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Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(1): 166-173, 20221230. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415994


Introducción. El retroperitoneo es una estructura que se extiende desde el diafragma hasta la pelvis, está delimitado adelante por el peritoneo parietal, atrás y a los lados por la fascia transversalis y se divide en 9 compartimientos. Se pueden encontrar lesiones primarias o secundarias, cuya evolución clínica varía desde un curso indolente hasta rápidamente progresivo, tanto local como a distancia. Su enfoque, desde el hallazgo hasta el tratamiento, es fundamental para el desenlace oncológico. Objetivo. Analizar la evaluación, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de las masas retroperitoneales halladas incidentalmente y brindar un algoritmo de manejo. Métodos. Se hizo búsqueda en bases de datos como PubMed y MedicalKey de literatura referentes a tumores retroperitoneales, su diagnóstico y enfoque terapéutico, con el fin de presentar una revisión sobre el abordaje de las masas retroperitoneales y dar nuestras opiniones. Resultados. Se revisaron 43 referencias bibliográficas internacionales y nacionales, y se seleccionaron 20 de ellas, de donde se obtuvieron datos actualizados, recomendaciones de guías internacionales y experiencias nacionales, con lo cual se estructuró este manuscrito. Conclusiones. Las masas retroperitoneales abarcan un espectro de patologías que establecen un reto diagnóstico por su origen embriológico, localización y baja frecuencia. El diagnostico histológico es de vital importancia desde el inicio, para conocer la evolución natural de la enfermedad, y el manejo multidisciplinario en centros de referencia es fundamental para impactar en los desenlaces oncológicos. Existen variadas modalidades terapéuticas, como quimioterapia, radioterapia y resección quirúrgica con estándares oncológicos

Introduction. The retroperitoneum is an structure that extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis, bounded anteriorly by the parietal peritoneum, posteriorly and laterally by the transversalis fascia, and it is divided into 9 compartments. We can find primary or secondary lesions whose clinical evolution varies from an indolent course to a rapidly progressive one, both local and distant. Its approach from discovery to diagnosis and treatment is essential for the oncological outcomes. Objective. To analyze the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of incidental retroperitoneal masses according to their origin and to provide a management algorithm. Methods. An updated literature search was carried out in databases such as PubMed and Medical Key on retroperitoneal tumors, therapeutic approach and diagnosis, obtaining national and international information to carry out a review article on the approach to retroperitoneal masses.Results. Forty-three international and national bibliographic references were reviewed, based on 20 updated data, recommendations from international guidelines and national experiences were obtained, with which a review and opinion manuscript was structured.Conclusions. Retroperitoneal masses cover a spectrum of pathologies that establish a diagnostic challenge due to their embryological origin, location and low frequency. Histological diagnosis is of vital importance from the beginning to know the natural evolution of the disease and multidisciplinary management in reference centers is essential to impact oncological outcomes. There are many therapeutic modalities from chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection with oncological standards

Humans , Peritoneum , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Incidental Findings , Sarcoma , Surgical Oncology , Lymphoma , Neoplasms
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936330


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of RSL3 on the proliferation, invasion and migration of cisplatinresistant testicular cancer cells (I-10/DDP) and the effect of carbenoxolone on the activity of RSL3 against testicular cancer.@*METHODS@#MTT assay was used to evaluate the survival rate of I-10/DDP cells following treatment with RSL3 (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 μmol/L) alone or in combination with carbenoxolone (100 μmol/L) or after treatment with Fer-1 (2 μmol/L), RSL3 (4 μmol/L), RSL3+Fer-1, RSL3+carbenoxolone (100 μmol/L), or RSL3+Fer-1+carbenoxolone. Colony formation assay was used to assess the proliferation ability of the treated cells; wounding-healing assay and Transwell assay were used to assess the invasion and migration ability of the cells. The expression of GPX4 was detected using Western blotting, the levels of lipid ROS were detected using C11 BODIPY 581/591 fluorescent probe, and the levels of Fe2+ were determined with FerroOrange fluorescent probe.@*RESULTS@#RSL3 dose-dependently decreased the survival rate of I-10/DDP cells, and the combined treatment with 2, 4, or 8 μmol/L RSL3 with carbenoxolone, as compared with RSL3 treatment alone, resulted in significant reduction of the cell survival rate. The combination with carbenoxolone significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of RSL3 on colony formation, wound healing rate (P=0.005), invasion and migration of the cells (P < 0.001). Fer-1 obviously attenuated the inhibitory effects of RSL3 alone and its combination with carbenoxolone on I-10/DDP cells (P < 0.01). RSL3 treatment significantly decreased GPX4 expression (P=0.001) and increased lipid ROS level (P=0.001) and Fe2+ level in the cells, and these effects were further enhanced by the combined treatment with carbenoxolone (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Carbenoxolone enhances the inhibitory effect of RSL3 on the proliferation, invasion and migration of cisplatin-resistant testicular cancer cells by promoting RSL3-induced ferroptosis.

Carbenoxolone/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Ferroptosis , Fluorescent Dyes/pharmacology , Humans , Lipids , Male , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Reactive Oxygen Species , Testicular Neoplasms
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936138


OBJECTIVE@#To summarize and analyze the clinical characteristics of children with basal ganglia germinoma and to improve the level of early clinical diagnosis.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of children diagnosed with basal ganglia germinoma admitted to the Pediatric Surgery Ward of Peking University First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the clinical characteristics of children with basal ganglia germinoma.@*RESULTS@#A total of 30 patients were included in the study, 28 were male, 2 were female, the mean age at onset was (9.7±2.2) years, the median disease duration was 7 months, 27 had unilateral disease, and 3 had bilateral disease. The clinical manifestations were decreased limb muscle strength, cognitive function disorders, polydipsia, precocious puberty, intracranial hypertension, dysphonia and swallowing dysfunction. The serum and cerebrospinal fluid tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal in the 30 patients, and the serum and cerebrospinal fluid tumor marker β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) were normal in 8 patients.The serum β-HCG was normal in 11 patients but the cerebrospinal fluid β-HCG was slightly elevated, and the serum and cerebrospinal fluid β-HCG were slightly elevated in 11 patients. A total of 33 lesions with irregular shapes were found by imaging examination, including 15 (45.5%) patchy lesions, 10 (30.3%) patchy lesions, and 8 (24.2%) round-like high-density lesions. Tumors showed obvious high-density shadows on computed tomography (CT) scan. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the tumors showed low or isointensity on T1WI and isointensity on T2WI, accompanied by mild peritumoral edema, hemispheric atrophy, cerebral peduncle atrophy, calcification, cystic degeneration, ventricular dilatation and wallerian degeneration. On contrast-enhanced scans, the tumor showed no enhancement or heterogeneous enhancement.@*CONCLUSION@#The main age of onset of germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia in children is about 10 years old, and males are absolutely dominant. The clinical features and imaging manifestations have certain characteristics. With both combined, the early diagnosis of germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia can be improved.

Atrophy/pathology , Basal Ganglia/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Child , Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human , Female , Germinoma/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 407-412, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935554


Objective: To investigate immunohistochemical patterns of CXorf67 and H3K27me3 proteins in central nervous system germ cell tumors (GCTs) and to assess their values in both diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: A total of 370 cases of central nervous system GCTs were collected from 2013 to 2020 at Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. The expression of CXorf67, H3K27me3 and commonly-used GCT markers including OCT4, PLAP, CD117, D2-40, and CD30 by immunohistochemistry (EnVision method) was examined in different subtypes of central nervous system GCTs. The sensitivity and specificity of each marker were compared by contingency table and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Of the 370 cases there were 282 males and 88 females with a mean age of 19 years and a median age of 17 years (range, 2-57 years). Among the GCTs with germinoma, the proportions of male patients and the patients with GCT located in sellar region were both higher than those of GCTs without germinoma (P<0.05), respectively. CXorf67 was present in the nuclei of germinoma and normal germ cells, but not in other subtypes of GCT. H3K27me3 was negative in germinoma, but positive in the nuclei of surrounding normal cells and GCTs other than germinoma. In the 283 GCTs with germinoma components, the expression rate of CXorf67 was 90.5% (256/283), but no cases were positive for H3K27me3. There was also an inverse correlation between them (r2=-0.831, P<0.01). The expression rates of PLAP, OCT4, CD117 and D2-40 were 81.2% (231/283), 89.4% (253/283), 73.9% (209/283) and 88.3% (250/283), respectively. In 63 mixed GCTs with germinoma components, the expression rate of CXorf67 was 84.1% (53/63), while all cases were negative for H3K27me3. The expression rates of PLAP, OCT4, CD117 and D2-40 were 79.4% (50/63), 79.4% (50/63), 66.7% (42/63) and 87.3% (55/63), respectively. The 6 markers with largest area under ROC curve in ranking order were H3K27me3, CXorf67, D2-40, OCT4, PLAP and CD117 (P<0.05). Conclusions: CXorf67 and H3K27me3 have high sensitivity and high specificity in diagnosing germinoma. There is a significant inverse correlation between them. Therefore, they can both be used as new specific immunohistochemical markers for the diagnosis of GCTs.

Adolescent , Adult , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Germinoma/pathology , Histones , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnosis , Oncogene Proteins , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Young Adult
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 201-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928532


Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a new form of ultrasound (US) that can dynamically display microvessels in a highly sensitive manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CEUS for characterizing testicular lesions in comparison with conventional US. Forty-seven patients with testicular lesions were enrolled. The histopathology results revealed that 31 cases were neoplastic (11 cases of seminomas, 8 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, 8 lymphomas, 2 Leydig cell tumors, and 2 nonspecific tumors), and 16 cases were nonneoplastic (8 cases of infarctions, 3 epidermoid cysts, and 5 inflammation). The indicators of shallow lobulated morphology and cystic-solid echogenicity on conventional US were suggestive of germ cell tumors. More indicators on CEUS were found to be useful for characterizing testicular lesions. All the neoplastic lesions showed hyperenhancement on CEUS. Moreover, germ cell tumors presented with heterogeneous enhancement (73.7%, 14/19), a twisted blood vessel pattern, rapid wash-in and wash-out, and peripheral rim hyperenhancement signs. Lymphoma was characterized by nonbranching linear vessel patterns (87.5%, 7/8), rapid wash-in and slow wash-out. In nonneoplastic lesions, infarction and epidermoid cysts showed no enhancement, and abscesses were observed with marginal irregular enhancement. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEUS for differentiating between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were 100%, 93.8%, and 97.9%, respectively, and these values were higher than those for conventional US (90.3%, 62.5%, and 80.9%, respectively). CEUS can sensitively reflect the microvascular perfusion in testicular lesions and offers high accuracy for characterizing them.

Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential , Epidermal Cyst , Humans , Lymphoma , Male , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Testicular Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 25(2): 93-102, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376832


Resumen El mieloma múltiple (MM) es una neoplasia originada de células B, secundaria a diversas mutaciones post-germinales y cuya característica es el desarrollo de una clona de células plasmáticas que secretan un subtipo específico de inmunoglobulina conocido como el componente monoclonal. Dentro de las manifestaciones clínicas más comunes se encuentran tanto la anemia, la enfermedad renal y las lesiones óseas, pero cada vez son más los casos que muestran al diagnóstico manifestaciones clínicas atípicas que pueden influir con el pronóstico y con la calidad de vida. Debido a que el tratamiento moderno del MM es altamente prometedor, es necesario identificar aquellas condiciones clínicas que limitan la eficacia terapéutica.

Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common malignant neoplasms affecting young men aged 15 to 35 years. Patients with Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell neoplasm secondary to various post-germline mutations, characterized by the development of a clone of plasma cells that secrete a specific subtype of immunoglobulin known as the monoclonal component. Anemia, kidney disease, and bone lesions are among the most common clinical manifestations. However, cases showing atypical clinical manifestations that can influence prognosis and quality of life are becoming increasingly frequent. Given that modern MM treatment is highly promising, it is necessary to identify those clinical conditions that limit therapeutic efficacy.

Humans , Diagnosis , Anemia , Multiple Myeloma , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 25(2): 79-92, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376831


Resumen Los tumores de células germinales (TCG) son las neoplasias malignas más comunes y afectan especialmente a hombres jóvenes de 15 a 35 años de edad. Los pacientes con estadios 2 y 3 que recaen ofrecen un gran reto para el tratamiento inicial de la primera recaída. La terapia óptima para estos pacientes depende de su tratamiento inicial y está pobremente definida. Las opciones incluyen regímenes de segunda línea de quimioterapia a dosis convencionales que combinan cisplatino e ifosfamida, con vinblastina, etopósido o paclitaxel, o quimioterapia de altas dosis con soporte de células madre. En vista de que todavía no hay evidencia concluyente en los ensayos clínicos, las indicaciones para el uso de quimioterapia de altas dosis permanecen poco claras y se basan en estudios fundamentalmente retrospectivos. El tratamiento en la segunda recaída debe individualizarse según el paciente y el tratamiento previo. La resección quirúrgica de masas residuales luego de la quimioterapia es un elemento clave para una terapia exitosa en pacientes con marcadores tumorales negativos. Actualmente, en Venezuela los pacientes que presentan recaídas deben recibir tratamiento con cualquiera de los regímenes establecidos que se utilizan a dosis convencionales en segunda línea. En algunos casos, los pacientes deben recibir tratamiento en centros de oncología con un manejo multidisciplinario que permita el acceso a tratamiento con altas dosis de quimioterapia y a cirujanos oncólogos expertos en esta patología.

Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common malignant neoplasms affecting young men aged 15 to 35 years. Patients with previous stage 2 and 3 who relapse offer a great challenge to the Medical team. The optimal therapy for these patients with recurrent disease is still poorly defined. Options include second-line chemotherapy regimens at conventional doses which combine cisplatin and ifosfamide, with vinblastine, etoposide or paclitaxel, or alternatively high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support. As there is still no conclusive evidence from clinical trials, the indications for the use of high-dose chemotherapy remain unclear. Most of the present literature is based in retrospective studies. Second relapse treatment options should be individualized according to the patient and his previous treatment. Surgical resection of residual masses in patients with negative markers after chemotherapy is a key element for successful therapy. Currently, patients in Venezuela who have relapses should receive treatment with any of the established regimens that are used at conventional doses in the second line, however in some cases they should receive treatment in an oncology center with a multidisciplinary team having access to treatment with high dose chemotherapy and to oncologist surgeons who are experts in this area.

Humans , Male , Therapeutics , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Dosage , Germ Cells
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 495-502, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154505


ABSTRACT Testicular cancer is considered a rare disease affecting approximately 1% to 2% of the male population. This neoplasm has a cure rate of over 95%; as a result, a major concern is the future of fertility of carriers from this disease. There are several histological subtypes of testicular tumors; however, the Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (TGCTs), comprising both seminoma and non-seminoma tumors, are considered the main subtypes of testicular neoplasms. TGCT are characterized by being a solid tumor that mostly affects young men aged between 15 and 40 years old. While TGCT subtypes may have an invasive potential, seminoma subtype does not affect other cells rather than germ cells, while non-seminomas have more invasive properties and can achieve somatic cells; thus, having a more aggressive nature. This research intends to review the literature regarding information about sperm parameters, correlating the data found in those studies to the subfertility and infertility of patients with TCGTs. Furthermore, it will also correlate the data to the non-seminoma and seminoma histological subtypes from pre- and post-cancer therapy. PubMed databases were used. Searched keywords included: seminoma AND non-seminoma; male infertility; germ cell tumor; chemotherapy AND radiotherapy. Only articles published in English were considered. Current studies demonstrate that both TGCT subtypes promote deleterious effects on semen quality resulting in decreased sperm concentration, declined sperm total motility and an increase in the morphology alterations. However, findings suggest that the non-seminoma subtype effects are more pronounced and deleterious. More studies will be necessary to clarify the behavior of seminoma and non-seminoma tumors implicating the reproductive health of male patients.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Testicular Neoplasms/therapy , Seminoma , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/therapy , Spermatozoa , Semen Analysis
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e149-e152, abril 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152046


Los tumores ováricos, a diferencia de lo que sucede en la edad adulta, son infrecuentes en la población pediátrica. Predomina la estirpe germinal, con altas tasas de supervivencia. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar la epidemiología, clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las pacientes de 0-15 años con diagnóstico, entre 2007 y 2017, de tumor ovárico en nuestro centro. Fueron 8 los casos encontrados de 171 tumores diagnosticados (el 4,7 %), con edad media de presentación de 12,5 años. Predominaban, al momento del debut, alteraciones menstruales, dolor abdominal y aumento de perímetro abdominal. Fueron de tipo germinal 6/8, y el teratoma maduro fue el más frecuente. Todas se diagnosticaron con ecografía abdominal, y se confirmó el diagnóstico en 7/8 con resonancia magnética. Se intervinieron todos los casos; predominó la salpingo-ooforectomía, y una paciente precisó quimioterapia adyuvante. La supervivencia libre de enfermedad fue del 100 %.

Unlike adults, ovarian tumors are infrequent in the pediatric population, predominating the germ line at this age, with high survival rates. The objective is to present the epidemiological, clinical, diagnosis and therapeutic characteristics of 0 to 15-year-old patients diagnosed with ovarian tumor in our center between 2007 and 2017.Eight cases out of 171 diagnosed tumors (4.7 %) were found, with a mean age of presentation of 12.5 years. At the moment of diagnosis, menstrual disturbances, abdominal pain and an increase in abdominal circumference predominated. Six out of eight were germ cell tumors, being the mature teratoma the most frequent one. All cases were diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound scan, confirmed in 7/8 cases with magnetic resonance imaging. All cases underwent surgery, predominating salpingo-oophorectomy with one patient requiring adjuvant chemotherapy. Disease-free survival was 100 %.

Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Ovarian Neoplasms/surgery , Biomarkers, Tumor , Retrospective Studies , Salpingo-oophorectomy
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(2): 112-116, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1411115


Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio, fue describir las complicaciones intraoperatorias y postoperatorias, así como la necesidad de cirugías concomitantes en la linfadenectomía retroperitoneal postquimioterapia en un centro de referencia de manejo de cáncer. Métodos Se recolectaron datos de una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor germinal de origen testicular que hubiesen recibido quimioterapia y en quienes se documentó tumor residual retroperitoneal y fueron sometidos a LRP-PC durante 12 años en un centro de referencia de manejo de cáncer. Resultados Se practicó LRP-PC a 64 pacientes. La edad promedio al momento de la cirugía fue 28,1 años (18-47 años). El tamaño promedio de la masa retroperitoneal post quimioterapia fue 6,7 (1­28 cm). La estancia hospitalaria promedio fue 7,9 días (rango 1-99 días), la tasa de cirugías adicionales fue del 20%. La tasa de complicaciones mayores fue de 7,8%. Tener seminoma en la histología testicular inicial se asoció con un mayor sangrado y el tamaño de la masa retroperitoneal residual se asoció con la necesidad de cirugías concomitantes. Conclusiones La LRP-PC es una cirugía de alto nivel de complejidad que se asocia a complicaciones mayores y a la necesidad de cirugías concomitantes. Esta cohorte de pacientes muestra desenlaces similares a los descritos en la literatura, recalcando el hecho de que esta cirugía, debería ser realizada en centros de referencia de manejo del cáncer.

Objective The purpose was to describe complications and concomitant surgeries in PC-RPLND in a Referal cancer center. Methods Data were collected from a retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with a germ cell tumor of testicular origin who had received chemotherapy and they were diagnosed with retroperitoneal residual tumor and underwent PC-RPLND in a single cancer referral center during 12 years. Results PC-RPLND was performed in 64 patients. The mean age at moment of surgery was 28.1 years (18-47 years). The mean size of the retroperitoneal residual mass was 6.7 (1 - 28 cm). The average hospital stay was 7.9 days (range 1-99 day), the rate of additional surgeries was 20%. The major complication rate was 7.8%. Seminoma histology in testicular tumor was associated with increased bleeding; the size of the residual retroperitoneal mass was associated with the need of concomitant surgeries. Conclusion PC-RPLND is a complex surgery that is associated with major complications and the need of concomitant surgeries. This research shows similar outcomes previously described in the literature highlighting the fact that this surgery should be performed in reference cancer treatment centers.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Intraoperative Complications , Lymph Node Excision , Therapeutics , Neoplasm, Residual , Drug Therapy , Histology , Length of Stay
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878332


Objective@#Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 39 years. Previous studies have considered factors related to TGCT survival rate and race/ethnicity, but histological type of the diagnosed cancer has not yet been thoroughly assessed.@*Methods@#The data came from 42,854 eligible patients from 1992 to 2015 in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 18. Frequencies and column percent by seminoma and nonseminoma subtypes were determined for each covariates. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to assess the impact of multiple factors on post-diagnostic mortality of TGCT.@*Results@#Black males were diagnosed at a later stage, more commonly with local or distant metastases. The incidence of TGCT in black non-seminoma tumors increased most significantly. The difference in survival rates between different ethnic and histological subtypes, overall survival (OS) in patients with non-seminoma was significantly worse than in patients with seminoma. The most important quantitative predictor of death was the stage at the time of diagnosis, and older diagnostic age is also important factor affecting mortality.@*Conclusion@#Histological type of testicular germ cell tumor is an important factor in determining the prognosis of testicular cancer in males of different ethnic groups.

Adult , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/pathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SEER Program/statistics & numerical data , Seminoma/pathology , Survival Rate/trends , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , United States/ethnology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(5): 725-740, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134221


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate whether components of Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome (TDS) affect testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) prognosis and oncological outcomes. According to the hypothesis called TDS; undescended testis, hypospadias, testicular cancer and spermatogenic disorders share the same risk factors and have a combined fetal origin. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the stages and oncological outcomes of 69 patients who underwent radical orchiectomy between January 2010 and December 2014 due to TGCT in our department. The presence of undescended testis, hypospadias and semen parameters disorders were recorded according to anamnesis of patients. Results: Among 69 patients with TGCT, only 16 (23.1%) had TDS. Significantly higher rate of TDS (36.1% vs. 9.1%) was observed at the advanced stages of TGCT(p=0.008). In the TDS group, the rates of local recurrence (50% vs. 11.3%, p<0.001), distant metastasis (93.6% vs. 3.8%, p<0.001) and cancer-spesific mortality (87.5% vs. 3.8%, p<0.001) were found significantly higher than those without TDS. The predicted time for recurrence-free survival (13.70±5.13 vs. 100.96±2.83 months, p<0.001) metastasis-free survival (13.12±4.21 vs. 102.79±2.21 months, p <0.001) and cancer-specific survival (13.68±5.38 vs. 102.80±2.19 months, p<0.001) were also statistically lower in this group. Conclusions: According to our preliminary results, there is an apparent relationship between TDS and tumor prognosis. Even if the components of TDS alone did not contain poor prognostic features for TGCT, the presence of TDS was found as the most important independent predictive factor for oncological outcomes in both seminomas and nonseminomas as well as all patients with TGCT.

Humans , Male , Testicular Diseases/etiology , Testicular Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/therapy , Prognosis , Testis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(9): 555-561, Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137869


Abstract Objective To evaluate the role of clinical features and preoperativemeasurement of cancer antigen 125 (CA125), human epididymis protein(HE4), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels in women with benign and malignant non-epithelial ovarian tumors. Methods One hundred and nineteen consecutive women with germ cell, sex cordstromal, and ovarian leiomyomas were included in this study. The preoperative levels of biomarkers were measured, and then surgery and histopathological analysis were performed. Information about the treatment and disease recurrence were obtained from the medical files of patients. Results Our sample included 71 women with germ cell tumors (64 benign and 7 malignant), 46 with sex cord-stromal tumors (32 benign and 14 malignant), and 2 with ovarian leiomyomas. Among benign germ cell tumors, 63 were mature teratomas, and, amongmalignant, fourwere immatureteratomas. Themost common tumors in the sex cordstromal group were fibromas (benign) and granulosa cell tumor (malignant). The biomarker serum levels were not different among benign andmalignant non-epithelial ovarian tumors. Fertility-sparing surgeries were performed in 5 (71.4%) women with malignant germ cell tumor. Eleven (78.6%) patients with malignant sex cord-stromal tumors were treated with fertility-sparing surgeries. Five women (71.4%) with germ cell tumors and only 1 (7.1%) with sex cord-stromal tumor were treated with chemotherapy. One woman with germ cell tumor recurred and died of the disease and one woman with sex cord-stromal tumor recurred. Conclusion Non-epithelial ovarian tumors were benign in the majority of cases, and the malignant caseswere diagnosed at initial stages with good prognosis. Themeasurements of CA125, HE4, and CEA serum levels were not useful in the preoperative diagnosis of these tumors.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o papel das características clínicas e a medida pré-operatória dos níveis séricos de CA125, HE4, e CEA em mulheres com tumores de ovário não epiteliais benignos e malignos. Métodos Cento e dezenovemulheres consecutivas comtumores ovarianos de células germinativas, do cordão sexual-estroma, e miomas ovarianos foram incluídas neste estudo. Os níveis pré-operatórios dos biomarcadores foram medidos, a cirurgia e a análise histopatológica foram realizadas. Informações sobre tratamento e recorrência da doença foram obtidas dos prontuários médicos das pacientes. Resultados Nossa amostra incluiu 71 mulheres com tumores de células germinativas (64 benignos e 7 malignos), 46 com tumores do cordão sexual-estroma (32 benignos e 14 malignos), e 2 com leiomiomas ovarianos. Entre os tumores benignos de células germinativas, 63 eram teratomas maduros, e, entre os malignos, quatro eram teratomas imaturos. Os tumores mais comuns do grupo do cordão sexual-estroma foram fibromas (benignos) e tumores de células da granulosa (malignos). Os níveis séricos dos biomarcadores não diferiram entre os tumores de ovário não epiteliais benignos e malignos. A cirurgia preservadora de fertilidade foi realizada em 5 (71,4%) mulheres com tumores malignos de células germinativas. Onze (78,6%) mulheres com tumores do cordão sexual-estromamalignos foram tratadas comcirurgia preservadora de fertilidade. Cinco (71,4%)mulheres com células germinativas e apenas 1 (7,1%) com tumor do cordão sexual-estroma foram tratadas com quimioterapia. Uma mulher com tumor de células germinativas recidivou e morreu da doença. Uma mulher com tumor do cordão sexual-estroma recidivou. Conclusão Os tumores de ovário não epiteliais foram benignos namaioria dos casos e os malignos foram diagnosticados em estágios iniciais, com bom prognóstico. A medida dos níveis séricos de CA125, HE4, e CEA não foram úteis no diagnóstico préoperatório desses tumores.

Humans , Female , Adult , Ovarian Neoplasms/surgery , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Ovarian Neoplasms/blood , Ovarian Neoplasms/epidemiology , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors/surgery , Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors/diagnosis , Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors/blood , Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/blood , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/epidemiology , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , CA-125 Antigen/blood , WAP Four-Disulfide Core Domain Protein 2/analysis , Middle Aged
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 101-107, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056359


ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the relationship between testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and to determine whether this ratio can be used as a serum tumor marker. Material and Methods: Sixty-one patients with testicular germ cell tumors were included into the study. Patients were grouped as localized and non-localized. Histologically patients were categorized as seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Complete blood cell count was measured the day before surgery and at the postoperative 1st month. Preoperative and postoperative mean NLR values were compared. Results: Thirty-six patients (59%) had seminomas and 25 patients (41%) had nonseminomatous testicular cancer. Forty-five patients (73.8%) had localized and 16 patients (26.2%) had non-localized testicular cancer. There was a statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative mean NLR of the localized patients (p=0.001) but no such difference was detected for non-localized patients (p=0.576). Nineteen patients with localized seminomas had normal preoperative serum tumor markers. There was a significant difference between preoperative and postoperative mean NLR in this group of patients (p=0.010). Twenty-six patients with localized tumors had preoperative increased serum tumor markers which normalized after orchiectomy. Mean NLR of these patients significantly decreased from 3.10±2.13 to 1.62±0.59 postoperatively (p=0.010). Conclusions: NLR appears to be a useful marker for TGCT. It is successful in predicting localized and non-localized disease in early postoperative period.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Testicular Neoplasms/blood , Lymphocytes , Seminoma/blood , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/blood , Neutrophils , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Testicular Neoplasms/surgery , Testicular Neoplasms/diagnosis , Preoperative Care , Orchiectomy , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seminoma/surgery , Seminoma/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnosis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Lymphocyte Count , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 115-118, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088919


Teratomas are neoplasms thought to arise from germ cells which usually occur within gonads and are rarely described on extragonadal sites. The present study reports a case of a 15 year old female mongrel dog with a lumbosacral tumor. The tumor was microscopically composed of embryonic tissues with areas containing atypical undifferentiated cells, leading to the diagnosis of a malignant teratoma. Malignant teratomas are uncommon tumors in domestic animals.(AU)

Os teratomas são neoplasias originárias das células germinativas que têm como sítio principal as gônadas; raramente ocorrem em sítios extragonodais. O presente estudo relata um caso de uma cadela de 15 anos de idade, sem raça definida, apresentando aumento de volume na região lombossacral que ao exame microscópico revelou neoformação composta por tecidos de origem embrionária, com áreas indiferenciadas exibindo atipia celular, características compatíveis com teratoma maligno. Teratomas malignos são incomuns em animais domésticos.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Teratoma/veterinary , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/veterinary , Lumbosacral Region
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 29(4): 235-239, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1411077


Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características y factores relacionados con la histología de la masa residual postquimioterapia en pacientes con tumor de células germinales de origen testicular sometidos a linfadenectomía retroperitoneal durante 12 años de seguimiento. Métodos Retrospectivamente se recolectaron datos clínicos, quirúrgicos y patológicos de la historia clínica de los pacientes en un centro de referencia de manejo de cáncer durante un periodo de 12 años. Se estimó la asociación entre los datos recolectados con la histología del tumor residual post quimioterapia. Resultados Se incluyeron 64 pacientes, la edad promedio fue 28.1 años, el tamaño promedio de masa residual fue de 6.7 cm. La histología de la masa residual fue teratoma en 60.9%, necrosis 26.5% y tumor viable 12.5%. El grupo pronóstico tiene asociación con la histología de la masa retroperitoneal. Las masas con histología de necrosis tuvieron menor tamaño con media 6.5 cm mientras que otras histologías tuvieron tamaño promedio de la masa residual de 10.4 cm. Conclusiones La LNDRP-PC es el estándar de tratamiento en masas residuales retroperitoneales después de quimioterapia y puede generar sobre-tratamiento hasta en 50% de los casos. El teratoma en la histología testicular está relacionado mayor tamaño de la masa residual retroperitoneal. Las características histológicas de la masa residual son comparables con otras series.

Objective The aim of the study is to describe factors and characteristics related with the post-chemotherapy residual mass histology in patients who undergoing RPLND. Methods Clinical, surgical and pathological data were retrospectively recorded from medical records of patients with diagnosis of germ cell tumor and post-chemotherapy residual retroperitoneal tumor in a cancer referral center over a period of 12 years. The association between the data collected and the post-chemotherapy residual tumor histology was assessed. Results Sixty-four patients were included with average age of 28.1 years. The mean residual mass size was 6.7 cm. The histology of the mass was teratoma in 60.9%, necrosis 26.5% and viable tumor 12.5%. Prognostic group was associated with the mass histology. Mass with necrosis histology was smaller with mean size of 6.5 cm, while other histologies had an average mass size of 10.4 cm. Conclusion PC-RPLND is the standard of management of retroperitoneal residual mass after chemotherapy and could over treat in up to 50% of cases. Teratoma component in testicular histology is related to increase size of the residual mass. Histology findings of the retroperitoneal mass are comparable with other series.

Humans , Male , Adult , Testicular Neoplasms , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Neoplasm, Residual , Germ Cells , Teratoma , Drug Therapy , Lymph Node Excision , Necrosis
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 847-850, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040058


ABSTRACT Testicular germ cell tumor is the most common cancer in 20-to 35-years-old men. There are known risk factors such as undescended testicle(s) and history of testicular cancer. Most lesions are germ cell tumors with two main subtypes: seminomas and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.

Humans , Male , Adult , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/pathology , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Testicular Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/pathology , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnostic imaging , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/surgery , Testicular Neoplasms/surgery , Biopsy , Orchiectomy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Tumor Burden , Middle Aged