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1.
Ethiop. Med. j ; 61(2): 161-169, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1426998

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Widal agglutination test is a serologic investigation that is used to diagnose typhoidfever. This is an easy, fairly inexpensive, and readily available test it'ith questionable reliability. The test performance differs from setting to setting depending on the technique used and otherfactors. The accuracy ofthis test in Ethiopia is poorly understood. So, the aim of this scientific work was to analyze the accuracy of Widal agglutination in diagnosing typhoidfever in Ethiopia. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Two electronic databases (PubMed/Medline and Google scholar) were searched using preset search strategv to find relevant studies. The methodological quality of the studies included was evaluated "'ith a QUADAS-2. We extracted important variables from the eligible articles. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA version 14. The protocol of our systematic review and metaanalysis is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) with the record number CRD42020194252. Results: The electronic quests yielded 42 papers of which 8 "'ere eligible for analysis. The quality of these studies was rated to be moderate based on the QUADAS-2. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and negative, andpositive predicthe values ofthe Widal test were 80.8%, 53.0%, 98.5%, and 2.1% respecth'ely. Conclusion: The "'idal agglutination test has average specificity, ven good negative predicth'e value, and ven poor positive predictive value for the diagnosis of typhoidfever. Depending on Widal to diagnose typhoid fever may lead to over-diagnosis of typhoid fever and related complications including inappropriate use of antibiotics. There is an urgent needfor quick and dependable tests for diagnosing typhoidfever, particularly in settings like Ethiopia M'here doing timely culture is notfeasible.


Subject(s)
Serologic Tests , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Typhoid Fever , Meta-Analysis , Network Pharmacology
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22394, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505845

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of Picrasma quassioides Benn against inflammation by means of network pharmacology. The paper will provide a reference for multi-target and multi-channel treatment of inflammation with traditional Chinese medicine. Through screening and analysis, 11 active ingredients and 109 anti-inflammation prediction targets were obtained and constructed a compound-target network. The targets such as VEGFA, TLR4 and STAT3 may play a crucial role. Network enrichment analysis showed that the 109 potential targets constitute a number of pathways or inflammatory reactions closely related to inflammation, including NF-κB signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway. The docking results indicated that the binding energy of Picrasidine Y and the inflammatory factors VEGFA is the highest. This study predicted the role of multiple active compounds in the alkaloids of Picrasma in the inflammatory response, and provided a theoretical basis for the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Picrasma


Subject(s)
Research/classification , Picrasma/classification , Alkaloids/analysis , Network Pharmacology/instrumentation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010989

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an acute viral respiratory infection that has caused high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza A virus (IAV) has been found to activate multiple programmed cell death pathways, including ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death in which the accumulation of intracellular iron promotes lipid peroxidation, leading to cell death. However, little is known about how influenza viruses induce ferroptosis in the host cells. In this study, based on network pharmacology, we predicted the mechanism of action of Maxing Shigan decoction (MXSGD) in IAV-induced ferroptosis, and found that this process was related to biological processes, cellular components, molecular function and multiple signaling pathways, where the hypoxia inducible factor-1(HIF-1) signaling pathway plays a significant role. Subsequently, we constructed the mouse lung epithelial (MLE-12) cell model by IAV-infected in vitro cell experiments, and revealed that IAV infection induced cellular ferroptosis that was characterized by mitochondrial damage, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, increased total iron and iron ion contents, decreased expression of ferroptosis marker gene recombinant glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), increased expression of acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 4 (ACSL4), and enhanced activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Treatment with MXSGD effectively reduced intracellular viral load, while reducing ROS, total iron and ferrous ion contents, repairing mitochondrial results and inhibiting the expression of cellular ferroptosis and the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Finally, based on animal experiments, it was found that MXSGD effectively alleviated pulmonary congestion, edema and inflammation in IAV-infected mice, and inhibited the expression of ferroptosis-related protein and the HIF-1 signaling pathway in lung tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Ferroptosis , Network Pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Influenza A virus , Iron , Hypoxia
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971678

ABSTRACT

Angelicae Sinensis Radix (AS) is reproted to exert anti-depression effect (ADE) and nourishing blood effect (NBE) in a rat model of depression. The correlation between the two therapeutic effects and its underlying mechanisms deserves further study. The current study is designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of correlation between the ADE and NBE of AS based on hepatic metabonomics, network pharmacology and molecular docking. According to metabolomics analysis, 30 metabolites involved in 11 metabolic pathways were identified as the potential metabolites for depression. Furthermore, principal component analysis and correlation analysis showed that glutathione, sphinganine, and ornithine were related to pharmacodynamics indicators including behavioral indicators and hematological indicators, indicating that metabolic pathways such as sphingolipid metabolism were involved in the ADE and NBE of AS. Then, a target-pathway network of depression and blood deficiency syndrome was constructed by network pharmacology analysis, where a total of 107 pathways were collected. Moreover, 37 active components obtained from Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Triple-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS) in AS extract that passed the filtering criteria were used for network pharmacology, where 46 targets were associated with the ADE and NBE of AS. Pathway enrichment analysis further indicated the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in the ADE and NBE of AS. Molecular docking analysis indciated that E-ligustilide in AS extract exhibited strong binding activity with target proteins (PIK3CA and PIK3CD) in sphingolipid metabolism. Further analysis by Western blot verified that AS regulated the expression of PIK3CA and PIK3CD on sphingolipid metabolism. Our results demonstrated that sphingolipid metabolic pathway was the core mechanism of the correlation between the ADE and NBE of AS.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Metabolomics/methods , Mass Spectrometry
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the potential mechanism of Yishen Qutong Granules (YSQTG) for the treatment of esophageal cancer using network pharmacology and experimental research.@*METHODS@#The effective components and molecular mechanism of YSQTG in treating esophageal cancer were expounded based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. The key compound was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to verify the malignant phenotype of the key compounds in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Then, the interaction proteins of key compounds were screened by pull-down assay combined with mass spectrometry. RNA-seq was used to screen the differential genes in the treatment of esophageal cancer by key compounds, and the potential mechanism of key compounds on the main therapeutic targets was verified.@*RESULTS@#Totally 76 effective compounds of YSQTG were found, as well as 309 related targets, and 102 drug and disease interaction targets. The drug-compound-target network of YSQTG was constructed, suggesting that quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, kaempferol and baicalein may be the most important compounds, while quercetin had higher degree value and degree centrality, which might be the key compound in YSQTG. The HPLC-MS results also showed the stable presence of quercetin in YSQTG. By establishing a protein interaction network, the main therapeutic targets of YSQTG in treating esophageal cancer were Jun proto-oncogene, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and RELA proto-oncogene. The results of cell function experiments in vitro showed that quercetin could inhibit proliferation, invasion, and clonal formation of esophageal carcinoma cells. Quercetin mainly affected the biological processes of esophageal cancer cells, such as proliferation, cell cycle, and cell metastasis. A total of 357 quercetin interacting proteins were screened, and 531 genes were significantly changed. Further pathway enrichment analysis showed that quercetin mainly affects the metabolic pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κ B) signaling pathway, etc. Quercetin, the key compound of YSQTG, had stronger binding activity by molecular docking. Pull-down assay confirmed that NF- κ B was a quercetin-specific interaction protein, and quercetin could significantly reduce the protein level of NF- κ B, the main therapeutic target.@*CONCLUSION@#YSQTG can be multi-component, multi-target, multi-channel treatment of esophageal cancer, it is a potential drug for the treatment of esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Network Pharmacology , Quercetin , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Esophageal Neoplasms , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of the effect of Astragalus membranaceus (A. membranaceus) on lung adenocarcinoma at the molecular level to elucidate the specific targets according to the network pharmacology approach.@*METHODS@#The active components of A. membranaceus and their potential targets were collected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database. Lung adenocarcinoma-associated genes were acquired based on GeneCards, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), PharmGKB, and Therapeutic Targets databases. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related genes were obtained using Reactome portal. Networks of "ingredient-target" and "ingredient-target-pathway-disease" were constructed using the Cytoscape3.6.0 software. The relationships among targets were analyzed according protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Finally, molecular docking was applied to construct the binding conformation between active ingredients and core targets. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) and Western blot assays were performed to determine the mechanism of the key ingredient of A. membranaceus.@*RESULTS@#A total of 20 active components and their 329 targets, and 7,501 lung adenocarcinoma-related genes and 130 PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related genes were obtained. According to Venn diagram and PPI network analysis, 2 mainly active ingredients, including kaempferol and quercetin, and 6 core targets, including TP53, MAPK1, EGF, AKT1, ERBB2, and EGFR, were identified. The two important active ingredients of A. membranaceus, kaempferol and quercetin, exert the therapeutic effect in lung adenocarcinoma partly by acting on the 6 core targets (TP53, MAPK1, EGF, AKT1, ERBB2, and EGFR) of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Expressions of potential targets in lung adenocarcinoma and normal samples were analyzed by using UALCAN portal and found that ERBB2 was overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and upregulation of it correlated with clinicopathological characteristics. Finally, quercetin repressed viabilities of lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting ERBB2 on PI3K/AKT signaling confirmed by CCK8 and Western blot.@*CONCLUSION@#Our finding unraveled that an active ingredient of A. membranaceus, quercetin, significantly inhibited the lung adenocarcinoma cells proliferation by repressing ERBB2 level and inactivating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astragalus propinquus , Kaempferols , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Epidermal Growth Factor , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quercetin , Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Signal Transduction , ErbB Receptors , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982704

ABSTRACT

Pharmacodynamics material basis and effective mechanisms are the two main issues to decipher the mechnisms of action of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for the treatment of diseases. TCMs, in "multi-component, multi-target, multi-pathway" paradigm, show satisfactory clinical results in complex diseases. New ideas and methods are urgently needed to explain the complex interactions between TCMs and diseases. Network pharmacology (NP) provides a novel paradigm to uncover and visualize the underlying interaction networks of TCMs against multifactorial diseases. The development and application of NP has promoted the safety, efficacy, and mechanism investigations of TCMs, which then reinforces the credibility and popularity of TCMs. The current organ-centricity of medicine and the "one disease-one target-one drug" dogma obstruct the understanding of complex diseases and the development of effective drugs. Therefore, more attentions should be paid to shift from "phenotype and symptom" to "endotype and cause" in understanding and redefining current diseases. In the past two decades, with the advent of advanced and intelligent technologies (such as metabolomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, single-cell omics, and artificial intelligence), NP has been improved and deeply implemented, and presented its great value and potential as the next drug-discovery paradigm. NP is developed to cure causal mechanisms instead of treating symptoms. This review briefly summarizes the recent research progress on NP application in TCMs for efficacy research, mechanism elucidation, target prediction, safety evaluation, drug repurposing, and drug design.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Network Pharmacology , Artificial Intelligence , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolomics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the specific pharmacological molecular mechanisms of Kai Xin San (KXS) on treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on network pharmacology and experimental validation.@*METHODS@#The chemical compounds of KXS and their corresponding targets were screened using the Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ETCM) database. AD-related target proteins were obtained from MalaCards database and DisGeNET databases. Key compounds and targets were identified from the compound-target-disease network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. Functional enrichment analysis predicted the potential key signaling pathways involved in the treatment of AD with KXS. The binding affinities between key ingredients and targets were further verified using molecular docking. Finally, the predicted key signaling pathway was validated experimentally. Positioning navigation and space search experiments were conducted to evaluate the cognitive improvement effect of KXS on AD rats. Western blot was used to further examine and investigate the expression of the key target proteins related to the predicted pathway.@*RESULTS@#In total, 38 active compounds and 469 corresponding targets of KXS were screened, and 264 target proteins associated with AD were identified. The compound-target-disease and PPI networks identified key active ingredients and protein targets. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis suggested a potential effect of KXS in the treatment of AD via the amyloid beta (A β)-glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3 β)-Tau pathway. Molecular docking revealed a high binding affinity between the key ingredients and targets. In vivo, KXS treatment significantly improved cognitive deficits in AD rats induced by Aβ1-42, decreased the levels of Aβ, p-GSK3β, p-Tau and cyclin-dependent kinase 5, and increased the expressions of protein phosphatase 1 alpha (PP1A) and PP2A (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#KXS exerted neuroprotective effects by regulating the Aβ -GSK3β-Tau signaling pathway, which provides novel insights into the therapeutic mechanism of KXS and a feasible pharmacological strategy for the treatment of AD.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982284

ABSTRACT

Coalescence of traditional medicine Ayurveda and in silico technology is a rigor for supplementary development of future-ready effective traditional medicine. Ayurveda is a popular traditional medicine in South Asia, emanating worldwide for the treatment of metabolic disorders and chronic illness. Techniques of in silico biology are not much explored for the investigation of a variety of bioactive phytochemicals of Ayurvedic herbs. Drug repurposing, reverse pharmacology, and polypharmacology in Ayurveda are areas in silico explorations that are needed to understand the rich repertoire of herbs, minerals, herbo-minerals, and assorted Ayurvedic formulations. This review emphasizes exploring the concept of Ayurveda with in silico approaches and the need for Ayurinformatics studies. It also provides an overview of in silico studies done on phytoconstituents of some important Ayurvedic plants, the utility of in silico studies in Ayurvedic phytoconstituents/formulations, limitations/challenges, and prospects of in silico studies in Ayurveda. This article discusses the convergence of in silico work, especially in the least explored field of Ayurveda. The focused coalesce of these two domains could present a predictive combinatorial platform to enhance translational research magnitude. In nutshell, it could provide new insight into an Ayurvedic drug discovery involving an in silico approach that could not only alleviate the process of traditional medicine research but also enhance its effectiveness in addressing health care.


Subject(s)
Network Pharmacology , Medicine, Traditional , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Drug Discovery/methods , Delivery of Health Care
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970719

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Liangge Powder against sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) . Methods: From April to December 2021, the key components of Liangge Powder and its targets against sepsis-induced ALI were analyzed by network pharmacology, and to enrich for relevant signaling pathways. A total of 90 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated group, sepsis-induced ALI model group (model group), Liangge Powder low, medium and high dose group, ten rats in the sham-operated group and 20 rats in each of the remaining four groups. Sepsis-induced ALI model was established by cecal ligation and puncture. Sham-operated group: gavage with 2 ml saline and no surgical treatment. Model group: surgery was performed and 2 ml saline was gavaged. Liangge Powder low, medium and high dose groups: surgery and gavage of Liangge Powder 3.9, 7.8 and 15.6 g/kg, respectively. To measure the wet/dry mass ratio of rats lung tissue and evaluate the permeability of alveolar capillary barrier. Lung tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphological analysis. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) -6 and IL-1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relative protein expression levels of p-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-protein kinase B (AKT), and p-ertracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) were detected via Western blot analysis. Results: Network pharmacology analysis indicated that 177 active compounds of Liangge Powder were selected. A total of 88 potential targets of Liangge Powder on sepsis-induced ALI were identified. 354 GO terms of Liangge Powder on sepsis-induced ALI and 108 pathways were identified using GO and KEGG analysis. PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was recognized to play an important role for Liangge Powder against sepsis-induced ALI. Compared with the sham-operated group, the lung tissue wet/dry weight ratio of rats in the model group (6.35±0.95) was increased (P<0.001). HE staining showed the destruction of normal structure of lung tissue. The levels of IL-6 [ (392.36±66.83) pg/ml], IL-1β [ (137.11±26.83) pg/ml] and TNF-α [ (238.34±59.36) pg/ml] were increased in the BALF (P<0.001, =0.001, <0.001), and the expression levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-ERK1/2 proteins (1.04±0.15, 0.51±0.04, 2.31±0.41) were increased in lung tissue (P=0.002, 0.003, 0.005). The lung histopathological changes were reduced in each dose group of Liangge Powder compared with the model group. Compared with the model group, the wet/dry weight ratio of lung tissue (4.29±1.26) was reduced in the Liangge Powder medium dose group (P=0.019). TNF-α level [ (147.85±39.05) pg/ml] was reduced (P=0.022), and the relative protein expression levels of p-PI3K (0.37±0.18) and p-ERK1/2 (1.36±0.07) were reduced (P=0.008, 0.017). The wet/dry weight ratio of lung tissue (4.16±0.66) was reduced in the high-dose group (P=0.003). Levels of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α[ (187.98±53.28) pg/ml, (92.45±25.39) pg/ml, (129.77±55.94) pg/ml] were reduced (P=0.001, 0.027, 0.018), and relative protein expression levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-ERK1/2 (0.65±0.05, 0.31±0.08, 1.30±0.12) were reduced (P=0.013, 0.018, 0.015) . Conclusion: Liangge Powder has therapeutic effects in rats with sepsis-induced ALI, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathway activation in lung tissue.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Powders , Animal Experimentation , Interleukin-6 , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Network Pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970634

ABSTRACT

The study identified the blood-entering components of Sijunzi Decoction after gavage administration in rats by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, and investigated the mechanism of Sijunzi Decoction in treating Alzheimer's disease by virtue of network pharmacology, molecular docking, and experimental verification. The blood-entering components of Sijunzi Decoction were identified based on the mass spectra and data from literature and databases. The potential targets of the above-mentioned blood-entering components in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease were searched against PharmMapper, OMIM, DisGeNET, GeneCards, and TTD. Next, STRING was employed to establish a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network. DAVID was used to perform the Gene Ontology(GO) annotation and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment. Cytoscape 3.9.0 was used to carry out visual analysis. AutoDock Vina and PyMOL were used for molecular docking of the blood-entering components with the potential targets. Finally, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) signaling pathway enriched by the KEGG analysis was selected for validation by animal experiments. The results showed that 17 blood-entering components were detected in the serum samples after administration. Among them, poricoic acid B, liquiritigenin, atractylenolide Ⅱ, atractylenolide Ⅲ, ginsenoside Rb_1, and glycyrrhizic acid were the key components of Sijunzi Decoction in treating Alzheimer's disease. HSP90AA1, PPARA, SRC, AR, and ESR1 were the main targets for Sijunzi Decoction to treat Alzheimer's disease. Molecular docking showed that the components bound well with the targets. Therefore, we hypothesized that the mechanism of Sijunzi Decoction in treating Alzheimer's disease may be associated with the PI3K/Akt, cancer treatment, and mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathways. The results of animal experiments showed that Sijunzi Decoction significantly attenuated the neuronal damage in the hippocampal dentate gyrus area, increased the neurons, and raised the ratios of p-Akt/Akt and p-PI3K/PI3K in the hippocampus of mice. In conclusion, Sijunzi Decoction may treat Alzheimer's disease by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The findings of this study provide a reference for further studies about the mechanism of action and clinical application of Sijunzi Decoction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Network Pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970633

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the biological effect and mechanism of Vernonia anthelmintica Injection(VAI) on melanin accumulation. The in vivo depigmentation model was induced by propylthiouracil(PTU) in zebrafish, and the effect of VAI on melanin accumulation was evaluated based on the in vitro B16F10 cell model. The chemical composition of VAI was identified according to the high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Network pharmaco-logy was applied to predict potential targets and pathways of VAI. A "VAI component-target-pathway" network was established, and the pharmacodynamic molecules were screened out based on the topological characteristics of the network. The binding of active molecules to key targets was verified by molecular docking. The results showed that VAI promoted tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16F10 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner and could restore the melanin in the body of the zebrafish model. Fifty-six compounds were identified from VAI, including flavonoids(15/56), terpenoids(10/56), phenolic acids(9/56), fatty acids(9/56), steroids(6/56), and others(7/56). Network pharmacological analysis screened four potential quality markers, including apigenin, chrysoeriol, syringaresinol, and butein, involving 61 targets and 65 pathways, and molecular docking verified their binding to TYR, NFE2L2, CASP3, MAPK1, MAPK8, and MAPK14. It was found that the mRNA expression of MITF, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT in B16F10 cells was promoted. By UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and network pharmacology, this study determined the material basis of VAI against vitiligo, screened apigenin, chrysoeriol, syringaresinol, and butein as the quality markers of VAI, and verified the efficacy and internal mechanism of melanogenesis, providing a basis for quality control and further clinical research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Vernonia/chemistry , Melanins/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Apigenin/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970624

ABSTRACT

Qijiao Shengbai Capsules(QJ) can invigorate Qi and replenish the blood, which is commonly used clinically for adjuvant treatment of cancer and leukopenia due to chemoradiotherapy. However, the pharmacological mechanism of QJ is still unclear. This work aims to combine the high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints and network pharmacology to clarify the effective components and mechanism of QJ. The HPLC fingerprints of 20 batches of QJ were established. The similarity evaluation among 20 batches of QJ was performed by using Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(version 2012), resulting in a similarity greater than 0.97. Eleven common peaks were identified by reference standard, including ferulic acid, calycosin 7-O-glucoside, ononin, calycosin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, formononetin, baohuoside I, and Z-ligustilide. The "component-target-pathway" network was constructed by network pharmacy, and 10 key components in QJ were identified, such as ferulic acid, calycosin 7-O-glucoside, ononin, and calycosin. The components were involved in the phosphoinositide 3 kinase-protein kinase B(PI3K-Akt), mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK), and other signaling pathways by regulating potential targets, including EGFR, RAF1, PIK3R1, and RELA, to auxiliarily treat tumors, cancers, and leukopenia. The molecular docking conducted on the AutoDock Vina platform confirmed the high binding activity of 10 key effective components with core targets, with the binding energy less than-5 kcal·mol~(-1). In this study, the effective components and mechanism of QJ have been preliminary revealed based on HPLC fingerprint and network pharmacology, which provided a basis for quality control of QJ and a refe-rence for further study on its mechanism.


Subject(s)
Network Pharmacology , Capsules , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970606

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis(AS) is caused by impaired lipid metabolism, which deposits lipids in the intima, causes vascular fibrosis and calcification, and then leads to stiffening of the vascular wall. Hyperlipidemia(HLP) is one of the key risk factors for AS. Based on the theory of "nutrients return to the heart and fat accumulates in the channels", it is believed that the excess fat returning to the heart in the vessels is the key pathogenic factor of AS. The accumulation of fat in the vessels over time and the blood stasis are the pathological mechanisms leading to the development of HLP and AS, and "turbid phlegm and fat" and "blood stasis" are the pathological products of the progression of HLP into AS. Didang Decoction(DDD) is a potent prescription effective in activating blood circulation, removing blood stasis, resolving turbidity, lowering lipids, and dredging blood vessels, with the functions of dispelling stasis to promote regeneration, which has certain effects in the treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. This study employed high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to screen the main blood components of DDD, explored the targets and mechanisms of DDD against AS and HLP with network pharmacology, and verified the network pharmacological results by in vitro experiments. A total of 231 blood components of DDD were obtained, including 157 compounds with a composite score >60. There were 903 predicted targets obtained from SwissTargetPrediction and 279 disease targets from GeneCards, OMIM, and DisGeNET, and 79 potential target genes of DDD against AS and HLP were obtained by intersection. Gene Ontology(GO) analysis suggested that DDD presumably exerted regulation through biological processes such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammatory response, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) analysis suggested that signaling pathways included lipid and atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, chemo-carcinogenesis-receptor activation, and AGE-RAGE signaling pathways in diabetic complications. In vitro experiments showed that DDD could reduce free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and cholesterol ester content in L02 cells and improve cellular activity, which might be related to the up-regulation of the expression of PPARα, LPL, PPARG, VEGFA, CETP, CYP1A1, and CYP3A4, and the down-regulation of the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. DDD may play a role in preventing and treating AS and HLP by improving lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, and inhibiting apoptosis with multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Network Pharmacology , Nutrients , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Lipids , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970605

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of artesunate in the treatment of bone destruction in experimental rheumatoid arthritis(RA) based on transcriptomics and network pharmacology. The transcriptome sequencing data of artesunate in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation were analyzed to obtain differentially expressed genes(DEGs). GraphPad Prism 8 software was used to plot volcano maps and heat maps were plotted through the website of bioinformatics. GeneCards and OMIM were used to collect information on key targets of bone destruction in RA. The DEGs of artesunate in inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and key target genes of bone destruction in RA were intersected by the Venny 2.1.0 platform, and the intersection target genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology(GO)/Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment. Finally, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB(RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation model and collagen-induced arthritis(CIA) model were established. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction(q-PCR), immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry were used to verify the pharmacological effect and molecular mechanism of artesunate in the treatment of bone destruction in RA. In this study, the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation model in vitro was established and intervened with artesunate, and transcriptome sequencing data were analyzed to obtain 744 DEGs of artesunate in inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. A total of 1 291 major target genes of bone destruction in RA were obtained from GeneCards and OMIM. The target genes of artesunate in inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and the target genes of bone destruction in RA were intersected to obtain 61 target genes of artesunate against bone destruction in RA. The intersected target genes were analyzed by GO/KEGG enrichment. According to the results previously reported, the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathway was selected for experimental verification. Artesunate intervention in the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation model showed that artesunate inhibited CC chemokine receptor 3(CCR3), CC chemokine receptor 1(CCR1) and leukemia inhibitory factor(LIF) mRNA expression in osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner compared with the RANKL-induced group. Meanwhile, the results of immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry showed that artesunate could dose-dependently reduce the expression of CCR3 in osteoclasts and joint tissues of the CIA rat model in vitro. This study indicated that artesunate regulated the CCR3 in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathway in the treatment of bone destruction in RA and provided a new target gene for the treatment of bone destruction in RA.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Transcriptome , Network Pharmacology , Osteoclasts , Receptors, Cytokine/therapeutic use
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970604

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of Cistanches Herba in the treatment of cancer-induced fatigue(CRF) by network pharmacology combined with in vivo and in vitro experiments to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical medication. The chemical constituents and targets of Cistanches Herba were searched from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). The targets of CRF were screened out by GeneCards and NCBI. The common targets of traditional Chinese medicine and disease were selected to construct a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) functional and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. A visual signal pathway rela-ted to Chinese medicine and disease targets was constructed. The CRF model was induced by paclitaxel(PTX) in mice. Mice were divided into a control group, a PTX model group, and low-and high-dose Cistanches Herba extract groups(250 and 500 mg·kg~(-1)). The anti-CRF effect in mice was evaluated by open field test, tail suspension test, and exhaustive swimming time, and the pathological morphology of skeletal muscle was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The cancer cachexia model in C2C12 muscle cells was induced by C26 co-culture, and the cells were divided into a control group, a conditioned medium model group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose Cistanches Herba extract groups(62.5, 125, and 250 μg·mL~(-1)). The reactive oxygen species(ROS) content in each group was detected by flow cytometry, and the intracellular mitochondrial status was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The protein expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α), BNIP3L, and Beclin-1 were detected by Western blot. Six effective constituents were screened out from Cistanches Herba. The core genes of Cistanches Herba in treating CRF were AKT1, IL-6, VEGFA, CASP3, JUN, EGFR, MYC, EGF, MAPK1, PTGS2, MMP9, IL-1B, FOS, and IL10, and the pathways related to CRF were AGE-RAGE and HIF-1α. Through GO enrichment analysis, it was found that the main biological functions involved were lipid peroxidation, nutrient deficiency, chemical stress, oxidative stress, oxygen content, and other biological processes. The results of the in vivo experiment showed that Cistanches Herba extract could significantly improve skeletal muscle atrophy in mice to relieve CRF. The in vitro experiment showed that Cistanches Herba extract could significantly reduce the content of intracellular ROS, the percentage of mitochondrial fragmentation, and the protein expression of Beclin-1 and increase the number of autophagosomes and the protein expression of HIF-1α and BNIP3L. Cistanches Herba showed a good anti-CRF effect, and its mechanism may be related to the key target proteins in the HIF-1α signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cistanche , Network Pharmacology , Beclin-1 , Reactive Oxygen Species , Plant Extracts , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms/genetics
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970596

ABSTRACT

The chemical components of Huanglian Decoction were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. The gradient elution was conducted in Agilent ZORBAX Extend-C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature of 35 ℃. The MS adopted the positive and negative ion mode of electrospray ionization(ESI), and the MS data were collected under the scanning range of m/z 100-1 500. Through high-resolution MS data analysis, combined with literature comparison and confirmation of reference substances, this paper identified 134 chemical components in Huanglian Decoction, including 12 alkaloids, 23 flavonoids, 22 terpenes and saponins, 12 phenols, 7 coumarins, 12 amino acids, 23 organic acids, and 23 other compounds, and the medicinal sources of the compounds were ascribed. Based on the previous studies, 7 components were selected as the index components. Combined with the network pharmacology research and analysis me-thods, the protein and protein interaction(PPI) network information of the intersection targets was obtained through the STRING 11.0 database, and 20 core targets of efficacy were screened out. In this study, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS technology was successfully used to comprehensively analyze and identify the chemical components of Huanglian Decoction, and the core targets of its efficacy were discussed in combination with network pharmacology, which laid the foundation for clarifying the material basis and quality control of Huanglian Decoction.


Subject(s)
Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Network Pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Technology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970580

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore the main active components and potential mechanisms of Panax notoginseng saponins(PNS) and osteopractic total flavone(OTF) in the treatment of osteoporosis(OP) through network pharmacology, molecular docking and in vitro cell experiments, which was expected to provide a theoretical basis for clinical applications. The blood-entering components of PNS and OTF were obtained from literature search and online database, and their potential targets were obtained from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) and SwissTargetPrediction. The OP targets were obtained by means of searching Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM) and GeneCards. The common targets of the drug and disease were screened by Venn. Cytoscape was used to construct a "drug-component-target-disease" network, and the core components were screened according to the node degree. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the common targets was constructed by STRING and Cytoscape, and the core targets were screened according to the node degree. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of potential therapeutic targets were carried out by R language. Molecular docking was used to determine the binding activity of some active components to key targets by AutoDock Vina. Finally, HIF-1 signaling pathway was selected for in vitro experimental verification according to the results of KEGG pathway analysis. Network pharmacology showed that there were 45 active components such as leachianone A, kurarinone, 20(R)-protopanaxatriol, 20(S)-protopanaxatriol, and kaempferol, and 103 therapeutic targets such as IL6, AKT1, TNF, VEGFA and MAPK3 involved. PI3K-AKT, HIF-1, TNF and other signaling pathways were enriched. Molecular docking revealed that the core components had good binding ability to the core targets. In vitro experiments found that PNS-OTF could up-regulate the mRNA expression levels of HIF-1α, VEGFA and Runx2, indicating that the mechanism of PNS-OTF in treating OP may be related to the activation of HIF-1 signaling pathway, and thus PNS-OTF played a role in promoting angiogenesis and osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, this study predicted the core targets and pathways of PNS-OTF in treating OP based on network pharmacology and carried out in vitro experimental verification, which reflected the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway synergy of PNS-OTF, and provided new ideas for the future clinical treatment of OP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Osteogenesis , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Osteoporosis , Databases, Genetic
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970579

ABSTRACT

Based on GC-MS and network pharmacology, the active constituents, potential targets, and mechanism of essential oil from Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis(EOGFA) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury were explored, and the effective constituents were verified by experiment. To be specific, GC-MS was used identify the constituents of the volatile oil. Secondly, the targets of the constituents and disease were predicted by network pharmacology, and the drug-constituent-target network was constructed, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment of the core targets. Molecular docking was performed to investigate the binding affinity between the active constituents and the targets. Finally, SD rats were used for experimental verification. The I/R injury model was established, and the neurological behavior score, infarct volume, and pathological morphology of brain tissue were measured in each group. The content of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) by Western blot. A total of 22 active constituents and 17 core targets were screened out. The core targets were involved in 56 GO terms and the major KEGG pathways of TNF signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, and sphingolipid signaling pathway. Molecular docking showed that the active constituents had high affinity to the targets. The results of animal experiment suggested that EOGFA can alleviate the neurological impairment, decrease the cerebral infarct volume and the content of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, and down-regulate the expression of VEGF. The experiment verified the part results of network pharmacology. This study reflects the multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics of EOGFA. The mechanism of its active constituents is related to TNF and VEGF pathways, which provides a new direction for in-depth research on and secondary development of Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Network Pharmacology , Oils, Volatile , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Interleukin-6 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Reperfusion Injury , Cerebral Infarction
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970578

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to explore the antidepressant effect of the essential oil from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq.(EOST) on the treatment of depression and its mechanism by using a combination of network pharmacology and the mouse model of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced depression. The chemical components in EOST were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS), and 12 active components were selected as the study objects. The targets related to EOST were obtained by Traditional Chinese Medicines Systems Pharmacology(TCMSP) and SwissTargetPrediction database. The targets related to depression were screened out through GeneCards, Therapeutic Target Database(TTD), and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM) database. The Venny 2.1 was applied to screen out the common targets of EOST and depression. The targets were imported into Cytoscape 3.7.2 to generate "drug-active component-diease-target" network diagram. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed using STRING 11.5 database and Cytoscape 3.7.2, and the core targets were screened out. DAVID 6.8 database was used for Gene Ontology(GO) func-tional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, and subsequently the enrichment results were visualized through the bioinformatics platform. The mouse model of depression was induced by intraperitoneally injecting with LPS in mice. Before modeling, mice were administrated orally with EOST. The antidepressant effect of EOST was evalua-ted by tail suspension test(TST), forced swimming test(FST), and novelty suppressed feeding test(NSFT) after modeling. The content of interleukin(IL)-1β was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the protein expression levels of IL-1β and pro IL-1β in the hippocampus were determined by Western blot. There were 12 main components and 179 targets in EOAT, of which, 116 targets were related to depression, mainly involved in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, calcium signaling pathway, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) signaling pathway. Biological processes such as synaptic signal transduction, G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, and chemical synaptic transmission were involved. Molecular functions such as neurotransmitter receptor activity, RNA polymerase Ⅱ transcription factor activity, and heme binding were involved. In mice experiments, the results showed that EOST at 100 mg·kg~(-1) and 50 mg·kg~(-1) significantly shortened the immobility time in TST and FST as well as the feeding latency in NSFT compared with the model group, decreased the levels of serum IL-1β and NO, and reduced the protein expression levels of IL-1β and pro IL-1β in the hippocampus. In conclusion, EOST shows a good antidepressant effect in a multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway manner. The mechanism may be attributed to the fact that EOST can down-regulate the protein expression levels of IL-1β and pro IL-1β, decrease the release of inflammatory factors, and reduce neuroinflammation response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Oils, Volatile , Depression , Lipopolysaccharides , Network Pharmacology , Databases, Genetic , Calcium Signaling , Disease Models, Animal
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