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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e335-e339, agosto 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281757

ABSTRACT

La nefropatía por inmunoglobulina M (NIgM) es una glomerulopatía idiopática caracterizada por depósitos mesangiales globales y difusos de IgM. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las características clínicas e histopatológicas de los pacientes con NIgM atendidos en nuestro servicio. De 241 biopsias renales, 21 correspondieron a NIgM (8,7 %). Se incluyeron 18 pacientes (14 de sexo femenino, mediana de edad: 3,08 años). Se excluyó a 1 paciente por enfermedad sistémica asociada y a 2 por seguimiento menor a 1 año. Catorce pacientes se manifestaron con síndrome nefrótico (SN) y 4 con proteinuria aislada o asociada a hematuria. En la microscopia óptica, 13 presentaron hiperplasia mesangial, y 5 esclerosis focal y segmentaria. De los pacientes con SN, 7 fueron corticorresistentes, 4 corticodependientes y 3 presentaban recaídas frecuentes. Todos los pacientes con SN y 1 con proteinuria-hematuria recibieron inmunosupresores; los 18 pacientes recibieron, además, antiproteinúricos. Luego de 5,2 años (2-17,5) de seguimiento, 6 pacientes evolucionaron a enfermedad renal crónica


Immunoglobulin M nephropathy (IgMN) is an idiopathic glomerulopathy characterized by diffuse global mesangial deposits of IgM. We retrospectively studied the clinical and histopathological characteristics of the patients with IgMN seen in our service. Of 241 renal biopsies, 21 corresponded to IgMN (8.7 %). One patient was excluded due to associated systemic disease and 2 due to follow-up less than 1 year, 18 were included (14 girls, median age 3.08 years). Fourteen manifested with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and the remaining with proteinuria (isolated or associated with hematuria). On light microscopy, 13 had hyperplasia with mesangial expansion and 5 had focal and segmental sclerosis. Of the patients with NS, 7 were steroid-resistant, 4 steroid-dependent, and 3 frequent relapsers. All patients with NS and 1 with proteinuria-hematuria received immunosuppressants; the 18 patients also received antiproteinuric drugs. After 5.2 years (2-17.5) of follow-up, 6 patients developed chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Immunoglobulin M , Nephrotic Syndrome/pathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/therapy , Kidney Diseases , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis
2.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(4): e1082, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149921

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico, evaluación y tratamiento del síndrome nefrótico en el niño data de los tiempos de Hipócrates. Sin embargo, en la actualidad algunos pacientes con la enfermedad siguen siendo un reto terapéutico para el médico. Nos proponemos examinar en la literatura reciente, distintas propuestas o protocolos de tratamiento y las nuevas drogas que pueden utilizarse en la atención al paciente con esta enfermedad. Los protocolos de tratamiento varían con relativa frecuencia y las drogas, tanto en los síndromes nefróticos recaedores frecuentes, corticodependientes o corticorresistentes, no garantizan en muchas ocasiones la curación del paciente. Cuando fracasan los esteroides se pueden utilizar agentes alquilantes, inhibidores de la calcineurina, antiproliferativos, anticuerpos monoclonales y otros fármacos, pero existen pacientes que no tienen remisión de la proteinuria con ninguno de estos tratamientos. Por sus características evolutivas, algunos pacientes con síndrome nefrótico idiopático siguen siendo un reto para el médico que trata de evitar su evolución hacia la pérdida de la función renal. A pesar de todos los avances en la atención del niño con síndrome nefrótico, desde el descubrimiento de los esteroides, antibióticos, diuréticos e inmunosupresores, en la actualidad no sabemos exactamente cuál es el mejor tratamiento en las formas resistentes del síndrome nefrótico idiopático en niños(AU)


Diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of nephrotic syndrome in children dates from Hypocrate times. However, nowadays some patients with this disease are still a therapeutic challenge for physicians. The aim of this work is to search in recent literature different proposals or treatment protocols, and new drugs that can be used in the care of patients with this disease. Treatment protocols vary with relative frequency and drugs, as well as in frequent relapsing nephrotic, corticodependent or corticoresistant syndromes, do not guarantee in many ocassions the cure of the patient. When steroids fail, alkylanting agents, calcineurin depressants, antispreading, monoclonal antibodies and other drugs can be ussed; but there are patients who do not have remission of proteinuria with any of these treatments. Due to their evolutive characteristics, some patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome are still a challenge for the physicians who try to avoid its evolution toward the loss of renal function. Although all the advances in the care of children with nephrotic syndrome due to the discover of steroids, antibiotics, diuretics and immunosupressive drugs, nowadays we do not exactly know which is the best treatment for the resistant types of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Nephrotic Syndrome/therapy , Drug Resistance , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Nephrotic Syndrome/prevention & control
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1487-1492, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143634

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the action of the Lactobacillus Plantarum probiotic as a immunomodulatory and hypolipidemic agent in dyslipidemic nephrotic children and adolescents. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in pediatric, compensated or partially compensated nephrotic syndrome and dyslipidemic subjects undergoing regular outpatient follow-up. Serum lipid and TNF-α (proinflammatory) and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory) cytokine variations were evaluated. Cytokines were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: In the probiotic group there was a tendency to reduce TNF-α levels and increase IL-10 levels when compared to controls. Regarding the lipid profile, there was a decrease in serum triglyceride (6.0 mg / dL) and total cholesterol (41.5 mg / dL) levels in the probiotic group when compared to baseline levels, while in the control group there was an increase in serum triglyceride (49.5 mg / dL) and total cholesterol (8.0 mg / dL) levels, respectively. CONCLUSION: Preliminary results suggest that L. Plantarum showed an immunomodulatory and hypolipidemic effect in nephrotic and dyslipidemic pediatric subjects.


RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da ação do probiótico Lactobacillus Plantarum como um agente imunomodulador e hipolipemiante em crianças e adolescentes dislipidêmicos com síndrome nefrótica. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo randomizado, duplo-cego, controlado com placebo e realizado em pacientes pediátricos com síndrome nefrótica, compensados ou parcialmente compensados e dislipidêmicos passando por acompanhamento ambulatorial. Variações no lipídio sérico e nas citocinas TNF-α (pró-inflamatória) e IL-10 (anti-inflamatória) foram avaliadas. As citocinas foram analisadas por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). RESULTADOS: No grupo probiótico, houve uma tendência de redução dos níveis de TNF-α e de aumento dos níveis de IL-10, quando comparado ao controle. Em relação ao perfil lipídico, houve uma diminuição nos níveis séricos de triglicérides (6,0 mg/dL) e colesterol total (41,5 mg/dL) no grupo probiótico em comparação aos níveis basais, enquanto no grupo de controle houve um aumento nos níveis séricos de triglicérides (49,5 mg/dL) e colesterol total (8,0 mg/dL). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados preliminares sugerem que o L. Plantarum tem um efeito imunomodulador e hipolipemiante em pacientes pediátricos dislipidêmicos e com síndrome nefrótica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Feasibility Studies , Double-Blind Method , Cytokines , Lipids
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e288-e291, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1116957

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Pierson se caracteriza por la presencia de síndrome nefrótico congénito y microcoria bilateral. Genéticamente, este trastorno está ocasionado por mutaciones en el gen LAMB2, que codifica la cadenaß2 de la laminina. Hasta la fecha, en la bibliografía se informaron 98casos y 50mutaciones diferentes. No existen terapias específicas para el síndrome de Pierson, y el tratamiento es complementario. El pronóstico es malo por la disfunción renal progresiva y las complicaciones de la insuficiencia renal. En este artículo, se informa sobre una mutación homocigota novedosa (c.1890G>C [p.Q630H]) en el gen LAMB2 en una paciente con síndrome de Pierson que tenía un fenotipo atípico, como epidermólisis ampollosa.


Pierson syndrome is characterized by congenital nephrotic syndrome and bilateral microcoria. Genetically, mutations in the LAMB2 gene, which encodes the laminin ß2 chain, lead to this disorder. To date, 98 cases and 50 different mutations have been reported in literature. There are no specific therapies for Pierson syndrome and treatment is supportive. The prognosis is poor because of progressive impairment of renal function and complications of renal failure. We report a novel homozygous mutation (c.1890G>T, p.Q630H) in the LAMB2 gene in a patient with Pierson syndrome who had atypical phenotypic feature such as epidermolysis bullosa


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Mutation , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis , Turkey , Epidermolysis Bullosa , Fatal Outcome , Renal Insufficiency
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e204-e207, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100484

ABSTRACT

La gangrena de Fournier es una fascitis necrotizante que afecta las regiones genital, perineal y perianal, de inicio súbito y diseminación rápidamente progresiva. Su diagnóstico obliga a una urgente intervención interdisciplinaria. La asociación con enfermedades nefrológicas es rara.Se presenta un caso de gangrena de Fournier en un niño con síndrome nefrótico corticorresistente y anasarca con edema escrotal grave. Recibió un esquema antibiótico de amplio espectro y se realizó un desbridamiento quirúrgico extenso e inmediato de la lesión necrótica. Posteriormente, requirió reparación por parte de Cirugía Plástica. Presentó una respuesta clínica favorable a la terapéutica instaurada.


Fournier gangrene is a necrotizing fasciitis that affects the genital, perineal and perianal regions, of sudden onset and rapidly progressive dissemination. Its diagnosis requires an urgent and interdisciplinary intervention. The association with nephrologic diseases is rare.We present a case of Fournier gangrene in a child with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and anasarca with severe scrotal edema. He received a broad-spectrum antibiotic scheme and extensive an immediate surgical debridement of the necrotic lesion was carried out. Subsequently, it was repaired by Plastic Surgery. He presented a favourable clinical response


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Fournier Gangrene/surgery , Fournier Gangrene/diagnosis , Fasciitis, Necrotizing , Edema , Genital Diseases, Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Nephrotic Syndrome
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect genetic variant in a sib-pair with Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNF).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the sib-pair was reviewed. Coding regions of the NPHS1 gene was analyzed for the sib-pair and both parents.@*RESULTS@#The sister and brother respectively developed severe proteinuria 1 month and 28 days after birth, in addition with low serum albumin, hypercholesterolemia and severe edema, which were suggestive of CNF. Genetic testing identified that the sib-pair has both carried two heterozygous variants of NPHS1 gene, namely c.2605G>C (p.P869>A) and c.-61G>A, for which their father and mother were heterozygous carriers.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.2605G>C (p.869P>A) and c.-61G>A variants of the NHPS1 gene probably underlay the CNF in both sibs. The c.2605G>C(p.869P>A) was unreported previously.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Nephrotic Syndrome/genetics , Siblings
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826342

ABSTRACT

To explore the risk factors of acute kidney injury(AKI)in adult primary nephrotic syndrome(PNS). Totally 185 patients with PNS were divided into AKI group(=51)and non-AKI group(=134).The demographic data and clinical and histological features at admission were compared between the two groups.The independent risk factors for AKI were evaluated by Logistics regression analysis. In 51 PNS patients with AKI,the common pathological types of AKI included minor glomerular abnormalities(29.4%),IgA nephropathy(25.5%),and membranous nephropathy(17.6%).The incidences of renal tubular casts and epithelial vacuoles in the AKI group were significantly higher than those in the non-AKI group(=0.004,=0.030).Males were more likely to suffer from AKI than females(=0.000).Patients in AKI group had significantly lower albumin level(=0.015)and higher levels of random urine protein,serum creatinine,uric acid,urea nitrogen,and triglyceride than non-AKI group(=0.030,=0.000,=0.000,=0.000,and =0.006),and polyserous and oliguria occurred more often in the AKI group(=0.000,=0.002).The AKI group had significantly higher incidences of high blood pressure and infections(=0.035,=0.000).Multivariate logistics regression analysis showed albumin(96 μmol/L),urea nitrogen(≥6.8 mmol/L),uric acid(≥400 μmol/L),diabetes,infection,and renal tubular casts were the independent risk factors for AKI. AKI complicating PNS is associated with a variety of factors.Its independent risk factors include the levles of albumin,serum creatinine,urea nitrogen,and uric acid,diabetes,infections,and renal tubular casts.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adult , Creatinine , Female , Humans , Kidney , Male , Nephrotic Syndrome , Risk Factors
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the role of microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) in the pathogenesis of pediatric nephrotic syndrome (NS) and its effect on renal podocyte apoptosis via the activin A (ActA)/Smads pathway.@*METHODS@#An analysis was performed on 55 children with NS (NS group) who were admitted from March 2018 to March 2019. Fifty healthy children who underwent physical examination during the same period of time were enrolled as the control group. The mRNA expression of miR-17-5p in peripheral blood was measured and compared between the two groups. Human renal podocytes were transfected with antisense oligonucleotide recombinant plasmid containing miR-17-5p (inhibition group) or control vector containing nonsense random sequence (negative control group), and untreated human renal podocytes were used as the blank group. These groups were compared in terms of cell apoptosis and the mRNA and protein expression of miR-17-5p, ActA, and Smads after transfection.@*RESULTS@#The NS group had a significantly higher level of miR-17-5p in peripheral blood than the control group (P<0.001). Compared with the blank and negative control groups, the inhibition group had significantly lower apoptosis rate and relative mRNA expression of miR-17-5p and significantly higher relative mRNA and protein expression of ActA, Smad2, and Smad3 (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is an increase in the content of miR-17-5p in peripheral blood in children with NS. Low expression of miR-17-5p can inhibit the apoptosis of human renal podocytes, which may be associated with the upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of ActA, Smad2 and Smad3.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Child , Humans , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Nephrotic Syndrome , Genetics , Podocytes , Transfection
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 206-211, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Minimal change nephropathy (MCD) is a common pathological type of nephrotic syndrome and is often associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and related factors of AKI in patients with MCD and nephrotic syndrome.@*METHODS@#Patients from Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital who were diagnosed with pathological renal MCD with clinical manifestations of nephrotic syndrome were included from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2017. Patients diagnosed with membranous nephropathy (MN) by renal biopsy from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2017 are included as a control population. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients as well as the percentages and clinical characteristics of AKI in different age groups. We assessed the correlation of pathological characteristics with serum creatinine using multivariate linear regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 367 patients with MCD were included in the analysis, with a sex ratio of 1.46: 1 (male: female) and an age range of 6 to 77 years. Among all the patients, 109 developed AKI (29.7%), and of these patients, 85 were male (78.0%). In the 586 patients with MN, 27 (4.6%) patients developed AKI. The percentage of AKI in MCD patients was significantly higher than that in MN patients (χ2 = 41.063, P < 0.001). The percentage of AKI increased with age in the MCD patients. The percentage of AKI in patients aged 50 years or older was 52.9% (46/87), which was significantly higher than that [22.5% (63/280)] in patients under 50 years (χ2 = 6.347, P = 0.013). We observed statistically significant differences in age (43 [27, 59] years vs. 28 [20, 44] years, Z = 5.487, P < 0.001), male (78.0% vs. 51.4%, χ2 = 22.470, P < 0.001), serum albumin (19.9 ± 6.1 g/L vs. 21.5 ± 5.7 g/L, t = 2.376, P = 0.018), serum creatinine (129.5 [105.7, 171.1] μmol/L vs. 69.7 [57.7, 81.9] μmol/L, Z = 14.190, P < 0.001), serum urea (10.1 [6.2, 15.8] mmol/L vs. 4.7 [3.6, 6.4] mmol/L, Z = 10.545, P < 0.001), IgE (266.0 [86.7, 963.0] IU/ml vs. 142.0 [35.3, 516.5] IU/ml, Z = 2.742, P = 0.007), history of diabetes (6.4% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.009), and history of hypertension (23.9% vs. 5.1%, χ2 = 28.238, P < 0.001) between the AKI group and the non-AKI group. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, among the renal pathological features analyzed, renal tubular epithelial cell damage (β = 178.010, 95% CI: 147.888-208.132, P < 0.001) and renal interstitial edema (β = 28.833, 95% CI: 11.966-45.700, P = 0.001) correlated with serum creatinine values.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The percentage of AKI in MCD patients is significantly higher than that in MN patients. Patients over 50 years old are more likely to develop AKI. Renal tubular epithelial cell injury and renal interstitial edema may be the main pathological lesions that are associated with elevated serum creatinine in patients with MCD.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrosis, Lipoid/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879797

ABSTRACT

A boy, aged 6 years and 11 months, was admitted due to nephrotic syndrome for 2 years, cough for 1 month, and shortness of breath for 15 days. The boy had a history of treatment with hormone and immunosuppressant. Chest CT after the onset of cough and shortness of breath showed diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Serum (1, 3)-beta-D glucan was tested positive, and the nucleic acid of cytomegalovirus was detected in respiratory secretions. After the anti-fungal and anti-viral treatment, the child improved temporarily but worsened again within a short period of time.


Subject(s)
Child , Cough/etiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Male , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s82-s90, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057101

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Acute kidney injury is a very common diagnosis, present in up to 60% of critical patients, and its third main cause is drug toxicity. Nephrotoxicity can be defined as any renal injury caused directly or indirectly by medications, with acute renal failure, tubulopathies, and glomerulopathies as common clinical presentations. Some examples of drugs commonly associated with the acute reduction of glomerular filtration rate are anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, such as vancomycin and aminoglycosides, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin and methotrexate. Cases of tubulopathy are very common with amphotericin B, polymyxins, and tenofovir, and cases of glomerulopathies are common with VEGF inhibitors, bisphosphonates, and immunotherapy, and it is also common to have more than one clinical presentation related to a single agent. Early diagnosis is essential for the good evolution of the patient, with a reduction of renal exposure to the toxic agent, which requires knowing the risk factors and biomarkers. General measures such as correcting hydroelectrolytic disorders and hypovolemia, monitoring the serum level, avoiding combinations with the synergy of renal injury, and looking for similar options that are less toxic are the foundations for the treatment of complications that are still common and often preventable.


RESUMO A lesão renal aguda é um diagnóstico muito comum, presente em até 60% dos pacientes críticos, e sua terceira maior causa é a toxicidade de medicamentos. A nefrotoxicidade pode ser definida como qualquer lesão renal causada por medicamentos, direta ou indiretamente, tendo a insuficiência renal aguda, tubulopatias e glomerulopatias como apresentações clínicas comuns. Alguns exemplos de drogas comumente associadas à redução aguda da taxa de filtração glomerular são anti-inflamatórios, antibióticos, como a vancomicina e aminoglicosídeos, e agentes quimioterápicos, tais como cisplatina e metotrexato. Casos de tubulopatia são muito comuns com anfotericina B, polimixinas e tenofovir, já casos de glomerulopatias são comuns com inibidores de VEGF, bisfosfonatos e imunoterapia; também é comum ocorrer mais de uma apresentação clínica relacionada a um único agente. O diagnóstico precoce é essencial para a boa evolução do paciente, com a redução da exposição ao agente tóxico, o que requer conhecimento dos fatores de risco e biomarcadores. Medidas gerais, tais como a correção de distúrbios hidreletrolíticos e da hipovolemia, o monitoramento do nível sérico, evitar combinações com sinergia de lesão renal e procurar opções semelhantes e menos tóxicas são os alicerces do tratamento de complicações que são comuns e, muitas vezes, evitáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/chemically induced , Nephrotic Syndrome/epidemiology
12.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(supl.1): e853, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280391

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El lupus eritematoso sistémico es el modelo clásico de enfermedad autoinmune. En el desarrollo de la enfermedad intervienen varios tipos de inmunoglobulinas, con predominio de la IgG, IgM e IgA. Objetivo: Describir la utilidad del cociente albúmina/globulina como un indicador de actividad en el lupus eritematoso sistémico. Desarrollo: Se estima que el 50 por ciento de los pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico muestran una hipoalbuminemia con una hipergammaglobulinemia. La hipoalbuminemia en mayor medida está relacionada con la presencia de nefritis lúpica. La mitad de los pacientes con nefritis lúpica presentan proteinuria en el orden del síndrome nefrótico. Esta proteinuria iguala o invierte parcialmente el valor del cociente albúmina/globulina. El cociente albúmina/globulina invertido por sí solo es insuficiente para afirmar la presencia de actividad en el lupus eritematoso sistémico. Se deben excluir otras entidades clínicas causantes de hipergammaglobulinemia policlonal. Los criterios de actividad del lupus eritematoso sistémico incrementan la sensibilidad del cociente albúmina/globulina invertido. Conclusiones: La interpretación del cociente albúmina/globulina debe ir aparejada a la estimación de actividad por los criterios clínicos de mayor uso (SLICC, SLEDAI, BILAG). No en todos los pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico puede interpretarse como criterio de actividad, por lo que es necesario excluir otras entidades clínicas(AU)


Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus is the model of autoimmune disease. Several types of immunoglobulins are involved in the development of the disease, mainly IgG, IgM and IgA. Objective: To describe the potential use of the albumin/globulin ratio as an indicator of activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Development: fifty percent of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus exhibit hypoalbuminemia with hypergammaglobulinemia. Hypoalbuminemia is mainly related to the presence of lupus nephritis. The half of patients with lupus nephritis develops proteinuria with values of nephrotic syndrome. The proteinuria equals or partially reverses the albumin/globulin ratio. The inverted albumin/globulin ratio is insufficient to establish the presence of lupus activity. Other clinical entities producing polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia should be excluded. The systemic lupus erythematosus activity criteria increase the sensitivity of the inverted albumin/globulin ratio. Conclusions: The interpretation of the albumin/globulin ratio requires the activity estimation by different clinical criteria (SLICC, SLEDAI, BILAG). The inverted albumin/globulin ratio cannot be interpreted as a stand-alone indicator of disease activity in every systemic lupus erythematosus patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Proteinuria , Autoimmune Diseases , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Hypoalbuminemia , Hypergammaglobulinemia/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Nephrotic Syndrome , Odds Ratio , Albumins/analysis
13.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 6(2): 172-178, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1093042

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome nefrótico se define como la unión de proteinuria masiva, hipoalbuminemia e hiperlipidemia, que pueden asociarse a edemas e hipercoagulabilidad. Se origina de una anormalidad de la barrera de filtración glomerular con una fuga masiva de proteína y los efectos secundarios consecuentes. En sus formas primarias, ocurre con una incidencia de 1-3 por cada 100.000 niños menores de 16 años. La forma congénita es una variante poco frecuente del síndrome nefrótico, la cual se presenta en el nacimiento o dentro de los tres primeros meses de vida, y suele ser resistente a la corticoterapia. Se debe evaluar primero la existencia de infecciones congénitas y luego buscar las enfermedades monogénicas más comunes, finalmente se puede recurrir a la secuenciación de nueva generación para buscar mutaciones en los demás genes candidatos. Se presenta el caso de una niña con síndrome nefrótico congénito de difícil control, enfatizando en el proceso diagnóstico y el manejo de soporte. Se resalta la importancia de la asesoría genética a la familia en todos los casos.


Abstract A nephrotic syndrome is defined as the association of massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, which may be associated with edema and hypercoagulability. It originates from an abnormality of the glomerular filtration barrier with a massive protein leak and the consequent side effects. In its primary forms, it occurs with an incidence of 1 - 3 per 100,000 children under 16 years of age. The congenital form is a rare variant of the nephrotic syndrome, which occurs at birth or within the first three months of life and is usually resistant to corticosteroid therapy. Congenital infections and most common related monogenic diseases should be tested. Finally, new generation sequencing must be used to search for mutations in other candidate genes. We present the case of a girl with congenital nephrotic syndrome difficult to control, emphasizing the diagnostic process and support management. The importance of genetic counseling to the family in all cases is highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Genetic Counseling , Nephrotic Syndrome , Therapeutics , Child , Colombia , Genetics
14.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 20(2): 57-60, diciembre 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116478

ABSTRACT

El síndrome nefrótico congénito (SNC) se refiere a la enfermedad renal que está presente en el nacimiento hasta el primer año de vida. El SNC se caracteriza por: proteinuria, edema e hipoalbuminemia. La mayoría de estos casos tienen una base genética, siendo el más prevalente el de tipo Finlandés, sin embargo pueden ser secundarios a infecciones, toxicidad o a una etiología asociada a un síndrome. El diagnóstico se basa en criterios clínicos, de laboratorio e histopatológicos. Al ser una enfermedad cortico resistente el tratamiento ideal es la nefrectomía con trasplante renal. El pronóstico de estos pacientes es malo si no recibe oportunamente un trasplante renal. En este artículo se revisa el caso clínico de una neonata con SNC probablemente de tipo Finlandés diagnosticado a los seis días de nacida en la Unidad Metropolitana de Salud Sur.


Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) refers to the disease that presents from birth until the first year of life. CNS is characterized by proteinuria, edema and hypoalbuminemia. Most of these cases have a genetic basis, being the most prevalent Finnish type. However, it can be secondary to infections, toxicity or an etiology associated with other syndromes. The diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory and histopathological criteria. Since it is resistant to corticoids, the ideal treatment is nephrectomy with kidney transplant. The prognosis is poor, when not receiving timely treatment with kidney transplant. In this article we review the clinical case of a newborn with a probably Finnishtype CNS diagnosed six days after birth at Unidad Metropolitana de Salud Sur.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Congenital Abnormalities , Kidney Diseases , Nephrotic Syndrome , Infant, Newborn , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Genetics
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 526-533, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056617

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Children with nephrotic syndrome are at increased risk of infections because of disease status itself and use of various immunosuppressive agents. In majority, infections trigger relapses requiring hospitalization with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the incidence, spectrum, and risk factors for major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome. Methods: All consecutive hospitalized children between 1-12 years of age with nephrotic syndrome were enrolled in the study. Children with acute nephritis, secondary nephrotic syndrome as well as those admitted for diagnostic renal biopsy and intravenous cyclophosphamide or rituximab infusion were excluded. Results: A total of 148 children with 162 admissions were enrolled. Incidence of major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome was 43.8%. Peritonitis was the commonest infection (24%), followed by pneumonia (18%), urinary tract infection (15%), and cellulitis (14%), contributing with two thirds of major infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9) was the predominant organism isolated in children with peritonitis and pneumonia. On logistic regression analysis, serum albumin < 1.5gm/dL was the only independent risk factor for all infections (OR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-6; p = 0.01), especially for peritonitis (OR 29; 95% CI, 3-270; p = 0.003). There were four deaths (2.5%) in our study, all due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children with nephrotic syndrome. As Pneumococcus was the most prevalent cause of infection in those children, attention should be paid to the pneumococcal immunization in children with nephrotic syndrome.


RESUMO Introdução: Crianças com síndrome nefrótica apresentam maior risco de infecções devido ao próprio status da doença e ao uso de vários agentes imunossupressores. Em grande parte, as infecções desencadeiam recidivas que exigem hospitalização, com risco aumentado de morbidade e mortalidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a incidência, o espectro e os fatores de risco para infecções graves em crianças hospitalizadas com síndrome nefrótica. Métodos: Todas as crianças hospitalizadas consecutivamente entre 1 e 12 anos de idade com síndrome nefrótica foram incluídas no estudo. Crianças com nefrite aguda, síndrome nefrótica secundária, bem como aquelas admitidas para biópsia renal diagnóstica e infusão intravenosa de ciclofosfamida ou rituximabe foram excluídas. Resultados: Foram cadastradas 148 crianças com 162 internações. A incidência de infecções graves em crianças hospitalizadas com síndrome nefrótica foi de 43,8%. A peritonite foi a infecção mais comum (24%), seguida por pneumonia (18%), infecção do trato urinário (15%) e celulite (14%), contribuindo com dois terços das principais infecções. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9) foi o organismo predominantemente isolado em crianças com peritonite e pneumonia. Na análise de regressão logística, a albumina sérica < 1,5gm / dL foi o único fator de risco independente para todas as infecções (OR 2,6; 95% CI, 1,2-6; p = 0,01), especialmente para peritonite (OR 29; IC95% 3 -270, p = 0,003). Houve quatro mortes (2,5%) em nosso estudo, todas devido a sepse e falência de múltiplos órgãos. Conclusões: A infecção continua sendo uma importante causa de morbimortalidade em crianças com síndrome nefrótica. Como o Pneumococo foi a causa mais prevalente de infecção nessas crianças, deve-se atentar para a imunização pneumocócica em crianças com síndrome nefrótica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infections/mortality , Infections/epidemiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Peritonitis/blood , Cellulitis/complications , Cellulitis/microbiology , Cellulitis/epidemiology , Incidence , Albumins/analysis , Hospitalization/trends , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , India/epidemiology , Infections/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 436-439, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040244

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) syndrome encompasses a set of clinical-radiological findings associated with severe systemic arterial hypertension. This case report proposes to discuss the identification, diagnosis, and management of PRES in the pediatric population. Case presentation: Female patient, 10 years old, admitted to the emergency room with complaint of oliguria and generalized edema. At the initial physical exam, the only alteration present was anasarca. The diagnostic investigation revealed nephrotic syndrome, and clinical treatment was started. She evolved on the 8th day of hospitalization with peak hypertension, sudden visual loss, reduced level of consciousness, nystagmus, and focal seizures requiring intubation. She was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit, with neurological improvement, after the established therapy. CT scan revealed a discrete hypodense area in the white matter of the occipital lobe and anteroposterior groove asymmetry, compatible with PRES. Discussion: PRES is due to vasogenic cerebral edema of acute or subacute installation. Symptoms include headache and altered consciousness, stupor, coma, neurological deficits, seizures and cortical blindness. Nephropathies are the main cause of PRES in pediatrics. Magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion of molecules is the gold standard for diagnosis. The initial treatment objectives are the reduction of blood pressure, antiepileptic therapy, correction of hydroelectrolytic and acid-base disorders and management of intracranial hypertension. Conclusion: PRES is associated with acute hypertension. Early diagnosis and proper management may determine a better prognosis and minimize the severity of the clinical course.


Resumo Introdução: A Síndrome de Encefalopatia Posterior Reversível (SEPR) engloba um conjunto de achados clínico-radiológicos, associados a hipertensão arterial sistêmica grave. Este relato de caso propõe discutir a identificação, o diagnóstico e o manejo de SEPR na população pediátrica. Apresentação do caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 10 anos, admitida em pronto-atendimento com queixa de oligúria e edema generalizado. Ao exame físico inicial, a única alteração presente era anasarca. A investigação diagnóstica revelou síndrome nefrótica, iniciando-se tratamento clínico. Evoluiu no 8º dia de internação com pico hipertensivo, perda visual súbita, redução do nível de consciência, nistagmo e crises convulsivas focais, demandando intubação. Foi transferida para Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, com melhora neurológica, após a terapêutica instituída. Tomografia de crânio evidenciou área de hipodensidade discreta em substância branca do lobo occipital e assimetria anteroposterior de sulcos, compatível com SEPR. Discussão: A SEPR decorre de edema cerebral vasogênico de instalação aguda ou subaguda. Sintomas descritos incluem cefaleia e alteração de consciência, estupor, coma, déficits neurológicos, convulsões e cegueira cortical. As nefropatias constituem as principais causas de SEPR em pediatria. A ressonância magnética com difusão de moléculas é o padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico. Os objetivos iniciais são a redução dos níveis pressóricos, terapia antiepiléptica, correção de distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos e do equilíbrio ácido-básico, e manejo da hipertensão intracraniana. Conclusão: A SEPR ocorre associada à hipertensão aguda. O diagnóstico precoce e manejo adequado podem determinar melhor prognóstico e minimizar a gravidade do curso clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Intracranial Hypertension/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(7): 988-992, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013006

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low triiodothyronine syndrome (LT3S) on platelet function and clotting factors in patients with nephrotic syndrome(NS). METHODS Patients with primary nephrotic syndrome were divided into two groups, normal thyroid function (group A) and LT3S (group B), based on whether they had LT3S or not. Healthy subjects were selected as the control group (group C). Blood coagulation function was detected in each group. The platelet activation function (CD62P, CD63) was determined by flow cytometry. The platelet aggregation rate was detected by an optical method using adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid as inducers. RESULTS The proportion of primary nephrotic syndrome with LT3S was 23.2% (69/298). Compared with group C, group A had higher CD62P and PAgTADP, and group B had higher CD62P, CD63, PAgTAA, and PAgTADP; the difference was statistically significant (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in renal pathology between group A and group B (X2 = 4.957, P = 0.421). Compared with group A, the 24-hour urine protein, CD63, PAgTAA, and PAgTADP were higher in group B, and APTT and Alb were lower. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that LT3S was associated with CD36 (OR: 3.516; 95% CI: 1.742~8.186; P = 0.004) and PAgTAA (OR: 0.442; 95% CI: 1.001~1.251; P = 0.037). CONCLUSION NS patients are prone to LT3S. Patients with LT3S may have abnormal platelet activation and increase of platelet aggregation.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da síndrome do baixo triiodotironina (LT3S) na função plaquetária e nos fatores de coagulação em pacientes com síndrome nefrótica (SN). MÉTODOS Pacientes com síndrome nefrótica primária foram divididos em dois grupos, função tireoidiana normal (grupo A) e LT3S (grupo B), com base na presença ou não de LT3S. Indivíduos saudáveis foram selecionados como grupo de controle (grupo C). A função de coagulação do sangue foi analisada em cada grupo. A função de ativação plaquetária (CD62P, CD63) foi determinada por citometria de fluxo. A taxa de agregação plaquetária foi detectada por um método óptico usando adenosina difosfato e ácido araquidônico como indutores. RESULTADOS A proporção de síndrome nefrótica primária com LT3S foi de 23,2% (69/298). Em comparação com o grupo C, o grupo A apresentou níveis mais altos de CD62P e PAgTADP, e o grupo B apresentou maiores CD62P, CD63, PAgTAA e PAgTADP; a diferença teve significância estatística (P < 0,05). Não houve diferença significativa na patologia renal entre o grupo A e o grupo B (X2 = 4,957, P = 0,421). Em comparação com o grupo A, a proteína em urina de 24 horas, CD63, PAgTAA e PAgTADP foram maiores no grupo B, já APTT e Alb foram mais baixos. A diferença apresentou significância estatística (P < 0,05). A análise de regressão logística mostrou uma associação entre LT3S e CD36 (OR: 3,516; 95% IC: 1,742~8,186; P = 0,004) e PAgTAA (OR: 0,442; 95% IC: 1,001~1,251; P = 0,037). CONCLUSÃO Pacientes com síndrome nefrótica estão propensos à síndrome do baixo triiodotironina (LT3S). Pacientes com LT3S podem ter ativação plaquetária anormal e aumento da agregação plaquetária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Triiodothyronine/blood , Blood Platelets/physiology , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/physiopathology , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/blood , Nephrotic Syndrome/physiopathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood , Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Reference Values , Triiodothyronine/deficiency , Platelet Activation/drug effects , Platelet Activation/physiology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation/physiology , Regression Analysis , Flow Cytometry , Middle Aged , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(3): 681-697, mayo.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094076

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las glomerulopatías agrupan varias nefropatías con lesiones fundamentalmente del corpúsculo renal y que se expresan principalmente por proteinuria, hematuria, edemas e hipertensión arterial. La presentación clínica varía en dependencia del tipo de enfermedad de que se trate. Constituye la causa más frecuente de enfermedad renal crónica en adultos jóvenes, por lo que su estudio resulta imprescindible sobre todo para el nivel primario de salud. El propósito fue actualizar consideraciones pertinentes sobre la conducta diagnóstica y terapéutica integral ante una glomerulopatía y valorar emisión de recomendaciones al respecto. Se realizó una búsqueda, análisis y síntesis de información a través de Bases de datos ScieLO Cuba, ScieLO regional, Pubmed, Cumed, Clinical Key en el período 2012-2017 con las palabras clave: síndrome nefrótico, glomerulonefritis, diagnóstico, terapéutica, atención integral. El abordaje en las glomerulopatías es integral, multidisciplinario e individualizado. En Cuba constituyen la cuarta causa de enfermedad renal crónica y predomina el síndrome nefrítico agudo postinfeccioso. El método clínico juega en ello un papel trascendental a la hora de reconocer y registrar sus aspectos clínicos, su etiología, su fisiopatología, y los exámenes complementarios que confirman su presencia o sus complicaciones, así como un tratamiento oportuno que garanticen el perfeccionamiento asistencial. El arma más poderosa ante el reto de los trastornos glomerulares es la visión integradora y con enfoque individual y social protagonizado por el médico ante este grupo de nefropatías en adultos.


ABSTRACT Glomerulopathies encompass a group of several renal disorders with lesions, mainly in the renal corpuscle, expressed in proteinuria, hematuria, edemas and arterial hypertension. Their clinical manifestations change in dependence of the kind of disease. They are the most frequent cause of chronic renal disease in young adults; therefore their study is very important above all in the health care primary level. The aim was updating pertinent considerations on the diagnostic behavior and comprehensive therapy in the case of glomerulopathy, and evaluating the emission of recommendations regarding to them. A search, analysis and synthesis of information was carried out in the databases ScieLO Cuba, ScieLO regional, Pubmed, Cumed, and Clinical Key in the period 2012-2017, using the key words nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, diagnosis, therapeutics, comprehensive care. The approach to glomerulopathies is comprehensive, multidisciplinary and individualized. They are the fourth cause of chronic renal disease; the acute post-infectious nephritic syndrome predominates. The clinical method plays a transcendental role at the moment of recognizing and registering their clinical characteristics, etiology and physiopathology, while complementary tests confirm their presence or complications, and therefore an opportune treatment guarantying the healthcare improvement. The most powerful weapon against the challenge of the glomerular disorders is the integrated vision with an individual and social approach led by the physician in the case of these nephropathies in adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Urination Disorders , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/etiology , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Glomerulonephritis/blood , Glomerulonephritis/therapy , Glomerulonephritis/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Kidney/physiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Glomerulus/physiopathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/pathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood , Nephrotic Syndrome/therapy , Nephrotic Syndrome/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Nephrosis, Lipoid
20.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 56(1): 70-79, mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041761

ABSTRACT

Las hormonas tiroideas tienen acciones renales directas en conjunto con efectos dinámicos y cardiovasculares que influyen en la función renal. Cuadros de hipotiroidismo con enfermedad renal son una combinación peculiar y poco descrita, es por ello que el propósito de este trabajo es exponer el caso de dos pacientes con síndrome nefrótico asociado a hipotiroidismo severo, los cuales presentaron disminución de la proteinuria y casi normalización de función renal luego de iniciar tratamiento de reemplazo con levotiroxina.


Thyroid hormones have direct renal actions in conjunction with dynamic and cardiovascular effects that influence renal function. Cases of primary hypothyroidism with renal disease are a peculiar and poorly described combination, is for it that the objective of this work is to expose the cases of two patients with nephrotic syndrome associated with severe hypothyroidism, whom presented decreased proteinuria and almost normalized renal function after starting replacement therapy with levothyroxine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Hypothyroidism/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Thyroid Hormones/physiology , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism
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