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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929236

ABSTRACT

Hallmarks of the pathophysiology of glaucoma are oxidative stress and apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) with multi-target, multi-pathway functions has been reported to exert positive pharmacological effects on oxidative stress and damaged RGCs. However, the ingredients and anti-apoptotic targets of EGb in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in-depth analysis is necessary for further research. Ginkgo biloba-related and anti-apoptotic targets were identified and then combined to obtain the intersection, representing the potential anti-apoptotic targets of Ginkgo biloba. In addition, compound-anti-apoptotic target and OAG-target protein-protein interaction network were merged to obtain five core genes and compound-OAG-anti-apoptotic target protein-protein interaction network. Consequently, the active compounds and anti-apoptotic targets of Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of OAG were identified, namely luteolin, β-sitosterol, kaempferol, stigmasterol, quercetin, and p53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, respectively. For the anti-apoptotic targets of Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of OAG, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were executed to confirm the gene functions of Ginkgo biloba in antagonizing apoptosis of RGCs. The pathway enrichment was mainly involved in transcriptional activation of p53 responsive genes, activation of caspases and apoptotic processes. Finally, we confirmed the results of the network analysis by H2O2 treated RGC-5 cells in vitro. The results demonstrated that EGb protection can effectively diminish H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting p53 acetylation, reducing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and suppressing the expression of specific cleavage of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3.


Subject(s)
Ginkgo biloba , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Network Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Retinal Ganglion Cells
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929235

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system. Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a Chinese medicinal preparation that has been widely used in the treatment of various types of cancers in the past two decades. However, the pharmacological effect of CKI on bladder cancer is not still completely understood. In the current study, network pharmacology combined with bioinformatics was used to elucidate the therapeutic mechanism and potential targets of CKI in bladder cancer. The mechanism by which CKI was effective against bladder cancer was further verified in vitro using human bladder cancer cell line T24. Network pharmacology analysis identified 35 active compounds and 268 target genes of CKI. Bioinformatics data indicated 5500 differentially expressed genes associated with bladder cancer. Common genes of CKI and bladder cancer suggested that CKI exerted anti-bladder cancer effects by regulating genes such as MMP-9, JUN, EGFR, and ERK1. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that CKI exerted therapeutic effects on bladder cancer by regulating certain biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell apoptosis. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis implicated pathways related to cancer, bladder cancer, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Consistently, cell experiments indicated that CKI inhibited the proliferation and migration of T24 cells, and induced their apoptosis. Moreover, RT-qPCR and Western blot results demonstrated that CKI was likely to treat bladder cancer by down-regulating the gene and protein expression of MMP-9, JUN, EGFR, and ERK1. CKI inhibited the proliferation and migration, and induced the apoptosis of T24 bladder cancer cells through multiple biological pathways and targets. CKI also exhibited significant effects on the regulation of key genes and proteins associated with bladder cancer. Overall, our findings provide solid evidence and deepen current understanding of the therapeutic effects of CKI for bladder cancer, and further support its clinical use.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the pharmacodynamic material basis, mechanism of actions and targeted diseases of Salicornia europaea L. (SE) based on the network pharmacology method, and to verify the antidepressant-like effect of the SE extract by pharmacological experiments.@*METHODS@#Retrieval tools including Chinese medicine (CM), PubMed, PharmMapper, MAS 3.0 and Cytoscape were used to search the components of SE, predict its targets and related therapeutic diseases, and construct the "Component-Target-Pathway" network of SE for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Further, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) function annotation of depression-related targets were analyzed to predict the antidepressant mechanism of SE. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model was used to construct a mouse model with depression-like symptoms. And the animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10) including the normal group (nonstressed mice administered with distilled water), the CUMS group (CUMS mice administered with distilled water), the venlafaxine group (CUMS mice administered with venlafaxine 9.38 mg/kg), SE high-, medium-, and low-dose groups (CUMS mice administered with SE 1.8, 1.35 and 0.9 g/kg, respectively). Then some relevant indicators were determined for experimental verification by the forced swim test (FST), the tail suspension test (TST) and open-field test (OFT). Dopamine (DA) concentration in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, IL-2 and corticosterone (CORT) levels in blood, and nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), kelch-like epichlorohydrin related protein 1 (Keap1), NAD(P) H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels in mice were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot respectively to explore the possible mechanisms.@*RESULTS@#The "target-disease" network diagram predicted by network pharmacology, showed that the potential target of SE involves a variety of CNS diseases, among which depression accounts for the majority. The experimental results showed that SE (1.8, 1.35 g/kg) significantly decreased the immobility period, compared with the CUMS group in FST and TST in mice after 3-week treatment, while SE exhibited no significant effect on exploratory behavior in OFT in mice. Compared with CUMS group, the SE group (0.9 g/kg) showed significant differences (P<0.05) in DA levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In addition, compared with CUMS control group, SE (1.8 g/kg) group showed a significant effect on decreasing the activities of CORT (P<0.05), and serum IL-2 level with no statistical significance. Finally, Western blot results showed that compared with the model group, Nrf2, Keap1, NQO1 and HO-1 protein expressions in SE group (1.8 g/kg) were up-regulated (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The SE extract may have an antidepressant effect, which appeared to regulate Nrf2-ARE pathway and increased levels of DA and CORT in the hippocampus and cortex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Behavior, Animal , Chenopodiaceae/metabolism , Depression/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Network Pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Stress, Psychological/drug therapy
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928657

ABSTRACT

To explore the mechanism of ovarian toxicity of Hook. F. (TwHF) by network pharmacology and molecular docking. The candidate toxic compounds and targets of TwHF were collected by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). Then, the potential ovarian toxic targets were obtained from CTD, and the target genes of ovarian toxicity of TwHF were analyzed using the STRING database. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established by Cytoscape and analyzed by the cytoHubba plug-in to identify hub genes. Additionally, the target genes of ovarian toxicity of TwHF were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses by using the R software. Finally, Discovery Studio software was used for molecular docking verification of the core toxic compounds and the hub genes. Nine candidate toxic compounds of TwHF and 56 potential ovarian toxic targets were identified in this study. Further network analysis showed that the core ovarian toxic compounds of TwHF were triptolide, kaempferol and tripterine, and the hub ovarian toxic genes included , , , , , , , , and . Besides, the GO and KEGG analysis indicated that TwHF caused ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, reproductive system development and function, regulation of cell cycle, response to endogenous hormones and exogenous stimuli, apoptosis regulation and aging. The docking studies suggested that 3 core ovarian toxic compounds of TwHF were able to fit in the binding pocket of the 10 hub genes. TwHF may cause ovarian toxicity by acting on 10 hub genes and 140 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Protein Interaction Maps
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928653

ABSTRACT

To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Qingfei oral liquid in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Seventy-two male SD rats were divided into control group, model group, pirofenidone group and Qingfei group with 18 animals in each group. The idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was induced in last three groups by intratracheal injection of bleomycin; pirofenidone group was given oral administration of pirofenidone b.i.d for 21 d, and Qingfei group was given Qingfei oral liquid 3.6 mL/kg q.d for Lung tissues were obtained for HE staining, Masson staining and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β immunohistochemical staining. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were detected in tissue homogenates. The BATMAN-TCM database was used to retrieve the chemical components and their corresponding targets of Qingfei oral solution by network pharmacology method, and then the component-target-disease network diagram was constructed. Finally, the pathway enrichment analysis was carried out to explore the molecular mechanism of Qingfei oral liquid against idiopathic fibrosis. Histopathology results showed that Qingfei oral liquid had a similar relieving effect on pulmonary fibrosis as the positive drug pirfenidone; TGF-β secretion had a significant reduction in lung tissues of Qingfei group; and Qingfei oral liquid had better regulatory effect on SOD, MDA and GSH than pirfenidone. The results of component-target-disease network and pathway enrichment analysis showed that the related molecular pathways were concentrated in inflammation, extracellular matrix and cytokines. Qingfei oral liquid has a good therapeutic effect on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in rats via regulation of inflammation, extracellular matrix and cytokines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bleomycin/pharmacology , Cytokines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glutathione , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Inflammation , Lung/pathology , Male , Network Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928175

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish a method for analyzing the chemical constituents in Cistanches Herba by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS), and to reveal the pharmacological mechanism based on network pharmacology for mining the quality markers(Q-markers) of Cistanches Herba. The chemical constituents of Cistanche deserticola and C. tubulosa were analyzed via HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. The potential targets and pathways of Cistanches Herba were predicted via SwissTargetPrediction and DAVID. The compound-target-pathway-pharmacological action-efficacy network was constructed via Cytoscape. A total of 47 chemical constituents were identified, involving 95 targets and 56 signaling pathways. We preliminarily elucidated the pharmacological mechanisms of echinacoside, acteoside, isoacteoside, cistanoside F, 2'-acetylacteoside, cistanoside A, campneoside Ⅱ, salidroside, tubuloside B, 6-deoxycatalpol, 8-epi-loganic acid, ajugol, bartsioside, geniposidic acid, and pinoresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and predicted them to be the Q-markers of Cistanches Herba. This study identified the chemical constituents of Cistanches Herba, explained the pharmacological mechanism of the traditional efficacy of Cistanches Herba based on network pharmacology, and introduced the core concept of Q-markers to improve the quality evaluation of Cistanches Herba.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cistanche , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Network Pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928098

ABSTRACT

Based on network pharmacology, the mechanism of Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix-Ligustri Lucidi Fructus(PL) combination against acute gouty arthritis(AGA) was explored and preliminarily verified by animal experiment. The chemical components and corresponding targets of PL were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). The active components with oral bioavailability(OB)≥30% and drug-likeness(DL)≥0.18 were screened based on literature, and the related protein targets were collected. Then the protein targets were standardized with the help of UniProt database. The AGA-related targets were searched from GeneCards, NCBI, and DrugBank. The common targets of the disease and the medicinals were yielded by FunRich V3, and the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed to screen the key targets, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the key targets. Afterwards, some of the key targets were verified by sodium urate crystal-induced AGA mouse model. A total of 25 active components and 287 targets of PL, 811 targets of AGA, and 88 common targets were screened out. PPI network analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor(TNF), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) may be the core targets of PL in the treatment of AGA. The key targets were mainly involved in 566 GO terms(P<0.05), including multiple biological processes such as inflammatory response and immune response. Moreover, they were related to 116 KEGG pathways and these pathways were involved in inflammation and immunity, mainly including NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway. Animal experiment confirmed that PL can alleviate ankle swelling, improve abnormal gait, and down-regulate the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in AGA mice, indicating that PL can treat AGA through TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β and the feasibility of network pharmacology to predict drug targets. This study preliminarily discussed the key targets and biological signaling pathways involved in the treatment of AGA with PL combination, which reflected the multi-pathway and multi-target action characteristics of Chinese medicine. Moreover, this study laid a scientific basis for research on the treatment of AGA with PL combination, as well as the mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Gouty/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Ligustrum , Mice , Network Pharmacology , Rhizome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928063

ABSTRACT

UPLC-Q-TOF-MS combined with network pharmacology and experimental verification was used to explore the mechanism of acupoint sticking therapy(AST) in the intervention of bronchial asthma(BA). The chemical components of Sinapis Semen, Cory-dalis Rhizoma, Kansui Radix, Asari Radix et Rhizoma, and Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens were retrieved from TCMSP as self-built database. The active components in AST drugs were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the targets were screened out in TCMSP and Swiss-TargetPrediction. Targets of BA were collected from GeneCards, and the intersection of active components and targets was obtained by Venny 2.1.0. The potential targets were imported into STRING and DAVID for PPI, GO, and KEGG analyses. The asthma model induced by house dust mite(HDM) was established in mice. The mechanism of AST on asthmatic mice was explored by pulmonary function, Western blot, and flow cytometry. The results indicated that 54 active components were obtained by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and 162 potential targets were obtained from the intersection. The first 53 targets were selected as key targets. PPI, GO, and KEGG analyses showed that AST presumedly acted on SRC, PIK3 CA, and other targets through active components such as sinoacutine, sinapic acid, dihydrocapsaicin, and 6-gingerol and regulated PI3 K-AKT, ErbB, chemokine, sphingolipid, and other signaling pathways to intervene in the pathological mechanism of BA. AST can improve lung function, down-regulate the expression of PI3 K and p-AKT proteins in lung tissues, enhance the expression of PETN protein, and reduce the level of type Ⅱ innate immune cells(ILC2 s) in lung tissues of asthmatic mice. In conclusion, AST may inhibit ILC2 s by down-regulating the PI3 K-AKT pathway to relieve asthmatic airway inflammation and reduce airway hyperresponsiveness.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Asthma/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes , Mice , Network Pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928062

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the active components and the mechanism of Jingqi Yukui Capsules(JQYK) in the treatment of gastric ulcer based on network pharmacology, and verify some key targets and signaling pathways through animal experiment. To be specific, first, the active components and targets of JQYK were retrieved from a Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine(BATMAN-TCM) and Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), and the targets of gastric ulcer from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM) with the search term "gastric ulcer". The common targets of the two were the potential targets of the prescription for the treatment of the di-sease. Then, protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of key targets were constructed based on STRING and Cytoscape 3.7.2, followed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment by matescape database and pathway visualization by Omicshare. For the animal experiment, the improved method of Okabe was used to induce gastric ulcer in rats, and the model rats were classified into the model group, JQYK high-dose(JQYK-H), medium-dose(JQYK-M), and low-dose(JQYK-L) groups, Anweiyang Capsules(WYA) group, and Rabeprazole Sodium Enteric Capsules(RBPZ) group. Normal rats were included in the blank group. Rats in the blank group and model group were given distilled water and those in the administration groups received corresponding drugs. Then gastric ulcer healing in rats was observed. The changes of the gastric histomorphology in rats were evaluated based on hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the content of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) in rat gastric tissue was detected with Coomassie brilliant blue method. The mRNA and protein levels of some proteins in rat gastric tissue were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and Western blot(WB) to further validate some key targets and signaling pathways. A total of 206 active components and 535 targets of JQYK, 1 305 targets of gastric ulcer, and 166 common targets of the disease and the drug were yielded. According to PPI analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, multiple key targets, such as interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1(MAPK1), MAPK3, and MAPK14, as well as nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and leukocyte transendothelial migration in the top 20 key signaling pathways were closely related to inflammation. The key protein p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway were selected for further verification by animal experiment. The gastric ulcer in the JQYK-H group recovered nearly to the level in the blank group, with significant decrease in the content of iNOS in rat gastric tissue and significant reduction in the mRNA and phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK and the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB p65 in rat gastric tissue. The results indicated that JQYK can inhibit the phosphorylation of the key protein p38 MAPK and the expression of NF-κB p65 in the NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby exerting the anti-inflammatory effect and effectively improving the quality of gastric ulcer healing in rats. Thus, the animal experiment result verifies some predictions of network pharmacology.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , Animals , Capsules , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Humans , Network Pharmacology , Rats , Stomach Ulcer/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928025

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the anti-depressant components of Rehmanniae Radix and its action mechanism based on network pharmacology combined with molecular docking. The main components of Rehmanniae Radix were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS), and the related targets were predicted using SwissTargetPrediction. Following the collection of depression-related targets from GeneCards, OMIM and TTD, a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed using STRING. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was performed by Metascape. Cytoscape 3.7.2 was used to construct the networks of "components-targets-disease" and "components-targets-pathways", based on which the key targets and their corresponding components were obtained and then preliminarily verified by molecular docking. Rehmanniae Radix contained 85 components including iridoids, ionones, and phenylethanoid glycosides. The results of network analysis showed that the main anti-depressant components of Rehmanniae Radix were catalpol, melittoside, genameside C, gardoside, 6-O-p-coumaroyl ajugol, genipin-1-gentiobioside, jiocarotenoside A1, neo-rehmannioside, rehmannioside C, jionoside C, jionoside D, verbascoside, rehmannioside, cistanoside F, and leucosceptoside A, corresponding to the following 16 core anti-depression targets: AKT1, ALB, IL6, APP, MAPK1, CXCL8, VEGFA, TNF, HSP90 AA1, SIRT1, CNR1, CTNNB1, OPRM1, DRD2, ESR1, and SLC6 A4. As revealed by molecular docking, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity might be the main action forms. The key anti-depression targets of Rehmanniae Radix were concentrated in 24 signaling pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, neurodegenerative disease-multiple diseases pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway, serotonergic synapse, and Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Plant Extracts , Rehmannia
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928024

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the molecular mechanism of Huangjing Qianshi Decoction(HQD) in the treatment of prediabetes based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. The active components of HQD were identified and screened based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP, http://Lsp.nwu.edu.cn/tcmsp.php) and then the targets of the components and the genes related to prediabetes were retrieved, followed by identifying the common targets of the decoction and the disease. The medicinal component-target network was constructed by Cytoscape to screen key components. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was established by STRING and hub genes were identified by Cytoscape-CytoNCA, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) of the hub genes with R-clusterProfi-ler. Thereby, the possible signaling pathways were predicted and the molecular mechanism was deduced. A total of 79 active components of HQD and 785 diabetes-related targets of the components were screened out. The hub genes mainly involved the GO terms of tricarboxylic acid cycle, peptide binding, amide binding, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity regulation, and the KEGG pathways of AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and insulin signaling pathway. Western blot result showed that HQD-containing serum significantly reduced the expression of AKT1, AGE, and RAGE proteins in insulin resistance model cells. HQD's treatment of prediabetes is characterized by multiple pathways, multiple targets, and multiple levels. The main mechanism is that the components zhonghualiaoine, baicalein, kaempferol, and luteolin act on AKT1 and inhibit the AGE-RAGE axis.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Prediabetic State/genetics
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927967

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents in the volatile oil of Syringa oblata were identified using GC-MS and NIST database. TCMSP and SwissTargetPrediction were employed to predict the potential targets of the active components in S. oblata. Through Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM), GeneCards, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG), we screened out the targets related to the prevention or treatment of angina pectoris by the volatile oil of S. oblata, and then used DAVID 6.8 to annotate the gene ontology(GO) terms and KEGG pathways. The "active components-targets-pathways" network was constructed in Cytoscape 3.6.0, and the key active components and targets of S. oblata were verified by Discovery Studio 2016. Forty-six chemical constituents were identified from the volatile oil of S. oblata; 198 potential targets of the active components and 1 138 targets associated with angina pectoris were predicted. A total of 71 common targets were shared by the active components and the disease, including cytochrome P450 19 A1(CYP19 A1) and prostaglandin G/H synthase 2(PTGS2). The KEGG pathways involved include PPAR, JAK-STAT, TNF, Toll-like receptor and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways. The active components in the volatile oil of S. oblata may play anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis roles. This study provides a reliable clue for further explanation of the effective components and the functioning mechanism of S. oblata in the treatment of angina pectoris.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Syringa
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927962

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the main active ingredients and the underlying mechanism of Spatholobi Caulisin the treatment of ovarian cancer(OC) by network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vitro cell experiments. The active ingredients and their predicted targets(AITs) were first acquired online with the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). Theoretical disease targets(DTs) were obtained through professional databases including GeneCards, OMIM, PharmGkb, TTD, and DrugBank. The common targets in the intersection of AITs and DTs were used for the construction of a "drug-ingredient-disease-target" network by Cytoscape 3.7.1. STRING database was used to construct a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network. R 4.0.5 was used for GO and KEGG functional enrichment analyses. Schr9 dinger Maestro was used to perform and optimize the molecular docking and virtual screening.Twenty-three active ingredients of Spatholobi Caulis were screened out, involving 75 OC targets and 178 signaling pathways.Network analysis revealed that Spatholobi Caulis presumedly exerted an anti-OC effect by acting on key protein targets such as GSK-3β, Bcl-2, and Bax. Molecular docking showed that GSK-3β possessed goodbinding activity to prunetin. In vitro cell experiments preliminarily verified the core targets and pathways of prunetin, the active ingredient of Spatholobi Caulis against human OC SKOV3 cells.CCK-8 assay was used to detect the cell proliferation, and flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of prunetin on apoptosis of human OC SKOV3 cells.The expression of prunetin targets and related regulatory proteins was detected by Western blot.In vitro cell experiments demonstrated that prunetindisplayed significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of OC cells and could induce apoptosis of SKOV3 cells. Western blot showed that prunetin could induce SKOV3 cell apoptosis by inhibiting GSK-3β phosphorylation and regulating the expression of downstream Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. This study reveals the scientific nature of network pharmacology in the prediction and guidance of experimental design, confirming that prunetin can treat OC by blocking the GSK-3β/Bcl-2/Bax cell signal transduction pathway. The findings are expected to provide a basis for the investigation of the mechanism of Spatholobi Caulis in the treatment of OC.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/genetics , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927961

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the underlying mechanism of Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma-Paridis Rhizoma(AR-CR-PR) in the treatment of colorectal cancer(CRC) by network pharmacology and molecular docking and animal tests and verified the core targets based on the orthotopic transplantation model in nude mice. The active components of AR-CR-PR were retrieved from databases such as TCMSP. The targets of drugs and the disease were obtained from PubChem, SwissTargetPrediction, TTD, and DrugBank, and the intersection targets were imported into STRING for the analysis of the protein-protein interaction(PPI). Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) analyses were performed through DAVID. AutoDock Vina was used to perform molecular docking and binding ability prediction between the active components and the core targets. The effects of AR-CR-PR on tumor growth, metastasis, and phosphorylation of core target proteins in tumor tissues based on the orthotopic transplantation model in nude mice. As revealed by network pharmacology, AR-CR-PR contained nine core components, such as quercetin, curcumin, and β-ecdysone, and the key targets included protein kinase B(AKT1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3(MAPK3), MAPK1, and epithelial growth factor receptor(EGFR), which was indicated that the anti-CRC effect of AR-CR-PR was presumedly achieved by regulating tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis through PI3 K-AKT, MAPK and other signaling pathways. The results of molecular docking showed that the nine core components had strong binding abilities to AKT1 and MAPK3. The results in vivo showed that AR-CR-PR could reduce the volume of the orthotopic tumor, inhibit liver metastasis, and decrease the phosphorylation of AKT1 and MAPK3 in the CRC model. The mechanism of AR-CR-PR in the intervention of CRC may be related to the activation of PI3 K-AKT and MAPK signaling pathway. This study provides a scientific basis for the clinical application of AR-CR-PR in the treatment of CRC and ideas for modern research on AR-CR-PR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Nude , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neoplasms , Network Pharmacology , Rhizome
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927959

ABSTRACT

Previously, Carthami Flos and Lepidii Semen(CF-LS) drug pair has been proved effective in inhibiting myocardial fibrosis(MF) by blunting the activity of cardiac fibroblasts. The present study explored the underlying mechanism of CF-LS in inhibiting MF by improving the cardiac microenvironment based on network pharmacology combined with experimental verification. Active compounds and potential targets of CF-LS were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), and the potential targets of MF were obtained from GeneCards, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM), and Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base(PharmGKB). The "active component-target-MF" network was constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape 3.8.1. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed by STRING. The Gene Ontology(GO) biological process enrichment analysis was performed by CluoGO plug-in. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) signaling pathway enrichment analysis was performed by R 4.0.2 and Funrich. Subsequently, the inhibitory effect of CF-LS on MF was investigated based on angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ)-induced MF rats. RT-PCR and ELISA were used to verify the effect of CF-LS on the targets of signaling pathways related to vascular endothelial cells predicted by the network pharmacology. Thirty-one active components and 204 potential targets of CF-LS, 4 671 MF-related targets, and 174 common targets were obtained. The network analysis showed that the key targets of CF-LS against MF included RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase(AKT1), transcription factor AP-1(JUN), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1(MAPK1), cellular tumor antigen p53(TP53), transcription factor p65(RELA), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 8(MAPK8). Biological processes mainly involved regulation of blood vessel diameter, regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration, cell death in response to oxidative stress, etc. Advanced glycation end products(AGE)-receptor for advanced glycation end products(RAGE) signaling pathway, phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3 K)-serine/threonine protein kinase(AKT) signaling pathway, hypoxia-inducible factor-1(HIF-1) signaling pathway, integrin signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) signaling pathway, etc. were involved in signaling pathway enrichment. Literature retrieval confirmed that some of these signaling pathways were closely related to vascular endothelial cells, including AGE-RAGE, PI3 K-AKT, HIF-1α, p53, the transcription factor activator protein-1(AP-1), integrin, p38 MAPK, and TGF-β. Animal experiments showed that CF-LS inhibited MF induced by Ang Ⅱ in rats by suppressing the expression of RAGE, HIF-1α, integrin β6, and TGF-β1. The inhibitory effect of CF-LS on MF has the characteristics of multiple components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways. CF-LS can inhibit MF by regulating the activity of vascular endothelial cells in the cardiac microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells , Fibrosis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Rats , Semen
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927927

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the molecular mechanism of Ganoderma against gastric cancer based on network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cell experiment. The active components and targets of Ganoderma were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), and gastric cancer-related targets from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM). The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the common targets was constructed with STRING, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the common genes based on Bioconductor and R language. The medicinal-disease-component-target network and medicinal-disease-component-target-pathway network were established by Cytoscape. Molecular docking was performed between β-sitosterol(the key component in Ganoderma) and the top 15 targets in the PPI network. Cell experiment was performed to verify the findings. A total of 14 active components and 28 targets of Ganoderma were retrieved, and the medicinal and the disease shared 25 targets, including caspase-3(CASP3), caspase-8(CASP8), caspase-9(CASP9), and B-cell lymphoma-2(BCL2). The common targets involved 72 signaling pathways and apoptosis and p53 signaling pathway may play a crucial role in the effect of Ganoderma against gastric cancer. β-sitosterol had strong binding activity to the top 15 targets in the PPI network. The in vitro cell experiment demonstrated that β-sitosterol inhibited gastric cancer AGS cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the S phase, which might be related to the regulation of the p53 pathway. This study shows the multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics of Ganoderma against gastric cancer, which lays a scientific basis for further research on the molecular mechanism.


Subject(s)
Ganoderma , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927926

ABSTRACT

This study aims to study the effective substance and mechanism of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract in the treatment of insomnia based on serum metabolomics and network pharmacology. The rat insomnia model induced by p-chlorophenylalanine(PCPA) was established. After oral administration of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract, the general morphological observation, pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep test, and histopathological evaluation were carried out. The potential biomarkers of the extract in the treatment of insomnia were screened by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS) combined with multivariate analysis, and the related metabolic pathways were further analyzed. The "component-target-pathway" network was constructed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-Exactive mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS) combined with network pharmacology to explore the effective substances and mechanism of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen in the treatment of insomnia. The results of pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep test and histopathological evaluation(hematoxylin and eosin staining) showed that Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract had good theraputic effect on insomnia. A total of 21 endogenous biomarkers of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract in the treatment of insomnia were screened out by serum metabolomics, and the metabolic pathways of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism were obtained. A total of 34 chemical constituents were identified by UHPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS, including 24 flavonoids, 2 triterpenoid saponins, 4 alkaloids, 2 triterpenoid acids, and 2 fatty acids. The network pharmacological analysis showed that Ziziphi Spinosae Semen mainly acted on target proteins such as dopamine D2 receptor(DRD2), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1 A(HTR1 A), and alpha-2 A adrenergic receptor(ADRA2 A) in the treatment of insomnia. It was closely related to neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, serotonergic synapse, and calcium signaling pathway. Magnoflorine, N-nornuciferine, caaverine, oleic acid, palmitic acid, coclaurine, betulinic acid, and ceanothic acid in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen may be potential effective compounds in the treatment of insomnia. This study revealed that Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract treated insomnia through multiple metabolic pathways and the overall correction of metabolic disorder profile in a multi-component, multi-target, and multi-channel manner. Briefly, this study lays a foundation for further research on the mechanism of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen in treating insomnia and provides support for the development of innovative Chinese drugs for the treatment of insomnia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Metabolomics , Network Pharmacology , Rats , Seeds/chemistry , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Ziziphus/chemistry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927925

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to explore the alleviating effect and mechanism of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma against Psora-leae Fructus-induced liver injury based on network pharmacology and cell experiments. The active components of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Psoraleae Fructus were first retrieved from the Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine(ETCM), Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), Comparative Toxicogenomics Database(CTD), and literature and further screened by SwissADME. The obtained 25 potential toxic components of Psoraleae Fructus and 29 flavonoids in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were input into the SwissTargetPrediction for target predication. A total of 818 targets related to liver injury were screened out based on GeneCards and MalaCards, and 91 common targets of Psoraleae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and liver injury were obtained from Venny. STRING was applied for constructing the PPI network, and Metascape for analyzing the biological processes and signaling pathways that common targets participated in. Cytoscape was used to construct the component-target-disease network and component-target-pathway network for Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma against Psoraleae Fructus-induced liver injury. The predicted core targets were proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase(SRC), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase subunit alpha(PIK3 CA), RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase(AKT1), etc, with PI3 K-AKT signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, apoptosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and NF-κB signaling pathway mainly involved. Following the scree-ning of the main toxic and pharmacodynamic components, the pharmacodynamic effects were investigated by cell experiments. The results showed that licochalcone A was mainly responsible for alleviating coryfolin-induced liver injury, licochalcone B for coryfolin-and psoralidin-induced liver injury, and echinatin for corylifolinin-and bakuchiol-induced liver injury. The preliminary revealing of the alleviating effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma on Psoraleae Fructus-induced liver injury and the prediction of related mechanisms will provide reference for further mechanism research and reasonable clinical compatibility.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Network Pharmacology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927906

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has unique advantages in the prevention and treatment of diseases owing to its holistic view and more than 2 000 years of experience in the clinical use of natural medicine. The "holistic" characteristic of TCM gives birth to a new generation of research paradigm featuring "network" and "system", which has been developing rapidly in the era of biomedical big data and artificial intelligence. Network pharmacology, a representative research field, provides new ideas and methods for the research of the interdiscipline of artificial intelligence and medicine, the analysis of massive biomedical data, and the transformation from data to knowledge. TCM plays an important role in proposing the core theory of "network target" and promoting the establishment and development of network pharmacology, and has taken the lead in formulating the first international standard of network pharmacology--Network Pharmacology Evaluation Method Guidance. In terms of theory, network target can systematically link drugs and diseases and quantitatively interpret the overall regulatory mechanism of drugs. In the aspect of method, network pharmacology is developing towards a research model that combines computational, experimental, and clinical approaches. This review introduces the resent important progress of TCM network pharmacology in predicting drug targets, understanding the biological basis of drugs and diseases, and searching for disease and syndrome biomarkers. Under the guidance of Network Pharmacology Evaluation Method Guidance, the development of network pharmacology is expected to become more and more standardized and healthy. Network target will help produce more high-quality research outcomes in TCM and effectively boost the modernization and internationalization of TCM.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Network Pharmacology , Research Design
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927873

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the potential targets of triclosan in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and to provide new clues for the future research on the application of triclosan. Methods The targets of triclosan and NAFLD were obtained via network pharmacology.The protein-protein interaction network was constructed with the common targets shared by triclosan and NAFLD.The affinity of triclosan to targets was verified through molecular docking.Gene ontology(GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment were carried out to analyze the key targets and the potential mechanism of action.NAFLD model was established by feeding male C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet for 12 weeks.The mice were randomly assigned into a model group and a triclosan group [400 mg/(kg·d),gavage once a day for 8 weeks].The hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used for observation of the pathological changes and oil red O staining for observation of fat deposition in mouse liver.Western blotting was employed to detect the protein level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha(PPARα) in the liver tissue. Results Triclosan and NAFLD had 34 common targets,19 of which may be the potential targets for the treatment,including albumin(ALB),PPARα,mitogen-activated protein kinase 8(MAPK8),and fatty acid synthase.Molecular docking predicted that ALB,PPARα,and MAPK8 had good binding ability to triclosan.KEGG pathway enrichment showcased that the targets were mainly enriched in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway,in which ALB and MAPK8 were not involved.Triclosan alleviated the balloon-like change and lipid droplet vacuole,decreased the lipid droplet area,and up-regulated the expression level of PPARα in mouse liver tissue. Conclusion PPARα is a key target of triclosan in the treatment of NAFLD,which may be involved in fatty acid oxidation through the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Liver/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , PPAR alpha/therapeutic use , Triclosan/therapeutic use
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