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Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(3): 487-494, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449828


Abstract Objective To evaluate the functionality in patients with adhesive capsulitis undergoing suprascapular nerve block (SSNB). Methods A before-and-after clinical prospective study in a single center was conducted with patients with secondary adhesive capsulitis treated with four nerve blocks based on anatomical limits. The sample was non-probabilistic, and it was obtained after a routine appointment at a specialized outpatient clinic. The instruments used for evaluation were the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, which were applied at baseline (T0), one week after the fourth SSNB (T4), and three months after the first SSNB (T12). The paired t-test was used to compare the means of the ICF checklist items and DASH in the different: T0xT4;T4xT12;and T0xT12). The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis was 5%. Results The sample was composed of 25 individuals with a mean age of 58.16 years; 16 of them were female. The duration of the pain symptoms ranged from 2 to 16 months, with a mean of 5.92 months. The ICF checklist showed that all domains had already improved in T4 except for the environmental factors, which only improved at 03 months (p = 0.037). The patients reported improvements in shoulder function in T4, which increased more in T12, at the end of data collection (p = 0.019). Conclusion The SSNB technique is effective in patients with adhesive capsulitis after4 weeks of application, with improvements in individual's functionality lasting for 12 weeks.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a funcionalidade em pacientes com capsulite adesiva submetidos a bloqueio do nervo supraescapular (BNSE). Métodos Um estudo clínico prospectivo do tipo antes e depois foi realizado em um único centro com pacientes com capsulite adesiva secundária tratados com quatro bloqueios baseados em limites anatômicos. A amostra foi não probabilística, tendo sido obtida após consulta de rotina em ambulatório especializado. Os instrumentos utilizados para avaliação foram a Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF) e o questionário de Disfunções do Braço, Ombro e Mão (DASH), que foram aplicados antes da intervenção (T0), uma semana após o quarto BNSE (T4),etrêsapósoprimeiroBNSE(T12).AsmédiasdositensdaCIFedoDASHnos diferentes tempos (T0 x T4; T4 x T12; e T0 x T12) foram comparadas por meio do teste t pareado. A probabilidade de rejeitar a hipótese nula foi de 5%. Resultados A amostra foi composta por 25 indivíduos com média de idade de 58,16 anos; 16 eram mulheres. A duração dos sintomas dolorosos variou de 2 a 16 meses, com média de 5,92 meses. A CIF mostrou que todos os domínios já haviam melhorado em T4 à exceção dos fatores ambientais, que só melhoraram aos 3 meses (p = 0,037). Os pacientes já relataram melhora na função do ombro em T4 emaisainda em T12,ao finaldacoletadedados (p = 0,019). Conclusão A técnica de BNSE é eficaz em pacientes com capsulite adesiva após 4 semanas de aplicação, com melhora da funcionalidade do indivíduo e sua manutenção até 12 semanas.

Humans , Bursitis , International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health , Nerve Block
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(3): 305-315, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439603


Abstract Background and objectives: Anesthesiologists and hospitals are increasingly confronted with costs associated with the complications of Peripheral Nerve Blocks (PNB) procedures. The objective of our study was to identify the incidence of the main adverse events associated with regional anesthesia, particularly during anesthetic PNB, and to evaluate the associated healthcare and social costs. Methods: According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a systematic search on EMBASE and PubMed with the following search strategy: (‟regional anesthesia" OR ‟nerve block") AND (‟complications" OR ‟nerve lesion" OR ‟nerve damage" OR ‟nerve injury"). Studies on patients undergoing a regional anesthesia procedure other than spinal or epidural were included. Targeted data of the selected studies were extracted and further analyzed. Results: Literature search revealed 487 articles, 21 of which met the criteria to be included in our analysis. Ten of them were included in the qualitative and 11 articles in the quantitative synthesis. The analysis of costs included data from four studies and 2,034 claims over 51,242 cases. The median claim consisted in 39,524 dollars in the United States and 22,750 pounds in the United Kingdom. The analysis of incidence included data from seven studies involving 424,169 patients with an overall estimated incidence of 137/10,000. Conclusion: Despite limitations, we proposed a simple model of cost calculation. We found that, despite the relatively low incidence of adverse events following PNB, their associated costs were relevant and should be carefully considered by healthcare managers and decision makers.

Humans , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/methods , United States , Financial Stress
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(3): 344-346, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439620


Abstract Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) is a congenital condition characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate that presents with airway obstruction and developmental delay with or without other congenital anomalies. These patients' anesthesia management is challenging because of difficult ventilation and intubation. Regional anesthesia methods should be considered for these patients on a case-by-case basis. This report presents primary use of regional anesthesia for circumcision of a 9-year-old boy with PRS.

Humans , Male , Child , Pierre Robin Syndrome/surgery , Pierre Robin Syndrome/complications , Cleft Palate/surgery , Cleft Palate/complications , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Pudendal Nerve , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(1): 112-114, Jan.-Feb. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420639


Abstract The subscapularis plane block is an effective approach to anesthetize axillary and upper subscapular nerves. There have been no reports regarding brachial plexus paralysis as a potential complication to date. Described here is a case of median nerve palsy following ultrasound-guided subscapularis plane block for awake frozen shoulder manipulation that was performed on a 52-year-old female diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis. The patient could not flex digits two and three, and ipsilateral inner palm numbness occurred shortly after the block commenced, with complete resolution in the next two hours. The local anesthetics spillage towards brachial plexus with possible partial paralysis should always be expected after subscapularis plane block.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Brachial Plexus Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Paralysis , Rotator Cuff , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Median Nerve
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(1): 72-77, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420640


Abstract Introduction Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the common surgical intervention for benign biliary diseases. Postoperative pain after LC remains as an important problem, with two components: somatic and visceral. Trocar entry incisions lead to somatic pain, while peritoneal distension with diaphragm irritation leads to visceral pain. Following its description by Forero et al., the erector spinae plane (ESP) block acquired considerable popularity among clinicians. This led to the use of ESP block for postoperative pain management for various operations. Materials and methods This study was conducted between January and June 2019. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II, scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. All the patients received bilateral or unilateral ESP block at the T8 level preoperatively according to their groups. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms NRS scores either at rest or while coughing at any time interval except for postoperative 6th hour (p = 0.023). Morphine consumption was similar between the groups but was significantly lower in group B at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.044 and p = 0.022, respectively). Twelve patients in group A and three patients in group B had shoulder pain and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.011). Discussion In conclusion, bilateral ESP block provided more effective analgesia than unilateral ESP block in patients undergoing elective LC. Bilateral ESP block reduced the amount of opioid consumption and the incidence of postoperative shoulder pain.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/adverse effects , Analgesia , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/ethnology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Shoulder Pain , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthetics, Local
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 574-578, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420599


Abstract Objective To compare the analgesic effect of intercostal nerve block (INB) with ropivacaine when given preventively or at the end of the operation in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Methods A total of 50 patients undergoing VATS were randomly divided into two groups. The patients in the preventive analgesia group (PR group) were given INB with ropivacaine before the intrathoracic manipulation combined with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The patients in the post-procedural block group (PO group) were administered INB with ropivacaine at the end of the operation combined with PCA. To evaluate the analgesic effect, postoperative pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and Prince Henry Pain Scale (PHPS) scale at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Results At 6 h and 12 h post-surgery, the VAS at rest and PHPS scores in the PR group were significantly lower than those in the PO group. There were no significant differences in pain scores between two groups at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-surgery. Conclusion In patients undergoing VATS, preventive INB with ropivacaine provided a significantly better analgesic effect in the early postoperative period (at least through 12 h post-surgery) than did INB given at the end of surgery.

Humans , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Ropivacaine , Analgesics , Intercostal Nerves
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 553-559, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420603


Abstract Background and objectives Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is one of the most frequently performed orthopedic procedures. The ability to perform ACLR on an outpatient basis is largely dependent on an effective analgesic regimen. The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic effect between continuous adductor canal block (cACB) and femoral nerve block (cFNB) during arthroscopy guided ACLR. Method In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 60 ASA I/II patients for arthroscopic ACLR were recruited. Patients in Group I received cACB and those in Group II cFNB. A bolus dose of 20 cc 0.5% levobupivacaine followed by 0.125% 5 mL.h-1 was started for 24 hours. Rescue analgesia in the form of paracetamol 1 g intravenous (IV) was given. Parameters assessed were time of first rescue analgesia, total analgesic requirement in 24 hours, and painless range of motion of the knee (15 degrees of flexion to further painless flexion). Results The time-to-first postoperative analgesic request (hours) was earlier in Group II (14.40 ± 4.32) than Group I (16.90 ± 3.37) and this difference was statistically significant (p< 0.05). The cumulative 24-h analgesic consumption (paracetamol in g) was 0.70 ± 0.47 in Group I and 1.70 ± 0.65 in Group II (p< 0.001). The painless range of motion (degree) was 55.67 ± 10.40 in Group I and 40.00 ± 11.37 in Group II (p< 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that continuous adductor canal block provides superior analgesia in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACLR when compared to continuous femoral nerve block.

Humans , Arthroscopy/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Femoral Nerve , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Acetaminophen
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 627-631, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385652


SUMMARY: The goal of ultrasound-guided suprainguinal fascia iliaca block (USG-SFIB) is anesthetic spread to three nerves, which are lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve (FN), and obturator nerve (ON). The 90 % minimum effective volume (MEV90) for USG-SFIB is each result of studied showed the successful block and effect in various volume for block. So, Thus, the study purposes to demonstrate the efficiency of the effective volume (MEV90,62.5 ml) for USG-SFIB and confirm the staining of dye in connective tissue of nerve (nerve layer) that focused on the obturator nerve by histological examination in cadavers. The histological result showed the dye staining on the nerve layer of the ON in epineurium (100 %) and un-staining perineurium & endoneurium. Therefore, the minimal effective volume (MEV) is effective for USG-SFIB. Moreover, dye stain at the epineurium of stained obturator nerve only.

RESUMEN: El objetivo del bloqueo de la fascia ilíaca suprainguinal guiado por ecografía (USG-SFIB) es la propagación anestésica a tres nervios, cutáneo femoral lateral, femoral y obturador. El volumen efectivo mínimo del 90 % (MEV90) para USG-SFIB en cada uno de los resultados mostró el bloqueo exitoso y el efecto en varios volúmenes por bloqueo. Por lo tanto, el estudio tuvo como objetivo demostrar la eficiencia del volumen efectivo (MEV90,62.5 ml) para USG-SFIB y confirmar la tinción de tinte en el tejido conectivo del nervio, el cual se centró en el nervio obturador a través del examen histológico en cadáveres. El resultado histológico mostró tinción de colorante en el epineuro (100 %) del nervio obturador, sin embargo no hubo tinción del perineuro y endoneuro. Por lo tanto, el volumen efectivo mínimo (MEV) es efectivo para USG-SFIB.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fascia/drug effects , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Nerve Block , Cadaver
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 678-682, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385679


SUMMARY: The local anesthetic volume for a single-shot suprainguinal fascia iliaca block (SFIB) is a key factor of a block success because the courses of the three target nerves from the lumbar plexus (LP), the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve (FN), and obturator nerve (ON), at the inguinal area are isolated and within striking distance. Thus, this cadaveric study aims to demonstrate the distribution of dye staining on the LFCN, FN, ON, and LP following the ultrasound-guided SFIB using 15-50 ml of methylene blue. A total of 40 USG-SFIBs were performed on 20 fresh adult cadavers using 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 ml of methylene blue. After the injections, the pelvic and inguinal regions were dissected to directly visualize the dye stained on the LFCN, FN, ON, and LP. All FN and LFCN were stained heavily when the 15-50 ml of dye was injected. Higher volumes of dye (40-50 ml) spread more medially and stained on the ON and LP in 60 % of cases. To increase the possibility of dye spreading to all three target nerves and LP of the SFIB, a high volume (≥40 ml) of anesthetic is recommended. If only a blockade of the FN and LFCN is required, a low volume (15-25 ml) of anesthetic is sufficient.

RESUMEN: El volumen de anestésico local para un bloqueo de la fascia ilíaca suprainguinal (FISI) de una sola inyección es un factor clave para el éxito del bloqueo, debido a que los cursos de los tres nervios objetivo del plexo lumbar (PL), el nervio cutáneo femoral lateral (NCFL), femoral (NF) y el nervio obturador (NO), en el área inguinal están aislados y dentro de la distancia de abordaje. Por lo tanto, este estudio cadavérico tiene como objetivo demostrar la distribución de la tinción de tinte en NCFL, NF, NO y PL siguiendo el FISI guiado por ultrasonido usando 15-50 ml de azul de metileno. Se realizaron un total de 40 USG-FISI en 20 cadáveres adultos frescos utilizando 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 y 50 ml de azul de metileno. Después de las inyecciones, se disecaron las regiones pélvica e inguinal para visualizar directamente el tinte teñido en NCFL, NF, NO y PL. Todos los NF y NCFL se tiñeron intensamente cuando se inyectaron los 15- 50 ml de colorante. Volúmenes mayores de colorante (40-50 ml) se esparcen más medialmente y tiñen el NO y la PL en el 60 % de los casos. Para aumentar la posibilidad de que el colorante se propague a los tres nervios objetivo y al PL del FISI, se recomienda un volumen elevado (≥40 ml) de anestésico. Si solo se requiere un bloqueo de NF y NCFL, un volumen bajo (15-25 ml) de anestésico es suficiente.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Fascia/anatomy & histology , Fascia/drug effects , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage , Nerve Block , Cadaver , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Injections , Methylene Blue/pharmacokinetics
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 62-67, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385586


SUMMARY: The femoral nerve (FN) is used for nerve block in many surgeries and provides effective postoperative analgesics in the pediatric population. However, although there are sufficient anatomical maps and signs for femoral nerve blockades in adults, there is not enough information for the pediatric group. Therefore, in our study, we tried to determine an effective area for safe block blocking with the help of bone structures in order to perform effective blockade in younger age groups. The study was conducted on 60 lower limbs. The exit point of the FN was identified. The measurements were examined in two regards, namely the level of the FN and the relationship of the FN with the surrounding structures. For the right and left sides, all the parameters showed increases with age. A significant relationship was found between all the parameters of the fetal cadavers (p<0.01). It was determined that there was a strong correlation between all parameters related to FN and surrounding bone structures (p<0.01). Sex was not found to be significantly related to the other parameters (p<0.05 Among all the fetal cadavers, high-level division was observed in six limbs (10 %), mid-level division in 33 limbs (55 %), and lower-level division in 21 limbs (35 %). Gestational age-based regression equations from my study showed that the site of the blockage could be effectively performed with the aid of palpable bone structures from the outside without the need for technical assistance.

RESUMEN: El nervio femoral (NF) se utiliza para el bloqueo nervioso en muchas cirugías y proporciona analgesia posoperatoria eficaz en la población pediátrica. Sin embargo, aunque existen suficientes mapas anatómicos y signos de bloqueo del NF en los individuos adultos, no hay suficiente información para el grupo pediátrico. Se intentó determinar una área exacta para el bloqueo del NF junto con estructuras óseas para realizar un bloqueo efectivo. El estudio se realizó en 60 miembros inferiores. Se identificó el punto de salida del NF. Las mediciones se realizaron en dos puntos, nivel del NF y la relación de éste con las estructuras circundantes. Para los lados derecho e izquierdo, todos los parámetros mostraron incrementos con la edad. Se encontró una relación significativa entre todos los parámetros de los cadáveres fetales (p<0,01). Se determinó que existía una fuerte correlación entre todos los parámetros relacionados con el NF y las estructuras óseas circundantes (p <0,01). No se encontró que el sexo se relacionara significativamente con los otros parámetros (p<0,05 Entre todos los cadáveres fetales se observó un alto nivel de división en seis miembros (10 %), una división de nivel medio en 33 miembros (55 %) y división de nivel inferior en 21 miembros (35 %). Las ecuaciones de regresión basadas en la edad gestacional del estudio mostraron que el sitio de bloqueo se podría realizar eficazmente con la ayuda de estructuras óseas palpables desde el exterior sin necesidad de asistencia técnica.

Humans , Male , Female , Femoral Nerve/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Landmarks , Anesthesia, Conduction , Cadaver , Age Factors , Microdissection , Fetus , Anatomic Variation , Nerve Block
Sâo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 144-152, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357465


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is still a debate about what constitutes effective and safe postoperative analgesia in hepatectomy surgery. Erector spinae plane (ESP) block may be an important part of multimodal analgesia application in hepatectomy surgery. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of ultrasound-guided bilateral erector spinae plane block combined with intravenous (iv) patient-controlled analgesia (iv PCA), in comparison with iv PCA alone, in hepatectomy surgery. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Randomized prospective single-blinded study in a tertiary university hospital. METHODS: Fifty patients scheduled for elective hepatectomy surgery were included in the study. Patients were randomized into the ESP group or the control group. In the ESP group, bilateral ESP block was performed preoperatively and iv PCA was used. In the control group, only iv PCA was used. Numerical rating scale (NRS) scores at rest and coughing, analgesic requirements and occurrences of nausea and vomiting were recorded. RESULTS: Intraoperative and postoperative opioid consumption, rescue analgesia requirement and resting and dynamic NRS scores were significantly lower in the ESP group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of the presence of dynamic pain after the first postoperative hour. While all patients in the control group had nausea and vomiting, 24% of the patients in the ESP group did not have nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: This study showed that ESP block can be used as a part of multimodal analgesia, with the benefit of reducing opioid consumption and postoperative nausea and vomiting in hepatectomy surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12620000466943.

Humans , Analgesics, Opioid , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Ultrasonography , Hepatectomy/adverse effects
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 29(3): 103-108, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396315


Introducción: El manejo del dolor postoperatorio en pacientes que recibieron una reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA) debe ser incluido como objetivo fundamental de toda estrategia quirúrgica. El bloqueo selectivo del nervio safeno interno mediante asistencia ecográfica se presenta como una alternativa eficaz para el control del dolor sin afectar la actividad motora del cuádriceps. El propósito de este estudio fue comparar el dolor postoperatorio en pacientes que recibieron una reconstrucción del LCA con injerto autólogo hueso-tendón-hueso (H-T-H), asistidos con anestesia raquídea, analgesia multimodal más bloqueo selectivo del nervio safeno interno versus pacientes que recibieron anestesia raquídea y analgesia multimodal. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un ensayo clínico no aleatorizado de pacientes consecutivos, comparados en dos grupos de trabajo según tipo de estrategia anestésica utilizada: treinta y seis pacientes en grupo 1 y cuarenta en el grupo 2. El promedio de edad fue de veintinueve años (20­42) en el grupo 1 y de treinta y dos años (18­49) en el grupo 2.Resultados: se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los valores promedio en la escala numérica verbal (ENV), se evidencian menores registros y mejor evolución de dolor en pacientes del grupo 1. También se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los niveles de satisfacción con el tratamiento del dolor a favor del grupo 1. Conclusión: el bloqueo selectivo del nervio safeno interno, asociado a la anestesia raquídea y a un esquema adecuado de analgesia multimodal, provee un excelente control del dolor y permite una externación rápida con alto grado de satisfacción en pacientes que recibieron una reconstrucción artroscópica del LCA con injerto H-T-H autólogo.

Introduction: Postoperative pain management in patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction should be included as a fundamental objective of any surgical strategy. The internal Saphenous Nerve block with ultrasound assistance is presented as an effective strategy for pain control without affecting quadriceps motor activity. The aim of this study is to compare the postoperative pain management in patients who have received an arthroscopic autologous Bone Tendon Bone (BTB) ACL reconstruction, using spinal anesthesia, selective internal saphenous nerve block, and multimodal analgesia scheme versus patients who received spinal anesthesia and same multimodal analgesia scheme. Materials and methods: we performed a non randomized controlled trial, of two prospective series of patients by anesthetic strategy used: thirty-six patients in Group 1 and forty patients in Group 2. The average age by groups was twenty-nine years (range 20­42) in Group 1 and thirty-two years (18­49) in Group 2.Results: statistically significant differences were found between the average pain values reported by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) in two groups, showing lower pain records in Group I, as well in the evolution of pain in favor of Group I. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean levels of satisfaction with pain treatment. Conclusion: in ACL reconstruction using BTB autologous graft, selective internal saphenous nerve block, with spinal anesthesia associated an adequate multimodal analgesia scheme, provides excellent pain control, allowing rapid hospital discharge with a high level of satisfaction

Pain, Postoperative , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Pain Management , Nerve Block
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1309-1314, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355688


The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a blind technique for sciatic and femoral nerve block in rabbit cadavers by evaluating the spread of 1% methylene blue at two different volumes. Nine recently euthanized rabbits weighing 2.5(0.3kg were used. The sciatic (SN) and femoral (FN) nerves of each limb were randomly assigned for injection with 1% methylene blue at 0.2mL/kg (G0.2) or 0.3mL/kg (G0.3). Nerves were dissected and measured for depth and extension of staining (cm). Mean comparisons were performed using paired t test. The relation between volume and nerve staining ( 2cm was assessed using chi-square test. The mean depth of SN was 1.9±0.2 and 1.6±0.3cm and staining 1.9±1.4 and 2.0±1.2cm, respectively in G0.2 and G0.3. No relation was found between depth and dye spread and there was no association between nerve staining ( 2.0cm and volume of solution. The FN failed to be stained in all subjects. In conclusion, SN injection can be successfully performed without guidance in rabbits. The lower volume (0.2mL/kg) is recommended to avoid systemic toxicity.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma técnica para bloqueio às cegas dos nervos isquiático e femoral em cadáveres de coelhos, por meio da avaliação da dispersão de azul de metileno 1% em dois volumes distintos. Nove coelhos recém-eutanasiados, com peso 2,5(0,3kg, foram utilizados. Os nervos isquiático (NI) e femoral (NF) de cada membro foram aleatoriamente designados para injeção com azul de metileno 1% a 0,2mL/kg (G0,2) ou 0,3mL/kg (G0,3). Em seguida, foram dissecados e mensurados em relação à sua profundidade e extensão corada (cm). As médias foram comparadas por meio de teste t pareado. A relação entre volume e extensão corada ( 2cm foi avaliada utilizando-se teste de qui-quadrado. A profundidade média do NI foi 1,9±0,2 e 1,6±0,3cm, e a extensão corada 1,9±1,4 e 2,0±1,2cm, respectivamente, no G0,2 e no G0,3. Não houve relação entre a profundidade e a extensão corada ou entre a extensão corada ( 2,0cm e o volume de solução. Não foi observada coloração do NF em nenhum cadáver. Concluiu-se que a injeção do NI pode ser realizada com sucesso sem auxílio de tecnologias em coelhos. O menor volume (0,2mL/kg) é recomendado para evitar toxicidade sistêmica.(AU)

Animals , Rabbits , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e300, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280179


Abstract Post-dural puncture headache is a frequent complication in neuraxial approaches. It may result in disability, healthcare dissatisfaction and potentially serious complications. The traditional initial management includes general and analgesia measures with poor evidence. The treatment approach best supported by the literature is the epidural blood patch for which rates of up 70% improvement have been reported. Regional techniques have been recently described that may be helpful because they are less invasive than the epidural blood patch, under certain clinical circumstances. This article suggests an algorithm that uses such techniques for the management of this complication.

Resumen La cefalea pospunción dural es una complicación frecuente del abordaje del neuroeje. Puede producir incapacidad, insatisfacción con la atención en salud y complicaciones potencialmente graves. Tradicionalmente su manejo inicial incluye medidas generales y de analgesia las cuales tienen baja evidencia. La medida para su tratamiento, con mejor soporte en la literatura, es la realización de parche hemático, el cual informa tazas de mejoría hasta del 70 %. Recientemente se han descrito técnicas regionales, que pueden resultar útiles por ser menos invasivas que el parche hemático, en ciertos contextos clínicos. En este artículo se propone un algoritmo que permite incorporar dichas técnicas al manejo de esta complicación.

Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , Blood Patch, Epidural , Post-Dural Puncture Headache , Headache , Analgesia , Nerve Block , Delivery of Health Care , Anesthesia, Conduction
Int. j. morphol ; 39(4): 994-1000, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385474


SUMMARY: To study the morphometric location of the incisive, greater, and lesser palatine foramina for maxillary nerve block. Two hundred Thai dry skulls were randomly organized from the Forensic Osteology Research Center. The distances of the parameters were measured via Vernier caliper.: Thedistances from the incisive foramen to the incisive margin of the premaxilla were 10.93?2.42 mm in males and 10.98?2.06 mm in females. From the left side, the incisive foramen to the greater palatine foramen (GPF) was39.07?2.23mm in males and 38.57?2.41 mm in females, and from the right side were 39.81?2.37 mm in males and 38.62?2.53mm in females. From the left side, the incisive foramen to the lesser palatine foramen (LPF) was 43.16?2.23 mm in males and 41.84?2.42mm in females and from the right side were 42.93?2.14 mm in males and 41.76?2.61 mm in females. The GPF found at medial to the maxillary third molar were 94-95 % in males and 84 % in females. These findings suggest that the medial position to the third molar teeth be used as a landmark for a palatine nerve block in Thais. These findings will help dentists to perform local anesthetic procedures, especially the nasopalatine and greater palatine nerve blocks, more effectively.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la localización morfométrica de los forámenes palatinos incisivos, mayores y menores para el bloqueo del nervio maxilar. Se organizaron al azar doscientos cráneos secos tailandeses del Centro de Investigación de Osteología Forense. Las distancias de los parámetros se midieron mediante un calibre Vernier. Las distancias desde el foramen incisivo hasta el margen incisivo de la premaxila fueron 10,93 ? 2,42 mm en hombres y 10,98 ? 2,06 mm en mujeres. Desde el lado izquierdo, el foramen incisivo al foramen palatino mayor (FPM) fue de 39,07 ? 2,23 mm en los hombres y 38,57 ? 2,41 mm en las mujeres, y del lado derecho fue de 39,81 ? 2,37 mm en los hombres y 38,62 ? 2,53 mm en las mujeres. Del lado izquierdo, el foramen incisivo al foramen palatino menor (LPF) fue de 43,16 ? 2,23 mm en hombres y 41,84 ? 2,42 mm en mujeres y del lado derecho 42,93 ? 2,14 mm en hombres y 41,76 ? 2,61 mm en mujeres. El FPM encontrado medial al tercer molar maxilar fue 94-95 % en hombres y 84 % en mujeres. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la posición medial de los terceros molares se utilice como punto de referencia para un bloqueo del nervio palatino en individuos tailandeses. Estos hallazgos ayudarán, de manera más eficaz, a los dentistas a realizar procedimientos anestésicos locales, especialmente los bloqueos nasopalatinos y del nervio palatino mayor.

Humans , Male , Female , Palate, Hard/anatomy & histology , Thailand , Maxillary Nerve , Nerve Block
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e501, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251503


Abstract Introduction Neuropathic pain is present in up to 40 % of all cancer patients. A considerable number of patients fail to achieve enough pain relief with conventional treatment, which is why therapeutic alternatives such as spinal cord stimulation should be considered. Case description and results This is the case of a female patient with chronic neuropathic pain secondary to a partial femoral nerve injury sustained during resection and lymph node dissection surgery with curative intent for a large stage II cell squamous cell carcinoma T2N0M0, localized in the right popliteal fossa. The patient presented with difficult to manage chronic neuropathic pain, despite receiving multiple oral analgesics and nerve blocks. A medullary neurostimulator was implanted that relieved the patient's pain intensity in up to 80%, in addition to improved function and quality of life. Conclusions Spinal cord stimulation is considered an effective neuromodulatory intervention which has shown satisfactory results in the treatment of various types of refractory chronic pain in cancer patients, including neuropathic pain.

Resumen Introducción El dolor neuropático está presente hasta en el 40 % de los pacientes con cáncer. Un número considerable de pacientes no logran un alivio suficiente del dolor con el tratamiento convencional, por lo cual deben considerarse alternativas terapéuticas como la estimulación de la médula espinal. Descripción del caso y resultados Caso de una paciente con dolor neuropático crónico secundario a lesión parcial de nervio femoral durante cirugía de resección y vaciamiento ganglionar con objetivos curativos de carcinoma escamocelular de célula grande T2N0M0 estadio II, localizado en la fosa poplítea derecha, quien cursó con dolor neuropático crónico de difícil manejo a pesar de recibir múltiples analgésicos orales y bloqueos nerviosos. Se implantó un neuroestimulador medular con lo cual se logró un alivio hasta del 80 % en intensidad de dolor de la paciente, además de una mejoría de su funcionalidad y calidad de vida. Conclusiones La estimulación de la médula espinal se considera una intervención neuromoduladora eficaz, que ha demostrado resultados satisfactorios para tratar diversas formas de dolor crónico refractario en los pacientes con cáncer, incluido el dolor neuropático.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chronic Pain , Pain Management , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Therapeutics , Cells , Femoral Nerve , Analgesics , Nerve Block , Neuralgia