Eucommia lignans to evaluate whether Eucommia lignans affected HG-induced cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction through the AR/Nrf2/HO-1/AMPK axis. Eucommia lignans significantly attenuated the progression of DN in vivo. Eucommia lignans notably reversed HG-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial injury, while downregulating the levels of Cyto c, caspase 9, AR, and NOX4 in HBZY-1 cells. In contrast, HG-induced downregulation of Nrf2, HO-1 and p-AMPKα levels were abolished by Eucommia lignans. Meanwhile, knockdown of AR exerted similar therapeutic effect of Eucommia lignans on DN progression, and AR overexpression reversed the effect of Eucommia lignans. Eucommia lignans alleviated renal injury through the AR/Nrf2/HO-1/AMPK axis. Thus, these findings might provide evidence for the use of Eucommia lignans in treating DN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Eucommiaceae/metabolism , Lignans/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 598-603, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role and mechanism of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in regulating nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway in oxidative stress and inflammatory response to sepsis-induced liver injury.@*METHODS@#A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham operation (Sham) group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, SIRT1 agonist SRT1720 pretreatment (CLP+SRT1720) group and SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 pretreatment (CLP+EX527) group, with 6 rats in each group. Two hours before operation, SRT1720 (10 mg/kg) or EX527 (10 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally injected into the CLP+SRT1720 group and CLP+EX527 group, respectively. Blood was collected from the abdominal aorta at 24 hours after modeling and the rats were sacrificed for liver tissue. The serum levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were detected by microplate method. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological injury of rats in each group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue were detected by corresponding kits. The mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1, Nrf2 and HO-1 in liver tissues were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the Sham group, the serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, ALT and AST in the CLP group were significantly increased; histopathological results showed that liver cords were disordered, hepatocytes were swollen and necrotic, and a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated; the contents of MDA and 8-OHdG in liver tissue increased, while the contents of GSH and SOD decreased; and the mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1, Nrf2 and HO-1 in liver tissues were significantly decreased. These results suggest that sepsis rats have liver dysfunction, and the levels of SIRT1, Nrf2, HO-1 and antioxidant protein in liver tissues were decreased, while the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation were increased. Compared with the CLP group, the levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress were significantly decreased in the CLP+SRT1720 group, the mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1, Nrf2 and HO-1 were significantly increased [IL-6 (ng/L): 34.59±4.21 vs. 61.84±3.78, IL-1β (ng/L): 41.37±2.70 vs. 72.06±3.14, TNF-α (ng/L): 76.43±5.23 vs. 130.85±5.30, ALT (U/L): 30.71±3.63 vs. 64.23±4.59, AST (U/L): 94.57±6.08 vs. 145.15±6.86, MDA (μmol/g): 6.11±0.28 vs. 9.23±0.29, 8-OHdG (ng/L): 117.43±10.38 vs. 242.37±11.71, GSH (μmol/g): 11.93±0.88 vs. 7.66±0.47, SOD (kU/g): 121.58±5.05 vs. 83.57±4.84, SIRT1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 1.20±0.13 vs. 0.46±0.02, Nrf2 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 1.21±0.12 vs. 0.58±0.03, HO-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 1.71±0.06 vs. 0.48±0.07, SIRT1 protein (SIRT1/β-actin): 0.89±0.04 vs. 0.58±0.03, Nrf2 protein (Nrf2/β-actin): 0.87±0.08 vs. 0.51±0.09, HO-1 protein (HO-1/β-actin): 0.93±0.14 vs. 0.54±0.12, all P < 0.05], these results indicated that SIRT1 agonist SRT1720 pretreatment could improve liver injury in sepsis rats. However, pretreatment with SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 showed the opposite effect [IL-6 (ng/L): 81.05±6.47 vs. 61.84±3.78, IL-1β (ng/L): 93.89±5.83 vs. 72.06±3.14, TNF-α (ng/L): 177.67±5.12 vs. 130.85±5.30, ALT (U/L): 89.33±9.52 vs. 64.23±4.59, AST (U/L): 179.59±6.44 vs. 145.15±6.86, MDA (μmol/g): 11.39±0.51 vs. 9.23±0.29, 8-OHdG (ng/L): 328.83±11.26 vs. 242.37±11.71, GSH (μmol/g): 5.07±0.34 vs. 7.66±0.47, SOD (kU/g): 59.37±4.28 vs. 83.57±4.84, SIRT1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 0.34±0.03 vs. 0.46±0.02, Nrf2 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 0.46±0.04 vs. 0.58±0.03, HO-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 0.21±0.03 vs. 0.48±0.07, SIRT1 protein (SIRT1/β-actin): 0.47±0.04 vs. 0.58±0.03, Nrf2 protein (Nrf2/β-actin): 0.32±0.07 vs. 0.51±0.09, HO-1 protein (HO-1/β-actin): 0.19±0.09 vs. 0.54±0.12, all P < 0.05].@*CONCLUSIONS@#SIRT1 can inhibit the release of proinflammatory factors and alleviate the oxidative damage of hepatocytes by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, thus playing a protective role against CLP-induced liver injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Actins/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , RNA, Messenger , Sepsis/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971477

ABSTRACT

The development of acute liver injury can result in liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and even liver cancer, yet there is currently no effective therapy for it. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect and therapeutic mechanism of Lyciumbarbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). To create a model of acute liver injury, experimental canines received an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL/kg of CCl4 solution. The experimental canines in the therapy group were then fed LBPs (20 mg/kg). CCl4-induced liver structural damage, excessive fibrosis, and reduced mitochondrial density were all improved by LBPs, according to microstructure data. By suppressing Kelch-like epichlorohydrin (ECH)-associated protein 1 (Keap1), promoting the production of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and phase II detoxification genes and proteins downstream of Nrf2, and restoring the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT), LBPs can restore and increase the antioxidant capacity of liver. To lessen mitochondrial damage, LBPs can also enhance mitochondrial respiration, raise tissue adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, and reactivate the respiratory chain complexes I‒V. According to serum metabolomics, the therapeutic impact of LBPs on acute liver damage is accomplished mostly by controlling the pathways to lipid metabolism. 9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC/LPC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) may be potential indicators of acute liver injury. This study confirmed that LBPs, an effective hepatoprotective drug, may cure acute liver injury by lowering oxidative stress, repairing mitochondrial damage, and regulating metabolic pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Antioxidants/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Liver , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Mitochondria/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Lycium/chemistry
10.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 91-95, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971156

ABSTRACT

Wound healing is one of the common pathophysiological processes in the body. How to improve the condition of wound healing to promote rapid wound healing has always been a hotspot in research. Oxidative stress is one of the important factors affecting wound healing. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a classic antioxidant stress factor as well as a factor with great potential in facilitating wound healing. The activation of Nrf2 can regulate the downstream antioxidant stress elements and play roles of anti-apoptosis and cell homeostasis maintaining, which improves wound healing environment and promotes wound repair. This paper summarized the common agonists and inhibitors of Nrf2 and reviewed the roles of Nrf2 in promoting skin wound healing including diabetic ulcers, radiation injury, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, etc.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Wound Healing/physiology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes and roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) related antioxidases during erythroid development.@*METHODS@#Flow cytometry was used to detect the sensibility of peripheral red blood cells of wild-type mice to a strong oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Erythroid cells from different developmental stages in bone marrow (BM) were obtained using fluorescence-activated cell sorter and the ROS levels were detected by flow cytometry. RT-qPCR was used to detect the changes of expression levels of Nrf2 and related antioxidases in erythroid cells from different developmental stages in BM. The ROS levels of the peripheral blood and BM nucleated erythrocytes in Nrf2 knockout mice were further examined. The expression level of Nrf2 in erythroid precursors isolated from 14.5 d embryonic liver of wild-type mice during differentiation and culture in vitro was detected.@*RESULTS@#In the peripheral blood of wild-type mice, the ROS level of reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes treated with H2O2 increased about 4 times and 7 times, respectively (P<0.01). In BM erythrocytes, the ROS level gradually decreased as the cells matured (r=0.85), while the expression level of Nrf2 and its related anti-oxidative genes increased (r=0.99). The ROS levels in peripheral blood erythrocytes and BM nucleated erythrocytes of Nrf2 knockout mice were significantly increased compared with wild-type mice (P<0.01). The expression of Nrf2 increased during the early erythroid development after embryonic liver cell sorting (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression levels of Nrf2 and its related factors vary during erythropoiesis. Nrf2 at physiological level plays an important antioxidant role during the erythroid development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Hydrogen Peroxide , Mice, Knockout , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of quercetin against testicular oxidative damage induced by a mixture of 3 commonly used phthalates (MPEs) in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, MPEs exposure group, and MPEs with low-, median- and high-dose quercetin treatment groups. For MPEs exposure, the rats were subjected to intragastric administration of MPEs at the daily dose of 900 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days; Quercetin treatments were administered in the same manner at the daily dose of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg. After the treatments, serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testicular malondialdeyhde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected, and testicular pathologies of the rats were observed with HE staining. The expressions of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH2 associated protein 1 (Keap1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the testis were detected using immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the rats with MPEs exposure showed significant reductions of the anogenital distance, weight of the testis and epididymis, and the coefficients of the testis and epididymis with lowered serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (P < 0.05). Testicular histological examination revealed atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenic arrest, and hyperplasia of the Leydig cells in MPEs-exposed rats. MPEs exposure also caused significant increments of testicular Nrf2, MDA, SOD, CAT and HO-1 expressions and lowered testicular Keap1 expression (P < 0.05). Treatment with quercetin at the median and high doses significantly ameliorated the pathological changes induced by MPEs exposure (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Quercetin treatment inhibits MPEs-induced oxidative testicular damage in rats possibly by direct scavenging of free radicals to lower testicular oxidative stress and restore the regulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Testis , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Testosterone/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970732

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role of Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in liver injury induced by neodymium oxide (Nd(2)O(3)) in mice. Methods: In March 2021, forty-eight SPF grade healthy male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group (0.9% NaCl), low dose group (62.5 mg/ml Nd(2)O(3)), medium dose group (125.0 mg/ml Nd(2)O(3)), and high dose group (250.0 mg/ml Nd(2)O(3)), each group consisted of 12 animals. The infected groups were treated with Nd(2)O(3) suspension by non-exposed tracheal drip and were killed 35 days after dust exposure. The liver weight of each group was weighed and the organ coefficient was calculated. The content of Nd(3+) in liver tissue was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HE staining and immunofluorescence was used to observe the changes of inflammation and nuclear entry. The mRNA expression levels of Keap1, Nrf2 and HO-1 in mice liver tissue were detected by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression levels of Keap1 and HO-1. The contents of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) were detected by colorimetric method. The contents of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. The data was expressed in Mean±SD. Two-independent sample t-test was used for inter-group comparison, and one-way analysis of variance was used for multi-group comparison. Results: Compared with the control group, the liver organ coefficient of mice in medium and high dose groups were increased, and the Nd(3+) accumulation in liver of mice in all dose groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). Pathology showed that the structure of liver lobules in the high dose group was slightly disordered, the liver cells showed balloon-like lesions, the arrangement of liver cell cords was disordered, and the inflammatory exudation was obvious. Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in liver tissue of mice in all dose groups were increased, and the levels of TNF-α in liver tissue of mice in high dose group were increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Keap1 in high dose group were significantly decreased, while the mRNA expression level of Nrf2, the mRNA and protein expression levels of HO-1 were significantly increased (P<0.05), and Nrf2 was successfully activated into the nucleus. Compared with the control group, the activities of CAT, GSH-Px and T-SOD in high dose group were significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Conclusion: A large amount of Nd(2)O(3) accumulates in the liver of male mice, which may lead to oxidative stress and inflammatory response through activation of Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway. It is suggested that Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway may be one of the mechanisms of Nd(2)O(3) expose-induced liver injury in mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Liver/metabolism , Metals, Rare Earth , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970702

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the alteration of tight junction protein expression in choroid plexus epithelial cells created by lanthanum-activated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) . Methods: In October 2020, immortalized rat choroid plexus epithelial cell line (Z310) cells were used as the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in vitro, and were divided into control group and 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 mmol/L lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3)) treatment group. After treating Z310 cells with different concentrations of LaCl(3) for 24 hours, the morphological changes of Z310 cells were observed under inverted microscope, the protein expression levels of MMP9, occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) were observed by cellular immunofluorescence method, and the protein expression levels of MMP9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase1 (TIMP1) , occludin, ZO-1 and Nrf2 were detected by Western blotting. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells was detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with the control group, Z310 cells in the LaCl(3) treatment group were smaller in size, with fewer intercellular junctions, and more dead cells and cell fragments. The expression level of MMP9 protein in cells treated with 0.25 and 0.5 mmol/L LaCl(3) was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05) , and the expression level of TIMP1 and tight junction proteins occudin and ZO-1 was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the ROS production level in the 0.25, 0.5 mmol/L LaCl(3) treatment group was significantly increased (P<0.05) , and the Nrf2 protein expression level in the 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 mmol/L LaCl(3) treatment group was significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Lanthanum may increase the level of ROS in cells by down regulating the expression of Nrf2, thus activating MMP9 to reduce the expression level of intercellular tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Tight Junction Proteins/metabolism , Occludin/pharmacology , Choroid Plexus/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Lanthanum/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/pharmacology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981412

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of ginsenoside Re(GS-Re) on drosophila model of Parkinson's disease(PD) induced by rotenone(Rot). To be specific, Rot was used to induce PD in drosophilas. Then the drosophilas were grouped and respectively treated(GS-Re: 0.1, 0.4, 1.6 mmol·L~(-1); L-dopa: 80 μmol·L~(-1)). Life span and crawling ability of drosophilas were determined. The brain antioxidant activity [content of catalase(CAT), malondialdehyde(MDA), reactive oxygen species(ROS), superoxide dismutase(SOD)], dopamine(DA) content, and mitochondrial function [content of adenosine triphosphate(ATP), NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8(NDUFB8) Ⅰ activity, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B(SDHB) Ⅱ activity] were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The number of DA neurons in the brains of drosophilas was measured with the immunofluorescence method. The levels of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, cytochrome C(Cyt C), nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2(Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-assaciated X protein(Bax), and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 in the brain were detected by Western blot. The results showed that model group [475 μmol·L~(-1) Rot(IC_(50))] demonstrated significantly low survival rate, obvious dyskinesia, small number of neurons and low DA content in the brain, high ROS level and MDA content, low content of SOD and CAT, significantly low ATP content, NDUFB8 Ⅰ activity, and SDHB Ⅱ activity, significantly low expression of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, and Bcl-2/Bax, large amount of Cyt C released from mitochondria to cytoplasm, low nuclear transfer of Nrf2, and significantly high expression of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 compared with the control group. GS-Re(0.1, 0.4, and 1.6 mmol·L~(-1)) significantly improved the survival rate of PD drosophilas, alleviated the dyskinesia, increased DA content, reduced the loss of DA neurons, ROS level, and MDA content in brain, improved content of SOD and CAT and antioxidant activity in brain, maintained mitochondrial homeostasis(significantly increased ATP content and activity of NDUFB8 Ⅰ and SDHB Ⅱ, significantly up-regulated expression of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, and Bcl-2/Bax), significantly reduced the expression of Cyt C, increased the nuclear transfer of Nrf2, and down-regulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3. In conclusion, GS-Re can significantly relieve the Rot-induced cerebral neurotoxicity in drosophilas. The mechanism may be that GS-Re activates Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, improves antioxidant capacity of brain neurons, then inhibits mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 signaling pathway, and the apoptosis of neuronal cells, thereby exerting the neuroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Drosophila/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981349

ABSTRACT

To investigate the antidepressant mechanism of Shenling Kaixin Granules(SLKX) in treating chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) model rats. Ninety male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, Shugan Jieyu Capsules(110 mg·kg~(-1)) group and SLKX low-(90 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(180 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(360 mg·kg~(-1)) groups. Depression rat model was replicated by CUMS method. After treatment, the behavioral changes of rats were evaluated by sugar preference, open field, elevated cross maze and forced swimming experiments. The contents of interleukin 1 beta(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α), brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) and 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) in serum were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in hippocampal CA1 region were also detected. Pathological changes in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and Western blot was used to determine the expression of nerve growth factor(NGF), BDNF, phospho-tyrosine kinase receptor(p-TrkB)/TrkB, phospho-cAMP-response element binding protein(p-CREB)/CREB, nuclear factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax) and caspase-3 in hippocampal CA1 region. RESULTS:: showed that compared with the control group, the model group had decreased sugar preference, reduced number of entries and time spent in the center of open field and shortened total distance of movement, reduced number of entries and proportion of time spent in open arm, and increased number and time of immobility in forced swimming experiment. Additionally, the serum contents of IL-1β and TNF-α and the expression of caspase-3 were higher, while the contents of BDNF and 5-HT, the activities of SOD and CAT in hippocampal CA1 region, the expressions of NGF, BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, p-CREB/CREB, HO-1 and Bcl-2/Bax, and the Nrf2 nuclear translocation were lower in model group than in control group. Compared with the conditions in model group, the sugar preference, the number of entries and time spent in the center of open, total distance of movement, and the number of entries and proportion of time spent in open arm in treatment groups were increased while the number and time of immobility in forced swimming experiment were decreased; the serum contents of IL-1β and TNF-α and the expression of caspase-3 were down regulated, while the contents of BDNF and 5-HT, the activities of SOD and CAT in hippocampal CA1 region, the expressions of NGF, BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, p-CREB/CREB, HO-1, Bcl-2/Bax, and Nrf2 nuclear translocation were enhanced. In conclusion, SLKX might regulate the Nrf2 nucleus translocation by activating BDNF/TrkB/CREB pathway, lower oxidative stress damage in hippocampus, inhibit caspase-3 activity, and reduce apoptosis of hippocampal nerve cells, thereby playing an antidepressant role.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Sugars/pharmacology , Depression/genetics , Stress, Psychological/metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981348

ABSTRACT

To investigate the protective effect and the potential mechanism of leonurine(Leo) against erastin-induced ferroptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cells(HK-2 cells), an in vitro erastin-induced ferroptosis model was constructed to detect the cell viability as well as the expressions of ferroptosis-related indexes and signaling pathway-related proteins. HK-2 cells were cultured in vitro, and the effects of Leo on the viability of HK-2 cells at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μmol·L~(-1) were examined by CCK-8 assay to determine the safe dose range of Leo administration. A ferroptosis cell model was induced by erastin, a common ferroptosis inducer, and the appropriate concentrations were screened. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the effects of Leo(20, 40, 80 μmol·L~(-1)) and positive drug ferrostatin-1(Fer-1, 1, 2 μmol·L~(-1)) on the viability of ferroptosis model cells, and the changes of cell morphology were observed by phase contrast microscopy. Then, the optimal concentration of Leo was obtained by Western blot for nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2) activation, and transmission electron microscope was further used to detect the characteristic microscopic morphological changes during ferroptosis. Flow cytometry was performed to detect reactive oxygen species(ROS), and the level of glutathione(GSH) was measured using a GSH assay kit. The expressions of glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4), p62, and heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) in each group were quantified by Western blot. RESULTS:: showed that Leo had no side effects on the viability of normal HK-2 cells in the concentration range of 10-100 μmol·L~(-1). The viability of HK-2 cells decreased as the concentration of erastin increased, and 5 μmol·L~(-1) erastin significantly induced ferroptosis in the cells. Compared with the model group, Leo dose-dependently increased cell via-bility and improved cell morphology, and 80 μmol·L~(-1) Leo promoted the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Further studies revealed that Leo remarkably alleviated the characteristic microstructural damage of ferroptosis cells caused by erastin, inhibited the release of intracellular ROS, elevated GSH and GPX4, promoted the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and significantly upregulated the expression of p62 and HO-1 proteins. In conclusion, Leo exerted a protective effect on erastin-induced ferroptosis in HK-2 cells, which might be associated with its anti-oxidative stress by activating p62/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ferroptosis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Sincalide/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Glutathione
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1977-1989, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a small subset of cells in tumors that exhibit self-renewal and differentiation properties. CSCs play a vital role in tumor formation, progression, relapse, and therapeutic resistance. B7-H3, an immunoregulatory protein, has many protumor functions. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the role of B7-H3 in regulating gastric cancer (GC) stemness. Our study aimed to explore the impacts of B7-H3 on GC stemness and its underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#GC stemness influenced by B7-H3 was detected both in vitro and in vivo . The expression of stemness-related markers was examined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. Sphere formation assay was used to detect the sphere-forming ability. The underlying regulatory mechanism of B7-H3 on the stemness of GC was investigated by mass spectrometry and subsequent validation experiments. The signaling pathway (Protein kinase B [Akt]/Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 [Nrf2] pathway) of B7-H3 on the regulation of glutathione (GSH) metabolism was examined by Western blotting assay. Multi-color immunohistochemistry (mIHC) was used to detect the expression of B7-H3, cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), and Nrf2 on human GC tissues. Student's t -test was used to compare the difference between two groups. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between two molecules. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis.@*RESULTS@#B7-H3 knockdown suppressed the stemness of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo . Mass spectrometric analysis showed the downregulation of GSH metabolism in short hairpin B7-H3 GC cells, which was further confirmed by the experimental results. Meanwhile, stemness characteristics in B7-H3 overexpressing cells were suppressed after the inhibition of GSH metabolism. Furthermore, Western blotting suggested that B7-H3-induced activation of GSH metabolism occurred through the AKT/Nrf2 pathway, and inhibition of AKT signaling pathway could suppress not only GSH metabolism but also GC stemness. mIHC showed that B7-H3 was highly expressed in GC tissues and was positively correlated with the expression of CD44 and Nrf2. Importantly, GC patients with high expression of B7-H3, CD44, and Nrf2 had worse prognosis ( P = 0.02).@*CONCLUSIONS@#B7-H3 has a regulatory effect on GC stemness and the regulatory effect is achieved through the AKT/Nrf2/GSH pathway. Inhibiting B7-H3 expression may be a new therapeutic strategy against GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008653

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of total triterpenes of Euphorbium in treating rheumatoid arthritis(RA). The rat model of RA was established with Freund's complete adjuvant(FCA). Male rats were randomly assigned into control, model, Tripterygium glycosides(7.5 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-, medium-, and high-dose total triterpenes of Euphorbium(32, 64, and 128 mg·kg~(-1), respectively) groups, with 10 rats in each group. In other groups except the control group, 0.2 mL FCA was injected into the right hind toe. Rats in the intervention groups were administrated with corresponding drugs by gavage, and the control group and the model group with the same volume of 0.5% CMC-Na solution once a day. During the treatment period, the swelling degree of the hind paw was measured and the arthritis was scored until day 30. At the end of drug administration, the pathological changes of the joint tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The content of malondialdehyde(MDA), glutathione(GSH), and Fe~(2+) and the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the joint tissue were measured by biochemical colorimetry. RT-PCR was performed to determine the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4), and acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 4(ACSL4) in the joint tissue. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of Nrf2, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), SOD2, GPX4, and ACSL4 in the joint tissue. The results showed that the treatment with Tripterygium glycosides(7.5 mg·kg~(-1)) and total triterpenes of Euphorbium(32, 64, and 128 mg·kg~(-1)) alleviated the swelling degree of bilateral hind limbs, decreased the arthritis score, reduced joint tissue lesions and the content of MDA and Fe~(2+) in the joint tissue, and increased GSH content and SOD activity. Furthermore, the interventions up-regulated the protein and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and GPX4, down-regulated the protein and mRNA levels of ACSL4, and up-regulated the protein levels of Keap1, NQO1, HO-1, and SOD2 in the Nrf2/HO-1/GPX4. In summary, the total triterpenes of Euphorbium can treat RA by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and abnormal ferroptosis, which may involve the Nrf2/HO-1/GPX4 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Glutathione , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008638

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of Mailuo Shutong Pills(MLST) on posterior limb swelling caused by femur fracture in rats. The rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a low-dose MLST group(1.8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a high-dose MLST group(3.6 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and a positive drug group(60 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) Maizhiling Tablets). The femur in the sham operation group was exposed and the wound was sutured, while the other four groups underwent mechanical damage to cause femur fracture. The rats were treated with corresponding drugs by gavage 7 days before modeling and 5 days after modeling, while those in the sham operation group and the model group were given an equivalent dose of distilled water by gavage. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to detect the pathological injury of the posterior limb muscle tissues in rats, and the degree of hind limb swelling was measured. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) kit was used to detect the expression levels of interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in the serum of rats in each group. The activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) in rat serum was also measured. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), and nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2(Nrf2) in rat posterior limb muscle tissues. The changes in the intestinal flora and intestinal metabolites in rats were detected by 16S rDNA sequencing and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS), respectively, to explore the underlying mechanism of MLST in treating posterior limb swelling caused by femur fracture in rats. Compared with the model group, MLST significantly improved the degree of posterior limb swelling in rats, reduced the levels of serum inflammatory factors, and alleviated oxidative stress injury. The HE staining results showed that the inflammatory infiltration in the posterior limb muscle tissues of rats in the MLST groups was significantly improved. Western blot results showed that MLST significantly increased the protein expression of HO-1, NQO1, and Nrf2 in rat posterior limb muscle tissues compared with the model group. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that MLST improved the disorder of intestinal flora in rats after femur fracture. The UPLC-MS/MS results showed that MLST significantly affected the bile acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathway in the intestine after femur fracture, and the Spearman analysis confirmed that the metabolite deoxycholic acid involved in bile acid biosynthesis was positively correlated with the abundance of Turicibacter. The metabolite cholic acid was positively correlated with the abundance of Papilibacter, Staphylococcus, and Intestinimonas. The metabolite lithocholic acid was positively correlated with Papilibacter and Intestinimonas. The above results indicated that MLST could protect against the posterior limb swelling caused by femur fracture in rats. This protective effect may be achieved by improving the pathological injury of the posterior limb muscle, reducing the expression levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related factors in serum, reducing the oxidative injury of the posterior limb muscle, improving intestinal flora, and balancing the biosynthesis of bile acids in the intestine.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Chromatography, Liquid , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Oxidative Stress , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Femur , Bile Acids and Salts , DNA, Ribosomal , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
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