Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 47
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 154-162, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983823


Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, leading to endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis impairment . MiR-126 and miR-210 support angiogenic response in endothelial cells. Objective: The present study sought to explore the effect of garlic and voluntary exercise, alone or together, on miR-126 and miR-210 expressions and cardiac angiogenesis in rats with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): Control, Diabetes, Diabetes+Garlic, Diabetes+Exercise, and Diabetes+Garlic+Exercise. Diabetes was induced in the animals by streptozotocin (ip, 50 mg/kg). The rats were then fed raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) or were subjected to voluntary exercise, or to combined garlic and voluntary exercise for 6 weeks. MiR-126 and miR-210 expressions in the myocardium were determined by real time PCR, and the serum lipid profile was measured by enzymatic kits. Angiogenesis was evaluated by immunostaining for PECAM-1/ CD31 in the myocardium. Results: Diabetes reduced both cardiac miR-126 expression and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there was a miR-210 expression increase in the myocardium of diabetic animals (p < 0.001). However, those effects reversed either with garlic or voluntary exercise (p < 0.01). Moreover, treating diabetic rats with garlic and voluntary exercise combined had an additional effect on the expressions of miR-126 and miR-210 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, both voluntary exercise and garlic significantly improved serum lipid profiles (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The induction of diabetes decreased angiogenesis in the myocardium, whereas our treatment using long-term voluntary exercise and garlic improved myocardial angiogenesis. These changes were possibly owing to the enhancement of myocardial miR-126 and miR-210 expressions.

Resumo Fundamento: O diabetes mellitus (DM) é um dos principais fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, levando à disfunção endotelial e inibição da angiogênese. O miRNA-126 e o miRNA-210 promovem a resposta angiogênica em células endoteliais. Objetivo: O presente estudo buscou explorar o efeito do alho e de exercícios físicos voluntários, isoladamente ou em conjunto, nas expressões do miRNA-126 e do miR-210 e na angiogênese cardíaca em ratos com diabetes tipo 1. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7): Controle, Diabetes, Diabetes+Alho, Diabetes+Exercícios e Diabetes+Alho+Exercícios. Introduziu-se diabetes nos animais por estreptozotocina (ip, 50 mg/kg). Os ratos foram então alimentados com homogenato de alho fresco cru (250 mg/kg), ou foram submetidos a exercícios voluntários, ou a uma combinação de alho e exercícios voluntários, durante 6 semanas. As expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 no miocárdio foram determinadas por PCR em tempo real, e o perfil lipídico sérico foi medido por kits enzimáticos. A angiogênese foi avaliada por imunocoloração por PECAM-1/CD31 no miocárdio Resultados: O diabetes reduziu a expressão do miRNA-126 cardíaco e da angiogênese (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, houve um aumento da expressão do miRNA-210 no miocárdio dos animais diabéticos (p < 0,001). No entanto, tais efeitos foram revertidos com alho ou exercícios voluntários (p < 0,01). Além disso, o tratamento de ratos diabéticos conjuntamente com alho e exercícios voluntários teve um efeito adicional sobre as expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 (p < 0,001). Além disso, tanto os exercícios voluntários quanto o alho melhoraram significativamente os perfis lipídicos séricos (p < 0,001). Conclusões: A indução de diabetes diminuiu a angiogênese no miocárdio, enquanto nosso tratamento com exercícios voluntários de longa duração e alho melhorou a angiogênese miocárdica. Estas alterações devem-se, possivelmente, ao aumento das expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA no miocárdio.

Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Garlic/chemistry , Triglycerides/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart/physiopathology
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e059, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039303


Abstract We recently demonstrated that a co-culture system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) could enhance angiogenesis ability in vitro. However, whether tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) could promote blood vessel formation during pulp regeneration remained unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TNF-α on the formation of endothelial tubules and vascular networks in a co-culture system of hDPSCs and HUVECs. hDPSCs were co-cultured with HUVECs at a ratio of 1:5. The Matrigel assay was performed to detect the total tubule branching lengths and numbers of branches, and the Cell-Counting Kit 8 assay was performed to examine the effect of TNF-α on cell proliferation. Real-time polymerase chain reactions and western blot were used to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression. The Matrigel assay showed significantly greater total branching lengths and numbers of branches formed in the experimental groups treated with different concentrations of TNF-α compared with the control group. The decomposition times of the tubule structures were also significantly prolonged (P < 0.05). Treatment with 50 ng/ml TNF-α did not significantly change the proliferation of co-cultured cells, but it significantly increased the VEGF mRNA and protein expression levels (p < 0.05). In addition, the migration abilities of HUVECs and hDPSCs increased after co-culture with TNF-α (p < 0.05). TNF-α enhanced angiogenic ability in vitro in the co-culture system of hDPSCs and HUVECs.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Proteoglycans , Reference Values , Time Factors , Cell Count , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Collagen , Laminin , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Dental Pulp/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Drug Combinations , Cell Migration Assays , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e48, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952159


Abstract The aim was to investigate the angiogenic effects of concentrated growth factors on human dental pulp cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Cells were treated with concentrated growth factor extracts. The CCK-8 assay and cell cycle assay were conducted to evaluate cell growth. Cell migration was evaluated by the Transwell migration assay. Angiogenesis-associated mRNA and protein expression levels were determined using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. A tube formation assay was conducted to evaluate the angiogenic capacity in vitro. The data showed that compared with the control, concentrated growth factor extracts significantly promoted dental pulp cell proliferation and differentiation and endothelial cell proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Concentrated growth factor extracts also promoted the tube-like structure formation of endothelial cells in vitro. The RT-PCR and Western blot results showed that concentrated growth factor extracts upregulated the expression of angiogenesis-related genes - chemokine receptor-4, platelet-derived growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor - in dental pulp cells. In conclusion, concentrated growth factors showed proangiogenic effects on dental pulp cells and endothelial cells and have good application potential for dental pulp revascularization.

Humans , Male , Adult , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/physiology , Dental Pulp/cytology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/analysis , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/physiology , Cell Cycle/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Receptors, CXCR4/analysis , Receptors, CXCR4/physiology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/physiology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Cell Migration Assays , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(1): 54-62, July 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887892


Abstract Background: Crocin is reported to have a wide range of biological activities such as cardiovascular protection. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that exercise reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crocin and voluntary exercise on miR-126 and miR-210 expression levels and angiogenesis in the heart tissue. Methods: Animals were divided into 4 groups: control, exercise, crocin, and exercise-crocin. Animals received oral administration of crocin (50 mg/kg) or performed voluntary exercise alone or together for 8 weeks. Akt, ERK1/2 protein levels, miR-126 and miR-210 expression were measured in the heart tissue. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect CD31 in the heart tissue. Results: Akt and ERK1/2 levels of the heart tissue were higher in crocin treated group and voluntary exercise trained group after 8 weeks. Combination of crocin and exercise also significantly enhanced Akt and ERK1/2 levels in the heart tissue. MiR-126, miR-210 expression and CD31 in the heart increased in both crocin and voluntary exercise groups compared with control group. In addition, combination of exercise and crocin amplified their effect on miR-126 and miR-210 expression, and angiogenesis. Conclusion: Crocin and voluntary exercise improve heart angiogenesis possibly through enhancement of miR-126 and miR-210 expression. Voluntary exercise and diet supplementation with crocin could have beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Resumo Fundamentos: A crocina tem uma vasta gama de atividades biológicas, tais como a proteção cardiovascular. Estudos epidemiológicos recentes demonstraram que o exercício reduz a morbidade e a mortalidade cardiovasculares na população em geral. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da crocina e do exercício voluntário nos níveis de expressão miR-126 e miR-210 e na angiogênese no tecido cardíaco. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos em 4 grupos: controle, exercício, crocina e exercício-crocina. Os animais receberam a administração oral de crocina (50 mg/kg) ou realizaram exercício voluntário sozinhos ou em conjunto durante 8 semanas. Os níveis de proteína Akt, ERK1/2, e a expressão de miR-126 e miR-210 foram medidos no tecido cardíaco. O método imunohistoquímico foi utilizado para detectar CD31 no tecido cardíaco. Resultados: Os níveis de Akt e ERK1/2 do tecido cardíaco foram maiores no grupo tratado com crocina e no grupo de exercício voluntário após 8 semanas. A combinação de crocina e exercício também aumentou significativamente os níveis de Akt e ERK1/2 no tecido cardíaco. A expressão de MiR-126, miR-210 e CD31 no coração aumentou tanto em no grupo de crocina como no grupo de exercício voluntário em comparação com o grupo de controle. Além disso, a combinação de exercício e crocina amplificou seu efeito na expressão de miR-126 e miR-210 e angiogênese. Conclusão: A Crocina e o exercício voluntário melhoram a angiogênese cardíaca possivelmente através do aumento da expressão de miR-126 e miR-210. O exercício voluntário e a suplementação dietética com crocina podem ter efeitos benéficos na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares.

Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , MAP Kinase Signaling System
Clinics ; 71(10): 617-625, Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796872


OBJECTIVES: Conventional imaging methods are excellent for the morphological characterization of the consequences of osteonecrosis; however, only specialized techniques have been considered useful for obtaining functional information. To explore the affinity of radiotracers for severely devascularized bone, a new mouse model of isolated femur implanted in a subcutaneous abdominal pocket was devised. To maintain animal mobility and longevity, the femur was harvested from syngeneic donors. Two technetium-99m-labeled tracers targeting angiogenesis and bone matrix were selected. METHODS: Medronic acid and a homodimer peptide conjugated with RGDfK were radiolabeled with technetium-99m, and biodistribution was evaluated in Swiss mice. The grafted and control femurs were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days, including computed tomography (CT) and histological analysis. RESULTS: Radiolabeling achieved high (>95%) radiochemical purity. The biodistribution confirmed good blood clearance 1 hour after administration. For 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC)-E-[c(RGDfK)2, remarkable renal excretion was observed compared to 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP), but the latter, as expected, revealed higher bone uptake. The results obtained in the control femur were equal at all time points. In the implanted femur, 99mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2 uptake was highest after 15 days, consistent with early angiogenesis. Regarding 99mTc-MDP in the implant, similar uptake was documented at all time points, consistent with sustained bone viability; however, the uptake was lower than that detected in the control femur, as confirmed by histology. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Graft viability was successfully diagnosed using radiotracers in severely ischemic bone at all time points. 2) Analogously, indirect information about angiogenesis could be gathered using 999mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2. 3) These techniques appear promising and warrant further studies to determine their potential clinical applications.

Animals , Female , Mice , Bone-Implant Interface/physiology , Organotechnetium Compounds , Osteonecrosis/physiopathology , Peptides, Cyclic , Radiopharmaceuticals , Bone Transplantation , Diphosphonates , Disease Models, Animal , Femur/pathology , Femur/physiopathology , Isotope Labeling/methods , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Osteonecrosis/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Tissue Survival/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 271-275, Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796038


Abstract Myocardial infarction is the most significant manifestation of ischemic heart disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Novel strategies targeting at regenerating the injured myocardium have been investigated, including gene therapy, cell therapy, and the use of growth factors. Growth factor therapy has aroused interest in cardiovascular medicine because of the regeneration mechanisms induced by these biomolecules, including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, cardiomyocyte proliferation, stem-cell recruitment, and others. Together, these mechanisms promote myocardial repair and improvement of the cardiac function. This review aims to address the strategic role of growth factor therapy in cardiac regeneration, considering its innovative and multifactorial character in myocardial repair after ischemic injury. Different issues will be discussed, with emphasis on the regeneration mechanisms as a potential therapeutic resource mediated by growth factors, and the challenges to make these proteins therapeutically viable in the field of cardiology and regenerative medicine.

Resumo O infarto do miocárdio representa a manifestação mais significativa da cardiopatia isquêmica e está associado a elevada morbimortalidade. Novas estratégias vêm sendo investigadas com o intuito de regenerar o miocárdio lesionado, incluindo a terapia gênica, a terapia celular e a utilização de fatores de crescimento. A terapia com fatores de crescimento despertou interesse em medicina cardiovascular, devido aos mecanismos de regeneração induzidos por essas biomoléculas, incluindo angiogênese, remodelamento da matriz extracelular, proliferação de cardiomiócitos e recrutamento de células-tronco, dentre outros. Em conjunto, tais mecanismos promovem a reparação do miocárdio e a melhora da função cardíaca. Esta revisão pretende abordar o papel estratégico da terapia, com fatores de crescimento, para a regeneração cardíaca, considerando seu caráter inovador e multifatorial sobre o reparo do miocárdio após dano isquêmico. Diferentes questões serão discutidas, destacando-se os mecanismos de regeneração como recurso terapêutico potencial mediado por fatores de crescimento e os desafios para tornar essas proteínas terapeuticamente viáveis no âmbito da cardiologia e da medicina regenerativa.

Humans , Regeneration/physiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/therapeutic use , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Regenerative Medicine/trends , Heart/physiology
Clinics ; 71(9): 528-536, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794640


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on angiogenesis markers of visceral adipose tissue in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: Adult Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group): sham-sedentary, ovariectomized sedentary, sham-resistance training and ovariectomized resistance training. The rats were allowed to climb a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails and the weights were progressively increased. Sessions were performed three times per week for 10 weeks. Visceral adipose tissue angiogenesis and morphology were analyzed by histology. VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Ovariectomy resulted in higher body mass (p=0.0003), adipocyte hypertrophy (p=0.0003), decreased VEGF-A mRNA (p=0.0004) and protein levels (p=0.0009), and decreased micro-vascular density (p=0.0181) in the visceral adipose tissue of the rats. Resistance training for 10 weeks was not able to attenuate the reduced angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of the ovariectomized rats. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the resistance training program used in this study could not ameliorate low angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats.

Animals , Female , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Ovariectomy/methods , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Intra-Abdominal Fat/blood supply , Estrogens/deficiency , Resistance Training/methods , Ribosomal Proteins/analysis , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Adipocytes/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Intra-Abdominal Fat/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1348-1354, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-772320


La vasculogénesis es controlada por una serie de mecanismos que se activan en función del tiempo y del espacio durante el desarrollo embrionario. Múltiples son las vías de señalización implicadas en las etapas del proceso vasculogénico, las que se inician con estímulos angiogénicos desde el mesodermo o desde el endodermo para dar origen a los angioblastos (células progenitoras endoteliales). Proteínas como el factor de crecimiento vascular endotelial (VEGF), factor de crecimiento fibroblastico 2 (FGF2), entre otras, constituyen factores claves en la inducción de este proceso. Posteriormente, los angioblastos deben migrar para dar origen a los vasos primitivos, proceso en el que participan factores atrayentes y repulsivos que orientarán la dirección de su migración. Adicionalmente, los mecanismos de diferenciación arterio-venosa, regulados por la vía de señalización Hedgegog, VEGF y Notch, son determinados antes del inicio de la circulación, lo que sugiere que el destino de la célula endotelial se encuentra genéticamente determinado. Por su parte, los procesos de remodelación y proliferación vascular post natal, son generados a través de la formación de nuevos vasos a partir de vasos pre existentes (angiogénesis). El factor angiogénico que induce los cambios morfológicos y funcionales en las células endoteliales es el VEGFA, las cuales, adquieren la capacidad de direccionar al nuevo vaso en desarrollo. Uno de los principales estímulos físicos que modifica el patrón de crecimiento de los lechos vasculares es el estrés de flujo, el cual, es susceptible de ser modificado por situaciones de estrés como el ejercicio físico. En la presente revisión, se abordan los principales mecanismos implicados en la regulación fisiológica de la vasculogénesis y angiogénesis. Adicionalmente, se discutirán los mecanismos que sustentan la respuesta vascular inducida por estrés de flujo, considerando su rol en el establecimiento de los patrones de crecimiento vascular.

Vasculogenesis is controlled by a number of mechanisms that are activated as a function of time and space during embryonic development. Multiple signaling pathways are involved in the stages of vasculogenic process, which start with angiogenic stimuli from the mesoderm or the endoderm to give rise to angioblasts (endothelial progenitor cells). Proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), among others, are key factors in the induction of this process. Subsequently, the angioblasts must migrate to give birth to primitive vessels, a process that involves attractive and repulsive factors that guide the direction of their migration. Additionally, arterial and venous differentiation regulated hedgegog signaling pathway, VEGF and Notch are determined before the start of circulation, suggesting that the endothelial cell fate is determined genetically. On the other hand, the processes of remodeling and postnatal vascular proliferation are generated through the formation of new vessels from pre-existing vessels (angiogenesis). The angiogenic factor that induces morphological and functional changes in the endothelial cells is the VEGFA, these vessels acquire the ability to address the new developing vessel. One of the main physical stimuli that modify the growth pattern of the vascular beds is the shear stress, which is modified by exercise. In this review, the main mechanisms involved in the physiological regulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are addressed. Additionally, the mechanisms underlying the vascular response induced by shear stress will be discussed, considering its role in establishing patterns of vascular growth.

Humans , Angiogenesis Modulating Agents , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Exercise , Stress, Mechanical
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(10): 886-894, 10/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722168


Administration or expression of growth factors, as well as implantation of autologous bone marrow cells, promote in vivo angiogenesis. This study investigated the angiogenic potential of combining both approaches through the allogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF). After establishing a hind limb ischemia model in Sprague Dawley rats, the animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups: MSCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSC), MSCs expressing hbFGF (hbFGF-MSC), MSC controls, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) controls. After 2 weeks, MSC survival and differentiation, hbFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and microvessel density of ischemic muscles were determined. Stable hbFGF expression was observed in the hbFGF-MSC group after 2 weeks. More hbFGF-MSCs than GFP-MSCs survived and differentiated into vascular endothelial cells (P<0.001); however, their differentiation rates were similar. Moreover, allogenic transplantation of hbFGF-MSCs increased VEGF expression (P=0.008) and microvessel density (P<0.001). Transplantation of hbFGF-expressing MSCs promoted angiogenesis in an in vivo hind limb ischemia model by increasing the survival of transplanted cells that subsequently differentiated into vascular endothelial cells. This study showed the therapeutic potential of combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy to treat ischemic disease.

Animals , Humans , Male , Extremities/blood supply , /metabolism , Gene Expression , Ischemia/physiopathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Antigens, Surface/analysis , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Disease Models, Animal , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Ischemia/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transplantation, Homologous , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 29(10): 622-632, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725296


PURPOSE: To evaluate experimental cranial vault reconstructions, by combining bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP-2) and different matrices. METHODS: Fourty-nine animals were initially included (seven per group). We designed an experimental, open, prospective and comparative study, divided in seven groups: 1 - BMP-2+calcium phosphate (BT); 2 - BMP-2+acellular dermal matrix (BM); 3 - BMP-2+calcium alginate (BA); 4 - TCP; 5 - MDM; 6 - ALG; 7 - Bone autograft (BAG). A bone failure was created in left parietal bone of adult male mice. At the same procedure reconstruction was performed. After five weeks, animals were sacrificed, and reconstruction area was removed to histological analysis. After exclusion due to death or infection, thirty-eight animals were evaluated (BT=5; BM=6; BA=6; TCP=7; MDM=3; ALG=6; BAG=5). RESULTS: A higher incidence of infection has occurred in MDM group (57%, P=0.037). In cortical fusion, groups BAG, TCP, and BMP-2+TCP (BT) obtained the best scores, comparing to the others (P=0.00846). In new bone formation, groups BT, BAG, and TCP have presented the best scores (P=0.00835). When neovascularization was considered, best groups were BMP-2+MDM (BM), BMP-2+ALG (BA), TCP, and MDM (P=0.001695). BAG group was the best in bone marrow formation, followed by groups BT and TCP (P=0.008317). CONCLUSIONS: Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 increased bone regeneration in experimental skull reconstruction, especially when combined to calcium phosphate. Such association was even comparable to bone autograft, the gold-standard treatment, in some histological criteria. .

Animals , Male , Acellular Dermis , Alginates/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Calcium Phosphates/therapeutic use , Skull/surgery , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Bone Regeneration/physiology , Bone Substitutes/therapeutic use , Bone Transplantation/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Glucuronic Acid/therapeutic use , Hexuronic Acids/therapeutic use , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Skull/pathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(3): 410-413, May-Jun/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711598


BACKGROUND: Cryosurgery is an efficient therapeutic technique used to treat benign and malignant cutaneous diseases. The primary active mechanism of cryosurgery is related to vascular effects on treated tissue. After a cryosurgical procedure, exuberant granulation tissue is formed at the injection site, probably as a result of angiogenic stimulation of the cryogen and inflammatory response, particularly in endothelial cells. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the angiogenic effects of freezing, as part of the phenomenon of healing rat skin subjected to previous injury. METHODS: Two incisions were made in each of the twenty rats, which were divided randomly into two groups of ten. After 3 days, cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen was performed in one of incisions. The rats' samples were then collected, cut and stained to conduct histopathological examination, to assess the local angiogenesis in differing moments and situations. RESULTS: It was possible to demonstrate that cryosurgery, in spite of promoting cell death and accentuated local inflammation soon after its application, induces quicker cell proliferation in the affected tissue and maintenance of this rate in a second phase, than in tissue healing without this procedure. CONCLUSIONS: These findings, together with the knowledge that there is a direct relationship between mononuclear cells and neovascularization (the development of a rich system of new vessels in injury caused by cold), suggest that cryosurgery possesses angiogenic stimulus, even though complete healing takes longer to occur. The significance level for statistical tests was 5% (p<0,05). .

Animals , Male , Rats , Cryosurgery/methods , Dermatologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Nitrogen/therapeutic use , Cell Count , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred Lew , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Wound Healing/physiology
Acta cir. bras ; 27(11): 761-767, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-654242


PURPOSE: To investigate the results of the healing process on surgical wounds in the back of Wistar rats using nanocristaline and ionic silver dressing. METHODS: Sixty rats Wistar were submitted to surgical wounds with punch of 8mm in diameter. In 30 animals (groups PN - nanocristaline and AD - control) two surgical wounds were done diametrically opposite on the upper back side. On the right side was used nanocristaline (PN) silver dressing and on the left side, distilled water dressing (AD). On the other group of 30 rats, only one wound was made with the punch, on the right side, and was used ionic silver dressing. So, the groups were divided into three subgroups, according to the day of death (7th, 14th and 21st day). In each of these days the wounds diameter were measured to evaluate the wound contraction. Microscopic data were analyzed using the H&E staining to verify the inflammatory process and neovascularization. The Masson trichrome staining was used to verify the fibrosis. RESULTS: Macroscopically only the subgroup of 21st day showed statistical significance; between the groups AD and PI inflammatory process appeared in the 7th day subgroup in 90% of the cases. In neovascularization there was statistical significance between the groups PN and AD in the subgroup of 7th day. Fibrosis did not show statistical significance in the studied groups. CONCLUSIONS: In relation to wound contraction, PN and PI groups showed better results than the AD group. In regard to histological analysis, H&E staining showed that there was presence of inflammation in all groups, and at the end, the control group (AD) on 7th day, was superior to PN and PI groups. In relationship to fibrosis, no differences were obtained among groups.

OBJETIVO: Investigar os resultados da cicatrização de feridas cirúrgicas em dorso de ratos, utilizando curativos de prata nanocristalina e iônica. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos Wistar foram submetidos à feridas cirúrgicas com punch de 8mm de diâmetro. Foram confeccionadas duas lesões diametralmente opostas nos animais dos grupos prata nanocristalina (PN) e controle água destilada (AD). Na lesão do lado direito foi utilizado curativo com prata nanocristalina e na do lado esquerdo curativo com água destilada. No outro grupo de 30 ratos, apenas foi realizada uma lesão com o punch no lado esquerdo e curativo com prata iônica. Os grupos foram divididos em subgrupos conforme o dia da morte (7º, 14º e 21º dias), o que caracterizou a existência de três subgrupos, nos quais foram tomadas as medidas do centro das lesões para estudar macroscopicamente a contração da ferida Microscopicamente foi utilizada a coloração H&E, através da qual foi observado o processo inflamatório e a neovascularização. Com a coloração Tricômio de Masson, foi estudada a fibrose. RESULTADOS: Macroscopicamente apenas o subgrupo 21 dias apresentou significância estatística entre os grupos AD e prata iônica (PI), porém quando comparados os dias de avaliação, dois a dois, dentro de cada tratamento, todos os subgrupos apresentaram significância estatística (p<0,05). A variável intensidade da inflamação apresentou-se de forma acentuada no subgrupo sete dias em 90% dos casos, entre os grupos AD e PI. Na variável neovascularização houve significância estatística entre os grupos PN e AD no subgrupo sete dias. A variável fibrose não apresentou significância estatística nos subgrupos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: Em relação à contração da ferida, os grupos PN e PI apresentaram resultados superiores ao grupo AD. Com relação à análise histológica, na coloração H&E observou-se que houve presença de processo inflamatório nos grupos estudados sendo que, ao final, o grupo controle (AD) no 7º dia mostrou-se superior aos grupos PN e PI. Com relação à variável fibrose, não houve diferenças entre os grupos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Occlusive Dressings , Silver/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/drug effects , Wounds and Injuries/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Silver/chemistry , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing/physiology , Wounds and Injuries/pathology
Egyptian Journal of Histology [The]. 2012; 35 (1): 43-53
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126542


Diabetes is relatively common worldwide. According to the reports of the WHO, more than 150 million people suffer from diabetes across the world. A primary negative effect of a diabetic environment on the developing embryo is impaired vascularization of the yolk sac. Angiogenesis at the sites of blastocyst implantation is associated with increased vascular permeability. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diabetes on the implantation site and intersite in albino rats during the early period of pregnancy with special emphasis on angiogenesis, by studying vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Forty adult female albino rats aged 4-6 months were used in this study. Rats were divided into two groups [20 rats each]. Group I constituted the control group and group II constituted the alloxan-induced diabetic group. Diabetes was induced in rats by intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate dissolved in normal saline into the dorsal tail vein at a dose of 40mg/kg body weight. Vaginal smears were collected from each animal; the presence of sperm in the smear was designated as day 1 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats from the control and diabetic groups were sacrificed at days 4, 5, 6 and 7 of pregnancy [n=5]. Examination of the uterine horn sections showed occurrence of implantation on day 6 in the control group, whereas implantation in the diabetic group occurred only on day 7. Granulated metrial glandular cells were clearly seen in the control group, whereas lymphocytic infiltration was obvious in the diabetic group. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was stronger in the diabetic group

Female , Animals, Laboratory , Alloxan/adverse effects , Embryo Implantation , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood , Rats , Pregnancy, Animal , Endometrium/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 97(6): e140-e148, dez. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-610408


O processo de angiogênese envolve uma sequência complexa de estímulos e respostas integradas, como estimulação das células endoteliais (CE) para sua proliferação e migração, estimulação da matriz extracelular, para atração de pericitos e macrófagos, estimulação das células musculares lisas, para sua proliferação e migração, e formação de novas estruturas vasculares. Angiogênese é principalmente uma resposta adaptativa à hipóxia tecidual e depende do acúmulo do fator de crescimento induzido pela hipóxia (FIH-1 α) na zona do miocárdio isquêmico, que serve para aumentar a transcrição do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF) e seus receptores VEGF-R, pelas CE em sofrimento isquêmico. Esses passos envolvem mecanismos enzimáticos e proteases ativadoras do plasminogênio, metaloproteinases (MMP) da matriz extracelular (MEC) e cinases que provocam a degradação molecular proteolítica da MEC, bem como pela ativação e a liberação de fatores de crescimento, tais como: fator básico de crescimento dos fibroblastos (FCFb), VEGF e fator de crescimento insulínico-1 (FCI-1). Posteriormente, vem a fase intermediária de estabilização do novo broto neovascular imaturo e a fase final de maturação vascular da angiogênese fisiológica. Como conclusões generalizáveis, é possível afirmar que a angiogênese coronária em adultos é, fundamentalmente, uma resposta parácrina da rede capilar preexistente em condições fisiopatológicas de isquemia e inflamação.

The process of angiogenesis involves a complex sequence of stimuli and integrated responses, such as stimulation of endothelial cells (ECs) for their proliferation and migration, stimulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) for the attraction of pericytes and macrophages, stimulation of smooth muscle cells for their proliferation and migration, and formation of new vascular structures. Angiogenesis is mainly an adaptive response to tissue hypoxia and depends on the accumulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) in the ischemic myocardial area, which increases the transcription of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGF-R by the ECs undergoing ischemia. Those steps involve enzymatic mechanisms and plasminogen activator proteases, metalloproteinases (MMP) of the ECM, and kinases that cause proteolytic molecular degradation of the ECM and activation and release of growth factors, such as: basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), VEGF, and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1). In the intermediate phase, stabilization of the immature neovascular sprout occurs. The final phase is characterized by vascular maturation of the physiological angiogenesis. In conclusion, coronary angiogenesis in adults is fundamentally a paracrine response of the preexisting capillary network under pathophysiological condition of ischemia and inflammation.

El proceso de angiogénesis involucra una serie compleja de estímulos y de respuestas integradas, como la estimulación de las células endoteliales (CE), para su proliferación y migración, estimulación de la matriz extracelular, para la atracción de pericitos y macrófagos, estimulación de las células musculares lisas, para su proliferación y migración, y formación de nuevas estructuras vasculares. La angiogénesis es principalmente una respuesta adaptativa a la hipoxia tisular y depende de la acumulación del factor de crecimiento inducido por la hipoxia (FIH-1 α) en la zona del miocardio isquémico, que sirve para aumentar la transcripción del factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular (con sus siglas en inglés: VEGF vascular endotelial growth factor), y sus receptores VEGF-R, por las CE en el sufrimiento isquémico. Esos pasos aglutinan mecanismos enzimáticos y proteasas activadoras del plasminógeno, metaloproteinasas (MMP) de la matriz extracelular (MEC), y cinasas que provocan la degradación molecular proteolítica de la MEC, como también la activación y la liberación de factores de crecimiento, tales como: factor básico de crecimiento de los fibroblastos (FCFb), VEGF y factor de crecimiento insulínico-1 (FCI-1). Posteriormente, viene la fase intermedia de estabilización del nuevo brote neovascular inmaduro y la fase final de maduración vascular de la angiogénesis fisiológica. Como conclusiones generales, podemos afirmar que la angiogénesis coronaria en adultos es fundamentalmente, una respuesta paracrina de la red capilar preexistente en condiciones fisiopatológicas de isquemia e inflamación.

Adult , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Stem Cells/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology
Acta cir. bras ; 26(1): 19-24, jan.-fev. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-572229


Purpose: In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant. Methods: Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cutaneous wounds in rats. Results: The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors. Conclusion: The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.

Objetivo: Neste trabalho a atividade sobre a angiogênese do extrato etanólico (EEC) e das frações diclorometano e hexânica das flores de Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivada no Brasil foram avaliados, visto que propriedades medicinais têm sido atribuídas às flores da planta, destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Métodos: Modelos utilizando 36 ratos e 90 ovos embrionados foram usados para avaliar as atividades cicatrizante e angiogênica dos extratos e frações da planta, por meio da indução de feridas cutâneas e da membrana corioalantóide, respectivamente. O efeito proliferativo vascular foi também testado a partir do estudo imunoistoquímico, realizado para verificar a intensidade da expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF) na derme de ratos. Resultados: A atividade angiogênica do extrato e das frações foi evidenciada nos dois modelos experimentais empregados. Foi evidenciado que este efeito não estava diretamente relacionado à expressão do VEGF, podendo estar associado a outros fatores pró-angiogênicos. Conclusão: A atividade cicatrizante referida a C. officinalis está relacionada ao seu efeito positivo sobre a angiogênese, e este foi caracterizado pela indução de neovascularização.

Animals , Chick Embryo , Female , Rats , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/pharmacology , Calendula/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Wound Healing/drug effects , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/isolation & purification , Chorioallantoic Membrane/blood supply , Chorioallantoic Membrane/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Skin/blood supply , Skin/injuries , Skin/metabolism , Wound Healing/physiology
Acta cir. bras ; 26(1): 58-63, jan.-fev. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-572235


Purpose: Angiogenesis involves many mediators including integrins, and the tripeptide RGD is a target amino acid recognition sequence for many of them. Hindlimb ischemia is a simple and convenient animal model however standardization of the injection procedures in the devascularized and control limb is lacking, thus rendering difficult the interpretation of results. The aim of this investigations was to evaluate neovascularization in a hindlimb murine model by means of 99mTc-HYNIC-ß-Ala-RGD. Methods: 99mTc-HYNIC-RGD analog was prepared using coligands. Ischemia was induced in Wistar rats by double- ligation of the common femoral artery. Radiolabeled RGD was injected after 2h, as well as 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days. Uptake was evaluated by planar imaging and biodistribution studies. Results: The highest ratio between ischemia and control was achieved at the 7th day (2.62 ± 0.95), with substantial decrease by the 14th day. For pertechnetate the 7th day ratio was 0.87 ± 0.23. Scintigraphic image confirmed different uptakes. Conclusion: 99mTc-HYNIC-RGD analog concentrated in ischemic tissue by the time of widespread angiogenesis and pertechnetate confirmed reduction in blood flow. In this sense, the protocol can be recommended for ischemic models.

Objetivo: A angiogênese em resposta a fenômenos isquêmicos envolve vários mediadores como as integrinas, sendo que o tripeptídeo RGD possui uma seqüência de aminoácidos com reconhecimento para este alvo. O modelo animal de isquemia de pata traseira é simples e conveniente, porém não há uma padronização do procedimento de injeção e controle radioisotópico em membro desvascularizado, dificultando, portanto a interpretação de resultados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a neovascularização em modelo murino de isquemia de pata traseira através do radiotraçador 99mTc-HYNIC-ß-Ala-RGD. Métodos: O análogo 99mTc-HYNIC-RGD foi preparado usando coligantes. A isquemia foi induzida em ratos Wistar por dupla-ligação da artéria femoral comum na prega inguinal. Peptídeo RGD radiomarcado foi injetado após 2h, assim como 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 e 14 dias. A captação foi avaliada por imagem planar e estudos de biodistribuição. Resultados: A maior diferença de captação entre isquemia e pata controle foi obtida no 7º dia (2,62 ± 0,95), com decréscimo acentuado no 14º dia. Para o pertecnetato a razão no 7º dia foi 0,87 ± 0,23. A imagem cintilográfica confirmou as diferentes captações. Conclusões: O análogo 99mTc-HYNIC-RGD concentrou-se no tecido isquêmico na etapa em que a angiogênese é mais acentuada, e o estudo do pertecnetato confirmou a redução no fluxo sanguíneo. Desta maneira, este protocolo diagnóstico pode ser recomendado para modelos isquêmicos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Hindlimb/blood supply , Ischemia/physiopathology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Organotechnetium Compounds , Radiopharmaceuticals , Amino Acid Sequence , Conserved Sequence , Hindlimb/metabolism , Hindlimb , Ischemia , Oligopeptides , Organotechnetium Compounds/pharmacokinetics , Rats, Wistar , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Tissue Distribution
Clinics ; 66(2): 307-312, 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-581519


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the probable mechanism of the volume increase of laparoscopically harvested omentum flaps used to treat breast deformities. METHODS: A histological analysis of omentum samples was performed to study the volume increase of laparoscopically harvested omentum flaps. Samples were harvested immediately after the transposition of the omentum from the abdominal cavity to the breast region and during the second surgical procedure for breast symmetrization of eight patients submitted to the transposition of the omentum flap. Changes in the morphometric measurements of the adipocytes (perimeter, diameter, and area), microvascular density (as measured by the CD31 endothelial marker), and immunohistochemical expression of VEGF were documented. RESULTS: The increases in adipocyte size and microvascular density were statistically significant (P < 0.012). The expression levels of VEGF were lower in the second set of samples when compared to the first set, but the differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.093). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate an increase in cellular volume as measured by adipocyte perimeter, diameter, and area. Moreover, the increase in the number of vessels in the second set of samples suggests that neoangiogenesis was stimulated by the initial increase in VEGF expression levels observed in the first set of samples. The increase in VEGF expression in the flap may have been caused by adipocyte hypertrophy resulting from neoangiogenesis.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adipocytes/cytology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast/growth & development , Omentum/transplantation , Surgical Flaps , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/physiology , Body Mass Index , Breast Neoplasms/blood supply , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast/blood supply , Breast/surgery , Cell Enlargement , Laparoscopy , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Organ Size , Omentum/blood supply , Omentum/cytology , Postoperative Period , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Surgical Flaps/pathology , Time Factors
Clinics ; 66(9): 1611-1614, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604302


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of high-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy on tendon angiogenesis in the patellar tendons of rabbits. We sought to investigate whether different voltage and number pulses modify the angiogenesis pattern. INTRODUCTION: High-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy is an option in the treatment of orthopedic diseases such as chronic tendonitis. Despite its potential clinical applicability, there have been few studies on this technique that examine both its clinical effectiveness and its effect on angiogenesis. METHODS: High-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy was applied at the tibial insertion of the left patellar ligament in 30 rabbits that were separated into six groups that differed in terms of the voltage and number of pulses that were applied by high-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy. The tibial insertion in the right legs of the animals was used as the control. After six weeks, we performed histological analysis on the region and quantified the number of blood vessels. RESULTS: No significant differences in the number of blood vessels between the left and right patellar tendons were found within groups. Additionally, no significant differences in the number of blood vessels in the left patellar tendons were found between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The application of high-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy did not cause a change in vascularization in the patellar tendon in rabbits.

Animals , Female , Rabbits , High-Energy Shock Waves/therapeutic use , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Patellar Ligament/blood supply , Tendinopathy/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Statistics, Nonparametric
J. appl. oral sci ; 18(1): 75-82, Jan.-Feb. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-545030


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare two methodologies used in the evaluation of tissue response to root-end filling materials in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty rats were divided into 4 groups: in Groups I and II (control groups), empty polyethylene tubes were implanted in the extraction site and in the subcutaneous tissue, respectively; in Groups III and IV, polyethylene tubes filled with ProRoot MTA were implanted in the extraction site and in the subcutaneous tissue, respectively. The animals were killed 7 and 30 days after tube implantation, and the hemi-maxillas and the capsular subcutaneous tissue, both with the tubes, were removed. Specimens were processed and evaluated histomorphologicaly under light microscopy. The scores obtained were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the implantation methods (p=0.78033, p=0.72039). It was observed that the 30-day groups presented a more mature healing process due to smaller number of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed no differences in tissue responses as far as the implantation site and the studied period were concerned. Alveolar socket implantation methodology represents an interesting method in the study of the biological properties of root-end filling endodontic materials due to the opportunity to evaluate bone tissue response.

Animals , Rats , Alveolar Process/drug effects , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Tooth Socket/drug effects , Aluminum Compounds/pharmacology , Alveolar Process/pathology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Connective Tissue/pathology , Drug Combinations , Granulation Tissue/pathology , Gutta-Percha/pharmacology , Inflammation , Materials Testing , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Oxides/pharmacology , Polyethylene/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Retrograde Obturation , Silicates/pharmacology , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Time Factors , Tooth Socket/pathology , Wound Healing/drug effects