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Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 32-36, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092719


Resumen Introducción: Los/as trabajadores/as sexuales, personas con adicción a drogas, población de inicio sexual precoz y población penal son considerados los grupos de mayor riesgo de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). Objetivo: Determinar prevalencia de infección por Neisseria gonorrhoeae, en reclusos del Centro de Detención Preventiva (CDP) de la Región de Arica y Parinacota, Chile. Este estudio contó con la aprobación del Cómité Ético Científico de la Universidad de Tarapacá. Material y Método: Participaron 140 reclusos, que aceptaron ser parte del estudio en forma voluntaria y firmaron un consentimiento informado. Se tomó una muestra del meato uretral para pesquisa de N. gonorrhoeae y se aplicó una encuesta epidemiológica que consignó edad, consumo de drogas, hacinamiento, entre otros. Resultados: La prevalencia del agente fue de 16,4% en reclusos del CDP de Arica, resultado menor a lo reportado en otros estudios similares. Conclusiones: Conocer la realidad de la prevalencia de esta ITS y algunos factores de riesgo asociados a la situación de privación de la libertad en una zona tri-fronteriza del norte de Chile, contribuye a las propuestas de programas de prevención en esta población vulnerable y de riesgo.

Abstract Background: Sex workers, people with drug addiction, early onset of sexual activity population, and criminal population, are considered the groups most at risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Aim: To determine the prevalence of infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in inmates of the Preventive Detention Center (CDP) at Arica and Parinacota Region, Chile. The Scientific Ethical Committee of Universidad de Tarapacá approved this study. Method: 140 inmates participated, who voluntarily agreed to be part of the study and signed an informed consent. A sample of urethral meatus was taken to investigate N. gonorrhoeae, and an epidemiological survey was applied, which included age, drug use, overcrowding, among others. Results: The prevalence of the agent was 16.4% in inmates of the Arica CDP, a result lower than that reported in other similar studies. Conclusion: Knowing the reality of the prevalence of this STI and some risk factors associated with the situation of deprivation of freedom in a tri-border area of northern Chile, contributes to the proposals for prevention programs in this vulnerable and at-risk population.

Humans , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Workers , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 50, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088605


Abstract Background: To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods: After exclusion, 33 female adolescent and young JIA patients (ILAR criteria) and 28 healthy controls were selected for this study. Demographic data, gynecological, sexual function, cervical cytology and histological abnormalities were evaluated. JIA clinical/laboratorial parameters and treatment were also assessed. HPV-DNA, CT-DNA and NG-DNA testing in cervical specimens were performed by Hybrid Capture 2 assays. Results: The mean current age was similar in JIA patients and controls (23.3 ± 6.24 vs. 26.1 ± 6.03 years, p = 0.09). The frequencies of sexual intercourse (76% vs. 89%, p = 0.201) and abnormal cervical cytology (24% vs. 11%, p = 0.201) were similar in JIA compared to controls. The higher frequency of HPV infection in JIA patients than controls (30% vs. 11%, p = 0.155) did not reach statistical significance. CT (0% vs. 7%, p = 0.207) and NG infections (0% vs. 4%, p = 0.459) were also alike in both groups. Further evaluation of JIA patients with abnormal and normal cervical cytology showed that the former group had a higher frequency of HPV infection (87% vs. 12%, p = 0.0002) with a low frequency of HPV vaccination (0% vs. 8%, p = 1.0). No differences were evidenced between these two JIA groups regarding demographic data, sexual function and clinical/laboratorial parameters. The frequencies of methotrexate (p =0.206) and biological agent use (p =0.238) were similar in both JIA groups. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first study to assess lower genital infections in JIA patients allowing the identification of HPV as main cause of cervical dysplasia. Methotrexate and biological agents do not seem to increase risk of lower genital tract infections in JIA patients.

Humans , Female , Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 617-628, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889182


ABSTRACT Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection with an estimate from The World Health Organization of 78 million new cases in people aged 15-49 worldwide during 2012. If left untreated, complications may include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Antimicrobial treatment is usually effective; however, resistance has emerged successively through various molecular mechanisms for all the regularly used therapeutic agents throughout decades. Detection of antimicrobial susceptibility is currently the most critical aspect for N. gonorrhoeae surveillance, however poorly structured health systems pose difficulties. In this review, we compiled data from worldwide reports regarding epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae, and highlight the relevance of the implementation of surveillance networks to establish policies for gonorrhea treatment.

Humans , Animals , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gonorrhea/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/history , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/classification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 779-784, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887127


Abstract: Background: Urethral discharge syndrome (UDS) is characterized by the presence of purulent or mucopurulent urethral discharge.The main etiological agents of this syndrome are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the syndromic management to resolve symptoms in male urethral discharge syndrome cases in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: Retrospective cohort of male cases of urethral discharge syndrome observed at a clinic for sexually transmitted disease (STD) in 2013. Epidemiological and clinical data, as well as the results of urethral swabs, bacterioscopy, hybrid capture for C.trachomatis, wet-mount examination, and culture for N.gonorrhoeae, were obtained through medical chart reviews. Results: Of the 800 urethral discharge syndrome cases observed at the STD clinic, 785 (98.1%) presented only urethral discharge syndrome, 633 (79.1%) returned for follow-up, 579 (91.5%) were considered clinically cured on the first visit, 41(6.5 %) were considered cured on the second visit, and 13(2.0%) did not reach clinical cure after two appointments. Regarding the etiological diagnosis, 42.7% of the patients presented a microbiological diagnosis of N.gonorrhoeae, 39.3% of non-gonococcal and non-chlamydia urethritis, 10.7% of C.trachomatis and 7.3% of co-infection with chlamydia and gonococcus. The odds of being considered cured in the first visit were greater in those who were unmarried, with greater schooling, and with an etiological diagnosis of gonorrhea. The diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis reduced the chance of cure in the first visit. Study limitation: A study conducted at a single center of STD treatment. Conclusion: Syndromic management of male urethral discharge syndrome performed in accordance with the Brazilian Ministry of Health STD guidelines was effective in resolving symptoms in the studied population. More studies with microbiological outcomes are needed to ensure the maintenance of the syndromic management.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Urethral Diseases/microbiology , Urethral Diseases/drug therapy , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Gonorrhea/complications , Disease Management , Socioeconomic Factors , Suppuration , Syndrome , Brazil , Chlamydia Infections/drug therapy , Gonorrhea/drug therapy , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(6): 569-575, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828154


ABSTRACT Background: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. These sexually transmitted infections are a growing problem in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, the presence of these agents in extra genital sites, remains poorly studied in our country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae anal and genital infection in people living with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference center in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study, from June 2013 to June 2015. Proven HIV-infected people attending this reference center were invited. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained through interview with standardized form. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening was performed using qPCR (COBAS 4800® Roche). Results: The frequency of positive cases of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 12.3% in total, 9.2% cases amongst women and 17.1% amongst men. We found 14.0% of positive cases in anus and 3.1% in genital region in men, while 5.6% and 3.6%, in women, respectively. Among men, anal infection was associated with age <29 years (p = 0.033), report of anal intercourse (p = 0.029), pain during anal intercourse (p = 0.028). On the other hand, no association between genital infection and other variables were detected in bivariate analysis. Among women, we detected an association between Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection and age <29 years (p < 0.001), younger age at first sexual intercourse (p = 0.048), pregnancy (p < 0.001), viral load >50 copies/mL (p = 0.020), and no antiretroviral use (p = 0.008). Anal infection in women was associated with age <29 years old (p < 0.001) and pregnancy (p = 0.023), and was not associated with report of anal intercourse (p = 0.485). Conclusion: Missed opportunities for diagnosis in extra genital sites could impact on HIV transmission. The extra genital sites need to be considered to break the HIV and bacterial sexually transmitted infections chain-of-transmission.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Rectum/microbiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Genitalia, Female/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(2): 106-113, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772612


The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cervix Uteri/microbiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix/microbiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Carcinogenesis , Coinfection , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Epithelium/virology , Genotype , Genotyping Techniques , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , /isolation & purification , Molecular Typing , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Papillomaviridae/classification , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolation & purification , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/microbiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(10): e5303, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792526


The shipment and storage conditions of clinical samples pose a major challenge to the detection accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) when using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of storage time at 4°C on the DNA of these pathogens and its effect on their detection by qRT-PCR. CT, NG, and UU positive genital swabs from 70 patients were collected, and DNA of all samples were extracted and divided into eight aliquots. One aliquot was immediately analyzed with qRT-PCR to assess the initial pathogen load, whereas the remaining samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. No significant differences in CT, NG, and UU DNA loads were observed between baseline (day 0) and the subsequent time points (days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28) in any of the 70 samples. Although a slight increase in DNA levels was observed at day 28 compared to day 0, paired sample t-test results revealed no significant differences between the mean DNA levels at different time points following storage at 4°C (all P>0.05). Overall, the CT, UU, and NG DNA loads from all genital swab samples were stable at 4°C over a 28-day period.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Specimen Handling , Ureaplasma urealyticum/genetics , Bacterial Load , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Genitalia/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Time Factors , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolation & purification
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(3): 314-324, jul.-sep. 2015. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-765460


Introducción. Las infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis y Neisseria gonorrhoeae son las dos infecciones bacterianas de transmisión sexual más frecuentes en el mundo, principalmente en menores de 25 años, en cuya salud sexual, reproductiva y materno-infantil producen secuelas. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de las infecciones por C. trachomatis y N. gonorrhoeae entre adolescentes en colegios de la provincia de Sabana Centro, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de corte transversal en adolescentes de 14 a 19 años matriculados en colegios ubicados en los 11 municipios de la zona de estudio. Después de obtener el consentimiento informado, los participantes llenaron una encuesta y recolectaron una muestra de orina para la detección de C. trachomatis y N. gonorrhoeae mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real. Resultados. En una muestra de 972 adolescentes sexualmente activos, se encontró una prevalencia de infección por C. trachomatis del 2,24 % y, por N. gonorrhoeae , del 0,10 %. No se detectaron infecciones concomitantes. De las estudiantes positivas para C. trachomatis , el 21,4 % eran asintomáticas. Se encontró una relación significativa entre la infección por C. trachomatis y el sexo femenino, el consumo de alcohol u otras sustancias durante la última relación sexual, el tener una o varias parejas y la presencia de alguna infección de transmisión sexual. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de infecciones por C. trachomatis fue inferior a la reportada en grupos similares y se presentaron menos casos asintomáticos en comparación con la tendencia general. Se recomienda implementar en el país un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica para estas dos infecciones de transmisión sexual mediante la tamización con técnicas moleculares no invasivas, para priorizar estrategias preventivas en las poblaciones de mayor riesgo.

Introduction: Infections by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the two most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the world. These infections affect principally less than 25-year-old individuals with sexual, reproductive and maternal and child health consequences. Objective: This study sought to estimate the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae among high school students in the 11 municipalities of the Sabana Central area of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 14 to 19-year old adolescents attending schools in the study area. After signing their consent, participants completed a questionnaire and provided a urine sample for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the sample of 972 sexually active adolescents, the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 2.24% and 0.10%, respectively. No co-infections were detected. Overall, 21.4% of women who tested positive for C. trachomatis were asymptomatic. Significant relationships were found between C. trachomatis infection and female gender, the consumption of alcohol or other substances during the previous sexual relationship, having one or more partners and the presence of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: The prevalence of C. trachomatis detected in this study was lower than the prevalence reported for similar groups; besides, contrary to the general trends, fewer asymptomatic cases were identified in this study. To prioritize preventive strategies in high-risk populations, an epidemiological surveillance system for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae should be implemented in Colombia, with screening performed using non-invasive molecular techniques.

Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Sexual Behavior , Urine/microbiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/microbiology , Gonorrhea/microbiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent Behavior , Colombia/epidemiology , Unsafe Sex , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Geography, Medical
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 22(6): 1001-1008, 16/12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732938


OBJECTIVES: to adapt and validate the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF) for the Portuguese culture. This instrument assesses protective factors that contribute to family resilience. Studies addressing resilience are embedded within the salutogenic paradigm, i.e. it addresses protective factors of individuals or groups without underestimating risk factors or vulnerability. METHOD: in order to assess the IFPF's linguistic and conceptual equivalence, the instrument was translated, retro-translated and the think-aloud protocol was used. We then verified the instrument's sensitiveness, reliability and validity of results to assess its psychometric characteristics. A factor analysis was performed of the principal components with varimax rotation of the scale's items and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for each dimension. A total of 85 families with disabled children, selected through simple random sampling, self-administered the instrument. RESULTS: the IFPF presents psychometric characteristics that are appropriate for the Portuguese population (Cronbach's alpha = .90). CONCLUSION: the IFPF was adapted and validated for the Portuguese culture and is an instrument to be used in studies intended to assess protective factors of family resilience. .

OBJETIVOS: adaptar e validar o Inventory of Family Protective Factors para a cultura portuguesa. Esse instrumento avalia os fatores protetores que contribuem para a resiliência familiar. Os estudos sobre resiliência inserem-se no paradigma salutogênico, abordando os fatores protetores dos indivíduos, ou grupos, sem subestimar os fatores de risco ou vulnerabilidade. MÉTODO: para avaliar a equivalência linguística e conceitual do Inventory of Family Protective Factors realizou-se a tradução, retroversão e reflexão falada; para aferir as características psicométricas do instrumento, verificou-se a sensibilidade, confiabilidade e a validade dos resultados. Foi realizada uma análise fatorial de componentes principais com rotação Varimax dos itens da escala e calculou-se o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach para cada dimensão. Através de uma amostragem aleatória simples, aplicou-se esse instrumento a 85 famílias de crianças com necessidades especiais que o autopreencheram. RESULTADOS: o Inventory of Family Protective Factors apresenta características psicométricas adequadas para a população portuguesa (alfa de Cronbach de .90). CONCLUSÃO: o Inventory of Family Protective Factors foi adaptado e validado para a cultura portuguesa. Considera-se que se trata de um instrumento útil para estudos nos quais há a proposta de avaliar os fatores protetores da resiliência familiar. .

OBJETIVOS: adaptar y validar el Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF) para la cultura portuguesa. Este instrumento evalúa los factores protectores que contribuyen para la resiliencia familiar. Los estudios sobre resiliencia se insieren en el paradigma salutogénico, abordando los factores protectores de los individuos o grupos, sin subestimar los factores de riesgo o vulnerabilidad. MÉTODO: para evaluar la equivalencia lingüística y conceptual del IFPF realizamos la traducción, retrotraducción y reflexión hablada; para evaluar las características psicométricas del instrumento verificamos la sensibilidad, confiabilidad y la validez de los resultados. Realizamos un análisis factorial de los componentes principales con rotación varimax de los ítems de la escala y calculamos el coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach para cada dimensión. A través de un muestreo aleatorio simple, aplicamos este instrumento a 85 familias de niños con necesidades especiales que lo autollenaron. RESULTADOS: el IFPF presenta características psicométricas adecuadas para la población portuguesa (alfa de Cronbach de 0,90). CONCLUSIÓN: el IFPF fue adaptado y validado para la cultura portuguesa. Consideramos que se trata de un instrumento útil para estudios que se propongan evaluar los factores protectores de la resiliencia familiar. .

L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/deficiency , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/enzymology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/physiology , Isoenzymes , Lactic Acid , Lactates/metabolism , Mutation , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Phenylacetates/pharmacology , Phenylpropionates/metabolism
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157093


Background & objectives: Gonorrhoea is among the most frequent of the estimated bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and has significant health implications in women. The use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) has been shown to provide enhanced diagnosis of gonorrhoea in female patients. However, it is recommended that an on-going assessment of the test assays should be performed to check for any probable sequence variation occurring in the targeted region. In this study, an in-house PCR targeting opa-gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was used in conjunction with 16S ribosomal PCR to determine the presence of gonorrhoea in female patients attending the tertiary care hospitals. Methods: Endocervical samples collected from 250 female patients with complaints of vaginal or cervical discharge or pain in lower abdomen were tested using opa and 16S ribosomal assay. The samples were also processed by conventional methods. Results: Of the 250 female patients included in the study, only one was positive by conventional methods (microscopy and culture) whereas 17 patients were found to be positive based on PCR results. Interpretation & conclusions: The clinical sensitivity of conventional methods for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae in female patients was low. The gonococcal detection rates increased when molecular method was used giving 16 additional positives. Studies should be done to find out other gene targets that may be used in the screening assays to detect the presence of gonorrhoea.

Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins , Female , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/genetics , Gonorrhea/microbiology , Humans , India , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Tertiary Care Centers , Vagina/microbiology , Vagina/pathology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(5): 489-493, oct. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-691153


Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are responsible for 3-10% of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents. 75% are asymptomatic. International standards recommend annual screening for C. trachomatis in sexually active women under 26 years. Self-collected vaginal swab is one of the less invasive screening methods, it is well accepted by patients and rarely used in our country. Aim: To determine the frequency of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae by a self-sampling method of vaginal swab and its acceptability in a group of adolescents and young adults. Patients and Methods: Women 18 to 25 years old. Vaginal samples were processed by nucleic acid amplification tests, Gen Probe APTIMA Combo2. Data were collected on sexual behavior and perception of self-sampling by survey. Results: We studied 344 patients with an average age of 21.7 years. Detection of C. trachomatis was positive in 7.9% women and it was not found in any of the patients studied for N. gonorrhoeae. 98% considered self-sampling instructions easy to understand, 87.5% felt comfortable taking the sample. Conclusions: Prevalence of C. trachomatis in the study population was similar to that described in other national and international studies. N. gonorrhoeae was not found in this series, which is consistent with literature reports. The self-sampling technique of vaginal sample was well accepted by the patients. However, they were anxious about the quality of the sample. According to our results, it is important to emphasize the importance of annual detection of these pathogens and that self-sampling technique is a valid alternative.

Chlamydia trachomatis y Neisseria gonorrhoeae son causantes de 3 a 10% de las infecciones de transmisión sexual en adolescentes. Las normas internacionales recomiendan su detección anual en mujeres sexualmente activas menores de 26 años. La adherencia a este tamizaje en mujeres jóvenes está limitada por el temor al examen ginecológico y alto costo del examen. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de detección de C. trachomatis y N. gonorrhoeae por un método de auto-toma de muestra vaginal y su aceptabilidad en un grupo de adolescentes y jóvenes adultas. Pacientes y Método: Se incluyeron mujeres de 18 a 25 años atendidas en Clínica Las Condes y el Servicio de Salud Estudiantil de la Universidad de Chile, que fueron instruidas para autotoma de muestra vaginal. Luego de dar su consentimiento, las muestras fueron estudiadas mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena para la detección de C. trachomatis y N. gonorrhoeae. Se recopilaron datos sobre conductas sexuales y percepción de la autotoma mediante encuesta. Se determinó la relación entre estos factores y la aceptabilidad del método. Resultados: Se reclutaron 344 mujeres, con una edad promedio de 21,7 años. La detección de C. trachomatis fue de 7,9% y no se encontró muestra positiva para N. gonorrhoeae. El reporte de flujo vaginal por la paciente se asoció a 1,5 veces mayor riesgo de C. trachomatis. El 98% consideró las instrucciones de la autotoma fáciles de entender, 87,5% se sintió cómoda al tomar la muestra. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de C. trachomatis en la población estudiada fue similar a lo descrito en otras series nacionales e internacionales; no se encontró N. gonorrhoeae en esta serie, lo que coincide con lo reportado en el extranjero. La técnica de autotoma de muestra vaginal fue bien aceptada por las pacientes; sin embargo, manifestaron ansiedad acerca de la seguridad de una toma adecuada. De acuerdo a nuestros resultados, es importante insistir en la detección anual de estos patógenos siendo la técnica de autotoma una alternativa válida.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Self Care/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Prevalence
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(3): 304-309, May-Jun/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679518


Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a public referral center for sexually transmitted diseases and specialized care services (STD/SCS) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods Between March 2011 and February 2012, 201 specimens of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were consecutively obtained from men with symptoms of urethritis and women with symptons of cervicitis or were obtained during their initial consultation. The strains were tested using the disk diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin, tetracycline and spectinomycin were determined using the E-test. Results The specimens were 100% sensitive to cefixime, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin and exhibited resistances of 4.5% (9/201), 21.4% (43/201), 11.9% (24/201), 22.4% (45/201) and 32.3% (65/201) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate sensitivities of 17.9% (36/201), 4% (8/201), 16.9% (34/201), 71.1% (143/201) and 22.9% (46/201) were observed for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. The specimens had plasmid-mediated resistance to penicillin PPNG 14.5% (29/201) and tetracycline TRNG 11.5% (23/201). Conclusions The high percentage of detected resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin indicates that these antibiotics are not appropriate for gonorrhea treatment at the Health Clinic and possibly in Belo Horizonte. The resistance and intermediate sensitivity of these isolates indicates that caution is recommended in the use of azithromycin and emphasizes the need to establish mechanisms for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for the effective control of gonorrhea. .

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Gonorrhea/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Phenotype
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 45(1): 54-6, mar. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1171767


A total of 115 unique clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 54 strains of other genera and species included in the database of the NH card were tested by the Vitek 2C System (bioMÞrieux, Marcy L’Etoile, Francia). The gonoccocal isolates had been previously identified by conventional biochemical tests and by the latex agglutination test with monoclonal antibodies using the Phadebact Monoclonal GC Test (Bactus AB, Sweden). The NH card correctly identified 111 (96.5

) strains of 115 isolates; one strain was identified with low discriminatory power (0.86

) was misidentified (as Neisseria meningitidis) whereas the other two (1.7

) remained unidentified. The NH card for N. gonorrhoeae identification provided 100

specificity. The results were available within 6 hours. The NH card could be considered a reliable and useful tool for routine use in Neisseria gonorrhoeae identification.

Gonorrhea/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Humans , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , False Positive Reactions , Sensitivity and Specificity , Latex Fixation Tests , Bacterial Typing Techniques/instrumentation
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156323


Background. In the past, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to antimicrobial agents used for its treatment. Consequently, extended-spectrum cephalosporins form the mainstay of treatment for gonorrhoea. Methods. Samples from 88 patients attending the sexually transmitted diseases clinics from December 2009 to January 2011 in two referral hospitals in New Delhi were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the disc diffusion method as per the calibrated dichotomous sensitivity technique against the following antibiotics: penicillin (0.5 i.u.), tetracycline (10 μg), nalidixic acid (30 μg), ciprofloxacin (1 μg), spectinomycin (100 μg), ceftriaxone (0.5 μg) and cefpodoxime (10 μg) (Oxoid UK). Azithromycin (15 μg) (Oxoid, UK) was tested as per the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Etest for penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin and azithromycin as per the manufacturer’s instruction (Biomerieux, France). Results. Eighteen isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were obtained. Three of these had decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefpodoxime by the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone for two isolates were 0.064 μg/ml and for one isolate it was 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion. Higher minimum inhibitory concentrations to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is of concern as it has been shown to precede treatment failure. This may warrant its use in increased/multiple dosages alone or possibly in combination (dual therapy), thereby complicating effective disease control. Our report is in accordance with earlier reports from different parts of the world. Therefore, a continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is crucial to tailor treatment schedules for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a particular geographical region.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Ceftizoxime/analogs & derivatives , Ceftizoxime/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Penicillins/pharmacology , Spectinomycin/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 273-276, 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676902


In the study, the ciprofloxacin resistance rate was 100%. High-level ciprofloxacin resistance rate was 63.55%. Sixteen different mutation patterns involved in the formation of ciprofloxacin resistance were identified. The most prevalent were patterns P7 (25.2%), P8 (15.0%), P9 (11.2%), P1 (10.3%), and P5 (10.3%). All of the 107 NG isolates analyzed for mutations in the study have demonstrated a change of Ser-91 → Phe in the gyrA gene, and all except one have demonstrated a change in position 95 of the amino acid sequence. All of the 68 high-level QRNG isolates had double mutations in gyrA gene combined with a single or two mutations in parC gene. It is most important that a new mutation site of Ile-97 → Met in gyrA and a new mutation of Leu-106 → Ile in parC were found in the study, both leading to high-level ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC values, 8 µg/mL, 32 µg/mL, respectively). Therefore, we confim that gyrA mutations are necessary for the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype and parC mutations are correlated intimately with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. In China fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains is very serious and the new mutation sites in the fluoroquinolone resistance-determining regions emerge more and more quickly. Hence, in China fluoroquinolones, which are used to treat gonorrhoea presently, should be substituted by a new antibiotics.

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ciprofloxacin/analysis , Ciprofloxacin , Disease Susceptibility , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Gonorrhea , In Vitro Techniques , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Patients , Prevalence
Rev. méd. Chile ; 137(12): 1569-1574, dic. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-543133


Background: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are common sexually transmitted diseases among young women and little has been doing to study them in Chilean adolescents. Aim: Determine the rates of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae in Chilean young women. Material and methods: Urine samples were obtained from 203 sexually active females under 25 year-old, who attended hospitals from either high or low-income areas in Chile's capital, Santiago. C trachomatis and Ngonorrhoeae were detected by nucleic acid amplification testing. Results: Seven percent of samples were positive for C trachomatis. AU samples were negative for N gonorrhoeae. Among pregnant women, 19 percent of samples were positive for C trachomatis, while non-pregnant women were positive on 5.5 percent (p =0.04). Systematic use of barrier contraception was referring by 12 percent of women. AU of the latter was free of C trachomatis. No association was observing between age, number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, and presence of uro-gynecological symptoms, socioeconomic status and the rate of C trachomatis. Conclusions: Seven percent of this group of Chilean young women was infected with C trachomatis. The figure rises to 19 percent if pregnant. Surveillance and screening programs should been implemented to prevent sequels on this vulnerable population.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Cohort Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sexual Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
Rev. chil. infectol ; 26(6): 529-539, dic. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-536833


Non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STI) are an important cause of physical, psychological and social distress, have severe consequences for women's reproductive health and may be transmitted to the newborn child. These infections are also risk factors for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other STI, and for premature labor. In the last years we have observed a gradual decrease in the national incidence of gonorrhea. The implementation of a screening program in our country for Chlomydia trachomatis is necessary, since up to 80 percent of infections in women are asymptomatic. Due to medical, psychosocial and legal reasons, laboratory diagnosis of STI has to be certain. This offers a great challenge to laboratories. Since etiological agents are susceptible to environmental conditions, present a high adaptation to their human host and have particular physiological characteristics, their laboratory diagnosis is more difficult than diagnosis of conventional microorganisms. Otherwise, the diagnostic techniques currently available for non-viral STI are characterized by their excellent sensitivity and specificity, which result of great interest given the curable nature of these infections. Clinical specimens obtained for diagnosis of STI and other genital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis or Candidiasis represent a large proportion of specimens processed by clinical laboratories. Thus, the creation of norms and quality control guidelines for laboratories which diagnose these infections, and also the epidemiologic and genetic surveillance of circulating sex transmitted microorganisms should be considered a priority in our country. The objective of this study is to review current literature on accurate diagnostic procedures especially for three non-viral STI agents: C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis.

Female , Humans , Male , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/microbiology , Trichomonas Vaginitis/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolation & purification
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 68(5): 358-362, sep.-oct. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633568


En la Argentina los primeros hallazgos de Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistentes a las fluorquinolonas se documentaron en el año 2000. Desde enero de 2005 hasta junio de 2007, se evaluaron 595 hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) y 571 varones heterosexuales para investigar la presencia de N. gonorrhoeae y la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. La prevalencia de gonorrea en HSH y varones heterosexuales fue 0.091(91/1000) en ambos grupos y el % de N. gonorrhoeae resistente a ciprofloxacina (NGRC) fue 20.0% y 3.8% respectivamente (p: 0.0416). Trece de 106 aislamientos fueron NGRC, correspondieron a 11 HSH y 2 varones heterosexuales. Seis HSH presentaron uretritis, uno de ellos con localización simultánea en recto y cinco pacientes fueron asintomáticos (recto, 2; faringe, 2; uretra, 1). No se pudo demostrar relación epidemiológica entre ellos. Dos varones heterosexuales presentaron uretritis. Los 8 pacientes sintomáticos fueron tratados empíricamente con ciprofloxacina y se documentó fracaso de tratamiento. Estos y los portadores de NGRC recibieron tratamiento con 500 mg de ceftriaxona IM. Los controles postratamiento demostraron la erradicación del microorganismo. Los aislamientos de NGRC presentaron CIM de ciprofloxacina entre 2 y 32 µg/ml, todos fueron beta-lactamasa negativos, 4/13 presentaron resistencia cromosómica a penicilina (CIM= 1 µg/ml), y los rangos de CIM (µg/ml) para los siguientes antibióticos fueron: penicilina: 0.016-1; tetraciclina: 0.125-2; ceftriaxona: 0.004-0.008; eritromicina: 0.032-2; azitromicina: 0.032-0.5; espectinomicina: 8-32. Dado el elevado porcentaje de aislamientos de NGRC en HSH en nuestro hospital, debería utilizarse otro antimicrobiano para el tratamiento empírico en estos pacientes.

The first isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to fluorquinolones in Argentina were reported in 2000. Since January 2005 to June 2007 Neisseria gonorrhoeae was studied in 595 men who have sex with men (MSM) and 571 heterosexual men. The gonorrhea prevalence in MSM and heterosexual men was 0.091(91/1000) and the Neisseria gonorrhoeae ciprofloxacin resistant (CRNG) was 20% in MSM and 3.8% in heterosexual men (p: 0.0416). Thirteen out of 106 isolates from 11 MSM and 2 heterosexual men were CRNG. Six out of eleven MSM had urethritis, one also carried Neisseria gonorrhoeae in rectum and 5 patients were asymptomatic carriers (rectum 2, pharynx 2, urethra 1). No epidemiological relation was found among the patients. Two heterosexual men had urethritis. The 8 symptomatic men were treated with ciprofloxacin but treatment failed in all of them. These patients and the asymptomatic ones were treated with ceftriaxone, 500 mg IM. The post treatment microbiological controls were negative. The CRNG isolates had ciprofloxacin MIC between 2 and 32 (µg/ml), all were negative to penicillinase, 4 out of 13 were chromosomally resistant to penicillin (MIC: 1 µg/ml). The MICs (µg/ml) ranges for several antimicrobial agents were: penicillin: 0.016-1; tetracycline: 0.125-2; ceftriaxone: 0.004-0.008; erythromycin: 0.032-2; azithromycin: 0.032-0.5; spectinomycin: 8-32. Due to the high level of ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolated from MSM in our hospital, another antimicrobial agent for empirical therapy should be used in these patients.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gonorrhea/drug therapy , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Argentina/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/microbiology , Heterosexuality , Homosexuality, Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Treatment Failure
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 40(3): 173-179, jul.-sep. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634598


Se determinaron los fenotipos de resistencia caracterizados por la concentración inhibitoria mínima, la difusión con discos y la producción de β-lactamasa de 434 aislamientos de Neisseria gonorrhoeae obtenidos de pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual del Hospital Dr. José María Cullen, Santa Fe, Argentina. Se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a los siguientes antimicrobianos: penicilina, tetraciclina, ciprofloxacina, espectinomicina, azitromicina y ceftriaxona. A tres aislamientos resistentes a ciprofloxacina se les realizó electroforesis de campo pulsado. Se destacaron tres situaciones epidemiológicas de interés: en el año 1997, alta incidencia de aislamientos con resistencia plasmídica a tetraciclina (33,3%); en el período 2002-2004, un aumento significativo de la resistencia plasmídica a penicilina (9,7% a 34,8%); y en el año 2000, la emergencia de dos de los tres primeros aislamientos con resistencia a quinolonas del país. El primer aislamiento resistente a azitromicina en nuestro hospital emerge en el 2004. Este trabajo jerarquiza el rol del Laboratorio de Microbiología Clínica en la orientación del tratamiento empírico de la gonorrea.

Resistance phenotypes characterized by minimum inhibitory concentration, disk diffusion and β-lactamase production were determined in 434 isolates from patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Disease Service at Dr. José María Cullen Hospital in Santa Fe, Argentina. Susceptibility tests to penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, espectinomycin, azithromycin and ceftriaxone were performed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was conducted made to on three ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Epidemiologically speaking, three interesting events should be highlighted: during 1997, plasmid-mediated high level tetracycline-resistant strains were observed (33.3%); from 2002 to 2004 a significant increase of plasmid-mediated penicillin-resistant strains was registered (9.7% to 34.8%); and in the year 2000 the first two quinolone-resistant strains emerged in the province. In our hospital, the first azithromycin-resistant isolate emerged in 2004. We therefore emphasize the importance of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory in order to provide information for the empiric treatment of this infection.

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Argentina , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hospitals , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Time Factors