Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 151
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879941

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is a chronic respiratory disease,characterized by airway inflammation,airway hyperresponsiveness,reversible airway obstruction and airway remodeling,in which a variety of cells including airway inflammatory cells and structural cells are involved. Previous studies have shown that asthma is mainly driven by Th2 cytokines IL-4,IL-5,and IL-13,leading to airway eosinophil inflammation. With further research,however,it has been found that neutrophils are also closely related to asthma. Numbers of neutrophils are elevated in airway through increased chemotaxis and decreased apoptosis,which is earlier than eosinophils,leading to airway neutrophilic inflammation. Neutrophils can produce elastase,myeloperoxidase,neutrophil extra- cellular traps,chemokines and cytokines,participating in the occurrence and development of asthma. The antagonists against these molecules,such as anti-IL-8 receptor antibody,anti-IL-17 antibody,and DNase,have shown positive effects on neutrophilic asthma,but further studies are needed to support their clinical application. This article mainly reviews the role of neutrophils in asthma and related mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Humans , Inflammation , Neutrophils/immunology
2.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(5): e2839, sept.-oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144683

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El asma bronquial es una enfermedad mucho más compleja de lo que inicialmente se consideraba, es multifactorial y se manifiesta en diferentes fenotipos clínicos, entre ellos, el asma neutrofílica. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica e inmunológicamente el asma neutrofílica. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica actualizada. Se empleó el motor de búsqueda Google Académico y se consultaron artículos de libre acceso en las bases de datos Pubmed y Scielo y se revisaron 50 artículos. Desarrollo: Los neutrófilos están presentes en las vías respiratorias del paciente con asma, se activan y pueden liberar mediadores que promueven y prolongan los síntomas del asma, la presencia de neutrófilos puede ser mediada por interleucina 17(IL-17), la hipótesis de cambios en la microbiota, la obesidad y las infecciones, constituyen elementos primordiales en este tipo de enfermedad. Para aliviar los síntomas de estos pacientes, se necesita una terapia dirigida a disminuir la inflamación dominada por neutrófilos. Conclusiones: El asma neutrofílica es una enfermedad crónica fenotípicamente heterogénea de las vías respiratorias, que implica la participación de numerosas células inflamatorias y más de cien mediadores con múltiples efectos inflamatorios, como el broncoespasmo, la exudación plasmática, la hipersecreción de moco y la activación sensorial. Actualmente existen pocas drogas dirigidas contra la inflamación neutrofílica y la mayoría se encuentran en estudio con el objetivo de aliviar y mejorar las condiciones de vida de cada uno de los pacientes que sufren esta enfermedad(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Bronchial asthma is a much more complex disease than initially thought; it is multifactorial and manifests itself in different clinical phenotypes; among them, we can mention neutrophilic asthma. Objective: To characterize neutrophilic asthma from a clinical and immunological point of view. Material and methods: An updated bibliographic review was made. Google Scholar search engine was used; free access articles were consulted in PubMed and SciELO databases and 50 of them were reviewed. Development: Neutrophils are present in the respiratory tract of patients suffering from asthma; once those neutrophils are activated, they can release mediators that promote and prolong the symptoms of the disease. The presence of neutrophils can be mediated by IL-17. The hypothesis on changes in the microbiota, obesity and infections are key points in this kind of disease. To alleviate the symptoms of these patients, targeted therapy for neutrophil-dominated inflammation is needed. Conclusions: Neutrophilic asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the respiratory tract which involves numerous inflammatory cells and more than a hundred mediators with multiple inflammatory effects such as bronchospasm, plasma exudation, mucus hypersecretion and sensory activation. Currently, there are few drugs targeting neutrophilic inflammation and most of them are under study with the aim of alleviating and improving the living conditions in patients suffering from this disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/drug therapy , Neutrophils/immunology
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180579, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND CD64 (FcγR1) is a high-affinity receptor for monomeric IgG1 and IgG3. Circulating neutrophils express very low amounts of CD64 on their surface. OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to investigate the utility of neutrophil CD64 surface expression as a biomarker of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We hypothesised that elevated neutrophil CD64 expression in TB infection would be associated with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) as an inducer of CD64 expression. METHODS The expression level of CD64 per neutrophil (PMN CD64 index) was quantitatively measured with flow cytometry using a Leuko64 kit in samples from patients with TB and latent TB infection (LTBI) as well as healthy controls, as part of a prospective cohort study in Brazil. FINDINGS The PMN CD64 index in patients with TB was higher than that in healthy controls and LTBI. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses determined that the PMN CD64 index could discriminate patients with TB from those with LTBI and healthy individuals. PMN CD64 index levels returned to baseline levels after treatment. CONCLUSIONS The positive regulation of CD64 expression in circulating neutrophils of patients with active TB could represent an additional biomarker for diagnosis of active TB and could be used for monitoring individuals with LTBI before progression of TB disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers/analysis , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Neutrophils/immunology
4.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(3): 257-265, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959513

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Establecer la utilidad diagnóstica de la relación neutrófilos/linfocitos en embarazadas con preeclampsia. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en el Hospital Central "Dr. Urquinaona", Maracaibo, Venezuela. Se seleccionó un total de 180 embarazadas. Se incluyeron 90 preeclámpticas como grupo de estudio (grupo A) y un grupo de control seleccionado por tener edad e índice de masa corporal similares al grupo de estudio, que consistió en 90 embarazadas normotensas sanas (grupo B). Se determinaron las características generales, valores de la relación neutrófilos/linfocitos y eficacia diagnóstica. RESULTADOS: Las pacientes del grupo A presentaron valores significativamente más altos de leucocitos y neutrófilos comparado con las pacientes del grupo B (p < 0,05). Por otra parte, las pacientes del grupo A presentaron valores más bajos de linfocitos comparado con las pacientes del grupo B (p < 0,001). Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la relación neutrófilos/linfocitos entre las pacientes del grupo A (4.0 +/- 1,3) comprado con las pacientes del grupo B (2,9 +/- 0,9; p < 0,001). Un valor de corte de la relación neutrófilos/linfocitos de 3,4 presentó un valor por debajo de la curva de 0,96, sensibilidad del 92,2%, especificidad del 87,8%, valor predictivo positivo del 88,3% y valor predictivo negativo del 91,9%, con una exactitud diagnóstica del 90,0%. CONCLUSIÓN: La relación neutrófilos/linfocitos es una herramienta útil en el diagnóstico de preeclampsia, ya que las pacientes con el síndrome presentan concentraciones significativamente más elevadas que las embarazadas controles normotensas.


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To establish the diagnostic utility of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in pregnant women with preeclampsia. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted at the Central Hospital "Dr. Urquinaona", Maracaibo, Venezuela. A total of 180 pregnant women were selected. We included 90 preeclamptic patients as a study group (group A) and a control group selected for having age and body mass index similar to the study group, which consisted of 90 healthy normotensive pregnant women (group B). The general characteristics, values of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and diagnostic efficacy were determined. RESULTS: Patients in group A had significantly higher values of leukocytes and neutrophils compared to patients in group B (p < 0.05). On the other hand, patients in group A had lower lymphocyte values compared to patients in group B (p <0.001). Statistically significant differences were found in the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio between patients in group A (4.0 +/- 1.3) compared with patients in group B (2.9 +/- 0.9, p <0.001). A cut-off value of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of 3.4 showed a value under the curve of 0.96, sensitivity of 92.2%, specificity of 87.8%, positive predictive value of 88.3% and negative predictive value of 91.9%, with a diagnostic accuracy of 90.0%. CONCLUSION: The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is a useful tool in the diagnosis of preeclampsia, since the patients with the syndrome have significantly higher concentrations than the normotensive controls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Lymphocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Prognosis , Gestational Age , Maternal Age , Arterial Pressure
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(4): 241-247, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794720

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether COPD severity correlates with sputum cell counts, atopy, and asthma. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 37 patients with COPD and 22 healthy subjects with normal lung function (controls). Sputum cell counts were determined by microscopy after centrifugation of samples. Skin prick tests were performed, and serum cytokines were determined by ELISA. Results: Patients were stratified by bronchodilator response: a non-reversible airflow limitation (nonRAL) group comprised 24 patients showing no significant post-bronchodilator change in FEV1; and a partially reversible airflow limitation (partialRAL) group comprised 13 patients showing FEV1 reversibility (post-bronchodilator FEV1 increase ≥ 12%). The proportion of eosinophils in sputum was higher in the partialRAL group than in the nonRAL group (p < 0.01), and there was an inverse correlation between the proportion of eosinophils and FEV1 (p < 0.05). However, none of the patients had a history of asthma and skin prick test results did not differ between the two groups. In the patient sputum samples, neutrophils predominated. Serum levels of TNF, IL-6, IL-8, and RANTES (CCL5) were higher in patients than in controls (p < 0.001) but did not differ between the two patient groups. Conclusions: COPD patients with partial FEV1 reversibility appear to have higher sputum eosinophil counts and greater airway hyperresponsiveness than do those with no FEV1 reversibility. However, we found that COPD severity did not correlate with atopy or with the cytokine profile.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar se a gravidade da DPOC se correlaciona com a contagem de células no escarro, atopia e asma. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 37 pacientes com DPOC e 22 indivíduos saudáveis com função pulmonar normal (controles). As contagens de células no escarro foram determinadas por microscopia após a centrifugação das amostras. Foram realizados testes cutâneos de puntura, e as citocinas séricas foram determinadas por ELISA. Resultados: Os pacientes foram estratificados pela resposta ao broncodilatador: o grupo de limitação ao fluxo aéreo não reversível (LFAnr) envolveu 24 pacientes sem alteração significativa do VEF1 pós-broncodilatador, e o grupo de limitação ao fluxo aéreo parcialmente reversível (LFApr) envolveu 13 pacientes com reversibilidade do VEF1 (aumento do VEF1 pós-broncodilatador ≥ 12%). A proporção de eosinófilos no escarro foi maior no grupo LFApr do que no LFAnr (p < 0,01), e houve uma correlação inversa entre a proporção de eosinófilos e VEF1 (p < 0,05). Entretanto, nenhum dos pacientes apresentou histórico de asma e os resultados dos testes cutâneos não diferiram entre os dois grupos. Nas amostras de escarro dos pacientes, os neutrófilos predominaram. Os níveis séricos de TNF, IL-6, IL-8 e RANTES (CCL5) foram maiores nos pacientes que nos controles (p < 0,001), mas não diferiram entre os dois grupos de pacientes. Conclusões: Pacientes com DPOC e reversibilidade parcial do VEF1 parecem apresentar maiores contagens de eosinófilos no escarro e maior hiper-responsividade das vias aéreas que aqueles sem reversibilidade do VEF1. Entretanto, a gravidade da DPOC não se correlacionou com atopia ou perfil das citocinas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Asthma/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Sputum , Asthma/physiopathology , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics, Nonparametric
6.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 32(1): 43-56, ene.-mar. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-794145

ABSTRACT

Las trampas extracelulares de los neutrófilos son estructuras fundamentalmente compuestas de cromatina y proteínas granulares, que una vez liberadas constituyen un mecanismo de defensa que tiene la capacidad de atrapar y destruir microorganismos patógenos. El proceso que libera estas estructuras es conocido como NETosis y en el caso que provoque muerte celular, esta es diferente a la apoptosis y a la necrosis. Si bien no se conocen todos los eventos moleculares involucrados en la formación de las NETs, se sabe que dependiendo del estímulo, las especies reactivas del oxígeno son esenciales para que ocurra la descondensación de la cromatina y se lleve a cabo el proceso de NETosis(AU)


Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures mainly composed of chromatin and granule proteins that once released constitute a defense mechanism due to their ability to trap and destroy pathogen microorganisms. The process by which these structures are released is known as NETosis and in case this may lead to cell death is different to apoptosis and necrosis. Although all the molecular events involved in the formation of NETs are poorly understood, it is known that depending on the stimulus, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential to the chromatin decondensation and subsequent NETs formation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Extracellular Traps , NADP/physiology , Neutrophils/immunology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/drug therapy , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Role of autophagy in neutrophil function and the association of autophagy and autophagy related (ATG) gene polymorphisms with asthma susceptibility were suggested. In this study, we investigated the genetic association of ATG5 and ATG7 polymorphisms with asthma risk, severity and neutrophilic airway inflammation. METHODS: We recruited 408 asthma patients and 201 healthy controls. Sputum neutrophil counts were determined by H&E staining. Serum interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Genetic polymorphisms of ATG5 (-769T>C, -335G>A, and 8830C>T) and ATG7 (-100A>G and 25108G>C) were genotyped. The functional activities of ATG5 -769T>C and -335G>A variants were investigated by luciferase reporter assays. RESULTS: No associations of ATG5 and ATG7 polymorphisms with asthma susceptibility and severity were found. ATG5 -769T>C and -335G>A were in complete linkage disequilibrium. In the asthma group, GA/AA genotypes at ATG5 -335G>A were associated with higher neutrophil counts in sputum (p T associated with lower FEV1% predicted value (p G and 25108G>C were significantly associated with high serum levels of IL-8 (p < 0.05 for both variants). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms of ATG5 and ATG7 could contribute to neutrophilic airway inflammation in the pathogenesis of adult asthma.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Asthma/blood , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy-Related Protein 5/genetics , Autophagy-Related Protein 7/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line , Female , Gene Frequency , Genes, Reporter , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Haplotypes , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Humans , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Infiltration/genetics , Neutrophils/immunology , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Transfection , Young Adult
8.
Rev. interdisciplin. estud. exp. anim. hum. (impr.) ; 7(único): 35-46, novembro 2015. Monografia
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964819

ABSTRACT

Os neutrófilos são o tipo leucocitário mais abundante em circulação, constituem a primeira linha de reconhecimento e defesa contra agentes infecciosos no tecido, tradicionalmente iniciam uma inflamação aguda e são responsáveis por uma resposta imune pró-inflamatória eficaz. Recentemente essas células vêm sendo descritas como complexas e com uma vasta capacidade de desempenhar funções especializadas, interagem com macrófagos, células dendríticas, e linfócitos TCD4+. É importante reconsiderar sua importância como célula efetora na imunidade adaptativa e as novas perspectivas sobre as funções imunorregulatórias nas reações imunológicas normais e patológicas. Nesta revisão, nosso foco é mostrar os aspectos clássicos e discutir o novo neutrófilo, expondo o que tem sido descrito na literatura recentemente.


Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte in blood and represent the first line recognition and defense against infectious agents in tissues, traditionally begin an acute inflammation and are responsible by an effective proinflammatory reaction. Recently these cells have been described with a large capacity to perform specialized functions like interaction with macrophages, dendritic cells and CD4 + T lymphocytes. It is important to reconsider its importance as effector cells in adaptive immunity and new perspectives on the immunoregulatory functions in normal and pathological immune responses. In this review, the focus is to show the classic aspects and discuss the "new neutrophils", exposing what has been described in literature recently


Subject(s)
Lymphokines , Adaptive Immunity , Neutrophils/immunology , Noxae
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 665-675, 08/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753050

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are widely known as proinflammatory cells associated with tissue damage and for their early arrival at sites of infection, where they exert their phagocytic activity, release their granule contents, and subsequently die. However, this view has been challenged by emerging evidence that neutrophils have other activities and are not so short-lived. Following activation, neutrophil effector functions include production and release of granule contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector. The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells. In fact, neutrophils have been found to help B cells and to modulate dendritic cell (DC), macrophage, and T-cell activities. In this review, we describe some ways in which neutrophils influence the inflammatory environment in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity, regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Cell Plasticity/immunology , Immunomodulation/immunology , Neutrophil Activation/immunology , Neutrophils/physiology , Immune System Diseases/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology
10.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 320-324, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752520

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: investigar a presença de micro-organismos nas narinas dos profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital de ensino brasileiro. Método: estudo transversal, em duas unidades de internação especializadas em HIV/aids. Foram coletadas amostras de secreção nasal de profissionais de enfermagem no período de um mês. As amostras foram processadas no laboratório de microbiologia da instituição e a análise dos dados resultantes por meio do software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versão 19.0. Os aspectos éticos foram contemplados. Resultados: dos 73 profissionais de enfermagem do serviço, foram coletadas amostras de secreção nasal de 61 (80,2%). Foram isolados seis tipos de micro-organismos em 22 (41,0%) culturas positivas. Destaca-se que o Staphylococcus aureus representou 22,9%, sendo quatro resistentes à oxacilina (MRSA). Conclusão: o Staphylococcus aureus foi o micro-organismo de maior prevalência nos indivíduos deste estudo. .


RESUMEN Objetivo: investigar la presencia de microorganismos en las fosas nasales del personal de enfermería de un hospital universitario brasileño. Método: estudio transversal en dos unidades de hospitalización especializados en VIH/SIDA. Muestras de secreción nasal de enfermeras fueron recolectados durante un mes. Las muestras fueron procesadas en el laboratorio de microbiología de la institución y se analizaron con el paquete estadístico para el software de Ciencias Sociales (SPSS) versión 19.0. Los aspectos éticos fueron cubiertos. Resultados: 73 de los profesionales de enfermería, se recogieron muestras de las secreciones nasales de 61 (80,2%). Se aislaron seis tipos de microorganismos en 22 (41,0%) cultivos positivos. Es de destacar que el Staphylococcus aureus representó el 22,9%, cuatro oxacilina-resistente (MRSA). Conclusión: Staphylococcus aureus fue la prevalencia más microorganismo en los individuos de este estudio. .


ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the presence of microorganisms in the nostrils of the nursing professionals of a Brazilian teaching hospital. Method: cross-sectional study in two inpatient units specialized in HIV/AIDS. Nasal secretion samples of nursing professionals were collected in one month. The samples were processed at the microbiology laboratory of the institution and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 19.0. Ethical aspects were abided. Results: from the 73 members of the nursing staff, samples of nasal secretions were collected from 61 (80.2%). Six types of microorganisms were isolated in 22 (41.0%) positive cultures. It is noteworthy that Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 22.9%, four of them oxacillin-resistant (MRSA). Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus microorganism accounted for the largest prevalence in individuals of this study. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Biomarkers/metabolism , Gonorrhea/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/etiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/pathogenicity , Neutrophils/immunology , Bacterial Adhesion , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/genetics , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression Profiling , Gonorrhea/metabolism , Gonorrhea/microbiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/immunology , Neutrophils/microbiology , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oxidative Stress , Phagocytosis/physiology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
11.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 682-690, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744858

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, mediante revisão sistemática da literatura, as evidências acerca da associação entre consumo materno de cafeína durante a gestação e transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH) na infância. A busca na literatura ocorreu de forma sistemática, em múltiplas etapas, nas bases PubMed, LILACS, BIREME e PsycINFO, com limites para artigos publicados em português, inglês e espanhol, realizados em humanos. Foram encontradas 373 referências. Dessas, somente cinco foram mantidas, por atenderem ao objetivo deste estudo. Os cinco trabalhos foram realizados em países desenvolvidos; a maioria utilizou delineamento longitudinal e foi publicada nos últimos cinco anos. Apenas um estudo encontrou associação positiva. Estudos sobre o consumo de cafeína na gestação e TDAH são escassos, com resultados controversos e se deparam com várias dificuldades metodológicas, como falta de padronização na definição do desfecho.


This aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. The systematic multiple-stage literature search in PubMed, LILACS, BIREME, and PsycINFO was limited to research in human subjects and published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. A total of 373 references were retrieved. Of these, only five met the study's objectives and were kept in the review. Most of the studies employed a longitudinal design, were conducted in developed countries, and were published in the last five years. Only one study found a positive association. Studies on caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD are scarce, with conflicting results and several methodological difficulties such as lack of standardized outcome measures.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar, a través de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, evidencias sobre la asociación entre el consumo de cafeína durante el embarazo y el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) en la infancia. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en la literatura, por etapas múltiples, en PubMed, LILACS BIREME y PsycINFO, limitándose a artículos publicados en portugués, inglés y español, realizados en estudios sobre humanos. Fueron localizadas 373 referencias. De ellas, apenas se mantuvieron cinco, por cumplir el objetivo de este estudio. Los estudios se realizaron en países desarrollados; el diseño longitudinal fue el más utilizado y se trata de publicaciones de los últimos cinco años. Sólo un estudio encontró asociación positiva. Los estudios sobre el consumo de cafeína durante el embarazo y el TDAH son escasos, con resultados controvertidos, y enfrentan varias dificultades metodológicas, como la no estandarización de la evaluación del resultado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Leishmania mexicana/growth & development , Leishmania mexicana/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Neutrophils/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Arginase/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/blood , /metabolism , /metabolism , Kinetics , Macrophage Activation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/parasitology , Neutrophil Infiltration , Parasite Load , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 56-64, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741619

ABSTRACT

Histology is the gold standard for diagnosing acute rejection and hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. However, differential diagnosis between the two can be difficult. We evaluated the role of C4d staining and quantification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in liver tissue. This was a retrospective study of 98 liver biopsy samples divided into four groups by histological diagnosis: acute rejection in patients undergoing liver transplant for hepatitis C (RejHCV+), HCV recurrence in patients undergoing liver transplant for hepatitis C (HCVTx+), acute rejection in patients undergoing liver transplant for reasons other than hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis C not transplanted (HCVTx-). All samples were submitted for immunohistochemical staining for C4d and HCV RNA quantification. Immunoexpression of C4d was observed in the portal vessels and was highest in the HCVTx- group. There was no difference in C4d expression between the RejHCV+ and HCVTx+ groups. However, tissue HCV RNA levels were higher in the HCVTx+ group samples than in the RejHCV+ group samples. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between tissue and serum levels of HCV RNA. The quantification of HCV RNA in liver tissue might prove to be an efficient diagnostic test for the recurrence of HCV infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Annexin A1/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/immunology , Apoptosis , Actins/metabolism , Annexin A1/deficiency , Annexin A1/genetics , Annexin A1/immunology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , /biosynthesis , Mice, Knockout , Macrophages/metabolism , Peptides , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta/biosynthesis
13.
Salvador; s.n; 2015. 61 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000970

ABSTRACT

Os neutrófilos são essenciais para a resposta imune inata contra uma variedade de patógenos. Eles são capazes de modular a resposta imune através da produção de citocinas e quimiocinas, degranulação e a sua interação direta com outras células no local da infecção, tais como as células dendríticas. A interação entre as células do sistema imune inato é essencial para direcionar a resposta imune adaptativa, a qual é responsável pela eliminação de microrganismos e manutenção de memória imunológica. Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou a interação de neutrófilos humanos com Leishmania braziliensis, através da análise da expressão de moléculas de superfície, liberação de enzimas presentes nos grânulos e produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS). Também foi avaliada a interação entre neutrófilos humanos infectados e células dendríticas, a fim de se observar o efeito desta interação na indução da ativação das células dendríticas. Metodologia: Os neutrófilos foram purificados a partir do sangue periférico de doadores saudáveis e as células dendríticas foram geradas in vitro. Os neutrófilos foram infectados ou não com L. braziliensis e co-cultivados com as células dendríticas. Em seguida, os sobrenadantes e as células foram coletadas para avaliar a liberação de enzimas, tais como mieloperoxidase (MPO) e metaloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). O fenótipo e a função dos neutrófilos foram analisados através da expressão de Mac-1 (CD18 e CD11b), CD16, CD62-L e produção de ROS...


Neutrophils are essential in the innate immune response against a variety of pathogens. They are able to modulate immune response by cytokine and chemokine production, release of granules and their direct interaction with other cells at the infection site. Dendritic cells are recruited in response to cytokines and chemokines produced by neutrophils. The interaction between cells of the innate immune system is essential for targeting the adaptive immune response, which is responsible for eliminating microorganisms and the maintenance of immunological memory. Objective: Evaluate the interaction of human neutrophils with Leishmania braziliensis, through the analysis of surface molecule expression, release of granules enzymes and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also evaluated the interaction between human infected neutrophils and dendritic cells, in order to observe the effect of this interaction on dendritic cells. Methodology: Neutrophils were purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors and dendritic cells were generated in vitro. Neutrophils were infected or not with L. braziliensis and cocultured with DC. Afterwards, supernatants and cells were harvested to evaluate the release of granules enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Neutrophils phenotype and function were analyzed by the expression of Mac-1 (CD18 and CD11b), CD16 and ROS production...


Subject(s)
Humans , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Leishmania braziliensis/growth & development , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Leishmania braziliensis/parasitology , Leishmania braziliensis/pathogenicity , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/parasitology , Neutrophils/pathology
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(11): 924-928, 11/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723900

ABSTRACT

Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the genes encoding subunits of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase system. Patients can present with severe, recurrent infections and noninfectious conditions. Among the latter, inflammatory manifestations are predominant, especially granulomas and colitis. In this article, we systematically review the possible mechanisms of hyperinflammation in this rare primary immunodeficiency condition and their correlations with clinical aspects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic , NADPH Oxidases/genetics , Neutrophils/immunology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/genetics , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/immunology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/microbiology , Inflammation Mediators/physiology , NADPH Oxidases/deficiency , Neutrophils/microbiology , Reactive Oxygen Species/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Aug; 52(8): 808-813
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153763

ABSTRACT

Guduchi has been widely used in the traditional medicine as an immunomodulator. Description of guduchi in Ayurvedic literature resemble with T. sinensis rather than with commonly available T. cordifolia and hence this may be used as substitutes for T. sinensis. T. cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica commonly called Neem-guduchi has more immunomodulatory potential. Thus, immunomodulatory activity of three Tinospora spp. was assessed by checking humoral and cell mediated immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion tests on albino Wistar rats using Guduchi-Satwa, a well known dosage form. Results revealed that Neem-guduchi possesses higher immunomodulatory potential at the dose of 300 mg/kg, po and validated the traditional claim. Hence, Neem-Guduchi can be employed in immunomodulatory formulation prepared using guduchi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azadirachta/chemistry , Azadirachta/growth & development , Immunomodulation , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Phagocytosis/immunology , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/immunology , Rats , Tinospora/chemistry , Tinospora/immunology
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162055

ABSTRACT

In recent decades our understanding of platelets’ role in immune response has increased. Traditionally platelets were considered as bleeding-stopping and thrombosis-causing cells. In recent years the platelets’ role in malarial innate and adaptive immune responses is being recognized. Platelets play critical role in pathogenesis of malaria infection leading to variety of outcomes. It is being realized that platelets play dual role in case of malaria (i) by preventing early stage exponential growth of parasitemia (ii) promoting exaggerated immune responses later. Platelets role in pathogenesis of severe and cerebral malaria has been widely studied. However their role in malaria related acute lung injury and respiratory distress has gained less attention. Recently the presence of active megakaryocytes and proplatelets have been explained in human lungs. Simultaneously, the platelets role in pathogenesis of acute lung injury and respiratory distress (ALI/ARDS) was also recognized. This gives a hint that there is a possible association of platelets with malaria related respiratory diseases as well. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. In this review we have attempted to establish the importance of role of platelets in malaria related acute lungs injury and malaria acute respiratory distress syndrome and try to explain the underlying mechanism of this process. In ALI/ARDS, including those caused by malaria, platelets participate sequestration to the vascular bundle facilitating the recruitment of immune cells viz. neutrophils. Additionally, they secrete or induce the secretion of chemokines that result into vascular damage.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/blood , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/immunology , Blood Platelets/immunology , Humans , Malaria, Cerebral/blood , Malaria, Cerebral/complications , Malaria, Cerebral/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/blood , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(6): 492-498, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709444

ABSTRACT

The effect of an adventure sprint race (ASR) on T-cell proliferation, leukocyte count and muscle damage was evaluated. Seven young male runners completed an ASR in the region of Serra do Espinhaço, Brazil. The race induced a strong leukocytosis (6.22±2.04×103 cells/mm3 before vs 14.81±3.53×103 cells/mm3 after the race), marked by a significant increase of neutrophils and monocytes (P<0.05), but not total lymphocytes, CD3+CD4+ or CD3+CD8+ cells. However, the T-cell proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation was increased (P=0.025) after the race, which contradicted our hypothesis that ASR, as a high-demand competition, would inhibit T-cell proliferation. A positive correlation (P=0.03, r=0.79) was observed between the proliferative response of lymphocytes after the race and the time to complete the race, suggesting that the proliferative response was dependent on exercise intensity. Muscle damage was evident after the race by increased serum levels of aspartate amino transferase (24.99±8.30 vs 50.61±15.76 U/L, P=0.003). The results suggest that humoral factors and substances released by damaged muscle may be responsible for lymphocyte activation, which may be involved in muscle recovery and repair.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Leukocytosis/immunology , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Physical Endurance/immunology , Running/injuries , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Flow Cytometry , Immunosuppression Therapy , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytosis/etiology , Monocytes/immunology , Muscle, Skeletal/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/physiology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/physiology , Time Factors
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(4): 643-652, Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-700481

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The nCD64 receptor, the soluble triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (s-TREM-1), and the high mobility group-box 1 protein (HMGB-1) have been proposed as significant mediators in sepsis. Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of these markers in patients with suspected infection recently admitted in an emergency department (ED). Materials and methods: All patients who presented to the ED with suspected infection were eligible for enrollment in this study. Baseline clinical data, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA) score, APACHE II score, HMGB-1 levels, s-TREM-1 levels, and nCD64 levels were analyzed. The HMGB-1 and sTREM-1 serum concentrations were determined using commercially available ELISA kits, and CD64 on the surface of neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. Results:. A total of 579 patients with suspected infection as their admission diagnosis were enrolled in this study. The median patient age was 50 years (IQR = 35-68). Morbidity during the 28-day followup period was 11.1% (n=64). The most frequent diagnosis at the time of admission was communityacquired pneumonia (CAP) in 23% (n=133) patients, followed by soft tissue infection in 16.6% (n=96), and urinary tract infection in 15% (n=87). After multivariable analysis, no significant association was identified between any biomarker and 28-day mortality. Conclusion: In the context of a tertiary care hospital emergency department in a Latin-American city, the nCD64 receptor, s-TREM-1, and HMGB-1 biomarkers do not demonstrate prognostic utility in the management of patients with infection. The search continues for more reliable prognostic markers in the early stages of infection.


Introducción. El receptor CD64, receptor soluble ´desencadenador´ expresado en células mieloides (sTREM-1) y la proteína del grupo Box-1 de alta movilidad (HMGB-1), se han propuesto como mediadores en la sepsis. Objetivo. Evaluar el valor pronóstico de estos marcadores en pacientes con sospecha de infección, recientemente admitidos en un departamento de emergencias. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron en el estudio pacientes que consultaron al hospital con sospecha de infección. Se analizó la base de datos clínica, el puntaje SOFA, el puntaje APACHE II, los niveles de HMGB-1, los niveles de sTREM-1 y los niveles de nCD64. Se determinaron las concentraciones en suero de HMGB-1 y sTREM-1, usando kits de ELISA disponibles comercialmente, y la de CD64 se midió por citometría de flujo. Resultados. Se analizaron 579 pacientes con sospecha de infección al ingreso. La edad media fue de 50 años (rango intercuartílico=35-68), y 11,1 % (n=64) murieron durante el seguimiento de 28 días. El diagnóstico más frecuente en el momento del ingreso fue neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, en 23 % (n=133) de los pacientes, seguida de infección de tejidos blandos, en 16,6 % (n=96), e infección urinaria, en 15 % (n=87). Después de un análisis multivariado, no hubo asociación significativa entre ningún biomarcador y la mortalidad a los 28 días. Conclusión. Los resultados sugieren que en el contexto de un departamento de emergencias de tercer nivel de una ciudad latinoamericana típica, los tres marcadores evaluados no ofrecieron ninguna ventaja en el pronóstico de infección. La búsqueda de marcadores pronósticos más confiables en estadios tempranos de la infección aún continúa abierta.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Infections/blood , Membrane Glycoproteins/blood , Neutrophils/immunology , Receptors, IgG/analysis , Receptors, IgG/biosynthesis , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Emergency Service, Hospital , HMGB Proteins , Hospitalization , Neutrophils/chemistry , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(supl.1): 63-70, dez. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-705854

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação do leucograma e do metabolismo oxidativo de neutrófilos em fêmeas caprinas da raça Saanen, nos períodos de gestação, parto e pós-parto. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 20 fêmeas nulíparas da raça Saanen, clinicamente sadias por venipunção jugular aos 49 (M1), 42 (M2), 35 (M3), 28 (M4), 21 (M5), 14 (M6), sete (M7), três (M8) dias antes do parto, no dia do parto (M9), três (M10) e sete (M11) dias após o parto, para a realização do leucograma e dosagens séricas de cortisol, estradiol e progesterona. A partir de 28 dias (M4) antes do parto até sete dias do pós-parto (M11) foram colhidas amostras de sangue para a avaliação do metabolismo oxidativo de neutrófilos por meio do teste de redução do tetrazólio nitroazul (NBT). Os resultados demonstraram que no dia do parto houve aumento nas concentrações séricas de cortisol e estradiol, e diminuição da progesterona, leucocitose por neutrofilia e desvio à esquerda leve, diminuição dos linfócitos, aumento da relação neutrófilo:linfócito, eosinopenia, monocitose e basofilia. No sétimo dia do pós-parto houve leucocitose por neutrofilia e aumento da relação neutrófilo:linfócito. Não houve nos períodos de gestação, parto e pós-parto alterações significativas no metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos. Conclui-se que o parto determina elevação da concentração sérica de cortisol e estradiol, e diminuição da progesterona determinando quadro de leucocitose por neutrofilia e desvio à esquerda leve, com diminuição dos linfócitos, aumento da relação neutróflo:linfócito, eosinopenia, monocitose e basofilia. Ao sétimo dia do pós-parto há leucocitose por neutrofilia, aumento da relação neutrófilo:linfócito e do fibrinogênio. A gestação, o parto e o período do pós-parto não alteram o metabolismo oxidativo de neutrófilos avaliado por meio do teste de redução do NBT.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the leukocyte count and the oxidative metabolism of neutrophil in Saanen goats during periods of pregnancy, parturition and postpartum. Were used 20 Saanen goats, clinically healthy and serologically negative for caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture 49 (M1), 42 (M2), 35 (M3), 28 (M4), 21 (M5), 14 (M6), seven (M7), three (M8) days before the parturition, on the day of birth (M9), three (M10) and seven (M11) days postpartum, for the leukocyte count, and serum for cortisol, estradiol and progesterone determination. From 28 days (M4) before parturition until seven days postpartum (M11) blood samples were collected for evaluation of oxidative metabolism of neutrophils by the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test (NBT). The results showed that at parturition day there were an increase in cortisol and estradiol levels and a decrease in progesterone serum, neutrophilic leukocytosis and left shift slight, decrease of lymphocytes, increase in the neutrophil: lymphocyte, eosinopenia, monocytosis and basophilia. There was a neutrophilic leukocytosis and an increase in the neutrophil: lymphocyte on the seventh day postpartum. There were not significant alterations in oxidative metabolism of neutrophils during pregnancy, parturition and postpartum. It was concluded that parturition causes an elevation in cortisol and estradiol levels and a decrease in progesterone serum determining a neutrophilic leukocytosis and left shift slight, with a reduction of lymphocytes, increase in the neutrophil:lymphocyte, eosinopenia, monocytosis and basophilia. Neutrophilic leukocytosis, increase in the neutrophil: lymphocyte and fibrinogen are detected on the seventh day postpartum. Pregnancy, parturition and the postpartum do not change the oxidative metabolism of neutrophils evaluated by NBT reduction test.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Goats/immunology , Leukocyte Count/veterinary , Energy Metabolism/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Parturition/immunology , Postpartum Period/immunology , Pregnancy, Animal/immunology , Nitroblue Tetrazolium
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(8): 1035-1041, Dec. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660652

ABSTRACT

The haematological changes and release of soluble mediators, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO), during uncomplicated malaria have not been well studied, especially in Brazilian areas in which the disease is endemic. Therefore, the present study examined these factors in acute (day 0) and convalescent phase (day 15) patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Haematologic parameters were measured using automated cell counting, CRP levels were measured with ELISA and NO plasma levels were measured by the Griess reaction. Our data indicate that individuals with uncomplicated P. vivax and P. falciparum infection presented similar inflammatory profiles with respect to white blood cells, with high band cell production and a considerable degree of thrombocytopaenia during the acute phase of infection. Higher CRP levels were detected in acute P. vivax infection than in acute P. falciparum infection, while higher NO was detected in patients with acute and convalescent P. falciparum infections. Although changes in these mediators cannot predict malaria infection, the haematological aspects associated with malaria infection, especially the roles of platelets and band cells, need to be investigated further.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Blood Platelets/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Neutrophils/immunology , Nitric Oxide/blood , Acute Disease , Convalescence , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL