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Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 454-462, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377387


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of head and neck cancers is highly challenging owing to the complexity of regional anatomy and wide range of lesions. The diagnostic evaluation includes detailed physical examination, biopsy and imaging modalities for disease extent and staging. Appropriate imaging is done to enable determination of precise tumor extent and involvement of lymph nodes, and detection of distant metastases and second primary tumors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial staging discrepancy between conventional contrasted computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on management plans for head and neck malignancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study in two tertiary-level hospitals. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with primary head and neck malignant tumors who underwent contrasted computed tomography and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments. The staging and treatment plans were compared with the incremental information obtained after 18F-FDG PET/CT. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET/CT was found to raise the stage in 33.3% of the cases and the treatment intent was altered in 43.3% of them, while there was no management change in the remaining 56.7%. 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity (96% versus 89.2%) and accuracy (93% versus 86.7%) than conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity and accuracy for detecting head and neck malignancy, in comparison with conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. 18F-FDG PET/CT improved the initial staging and substantially impacted the management strategy for head and neck malignancies.

Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 303-313, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364958


ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine independent predictors of inguinal lymph node (ILN) metastasis in patients with penile cancer. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed all patients with penile cancer who underwent surgery at our medical center in the last ten years (n=157). Using univariate and multivariate logistic-regression models, we assessed associations with age, medical-history, phimosis, onset-time, number and maximum diameter of involved ILNs measured by imaging, pathological T stage, degree of tumor differentiation and/or cornification, lymphatic vascular infiltration (LVI), nerve infiltration, and ILN metastases. Interaction and stratified analyses were used to assess age, phimosis, onset time, number of ILNs, cornification, and nerve infiltration. Results: A total of 110 patients were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were significantly correlated with ILN metastasis: maximum diameter of enlarged ILNs, T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI. Among patients with a maximum ILN diameter ≥1.5cm, 50% had lymph node metastasis whereas 30.6% patients with a maximum ILN diameter <1.5cm showed LNM. Among 44 patients with stage Ta/T1, 10 showed ILN metastases, while 47.0% patients with stage T2 showed ILN metastases. Among 40 patients with highly differentiated penile-cancer, eight showed ILN metastasis, while 47.1% patients with low-to-middle differentiation showed ILN metastases. The rate of LNM was 33.3% in the LVI-free group and 64.3% in the LVI group. Conclusion: Our single-center results suggested that maximum ILN diameter, pathological T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI were independent risk factors for ILN metastases.

Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Penile Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 212-219, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374718


Abstract Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has the highest metastatic potential of all head and neck cancers. The survival time of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma has improved significantly in the last decades due to the use of combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as advances in radiotherapy techniques. However, appropriately 30% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma suffer a poor prognosis, mainly due to distant metastasis. Objective: The study aimed to identify the survival and prognostic factors in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients treated for synchronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma or metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma for 14years (2003-2016). Overall survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test for the whole population and both groups of patients. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox model; p-values < 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: One hundred and twelve patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included (51 patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and 61 patients with metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma). In the whole population, the median overall survival was 10 months (1-156 months). In the multivariate analysis, female gender, poor performance status (WHO > 1) and metachronous metastasis were independent prognostic factors. In the metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, the median overall survival was 13 months (1-156 months). In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were non-oligometastatic disease, severe (G3-G4) chemotherapy toxicity and the lack of nasopharyngeal and metastatic site irradiation. In the metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, the median overall survival was 7 months (1-41 months). In multivariate analysis, the poor performance status (WHO > 1) was an independent metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma prognostic factor. Conclusion: Oligometastatic patients with synchronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma had better survival. The locoregional treatment of primitive nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved survival in patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma who responded to induction chemotherapy. Local irradiation of metastatic sites improved survival of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy toxicity altered survival among patients with synchronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Resumo Introdução: O carcinoma nasofaríngeo tem o maior potencial metastático de todos os tipos de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. O tempo de sobrevida dos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo melhorou significativamente nas últimas décadas devido ao uso combinado de quimioterapia e radioterapia e os avanços nas técnicas de radioterapia. No entanto, aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo têm um prognóstico ruim, principalmente devido a metástases a distância. Objetivo: Identificar a sobrevida e os fatores prognósticos no carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático. Método: Foi feita uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes tratados por carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico ou carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático metacrônico por 14 anos (2003-2016). A sobrevida global foi analisada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e comparada pelo teste de log-rank para toda a população e ambos os grupos de pacientes. A análise multivariada foi feita com o modelo de Cox; valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados como significância estatística. Resultados: Foram incluídos 112 pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático (51 com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico e 61 com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático metacrônico). Em toda a população, a mediana da sobrevida global foi de 10 meses (1-156 meses). Na análise multivariada, sexo feminino, baixo status de desempenho (OMS > 1) e metástase metacrônica foram fatores prognósticos independentes. Nos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico, a mediana da sobrevida global foi de 13 meses (1-156 meses). Na análise multivariada, os fatores prognósticos independentes foram doença não oli-gometastática, toxicidade grave à quimioterapia (G3 - G4) e falta de irradiação nasofaríngea e do sítio metastático. Nos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático metacrônico, a mediana da sobrevida global foi de 7 meses (1-41 meses). Na análise multivariada, o baixo status de desempenho (OMS > 1) foi um fator prognóstico independente. Conclusão: Pacientes oligometastáticos com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico tiveram melhor sobrevida. O tratamento locorregional do carcinoma nasofaríngeo primário melhorou a sobrevida em pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico que responderam à quimioterapia de indução. A irradiação local dos locais metastáticos melhorou a sobrevida dos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático. A toxicidade de quimioterapia de grau 3 ou 4 alterou a sobrevida entre pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico.

Humans , Female , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 25-31, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375756


Objectives Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the world, with survival correlated with the extension of the disease at diagnosis. In many low-/middle-income countries, the incidence of CRC is increasing rapidly, while decreasing rates are observed in high-income countries. We evaluated the anatomopathological profile of 390 patients diagnosed with CRC who underwent surgical resection, over a six-year period, in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Results Adenocarcinomas accounted for 98% of the cases of primary colorectal tumors, and 53.8% occurred in female patients. The average age of the sample was 63.5 years, with 81.8% of individuals older than 50 years of age and 6.4% under 40 years of age. The most frequent location was the distal colon; pT3 status was found in 71% of patients, and pT4 status, in 14.4%. Angiolymphatic and lymph-node involvements were found in 48.7% and 46.9% of the cases respectively. Distant metastasis was observed in 9.2% of the patients. Advanced disease was diagnosed in almost half of the patients (48.1%). The women in the sample had poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas (p=0.043). Patients under 60 years of age had a higher rate of lymph-node metastasis (p=0.044). Tumor budding was present in 27.2% of the cases, and it was associated with the female gender, themucinous histological type, and the depth of invasion (pT3 and pT4). Conclusions We conclude that the diagnosis of advanced disease in CRC is still a reality, with a high occurrence of aggressive prognostic factors, which results in a worse prognosis. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 40-48, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364901


Abstract Introduction Knowing the information regarding the panorama of lymphoma diagnosis in patients treated in the Brazilian Public Unified Health System from the last 10 years is a challenge for Strategic Health Planning. Objective To characterize the Brazilian population with lymphoma treated in the Brazilian Public Unified Health System between 2008 and 2017 regarding staging, sex, residence site and mortality. Material and methods A descriptive, retrospective, and longitudinal trial with secondary data from DataSUS (SIA/SUS and SIM/SUS) obtained from patients with ICD-10 C81-85. Results There were 70,850 lymphoma cases between 2008 and 2017, of which 55% were male, the median age was 51 years, and 27% had Hodgkin Lymphoma. Most patients (56%) were treated outside the residence city. São Paulo State accounted for 25% of patients. Treatment initiation took more than 60 days in 27% of cases. A total of 45,601 deaths were due to lymphoma (12% Hodgkin Lymphoma and 88% Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma), with a median age 63 years, and were mainly males (55%). Staging data were inadequate in 23% of patients, and analysis was performed only on the valid records. Advanced disease was diagnosed in 58% of patients (60% male; 57% female) and was more common in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (62%) versus Hodgkin Lymphoma (49%). Discussion Late diagnosis interferes with mortality rates. Health promotion and cancer prevention campaigns, especially targeting the male public, and training for early diagnosis and early treatment are needed. Conclusion Effective measures for early diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed for lymphoma control.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hodgkin Disease/diagnosis , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Mortality , Delayed Diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 89-98, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356281


ABSTRACT Purpose: Contrast-enhanced CT scan is the standard staging modality for patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy (RC). Involvement of lymph nodes (LN) determines prognosis of patients with bladder cancer. The detection of LN metastasis by CT scan is still insufficient. Therefore, we investigated various CT scan characteristics to predict lymph node ratio (LNR) and its impact on survival. Also, pre-operative CT scan characteristics might hold potential to risk stratify cN+ patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed preoperative CT scans of patients undergoing RC in a tertiary high volume center. Retrospectively, local tumor stage and LN characteristics such as size, morphology (MLN) and number of loco-regional LN (NLN) were investigated and correlation to LNR and survival was analyzed. CT scan characteristics were used to develop a risk stratification using Kaplan-Maier and multivariate analysis. Results: 764 cN0 and 166 cN+ patients with complete follow-up and imaging data were included in the study. Accuracy to detect LN metastasis and locally advanced tumor stage in CT scan was 72% and 62%. LN larger than 15mm in diameter were significantly associated with higher LNR (p=0.002). Increased NLN correlated with decreased CSS and OS (p=0.001: p=0.002). Furthermore, CT scan based scoring system precisely differentiates low-risk and high-risk profiles to predict oncological outcome (p <0.001). Conclusion: In our study, solely LN size >15mm significantly correlated with higher LNR. Identification of increased loco-regional LN was associated with worse survival. For the first time, precise risk stratification based on computed-tomography findings was developed to predict oncological outcome for clinical lymph node-positive patients undergoing RC.

Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cystectomy , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922155


The concept of spread through air spaces (STAS) was first proposed in the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus and Heart (version 2015). STAS is defined as the micropapillary clusters, solid nests or single cells of tumor that exist in the air spaces of the surrounding lung parenchyma beyond the edge of the main tumor. Meanwhile, apart from the traditional invasion modes of lung adenocarcinoma (interstitial, visceral pleura and lym-phovascular invasion), STAS has been identified as the fourth invasion mode of lung adenocarcinoma. In recent years, the research on STAS has been a hot spot in the field of lung adenocarcinoma. The existence of STAS is related to lung cancer histopathology, gene mutation and other factors, and many studies have also confirmed that it can be used as an independent factor for tumor recurrence and prognosis. However, according to some studies, human factors can cause morphological artifacts of STAS, which still needs to be distinguished in clinical work. This paper reviews the research progress of STAS classification, related pathological features, genetic status changes, and human factors that may cause STAS artifacts.

Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928994


OBJECTIVES@#There is less clinical data on multiple myeloma (MM) in China, and the aim of this study was to collect and analyze the clinical data of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients in Hunan Province during 1 year, to understand the real clinical features and treatment outcome for Hunan Province patients with MM, and to strengthen the understanding of the standardized diagnosis process and treatment plan of MM.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 529 patients with NDMM in 12 large-scale general hospitals in Hunan Province from January 1 to December 31, 2019 were collected and analyzed, including baseline data, treatment regimens, duration of treatment, and adverse reactions. The clinical characteristics, treatment, and safety of patients were analyzed by SPSS 21.0.@*RESULTS@#Among the 529 NDMM patients, the age was 33-90 (median 64) years and the male-female ratio was 1.38꞉1. The clinical features ranged from high to low were as follows: Bone pain (77.7%), anemia (66.8%), renal insufficiency (40.6%), hypercalcemia (15.1%). Typing: IgG 46.5%, IgA 24.6%, IgD 2.6%, IgM 0.8%, light chain 15.7%, double clone 3.0%, no secretion 0.6%, absence 6.2%. Staging: Durie-Salmon stage I, II, and III were 4.5%, 10.6%, 77.3%, respectively, and 40 cases (7.6%) missed this data. International Staging System (ISS) stage I, II, and III were 10.4%, 24.4%, and 47.6%, respectively, and 93 cases (17.6%) were missing. Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) stage I, II, and III were 5.5%, 27.0%, 23.1%, respectively, and 235 cases (44.4%) missed this data. Among the 98 NDMM patients in the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Durie-Salmon (DS) stage missing 2.0%, ISS stage missing 12.3%, and R-ISS stage missing 12.3%.Treatment: Among the 529 patients,475 received treatment, the rate of treatment was 89.8%; 67.4% of the patients were able to complete four courses of chemotherapy at induction phase, 90.3% of the patients received proteasome inhibitor based combination chemotherapy regimen more than once, 67.2% received immunomodulator based regimen more than once, and 59.8% of the patients received proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulator based combination chemotherapy regimen more than once. Curative: Overall response rate (ORR) and high quality response rate (HQR) of the 4-course group were better than those of the 2-course group (ORR: 85% vs 65%, P=0.006; HQR: 68.3% vs 24.0%, P<0.001). The HQR of the standard chemotherapy group was better than that of the non-standard chemotherapy group (65.1% vs 48.2%, P=0.035). Adverse reactions during treatment included hematologic toxicity (17.5%), peripheral neuropathy (24.8%), gastrointestinal adverse events (23.8%), pulmonary infection (25.9%), herpes zoster (4.6%), and venous thrombotic events (1.7%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In 2019, the missed diagnosis rate of MM patients was high, the medium age of diagnosis was older, and the accuracy of patient diagnosis was not high. There is a great difference among medical centers, especially in the stage and risk stratified, nearly half of NDMM patients are not diagnosed with R-ISS stage; the lack of cytogenetic data needs to be supplemented by follow-up studies. A high proportion of patients with NDMM present with bone pain and anemia.Patients received treatment have higher use of chemotherapy regimens containing proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulators, but there is a significant gap among different medical centers, and standardized treatment needs to be strengthened. The safety during chemotherapy is controllable.

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Pain , Prognosis , Proteasome Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928776


The rate of recurrence and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer after radical resection is still very high. The risk factors for recurrence and metastasis have been extensively studied, but the dynamic pattern of postoperative recurrence hazard over time is relatively lacking. The dynamic recurrence hazard rate curve is applied to describe the rate of recurrence at any point time among the "at-risk" patients. In this article, by reviewing the previous literature, the characteristics of the dynamic recurrence and metastasis pattern after radical resection of non-small cell lung cancer and the clinical factors affecting the recurrence and metastasis pattern are summarized, in order to screen out specific populations with high recurrence risk and give them personalized follow-up strategy and diagnosis and treatment.

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
Medisan ; 25(5)2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1346542


Introducción: En los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón resulta vital el tratamiento quirúrgico, pues posibilita una estadificación patológica minuciosa, así como un pronóstico y tratamiento acordes con la carga tumoral de cada paciente. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia del tipo de linfadenectomía mediastinal en la supervivencia de pacientes operados por cáncer pulmonar de células no pequeñas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y longitudinal en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, durante un período de 10 años (de 2009 a 2019), en 55 pacientes seleccionados aleatoriamente, quienes recibieron algún tipo de linfadenectomía del mediastino además de resección pulmonar. En el procesamiento estadístico, se utilizaron el número absoluto, el porcentaje y la media como medidas de resumen; también la prueba de independencia de la Χ2, para identificar la posible asociación entre variables, y el método de Kaplan-Meier, para precisar la supervivencia. Resultados: La técnica de linfadenectomía mediastínica más utilizada fue el muestreo ganglionar (47,3 %), con la cual también se obtuvo un mayor porcentaje (84,6) de resultados negativos en cuanto a invasión neoplásica, a diferencia de lo observado con la disección ganglionar sistemática, que reveló positividad de infiltración tumoral en un elevado número de pacientes (52,9 %). Asimismo, los pacientes operados mediante disección ganglionar sistemática mostraron mejor supervivencia a los 6 meses (100 %) y al año (87,5 %); a los 5 años las cifras de supervivencia con esta técnica fueron superiores a las obtenidas con todos los tipos de escisiones ganglionares practicadas. Conclusiones: Existió mayor probabilidad del diagnóstico de invasión linfática del mediastino y una mejor supervivencia en los pacientes tratados con disección ganglionar sistemática. Por ello, se recomienda protocolizar dicho tratamiento quirúrgico, lo cual pudiera estar avalado por un ensayo clínico que permita comparar grupos homogéneos que reciban cada tipo de linfadenectomía, respectivamente, a fin de recoger una evidencia científica relevante y concluyente.

Introduction: In the patients with lung cancer it is vital the surgical treatment, because it facilitates a meticulous pathological staging, as well as a prognosis and treatment according to each patient tumoral charge. Objective: To determine the influence of the mediastinal limphadenectomy type in the survival of patients operated due to non-small cells lung cancer. Methods: A descriptive and longitudinal study was carried out in the General Surgery Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical-Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, during 10 years (from 2009 to 2019), in 55 patients selected at random who received some type of mediastinum lymphadenectomy besides lung resection. In the statistical processing, the absolute number, percentage and the mean were used, as summary measures; also the chi-squared test to identify the possible association among variables, and the Kaplan-Meier method, to specify survival. Results: The most used medistinic lymphadenectomy technique was the ganglionar sampling (47.3 %), with which a higher percentage of negative results was also obtained (84.6) as regards neoplastic invasion, contrary to that is observed with the systematic ganglionar dissection that revealed metastasis positivity in a high number of the patients that received it (52.9 %). Likewise, patients operated by means of systematic ganglionar dissection showed a better survival 6 months later (100 %) and a year later (87.5 %); after 5 years the survival number with this technique was superior to all the types of ganglionar excisions practiced. Conclusions: There was a higher probability of the mediastinic lymphatic infiltration diagnosis and better survival in the patients treated with systematic ganglionar dissection. Reason why, it is recommended to protocolize this surgical treatment, which could be endorsed by a clinical trial that allows to compare homogeneous groups that receive each type of lymphadenectomy, respectively, in order to obtain an outstanding and conclusive scientific evidence.

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Neoplasm Staging , Survivorship , Lymph Node Excision
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1387, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357302


Introducción: En la reestadificación del paciente con tumor de recto irradiado, la elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico puede identificar la fibrosis y diferenciarla del tumor residual. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico en la reestadificación del tumor de recto irradiado. Métodos: Estudio observacional y descriptivo (serie de casos), en 31 pacientes con tumor de recto irradiado, reestadificados mediante elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico. Para determinar la utilidad de la elastografía se calcularon: sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo, índice de Youden y concordancia diagnóstica según índice kappa, de la elastografía y del ultrasonido endoscópico por separado, estos resultados fueron comparados en ambas pruebas diagnósticas. El estudio histológico de la pieza quirúrgica fue el estándar de referencia. Resultados: El índice de concordancia del ultrasonido endoscópico (77,4 por ciento), por elastografía (87,1 por ciento). El ultrasonido endoscópico mostró mayor sensibilidad y valor predictivo negativo que la elastografía, por lo que la posibilidad de descartar presencia de tumor con un resultado negativo fue superior. La elastografía tuvo mayor especificidad (77,78 por ciento) y valor predictivo positivo (90,91 por ciento) que el ultrasonido endoscópico (22,22 y 75,86 por ciento); fue más útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de tumor. Conclusiones: La utilidad de la elastografía cualitativa asociada al ultrasonido endoscópico, en la reestadificación del tumor de recto irradiado, consiste en incrementar la especificidad del estudio y discernir mejor entre la fibrosis y el tumor residual(AU)

Introduction: Qualitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography can identify fibrosis and differentiate it from residual tumor in the re-staging of patients with irradiated rectal tumors. Objective: To determine the usefulness of qualitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography in the re-staging of the irradiated rectal tumor. Methods: An observational and descriptive study (series of cases) was carried out in 31 patients with irradiated rectal tumor, restaged by means of Qualitative elastography by endoscopic ultrasound. To determine the usefulness of elastography, the following were calculated: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index and diagnostic agreement according to kappa, elastography and endoscopic ultrasound separately; these results were compared in both diagnostic tests. The histological study of the surgical specimen was the reference standard. Results: The concordance index of endoscopic ultrasound (77.4 percent), that obtained by elastography (87.1 percent). Endoscopic ultrasound showed greater sensitivity and negative predictive value than elastography, so the possibility of ruling out the presence of a tumor with a negative result was higher. Elastography had greater specificity (77.78 percent) and positive predictive value (90.91 percent) than endoscopic ultrasound (22.22 and 75.86 percent); it was most helpful in confirming the tumor diagnosis. Conclusions: The usefulness of qualitative elastography associated with endoscopic ultrasound, in the re-staging of the irradiated rectal tumor, consists in increasing the specificity of the study, thus allowing a better discernment between fibrosis and residual tumor(AU)

Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Neoplasm, Residual , Endosonography/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Neoplasm Staging/methods
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 777-783, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286766


ABSTRACT Hypothesis: Partial Nephrectomy is oncological safe in patients with pT3a RCC. Purpose: To compare the oncological and functional outcomes of patients with pT3a RCC scheduled for PN and RN. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with pT3a N0 M0 RCC who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy from 2005 to 2016. Perioperative characteristics, including estimated glomerular filtration rate, tumor size, pathological histology, and RENAL nephrometry score, were compared between patients scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to compare overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival between planned procedure type. Results: Of the 589 patients, 369 (63%) and 220 (37%) were scheduled for radical and partial nephrectomy, respectively; 26 (12%) of the scheduled partial nephrectomy cases were intraoperatively converted to radical nephrectomy. After adjusting for tumor size and histology, there were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (hazard ratio 0.66; 95% CI, 0.38-1.13), cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.53; 95% CI, 0.16-1.75), or recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 0.66; 95% CI, 0.34-1.28) between patients scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy. Fewer patients scheduled for partial nephrectomy had estimated glomerular filtration rate reductions 3 to 9 months after surgery than patients scheduled for radical nephrectomy. Conclusion: We found no evidence that patients scheduled to undergo partial nephrectomy had poorer oncologic outcomes than patients scheduled to undergo radical nephrectomy. In select patients with pT3a renal cell carcinoma in whom partial nephrectomy is deemed feasible by the surgeon, partial nephrectomy should not be discouraged.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 565-573, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346508


Resumen El cáncer de ovario ocupa el tercer lugar en frecuencia entre los cánceres ginecológicos en Argentina. Existe un déficit de información de esta enfermedad en nuestro país respecto al tratamiento y evolución oncológica de las pacientes. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar los resultados perioperatorios y oncológicos, en pacientes con tumor epitelial de ovario con estadios avanzados. Presentamos una cohorte retrospectiva en la que se evaluó la supervivencia libre de enfermedad y la supervivencia global en pacientes con tumores epiteliales de ovario tratadas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires entre junio del 2009 a junio del 2017. De 170 pacientes incluidas en el estudio, 72 (42.4%) fueron tratadas con una cirugía de citorreducción primaria (CCP), mientras que 98 (57.6%) recibieron neoadyuvancia y luego cirugía del intervalo (CI). La tasa de citorreducción óptima fue de 75% y de 79% respectivamente. No se encontraron diferencias en los resultados perioperatorios, ni en las complicaciones graves entre ambos grupos. La mediana de SLE en el grupo de CCP fue de 2.5 años (IC 95% 1.6-3.1) mientras que en el grupo de CI fue de 1.4 (IC 95% 1.2-1.7) p < 0.001. La mediana de supervivencia global fue de 5.8 años en CCP, y de 3.5 años en CI. En pacientes adecuadamente seleccionadas la CCP presenta mejores resultados oncológicos a la neoadyuvancia y CI. La selección correcta de las pacientes para tratamiento primario es fundamental para definir la conducta terapéutica.

Abstract Ovarian cancer represents the third gynecological cancer in frequency in Argentina. There is a lack of information on this pathology in our country regarding the treatment and evolution of patients who suffer it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perioperative and oncological results in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian tumor. We present a retrospective cohort in which we evaluated disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with epithelial ovarian tumor treated at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires between June 2009 and June 2017. Of 170 patients included in the study, 72 (42.4%) received primary debulking surgery (CCP), while 98 (57.6%) received neoadjuvant therapy and interval surgery (CI). The optimal cyto-reduction rate was 75% and 79% respectively. No differences were found in perioperative outcomes, or in severe complications between the two groups. The median disease-free survival in the CCP group was 2.5 years (95% CI 1.6-3.1) while in the CI group it was 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7) p < 0.001. The median overall survival was 5.8 years in CPP, and 3.5 years in CI. Faced with a meticulous selection by a group of experts, patients with advanced ovarian cancer treated with CCP present better oncological results than those who received neoadjuvant therapy and CI.

Humans , Female , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Ovarian Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial/pathology , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial/therapy , Hospitals , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(4): 411-418, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341164


Abstract Bone and soft tissue sarcomas consist of a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin that can affect patients from any age. The precise staging of these lesions determines the best therapeutic strategies and prognosis estimates. Two staging systems are the most frequently used: the system proposed by the University of Florida group, led by Dr. William F. Enneking (1980) and adopted by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS), and the system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (1977), currently in its 8th edition (2017). This paper updates the reader on the staging of bone and soft tissue sarcomas affecting the musculoskeletal system.

Resumo Os sarcomas ósseos e das partes moles consistem em grupo heterogêneo de neoplasias malignas de origem mesenquimal que podem ocorrer em qualquer faixa etária. O estadiamento preciso destas lesões determina as melhores estratégias terapêuticas e estimativas de prognóstico. Dois sistemas de estadiamento são os mais frequentemente empregados no manejo destas neoplasias: o sistema proposto pelo grupo da Universidade da Flórida, liderado pelo Dr. William F. Enneking (1980), adotado pela Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) e o sistema desenvolvido pela American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (1977) que se encontra em sua 8a edição (2017). O presente artigo busca atualizar o leitor a respeito do estadiamento dos sarcomas ósseos e das partes moles que acometem o sistema musculoesquelético.

Humans , Pathology, Surgical , Sarcoma , Diagnostic Imaging , Neoplasms, Bone Tissue , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms, Connective Tissue
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e349-e352, agosto 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281786


El rabdomiosarcoma es el tumor maligno de partes blandas más frecuente en la edad pediátrica. Puede afectar cualquier localización anatómica. El subtipo histológico alveolar suele causar lesiones en las extremidades en niños de mayor edad. Los sitios metástasicos más frecuentes son el pulmón, la médula ósea, el hueso y los ganglios linfáticos. Describimos el caso de un paciente con rabdomiosarcoma alveolar (RA) con metástasis cardíaca, una presentación poco frecuente de la patología.

Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common malignant soft tissue tumor in pediatric age. It can affect any anatomical location. Alveolar histological subtype usually presents lesions on the extremities in older children. The most common metastatic sites are the lung, bone marrow, bone and lymph node. We describe a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with cardiac metastasis in a pediatric patient, a rare presentation of the pathology.

Humans , Male , Child , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/pathology , Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar/pathology , Foot Diseases/pathology , Heart Neoplasms/secondary , Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar/diagnosis , Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar/therapy , Ventricular Septum , Foot Diseases/diagnosis , Foot Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Neoplasms/diagnosis , Heart Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasm Staging
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(4): 389-395, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285703


Abstract Introduction Regional metastases of cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma occur in approximately 5 % of cases, being the most important prognostic factor in survival, currently with no distinction between parotid and neck metastasis. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic features among patients with head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma exhibiting regional metastasis. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma who underwent parotidectomy and/or neck dissection from 2011 to 2018 at a single institution tertiary center was performed. Patient demographics, clinical, surgical and pathological information, adjuvant treatments, and outcome at last follow-up were collected. Outcomes included disease recurrence and death due to the disease. Prognostic value of clinic pathological features associated with disease-specific survival was obtained. Results Thirty-eight cases of head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with parotid and/or neck metastasis were identified. Overall, 18 (47.3 %) patients showed parotid metastasis alone, 12 (31.5 %) exhibited neck metastasis alone and 8 (21.0 %) had both. A primary tumor in the parotid zone (Hazard Ratio ‒ HR = 5.53; p = 0.02) was associated with improved disease-specific survival. Poorer disease-specific survival was observed in patients with higher primary tumor diameter (HR = 1.54; p = 0.002), higher depth of invasion (HR = 2.89; p = 0.02), invasion beyond the subcutaneous fat (HR = 5.05; p = 0.002), neck metastasis at first presentation (HR = 8.74; p < 0.001), number of positive lymph nodes (HR = 1.25; p = 0.004), and higher TNM stages (HR = 7.13; p = 0.009). Patients presenting with isolated parotid metastasis during all follow-ups had better disease-specific survival than those with neck metastasis or both (HR = 3.12; p = 0.02). Conclusion Head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with parotid lymph node metastasis demonstrated better outcomes than cases with neck metastasis.

Resumo Introdução As metástases regionais do carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço ocorrem em aproximadamente 5% dos casos, sendo esse o fator prognóstico mais importante na sobrevida, atualmente sem distinção entre metástases de parótida e cervicais. Objetivo Avaliar as características prognósticas em pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço com metástase regional. Método Foi feita uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo submetidos à parotidectomia e/ou esvaziamento cervical entre 2011 e 2018 em um único centro terciário de uma única instituição. Dados demográficos dos pacientes, informações clínicas, cirúrgicas e patológicas, tratamentos adjuvantes e desfechos no último acompanhamento foram coletados. Os desfechos incluíram recorrência e morte devido à doença. O valor prognóstico das características clínico-patológicas associadas à sobrevida específica da doença foi obtido. Resultados Foram identificados 38 casos de carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço com metástase de parótida e/ou pescoço. No geral, 18 (47,3%) pacientes apresentaram metástase da parótida isolada, 12 (31,5%) apresentaram metástase cervical isolada e 8 (21,0%) apresentaram ambos. Um tumor primário na região da parótida (Hazard ratio [HR] = 5,53; p = 0,02) foi associado a melhor sobrevida específica. Pior sobrevida específica foi observada em pacientes com maior diâmetro do tumor primário (HR = 1,54; p = 0,002), maior profundidade de invasão (HR = 2,89; p = 0,02), invasão além da gordura subcutânea (HR = 5,05; p = 0,002), metástase cervical na primeira apresentação (HR = 8,74; p < 0,001), conforme maior número de linfonodos positivos (HR = 1,25; p = 0,004) e estágios TNM mais elevados (HR = 7,13; p = 0,009). Os pacientes que apresentaram metástase da parótida isolada durante todo o acompanhamento apresentaram melhor sobrevida específica do que aqueles com metástase cervical ou ambos (HR = 3,12; p = 0,02). Conclusão Os casos de carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço com metástase intraparotídea demonstraram melhores desfechos do que aqueles com metástase cervical.

Humans , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Parotid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(4): 416-421, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285702


Abstract Introduction Lymph node metastasis is a well-known prognostic factor for laryngeal carcinoma. However, current nodal staging systems provide limited information regarding prognosis. Additional parameters should be considered to improve prognostic capacity. Objectives To assess the prognostic values of metastatic lymph node number, ipsilateral/contralateral harvested lymph nodes, and lymph node ratio in patients undergoing surgical treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Seventy-four patients diagnosed with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma primarily managed surgically were included in this study. The patients' pathological and survival data were obtained from their medical records. The effects of harvested lymph nodes and lymph node ratio on disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were analyzed. Results Ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral evaluations of harvested lymph nodes showed no significant associations with prognosis. Lymph node ratio was significantly associated with overall survival when evaluated bilaterally. Metastatic lymph node number showed more suitable stratification than TNM classification. Conclusions Metastatic lymph node number and bilateral lymph node ratio parameters should be taken into consideration to improve the prognostic capacity of TNM.

Resumo Introdução A metástase linfonodal é um fator prognóstico bem conhecido para o carcinoma de laringe. Entretanto, os sistemas atuais de estadiamento nodal fornecem informações limitadas sobre o prognóstico. Parâmetros adicionais devem ser considerados para melhorar a capacidade prognóstica. Objetivos Avaliar os valores prognósticos do número de linfonodos metastáticos, linfonodos ipsilaterais /contralaterais coletados e relação de linfonodos em pacientes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico do carcinoma espinocelular da laringe. Método Foram incluídos neste estudo 75 pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma espinocelular da laringe, tratados primariamente por meio de cirurgia. Os dados histopatológicos e de sobrevida dos pacientes foram obtidos de seus prontuários médicos. Foram analisados os efeitos dos linfonodos coletados e da relação de linfonodos na sobrevida livre de doença, sobrevida doença-específica e sobrevida global. Resultados As avaliações ipsilateral, contralateral e bilateral dos linfonodos coletados não mostraram associações significativas com o prognóstico. A relação de linfonodos foi significantemente associada à sobrevida global quando avaliada bilateralmente. O número de linfonodos metastáticos mostrou estratificação mais adequada do que a classificação TNM-N. Conclusões Os parâmetros número de linfonodos metastáticos e relação de linfonodos bilateral devem ser levados em consideração para melhorar a capacidade prognóstica da classificação TNM.

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Lymph Node Ratio , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 845-850, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346926


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of breast cancer who reached pathological complete response after being operated following eight cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Between 2015-2020, patients with pathological complete response who were operated on after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and sent to our clinic for radiotherapy were evaluated. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 51 years. The most common histological type was invasive ductal cancer. The number of pathological complete response patients was 74 (28%), and the number of non-pathological complete response patients was 188 (72%). Patients with pathological complete response had a smaller tumor diameter than the non-pathological complete response group (p=0.001). For pathological complete response, T1 stage, N1 stage, NG 3, Ki-67 >20%, negative estrogen receptor, negative progesterone receptor, positive Cerb-B2, and adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy were statistically significant (p<0.05). Before neoadjuvant chemotherapy, stage T1-T2 (p=0.036), LN0-1 (p=0.026), Cerb-B2 positivity (p=0.025), and an initial nuclear grade of three (p=0.001) were found to be the factors affecting pathological complete response. CONCLUSIONS: With neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the size of locally advanced tumors decreases, allowing breast conserving surgery. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy response can be used as an early indicator of the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. Today, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is also used for patients with early-stage, operable breast cancer because it has been shown in many studies that reaching pathological complete response is associated with positive long-term results. If we can identify patients who have reached pathological complete response before neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we think we can also determine a patient-specific treatment plan at the beginning of treatment.

Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Trastuzumab/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging