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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 207-213, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Peripheral nerve damage is an important cause of seeking medical attention. It occurs when the continuity of structures is interrupted and the propagation of nervous impulses is blocked, affecting the functional capacity of individuals. To assess the effects of the immunosuppressants tacrolimus and cyclosporine on the regeneration of peripheral nerves, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. The articles included were published until September 2018 and proposed to evaluate the effects of the immunosuppressants tacrolimus and cyclosporine on nerve regeneration and neuroprotection, available in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Oxford Pain Relief Database, and LILACS databases. The research analysed a total of 56 articles, of which 22 were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical analysis suggests the protective effect of tacrolimus in the regeneration of the number of myelinated axons (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-2.39; p< 0.01); however, such effect was not observed in relation to cyclosporine (95%CI: - 0.38-1.18; p» 0.08) It also suggests that there is a significant relationship between the use of tacrolimus and myelin thickness (95%CI» 2.00-5.71; p< 0. 01). The use of immunosuppressants in the regeneration of peripheral nerve damage promotes an increase in the number of myelinated axons in general, regardless of the administered dose. In addition, it ensures greater myelin thickness, muscle weight and recovery of the sciatic functional index. However, heterogeneity was high in most analyses performed.


Resumo As lesões nervosas periféricas são uma causa importante de busca por atendimento médico. Elas ocorrem quando há a interrupção da continuidade das estruturas e do bloqueio da propagação dos impulsos nervosos, afetando a capacidade funcional dos indivíduos. Para avaliar os efeitos dos imunossupressores tacrolimus e ciclosporina na regeneração de nervos periféricos, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura. Foram incluídos artigos publicados até setembro de 2018, que se propunham avaliar os efeitos dos imunossupressores tacrolimus e ciclosporina na regeneração nervosa e neuroproteção, disponíveis nas bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Oxford Pain Relief Database e LILACS. A pesquisa analisou um total de 56 artigos, dos quais 22 foram para metanálise. A análise estatística sugere o efeito protetor do tacrolimus na regeneração do número de axônios mielinizados (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 0,93-2,39; p< 0,01); todavia tal efeito não foi observado em relação à ciclosporina (IC95%: - 0,38-1,18; p» 0,08). Ela também sugere haver uma relação significativa entre o uso do tacrolimus e a espessura da mielina (IC95%: 2,00-5,71; p< 0,01). O uso de imunossupressores na regeneração de lesão nervosa periférica promove um aumento no número de axônios mielinizados de forma geral, independentemente da dose administrada. Além disso, garante uma maior espessura da mielina, um maior peso muscular e restabelecimento do índice da função do nervo ciático. Todavia, a heterogeneidade foi alta na maioria das análises realizadas.


Subject(s)
Peripheral Nerves/pathology , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929039

ABSTRACT

Carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials are very attractive for use in neural tissue engineering and biosensor coatings. CNT scaffolds are excellent mimics of extracellular matrix due to their hydrophilicity, viscosity, and biocompatibility. CNTs can also impart conductivity to other insulating materials, improve mechanical stability, guide neuronal cell behavior, and trigger axon regeneration. The performance of chitosan (CS)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite scaffolds could be optimized by introducing multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). CS/PEG/CNT composite scaffolds with CNT content of 1%, 3%, and 5% (1%=0.01 g/mL) were prepared by freeze-drying. Their physical and chemical properties and biocompatibility were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the composite scaffolds had a highly connected porous structure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy proved that the CNTs were well dispersed in the CS/PEG matrix and combined with the CS/PEG nanofiber bundles. MWCNTs enhanced the elastic modulus of the scaffold. The porosity of the scaffolds ranged from 83% to 96%. They reached a stable water swelling state within 24 h, and swelling decreased with increasing MWCNT concentration. The electrical conductivity and cell adhesion rate of the scaffolds increased with increasing MWCNT content. Immunofluorescence showed that rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells grown in the scaffolds had characteristics similar to nerve cells. We measured changes in the expression of nerve cell markers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that PC12 cells cultured in the scaffolds expressed growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), and class III β‍-tubulin (TUBB3) proteins. Preliminary research showed that the prepared CS/PEG/CNT scaffold has good biocompatibility and can be further applied to neural tissue engineering research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Nerve Regeneration , Polyethylene Glycols , Porosity , Rats , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928293

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury is a severe central nervous system disease, which will cause a series of complex pathophysiological changes and activate a variety of signaling pathways including Notch signaling. Studies have evidenced that activation of the Notch signaling pathway is not conducive to nerve repair and symptom improvement after spinal cord injury. Its mechanisms include inhibiting neuronal differentiation and axon regeneration, promoting reactive astrocyte proliferation, promoting M1 macrophage polarization and the release of proinflammatory factors, and inhibiting angiogenesis. Therefore, it has become a promising therapeutic strategy to inhibit Notch signal as a target in the treatment of spinal cord injury. In recent years, some researchers have used drugs, cell transplantation or genetic modification to regulate Notch signaling, which can promote the recovery of nerve function after spinal cord injury, thereby providing new treatment strategies for the treatment of spinal cord injury. This article will summarize the mechanism of Notch signaling pathway in spinal cord injury, and at the same time review the research progress in the treatment of spinal cord injury by modulating Notch signaling pathway in recent years, so as to provide new research ideas for further exploring new strategies for spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Axons/metabolism , Cell Transplantation , Humans , Nerve Regeneration , Signal Transduction/genetics , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Spinal Cord Injuries/metabolism
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 720-740, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939842

ABSTRACT

Enhancing remyelination after injury is of utmost importance for optimizing the recovery of nerve function. While the formation of myelin by Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for the function of the peripheral nervous system, the temporal dynamics and regulatory mechanisms that control the progress of the SC lineage through myelination require further elucidation. Here, using in vitro co-culture models, gene expression profiling of laser capture-microdissected SCs at various stages of myelination, and multilevel bioinformatic analysis, we demonstrated that SCs exhibit three distinct transcriptional characteristics during myelination: the immature, promyelinating, and myelinating states. We showed that suppressor interacting 3a (Sin3A) and 16 other transcription factors and chromatin regulators play important roles in the progress of myelination. Sin3A knockdown in the sciatic nerve or specifically in SCs reduced or delayed the myelination of regenerating axons in a rat crushed sciatic nerve model, while overexpression of Sin3A greatly promoted the remyelination of axons. Further, in vitro experiments revealed that Sin3A silencing inhibited SC migration and differentiation at the promyelination stage and promoted SC proliferation at the immature stage. In addition, SC differentiation and maturation may be regulated by the Sin3A/histone deacetylase2 (HDAC2) complex functionally cooperating with Sox10, as demonstrated by rescue assays. Together, these results complement the recent genome and proteome analyses of SCs during peripheral nerve myelin formation. The results also reveal a key role of Sin3A-dependent chromatin organization in promoting myelinogenic programs and SC differentiation to control peripheral myelination and repair. These findings may inform new treatments for enhancing remyelination and nerve regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Chromatin/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Myelin Sheath/metabolism , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Rats , Schwann Cells/metabolism , Sciatic Nerve/injuries
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Epothilone D on traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty-two SD rats were randomized to receive intraperitoneal injection of 1.0 mg/kg Epothilone D or DMSO (control) every 3 days until day 28, and rat models of TON were established on the second day after the first administration. On days 3, 7, and 28, examination of flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP), immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting were performed to examine the visual pathway features, number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), GAP43 expression level in damaged axons, and changes of Tau and pTau-396/404 in the retina and optic nerve.@*RESULTS@#In Epothilone D treatment group, RGC loss rate was significantly decreased by 19.12% (P=0.032) on day 3 and by 22.67% (P=0.042) on day 28 as compared with the rats in the control group, but FVEP examination failed to show physiological improvement in the visual pathway on day 28 in terms of the relative latency of N2 wave (P=0.236) and relative amplitude attenuation of P2-N2 wave (P=0.441). The total Tau content in the retina of the treatment group was significantly increased compared with that in the control group on day 3 (P < 0.001), showing a consistent change with ptau-396/404 level. In the optic nerve axons, the total Tau level in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group on day 7 (P=0.002), but the changes of the total Tau and pTau-396/404 level did not show an obvious correlation. Epothilone D induced persistent expression of GAP43 in the damaged axons, detectable even on day 28 of the experiment.@*CONCLUSION@#Epothilone D treatment can protect against TON in rats by promoting the survival of injured RGCs, enhancing Tau content in the surviving RGCs, reducing Tau accumulation in injured axons, and stimulating sustained regeneration of axons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Epothilones , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Optic Nerve Injuries/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879412

ABSTRACT

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) is a complex network composed of highly condensed extracellular matrix molecules surrounding neurons. It plays an important role in maintaining the performance of neurons and protecting them from harmful substances. However, after spinal cord injury, PNNs forms a physical barrier that surrounds the neuron and limits neuroplasticity, impedes axonal regeneration and myelin formation, and promotes local neuroinflammatory uptake. This paper mainly describes the composition and function of PNNs of neurons and its regulatory effects on axonal regeneration, myelin formation and neuroinflammation after spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Axons , Extracellular Matrix , Humans , Nerve Regeneration , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10842, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249339

ABSTRACT

Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is an extremely complex process. Nogo-A (neurite outgrowth inhibitor-A) inhibits axonal regeneration by interacting with Nogo receptor in the myelin sheath of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nogo-A and its receptor on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=96) were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (control), sciatic nerve transection group (model), immediate repair group (immediate repair), and delayed repair group (delayed repair). The rats were euthanized 1 week and 6 weeks after operation. The injured end tissues of the spinal cord and sciatic nerve were obtained. The protein expressions of Nogo-A and Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of Nogo-A, NgR, and Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) were detected by western blot. At 1 week after operation, the pathological changes in the immediate repaired group were less, and the protein expressions of Nogo-A, NgR, and RhoA in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve tissues were decreased (P<0.05) compared with the model group. After 6 weeks, the pathological changes in the immediate repair group and the delayed repair group were alleviated and the protein expressions decreased (P<0.05). The situation of the immediate repair group was better than that of the delayed repair group. Our data suggest that the expression of Nogo-A and its receptor increased after sciatic nerve injury, indicating that Nogo-A and its receptor play an inhibitory role in the repair process of sciatic nerve injury in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Receptors, Cell Surface , Myelin Proteins , Sciatic Nerve , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , GPI-Linked Proteins , Nogo Proteins , Nerve Regeneration
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888358

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury is a highly disabled neurological disease, and there is still a lack of effective treatments. Studies have proved that olfactory ensheathing cells are one of the ideal seed cells for promoting nerve regeneration after spinal cord injury. Olfactory ensheathing cells can promote axonal germination and elongation through secretion, interaction with astrocytes, regulation of inflammatory reaction, migration characteristics, myelination, anti-oxidation, lipid regulation and other channels. Thus olfactory ensheathing cells play the role of neuroprotection and nerve repair. In recent years, some studies have used bioengineering, tissue engineering, reprogramming and other technologies to enhance the efficacy of olfactoryensheathing cells from different aspects, thereby providing new therapeutic strategies for optimizing the cell therapy of spinal cord injury. This article will summarize the mechanism of olfactory ensheathing cells in repairing spinal cord injury, and review the progress of optimizing strategy of olfactory ensheathing cells in treating spinal cord injury recently, so as to provide new research ideas for the further developing the repair potential of olfactory ensheathing cells and optimize the cell therapy effect of spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Cell Transplantation , Humans , Nerve Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy
9.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 374-382, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922704

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Wallerian degeneration (WD) is an antegrade degenerative process distal to peripheral nerve injury. Numerous genes are differentially regulated in response to the process. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear, especially the early response. We aimed at investigating the effects of sciatic nerve injury on WD via CLDN 14/15 interactions in vivo and in vitro.@*METHODS@#Using the methods of molecular biology and bioinformatics analysis, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which claudin 14/15 participate in WD. Our previous study showed that claudins 14 and 15 trigger the early signal flow and pathway in damaged sciatic nerves. Here, we report the effects of the interaction between claudin 14 and claudin 15 on nerve degeneration and regeneration during early WD.@*RESULTS@#It was found that claudin 14/15 were upregulated in the sciatic nerve in WD. Claudin 14/15 promoted Schwann cell proliferation, migration and anti-apoptosis in vitro. PKCα, NT3, NF2, and bFGF were significantly upregulated in transfected Schwann cells. Moreover, the expression levels of the β-catenin, p-AKT/AKT, p-c-jun/c-jun, and p-ERK/ERK signaling pathways were also significantly altered.@*CONCLUSION@#Claudin 14/15 affect Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and anti-apoptosis via the β-catenin, p-AKT/AKT, p-c-jun/c-jun, and p-ERK/ERK pathways in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the tight junction signaling pathway underlying peripheral nerve degeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Claudins , Nerve Regeneration , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Rats , Schwann Cells/pathology , Sciatic Nerve , Wallerian Degeneration/pathology
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1625-1636, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922646

ABSTRACT

The capacity for neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain is extremely limited and highly restricted to a few regions, which greatly hampers neuronal regeneration and functional restoration after neuronal loss caused by injury or disease. Meanwhile, transplantation of exogenous neuronal stem cells into the brain encounters several serious issues including immune rejection and the risk of tumorigenesis. Recent discoveries of direct reprogramming of endogenous glial cells into functional neurons have provided new opportunities for adult neuro-regeneration. Here, we extensively review the experimental findings of the direct conversion of glial cells to neurons in vitro and in vivo and discuss the remaining issues and challenges related to the glial subtypes and the specificity and efficiency of direct cell-reprograming, as well as the influence of the microenvironment. Although in situ glial cell reprogramming offers great potential for neuronal repair in the injured or diseased brain, it still needs a large amount of research to pave the way to therapeutic application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cellular Reprogramming , Nerve Regeneration , Neurogenesis , Neuroglia , Neurons
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921772

ABSTRACT

When ischemia or hemorrhagic stroke occurs, astrocytes are activated by a variety of endogenous regulatory factors to become reactive astrocytes. Subsequently, reactive astrocytes proliferate, differentiate, and migrate around the lesion to form glial scar with the participation of microglia, neuron-glial antigen 2(NG2) glial cells, and extracellular matrix. The role of glial scars at different stages of stroke injury is different. At the middle and late stages of the injury, the secreted chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate are the main blockers of axon regeneration and nerve function recovery. Targeted regulation of glial scars is an important pathway for neurological rehabilitation after stroke. Chinese medicine has been verified to be effective in stroke rehabilitation in clinical practice, possibly because it has the functions of promoting blood resupply, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, and benign intervention in glial scars. This study reviewed the pathological process and signaling mechanisms of glial scarring after stroke, as well as the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine upon glial scar, aiming to provide theoretical reference and research evidence for developing Chinese medicine against stroke in view of targeting glial scarring.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Axons/pathology , Cicatrix/pathology , Gliosis/pathology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nerve Regeneration , Stroke/drug therapy
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2710-2720, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Histological and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is of significant clinical value as delayed surgical repair and longer distances to innervate terminal organs may account for poor outcomes. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LiESWT) has already been proven to be beneficial for injured tissue recovery on various pathological conditions. The objective of this study was to explore the potential effect and mechanism of LiESWT on PNI recovery.@*METHODS@#In this project, we explored LiESWT's role using an animal model of sciatic nerve injury (SNI). Shockwave was delivered to the region of the SNI site with a special probe at 3 Hz, 500 shocks each time, and 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Rat Schwann cells (SCs) and rat perineurial fibroblasts (PNFs) cells, the two main compositional cell types in peripheral nerve tissue, were cultured in vitro, and LiESWT was applied through the cultured dish to the adherent cells. Tissues and cell cultures were harvested at corresponding time points for a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Multiple groups were compared by using one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-Kramer test for post hoc comparisons.@*RESULTS@#LiESWT treatment promoted the functional recovery of lower extremities with SNI. More nerve fibers and myelin sheath were found after LiESWT treatment associated with local upregulation of mechanical sensitive yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional co-activator with a PDZ-binding domain (TAZ) signaling pathway. In vitro results showed that SCs were more sensitive to LiESWT than PNFs. LiESWT promoted SCs activation with more expression of p75 (a SCs dedifferentiation marker) and Ki67 (a SCs proliferation marker). The SCs activation process was dependent on the intact YAP/TAZ signaling pathway as knockdown of TAZ by TAZ small interfering RNA significantly attenuated this process.@*CONCLUSION@#The LiESWT mechanical signal perception and YAP/TAZ upregulation in SCs might be one of the underlying mechanisms for SCs activation and injured nerve axon regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy , Nerve Regeneration , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Rats , Schwann Cells , Sciatic Nerve , Signal Transduction
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 525-533, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132644

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Olfactory ensheathing cell is a unique kind of glia cells, which can promote axon growth. Little is known about the differences between olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells in the capability to promote nerve regeneration. Objective: To study the recovery of the rat facial nerve after olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation, and to compare the differences between the facial nerve regeneration of olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation. Methods: Institutional ethical guideline was followed (201510129A). Olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells were cultured and harvested after 7 days in vitro. 36 Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three different groups depending on the transplanting cells: Group A: olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells; Group B: olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells; Group C: DF-12 medium/fetal bovine serum. The main trunk of the facial nerve was transected and both stumps were inserted into a polylactic acid/chitosan conduit, then the transplanted cells were injected into the collagen in the conduits. After 4 and 8 weeks after the transplant, the rats of the three groups were scarified and the facial function score, facial nerve evoked potentials, histology analysis, and fluorescent retrograde tracing were tested and recorded, respectively, to evaluate the facial nerve regeneration and to analysis the differences among the three groups. Results: Olfactory ensheathing cells can promote the facial nerve regeneration. Compared with olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells, olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells were more effective in promoting facial nerve regeneration, and this difference was more significant 8 weeks after the transplantation than 4 weeks. Conclusion: We discovered that olfactory ensheathing cells with nerve conduit could improve the facial nerve recovery, and the olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells are more effective for facial nerve regeneration compared with olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells 8 weeks after the transplantation. These results could cast new light in the therapy of facial nerve defect, and furnish the foundation of auto-transplantation of olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells in periphery nerve injury.


Resumo Introdução: A célula embainhante olfatória é um tipo especial de célula glial que pode promover o crescimento do axônio. Pouco se sabe sobre as diferenças entre as células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória e as células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório em relação à sua capacidade de promover a regeneração nervosa. Objetivo: Estudar a regeneração do nervo facial de ratos após o transplante de células embainhantes olfatórias e comparar as diferenças entre a regeneração do nervo facial com o transplante de células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória e de células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório. Método: As recomendações éticas da instituição (201510129A) foram seguidas. Células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória e células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório foram cultivadas in vitro e coletadas após sete dias. Trinta e seis ratos Sprague Dawley machos foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos, dependeu das células transplantadas: Grupo A, células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória; Grupo B, células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório; Grupo C, meio de DF-12/soro fetal bovino. O tronco principal do nervo facial foi seccionado e ambos os cotos foram inseridos em um conduto de ácido polilático/quitosana; em seguida, as células transplantadas foram injetadas em colágeno nos condutos. Após quatro e oito semanas do transplante, os ratos dos três grupos foram agitados para a obtenção do escore da função facial, potenciais evocados do nervo facial, análise histológica e marcador fluorescente retrógrado, que foram testados e registrados, respectivamente, para avaliar a regeneração do nervo facial e analisar as diferenças entre os três grupos. Resultados: Células embainhantes olfatórias podem promover a regeneração do nervo facial. Em comparação com as células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório, as células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória foram mais eficazes na promoção da regeneração do nervo facial e essa diferença foi mais significativa oito semanas após o transplante em comparação com quatro semanas. Conclusão: Verificamos que células embainhantes olfatórias com conduto nervoso podem melhorar a recuperação do nervo facial e as células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória são mais eficazes para a regeneração do nervo facial em comparação com as células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório oito semanas após o transplante. Esses resultados podem lançar uma nova luz no tratamento de defeitos do nervo facial e fornecer a base do autotransplante de células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória em lesões do nervo periférico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Facial Nerve , Nerve Regeneration , Olfactory Bulb , Olfactory Mucosa , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
14.
ABCS health sci ; 45: e020016, 02 jun 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123701

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Different studies have evaluated the effects of electrophysical agents on regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Among them, the most used in clinical and experimental research is photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of standard energy (16.8 J) of PBMT on peripheral nerve regeneration, applied at different periods after sciatic nerve injury in mice. METHODS: Thirty male Swiss mice were divided into six groups: naive; sham; control; LLLT-01 (660 nm, 16.8 J of total energy emitted in 1 day); LLLT-04 (660 nm, 4.2 J per day, 16.8 J of total energy emitted in 4 days); LLLT-28, (660 nm, 0.6 J per day, 16.8 J of total energy emitted over 28 days). The animals were evaluated using thermal hyperalgesia, Sciatic Functional Index (SFI), and Static Sciatic Index (SSI). Data were obtained at baseline and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after surgery. RESULTS: For the SFI and SSI, all groups showed significant differences compared to the control group, and the LLLT-04 group presented the best results among those receiving PBMT. In the assessment of thermal hyperalgesia, there was a significant difference in the 14th day of evaluation in the LLLT-04 group. CONCLUSION: The application of 16.8 J was useful in sciatic nerve regeneration with an improvement of hyperalgesia, with higher efficacy when applied in four days (4.2 J/day).


INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos avaliaram os efeitos de diferentes terapias aplicadas após lesão nervosa periférica, com o intuito de promover a regeneração local. Dentre elas, a mais utilizada em pesquisa clínica e experimental é a terapia de fotobiomodulação (TFBM). OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito da fotobiomodulação (16,8 J) na regeneração nervosa periférica, aplicada em diferentes regimes após a lesão do nervo ciático em camundongos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados trinta camundongos machos (Swiss) divididos em: naive; sham; controle; LBI-01 (660 nm, 16,8 J de energia total emitida em 1 dia); LBI-04 (660 nm, 4,2 J por dia, 16,8 J de energia total emitida em 4 dias); LBI-28, (660 nm, 0,6 J por dia, 16,8 J de energia total emitida durante 28 dias). Os animais foram avaliados utilizando a hiperalgesia térmica, Índice Funcional do Ciático (IFC) e Índice estático do ciático (IEC). Os dados foram obtidos na linha de base e após 7, 14, 21, e 28 dias após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Para o IFC e IEC, todos os grupos mostraram um aumento no valor e diferenças significativas em relação ao grupo de controle, e o grupo LBI-04 apresentou os melhores resultados, alcançando valor basal no 21° dia dentre os que foram submetidos a TFBM. Na avaliação da hiperalgesia térmica, houve aumento do tempo de resposta com diferença significativa no 14° dia de avaliação no grupo LBI-04. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação de 16,8 J foi eficaz na regeneração do nervo ciático quando distribuída ao longo dos 4 primeiros dias pós-lesão, com dose diária de 4,2 J/ponto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Sciatic Neuropathy/radiotherapy , Low-Level Light Therapy , Nerve Regeneration , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Crush Injuries , Hyperalgesia , Lasers
15.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(3): 323-328, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138032

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of swimming on nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury in Wistar rats. Methods A total of 30 Wistar rats was divided into 3 groups: Sham + Nat group animals that were not submitted to graft surgery and were submitted to swimming (n = 10); Graft group: animals submitted to autologous sciatic nerve graft (n = 10); and Graft + Nat group: animals submitted to autologous sciatic nerve graft surgery and to swimming (n = 10). The results were analyzed on the software (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA). Results In the first evaluation, all sciatic functional index (SFI) values were similar (p = 0.609). Thirty days after the surgical procedure, we observed differences between all the comparisons: Sham + Nat (−34.64 ± 13.89) versus Graft (−145.9 ± 26.06); Sham + Nat versus Graft + Nat (−89.40 ± 7.501); Graft (−145.9 ± 26.06) versus Graft + Nat (−89.40 ± 7.501). In the measurements (60 and 90 days), there was no statistical difference between the Graft and Graft + Nat groups, with significantly lower values in relation to the control group (p < 0.001). The number of motor neurons presented differences in the comparisons between the Sham + Nat and Graft groups (647.1 ± 16.42 versus 563.4 ± 8.07; p < 0.05), and between the Sham + Nat and Graft + Nat groups (647.1 ± 16.42 versus 558.8 ± 14.79; p < 0.05). There was no difference between the Graft and Graft + Nat groups. Conclusion Animals submitted to the swimming protocol after the sciatic nerve grafting procedure did not present differences in the SFI values and motor neuron numbers when compared to the control group. Therefore, this type of protocol is not efficient for the rehabilitation of peripheral nerve lesions that require grafting. Therefore, further studies are needed.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da natação na regeneração nervosa após a lesão do nervo ciático em ratos Wistar. Métodos Um total de 30 ratos Wistar foram divididos em 3 grupos: grupo Sham + Nat: animais que não foram submetidos à cirurgia de enxerto e foram submetidos à natação (n = 10); grupo Enxerto: animais que foram submetidos à cirurgia de enxerto autólogo de nervo ciático (n = 10); e grupo Enx + Nat: animais submetidos à cirurgia de enxerto autólogo de nervo ciático e à natação (n = 10). Os resultados foram analisados pelo software GraphPad Prism 5.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, EUA). Resultados Na primeira avaliação, todos os valores do índice funcional do ciático (IFC) foram semelhantes (p = 0.609). Após 30 dias do procedimento cirúrgico, foram observadas diferenças entre todas as comparações: Sham + Nat (−34,64 ± 13,89) versus Enxerto (−145,9 ± 26,06), grupos Sham + Nat versus Enx + Nat (−89,40 ± 7,501), grupos Enxerto (−145,9 ± 26,06) versus Enx + Nat (−89,40 ± 7,501). Nas medidas (60 e 90 dias), não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos Enxerto e Enx + Nat, com valores significativamente menores em relação ao grupo controle (p < 0,001). O número de motoneurônios apresentou diferenças nas comparações entre os grupos Sham + Nat e Enxerto (647,1 ± 16,42 versus 563,4 ± 8,07; p < 0,05) e Sham + Nat e Enx + Nat (647,1 ± 16,42 versus 558,8 ± 14,79; p < 0,05), não havendo diferença entre os grupos Enxerto e Enx + Nat. Conclusão Os animais submetidos ao protocolo de natação após o procedimento de enxerto do nervo ciático não apresentaram diferenças nos valores de IFC e nos números de motoneurônios quando comparados com grupo controle. Portanto, este tipo de protocolo não é eficiente para reabilitação de lesões nervosas periféricas que necessitam de enxerto, sendo necessários novos estudos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rehabilitation , Sciatic Nerve , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Swimming , Rats, Wistar , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Nerve Regeneration
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the repairing effect of stem cells on facial nerve defects.@*METHODS@#Articles regarding the regenerating effect of stem cells on facial nerves in animals were collected from the databases of Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and CBM. Two professionals independently completed the article screening, data extraction, and bias risk assessment. RevMan 5.3 and random-effects models were used for the statistical analysis, and the results were presented in the form of mean differences (MD) with a 95%CI. The results of functional evaluation (vibrissae movement, facial paralysis) and histological evaluation (density of myelinated fibers, diameter of fibers, thickness of myelin sheath, G ratio) of facial nerve were Meta-analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 4 614 articles were retrieved from the 6 databases, and 15 of these articles were included in the Meta-analysis. For vibrissae movement and facial paralysis, the stem cell group scored significantly higher than the non-stem cell group (P<0.05). The density of myelinated fibers and thickness of the myelin sheath in the stem cell group were higher than those in the non-stem cell group (P<0.05). The G ratio in the stem cell group was smaller than that in the non-stem cell group (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in fiber diameter (P=0.08).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Stem cells have potential in promoting facial nerve regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis , Nerve Regeneration , Stem Cells , Vibrissae
17.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2020. 84 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1291692

ABSTRACT

Os cimentos dentários e ortopédicos são utilizados amplamente em diversas aplicações clínicas. Novos cimentos vêm sendo propostos visando à preservação ou regeneração tecidual. Contudo, pouco se conhece sobre o papel desses biomateriais na regeneração nervosa. As células mais comumente envolvidas na regeneração nervosa são as células de Schwann (SCs) sendo sua principal função o suporte aos axônios através da liberação de fatores de crescimento e isolamento axonal através da formação da bainha de mielina. Como estratégia da presente pesquisa, foi estudado um cimento à base da quitosana com adição de substâncias que podem atuar sinergicamente na resposta celular nervosa, tais como, as nanopartículas (NPs) de hidroxiapatita e o óxido de zinco, visto que têm propriedades bioativas e biocondutoras, além de promoverem a condução de prolongamento axonal. A doxiciclina (Dox) foi acrescida como antimicrobiano, potente inibidora de metaloproteinases (MMPs) e estimuladora da diferenciação celular no processo de regeneração tecidual. Assim, as propriedades físico-químicas e biológicas do cimento de nano-hidroxiapatita, quitosana, óxido de zinco e doxiciclina foram avaliadas, bem como a capacidade de promover um ambiente favorável para as células nervosas periféricas. Os cimentos foram caracterizados físico-químicamente mediante a determinação do pH, tempo de presa e solubilidade, lixiviação de íons cálcio, liberação controlada de doxiciclina, difração de Raios X, Termogravimetria (TG), espectroscopia Raman, molhabibidade, e testes de atividade biológica, para assim também serem avaliados em contato com células nervosas de Schwann (HS-Sch-2). O cimento apresentou pH neutro (7,0), tempo de presa de 5,7 ± 0,22 minutos, solubilidade menor que 3%, lixiviação de cálcio de 8,14 ± 0,71 mg L-1 após 14 dias, estabilidade térmica e a análise espectroscópica ratificou a presença e diferenciação das estruturas químicas dos componentes do cimento coerentemente com as imagens das análises microscópicas. Além disso, o cimento se mostrou hidrofílico, teve efeito hemolítico baixo (17%), obteve alta citocompabilidade celular em fibroblastos ATCC 3T3 (72%) e ação antimicrobiana. O cimento aumentou significativamente o crescimento das células de Schwann, 48,6% a mais do que o grupo controle (p≤0.05), e maior capacidade metabólica na análise mitótica quando em contato com este material (33%). Pode-se concluir que o cimento proposto à base de quitosana contendo hidroxiapatita e óxido de zinco nanoparticulados com adição de doxiciclina obteve efeito bioativo em células de Schwann promovendo, assim, o crescimento e a atividade mitótica celular, sendo então um biomaterial promissor para estudos de remielinização de nervos periféricos e regeneração nervosa in vivo.


Dental and orthopedic cements are used widely in several clinical applications. New cements have been proposed aimed the tissue preservation or regeneration. Nevertheless, nerve regeneration is not well known. The cells most commonly used in nerve regeneration are Schwann cells (SCs) which represent glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, their main function being supporting axons by releasing growth factors and axonal isolation through the formation of the myelin sheath. As a strategy of this research, chitosan-based cement was studied with the addition of substances that can act synergistically in the nervous cell response, such as the hydroxyapatite and zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs), since they have bioactive and bioconductive properties; in addition to furthermore, they promote the conduction of axonal prolongation. Doxycycline (Dox) was added as an antimicrobial, a potent inhibitor of MMPs, a stimulator of cell differentiation in the tissue regeneration process. Thus, the physical-chemical and biological properties of nanohydroxyapatite, chitosan, zinc oxide and doxycycline cements were evaluated, as well as the ability to promote a favorable environment for peripheral nerve cells. Blocks of cements were characterized physically and chemically by determining pH, setting time and solubility, calcium ions leaching, controlled release of doxycycline, X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetry (TG), Raman spectroscopy, wetness, and biological activity tests, so they can also be evaluated in contact with Schwann nerve cells (HS-Sch-2). The cement showed neutral pH (7.0), setting time of 5.7 ± 0.22 minutes, solubility less than 3%, calcium leaching of 8.14 ± 0.71 mg L-1 after 14 days, stability thermal and spectroscopic analysis confirmed the presence and differentiation of the chemical structures of the cement components coherently with the images of the microscopic analysis. In addition, the cement was shown to be hydrophilic, had a low hemolytic effect (17%), and obtained high cell cytocompatibility in ATCC 3T3 fibroblasts (72%) and antimicrobial action. The cement significantly increased the growth of Schwann cells, 48.6% more than the control group (p≤0.05), and greater metabolic capacity in the mitotic analysis when in contact with this material (33%). It can be concluded that the proposed chitosan-based cement containing hydroxyapatite and zinc oxide nanoparticulated with the addition of doxycycline has a bioactive effect in Schwann cells, thus promoting cell growth and mitotic activity, thus being a promising biomaterial for studies of remyelinization of peripheral nerves and nerve regeneration in vivo.


Subject(s)
Schwann Cells , Stimulation, Chemical , Dental Cements , Nerve Regeneration , Doxycycline , Durapatite , Chitosan
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828540

ABSTRACT

The intrinsic regrowth ability of injured neurons is essential for axon regeneration and functional recovery. Recently, numerous intrinsic pathways that regulate axon regeneration have been discovered, among which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway are arguably the best characterized examples. MAPK signaling pathway is involved in multiple processes including sensing injury signals, initiating and promoting axonal regrowth through regulating cytoskeleton dynamics and protein synthesis. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway regulates axon regeneration mainly through gene transcription and translation. Combinatory manipulation of multiple regeneration-promoting signals can further improve the extend of axonal regrowth. This paper summarizes current progresses on axon regeneration studies in various organisms and discuss their potentials in promoting functional recovery .


Subject(s)
Axons , Physiology , Nerve Regeneration , Neurons , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Regeneration , Signal Transduction
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(12): e351207, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152682

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue in the end-to-side neurorrhaphy, focusing in the nerve regeneration and the muscle reinnervation in acute trauma. Methods: 140 animals were randomly divided in seven groups: control, denervated, end-to-side neurorrhaphy between distal stump of common peroneal nerve and tibial nerve (ESN), ESN wrapped in fascia, ESN wrapped in fascia and platelet gel, ESN wrapped in platelet gel, ESN wrapped in fascia and platelet gel within stem cells (without culture) removed from the adipose tissue. Mass measurements of the animal and of cranial tibial muscles, electromyography, walking track analysis tests and histological examinations of the nerves and muscles after 180 days was performed. Results: In the groups where the ESN was performed, the results were always better when compared to the denervated group, showing reinnervation in all ESN groups. The most sensitive methods were walking track and histological analysis. Only the group with stem cells showed values similar to the control group, as well as the functional indices of peroneal nerve and the number of nerve fibers in the peroneal nerve. Conclusions: Stem cells were effective in ESN according with the functional index of the peroneal nerve, evaluated by walking track analysis and the number of nerve fibers in the peroneal nerve.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Peroneal Nerve , Stem Cells , Tibial Nerve/surgery , Muscle, Skeletal , Neurosurgical Procedures , Nerve Regeneration
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(7): e202000702, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130658

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the normality pattern in functional tests of peripheral nerves. Methods Sixty female and sixty male Wistar rats were submitted to vibrissae movement and nictitating reflex for facial nerve; grooming test and grasping test for brachial plexus; and walking tracking test and horizontal ladder test for lumbar plexus. The tests were performed separately, with an interval of seven days between each. Results All animals showed the best score in vibrissae movement, nictitating reflex, grooming test, and horizontal ladder test. The best score was acquired for the first time in more than 90% of animals. The mean of strength on the grasping test was 133.46±12.08g for the right and 121.74±8.73g for the left anterior paw. There was a difference between the right and left sides. There was no difference between the groups according to sex. There is no statistical difference comparing all functional indexes between sex, independent of the side analyzed. The peroneal functional index showed higher levels than the sciatic and tibial functional index on both sides and sex. Conclusions The behavioral and functional assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration are low-cost, easy to perform, and reliable tests. However, they need to be performed by experienced researchers to avoid misinterpretation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Sciatic Nerve , Brachial Plexus , Rats, Wistar , Facial Nerve , Nerve Regeneration
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