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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929140

ABSTRACT

Various engine-driven NiTi endodontic files have been indispensable and efficient tools in cleaning and shaping of root canals for practitioners. In this review, we introduce the relative terms and conceptions of NiTi file, including crystal phase composition, the design of the cutting part, types of separation. This review also analysis the main improvement and evolution of different generations of engine-driven nickel-titanium instruments in the past 20 years in the geometric design, manufacturing surface treatment such as electropolishing, thermal treatment, metallurgy. And the variety of motion modes of NiTi files to improve resistance to torsional failure were also discussed. Continuous advancements by the designers, provide better balance between shaping efficiency and resistance to of NiTi systems. In clinical practice an appropriate system should be selected based on the anatomy of the root canal, instrument characteristics, and operators' experience.


Subject(s)
Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Instruments , Equipment Design , Nickel/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation , Titanium/chemistry
2.
Rev. ABENO ; 21(1): 1236, dez. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1370621

ABSTRACT

Many studies address the quality of root canal treatments, but few refer to endodontics usingrotatory techniques performed by noviceoperators. This study evaluatedthe performance of undergraduates in their first contact with rotary root canal instrumentation concerningthe findings of the final periapical radiograph, and thepostendodontic treatment pain.A longitudinal observational studywas performed on periapical radiographs of 491teethfrom 450 patientssubmitted toroot canal treatmentby undergraduate students from 2015 to 2018. The analysis of the length of root canal filling followed the criteria: (i) acceptable, ifperiapical radiograph presentsroot filling ending 0 -1 mm short of radiographic apex; (ii) over, if periapical radiograph presentsroot filling ending beyond the radiographic apex; and (iii) under, ifperiapical radiograph presentsroot filling ending > 1 mm short of radiographic apex. Evaluation of postendodontic treatment painwas categorized into either absence or presenceof pain. Adequate length root canal filling was observed in 65.9% of the cases (324 teeth). Periapical lesions presenceand dimensions did not interfere to the obturation quality.Statistical relation was found between the pulp condition and postendodontic treatment pain. Thepresence of pain was observed in 4.7% of the vital teeth and 0.3% of non-vital teeth. The presence of periapical lesion did not influence postoperative pain.AdequatelengthrootcanalfillingwasobservedinmostcasesandNitTi rotary instrumentation hadapplicability in undergraduate programs, even with novice operators. Besides that, pulp condition had an effect on post endodontic pain (AU).


Muitos estudos abordam a qualidade dos tratamentos de canal radicular, mas poucos se referem à endodontia por meio de técnicas rotatórias realizada por operadores novatos. Este estudo avaliou o desempenho de graduandos no primeiro contato com a instrumentação endodôntica em relação aos achados da radiografia periapical final e à dor pós-tratamento endodôntico. Um estudo observacional longitudinal foi realizado em radiografias periapicais de 491 dentes de 450pacientes submetidos a tratamento endodôntico por estudantes de graduação no período de 2015 a 2018. A análise do comprimento da obturação de canais radiculares obedeceu aos critérios: (i) aceitável, se a radiografia periapical apresentasse término de obturação 0 -1 mm aquém do ápice radiográfico; (ii) acima, se a radiografia periapical apresentasse obturação que termina além do ápice radiográfico; e (iii) abaixo, se a radiografia periapicalapresentasse obturação, terminando > 1 mm aquém do ápice radiográfico. A avaliação da dor pós-operatória foi categorizada em ausência ou presença de dor. A obturação de canais radiculares de comprimento adequado foi observada em 65,9% dos casos (324 dentes). A presença e as dimensões das lesões periapicais não interferiram na qualidade da obturação. Foi encontrada relação estatística entre a condição pulpar e a dor pós-tratamento endodôntico. Presença de dor foi observada em 4,7% dos dentes vitais e 0,3% dos não vitais. A presença de lesão periapical não influenciou na dor pós-operatória. O comprimento de trabalho adequado foi observado na maioria dos casos e a instrumentação rotatória NitTi teve aplicabilidade em programas de graduação, mesmo com operadores iniciantes. Além disso, a condição pulpar afetou a dor pós-operatória (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pain, Postoperative/surgery , Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Students, Dental , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Titanium/chemistry , Chi-Square Distribution , Dental Records , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Longitudinal Studies , Tooth Apex/surgery , Dental Instruments , Endodontics/instrumentation , Observational Study , Nickel/chemistry
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 51-57, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990064

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El barro dentinario producido durante tratamiento endodóntico puede ser extruido hacia el tejido periradicular junto con el irrigante, produciendo inflamación y dolor postoperatorio. Comparar la cantidad de extrusión apical de barro dentinario e irrigante, producido durante la preparación químico-mecánica, por dos sistemas de instrumentación Rotatoria (Mtwo), y Reciprocante (Reciproc), complementado con irrigación pasiva o activa (Endoactivator). Cuarenta y ocho premolares (48) inferiores, fueron aleatoriamente distribuidos en cuatro grupos de estudio (n=12 dientes), (1) Rotatorio-pasiva, (2) Reciprocante-pasiva, (3) Rotatorio-activa y (4) Reciprocante-activa. Los conductos radiculares fueron instrumentados de acuerdo a las instrucciones del fabricante, e irrigados con hipoclorito de sodio al 5 %. El barro dentinario e irrigante extruido, fueron recolectados en tubos Eppendorf previamente pesados. Se calcularon los valores de extrusión de barro dentinario e irrigante para cada grupo. Los datos fueron analizados con el análisis de varianza ANOVA. En todos los grupos se produjo extrusión apical. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la extrusión apical de barro dentinario, entre los grupos estudiados (P = 0,068), sin embargo, al analizar la extrusión de irrigantes, se evidenció diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos 1 y 4 (P< 0,05), entre los demás grupos no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. (P > 0,05). Bajo las condiciones de este estudio, los sistemas rotarios y reciprocante, extruyen sólido y líquido, siendo el sistema reciprocante el que produce mayor extrusión de líquido, tanto con irrigación activa como pasiva.


ABSTRACT: The smear layer produced during endodontic treatment can be extruded into the periradicular tissue together with the irrigant, producing inflammation and postoperative pain. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the amount of apical extrusion, produced during the endodontic preparations with two rotary instrumentation systems using passive and active irrigation. Forty-eight (48) mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 12 teeth), (1) Rotatory - passive, (2) Reciprocating passive, (3) Rotatory-active, (4) Reciprocating- active. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturer's instructions and irrigated with 5 % sodium hypochlorite. Extruded debris and irrigant were collected in previously weighed Eppendorf tubes. The extrusion values were calculated for each group. The data were analyzed with the ANOVA analysis of variance. Results: Apical extrusion was produced in all groups. No statistically significant differences were found in the apical extrusion of smear layer, between the groups studied (P = 0.068), however, when analyzing the extrusion of irrigants, a statistically significant difference was evidenced between groups 1 and 4 (P <0.05). , among the other groups no statistically significant differences were observed. (P> 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, the reciprocating and rotary systems, extrude solid and liquid, being the reciprocating system the one that produces more extrusion of liquid, with both active and passive irrigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants , Smear Layer , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Titanium/chemistry , Bicuspid , In Vitro Techniques , Analysis of Variance , Nickel/chemistry
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e028, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001600

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to assess the cyclic fatigue resistance of Genius and EdgeFile X1 reciprocating instruments compared with WaveOne Gold Primary. Twenty Genius (Ultradent) 25.04, 20 Genius 30.04, 20 EdgeFile X1 (EdgeEndo) and 20 WaveOne Gold Primary (Dentsply Maillefer) instruments were included in this study and tested in a static cyclic fatigue testing device, which has an artificial stainless steel canal with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. All instruments were operated in reciprocation mode until fracture occurred. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated and time to fracture (TF) was recorded in seconds using a digital chronometer. The mean and standard deviations of NCF and TF were calculated for each reciprocating system and the data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and to Dunn's test (p < .05) using SigmaPlot software (Systat software, CA, USA). The fractured surfaces of five instruments from each brand were randomly examined and microphotographed by a low-vacuum environmental scanning electron microscopy - SEM (Tabletop Microscope TM3030, Hitachi, Japan) to confirm the cyclic fatigue fracture. EdgeFile exhibited the highest cyclic fatigue resistance, followed by both Genius files (p < .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, EdgeFile X1 instruments had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than did Genius and WaveOne Gold Primary instruments. The cyclic fatigue resistance of both Genius files was higher than that of WaveOne Gold Primary.


Subject(s)
Titanium/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Instruments/standards , Nickel/chemistry , Reference Values , Stress, Mechanical , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Statistics, Nonparametric , Equipment Failure Analysis , Equipment Design
5.
Dent. press endod ; 8(1): 23-28, Apr-Jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-883676

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: esse estudo comparou a flexibilidade de instrumentos de níquel-titânio rotatórios com diferentes conicidades, em diferentes diâmetros da haste helicoidal cônica (D3 e D6). Métodos: trinta instrumentos RaCe (FKG, La Chaux-de Fonds, Suíça), #40 (D0 = 40), com 25 mm de comprimento, foram divididos em três grupos (n = 10), de acordo com sua conicidade. No teste de flexão em cantiléver (45 graus), foram realizadas duas avaliações, com cargas aplicadas, em D3 e D6, para cada grupo. Resultados: a comparação das cargas aplicadas em D3 e D6 nos instrumentos RaCe com diferentes conicidades mostrou valores de carga máxima significativamente diferentes para flexionar os instrumentos: D3 < D6, com a flexibilidade em D3 maior do que em D6. A comparação das cargas aplicadas em D3 nos três grupos revelou diferenças significativas entre os grupos (p < 0,0001), enquanto o teste Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) mostrou diferenças de flexibilidade entre os três grupos: 0,06 < 0,04 < 0,02mm/mm. O mesmo resultado foi encontrado na comparação da força aplicada em D6. Conclusões: a flexibilidade do instrumento aumenta com a redução da conicidade (p < 0,05) e diminui com o aumento no diâmetro do eixo helicoidal (p < 0,05).


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Dental Instruments/statistics & numerical data , Endodontics/instrumentation , Nickel/chemistry , Pliability , Titanium/chemistry
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(2): 208-213, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951538

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue of two anatomic finishing files: XP-Endo Finisher and XP-Clean. Roughness pattern and the micro-hardness of the files were also assessed. Instruments were subjected to cyclic fatigue resistance measuring the time to fracture in an artificial stainless-steel canal with a 60° angle and a 5-mm radius of curvature. The fracture surface of all fragments was examined with a scanning electron microscope. The roughness of the working parts was quantified by using a profilometer and the micro-hardness test was carried out using a Vickers hardness tester. Results were statistically analyzed using a student´s t-test at a significance level of P < 0.05. Weibull analysis was also performed. XP-Endo Finisher presented significantly longer cyclic fatigue life than XP-Clean instruments (P<0.05). XP-Endo Finisher was able to withstand 1000% more cycles to fracture when compared to XP-Clean instruments. SEM visual inspection of the fracture surfaces revealed fractographic characteristics of ductile fracture in all tested instruments; wide-ranging forms of dimples were identified and no plastic deformation in the helical shaft of the fractured instruments was observed. When mean life was compared XP-Endo Finisher lasted longer than XP-Clean with a probability of 99.9%. XP-Endo Finisher instruments also exhibited significantly lower roughness than XP-Clean instruments (P<0.05). No differences in the micro-hardness was observed between the files (P>0.05). It can be concluded that XP-Endo Finisher instruments showed improved performance when compared with XP-Clean instruments, demonstrating higher cyclic fatigue resistance and lower roughness.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a fadiga cíclica de dois instrumentos finalizadores anatômicos: XP-Endo Finisher e XP-Clean. O padrão de rugosidade e a micro dureza dos instrumentos também foram avaliados. Os instrumentos foram submetidos à resistência à fadiga cíclica, medindo o tempo de fratura em um canal artificial de aço inoxidável com um ângulo de 60 ° e um raio de curvatura de 5 mm. A superfície de fratura de todos os fragmentos foi examinada com um microscópio eletrônico de varredura. A rugosidade dos instrumentos foi quantificada usando um perfilômetro e o teste de micro dureza foi realizado usando um testador de dureza Vickers. Os resultados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente usando o teste t de student em um nível de significância de p<0,05. A análise Weibull também foi realizada. XP-Endo Finisher apresentou vida de fadiga cíclica significativamente mais longa do que os instrumentos XP-Clean (p<0,05). XP-Endo Finisher foi capaz de suportar 1000% mais ciclos para fratura quando comparado aos instrumentos XP-Clean. A inspeção visual em microscópio eletrônico de varredura das superfícies de fratura revelou características fractográficas da fratura dúctil em todos os instrumentos testados. Não foi observada deformação plástica no eixo helicoidal dos instrumentos fraturados. Quando o tempo para a fratura foi comparado entre os instrumentos, o XP-Endo Finisher durou mais do que o XP-Clean com uma probabilidade de 99,9%. Os instrumentos XP-Endo Finisher também exibiram uma rugosidade significativamente menor do que os instrumentos XP-Clean (p<0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças na micro dureza entre os arquivos (p>0,05). Pode-se concluir que os instrumentos XP-Endo Finisher apresentaram desempenho melhorado em comparação com os instrumentos XP-Clean, demonstrando maior resistência à fadiga cíclica e menor rugosidade.


Subject(s)
Materials Testing , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Instruments , Stainless Steel/chemistry , Surface Properties , Titanium/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Alloys , Hardness Tests , Nickel/chemistry
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(1): 54-59, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888720

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during filling removal with WaveOne Gold (WOG), ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR), D-RaCe Retreatment (DRR) or hand files (HF), to compare the working time during filling removal, and to describe failures of NiTi instruments. Forty mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars were prepared with WOG Primary, obturated and divided into 4 groups (n=10), according to the instruments used: WOG, PTR, DRR or HF. Distilled water was used as irrigant and the extruded debris were collected in Eppendorf tubes and dried. The amount of extruded debris was determined by subtracting the final from the initial weight. The time of filling removal for each canal was recorded and the instruments used were analyzed pre and post-operatively by SEM. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test analyzed extruded debris data and ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test, compared the working time data (a=0.05). Instrument deformation and fracture were described. WOG produced significantly less debris compared with HF and DRR (p<0.05), and similar to PTR (p>0.05). HF, PTR and DRR showed no significant difference (p>0.05). Working time in HF group was significantly higher than others (p<0.05). SEM analyses showed, from the 18 instruments evaluated, 3 fractures and 10 deformations. All instruments tested caused debris extrusion. WOG was associated with less extrusion than DRR and HF. Filling removal with HF was slower than with the other instruments. All NiTi systems presented fracture and deformation.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a extrusão apical de debris durante a desobturação com WaveOne Gold (WOG), ProTaper Universal Retratamento (PTR), D-RaCe (DRR) ou limas manuais (HF), comparar o tempo de trabalho durante a desobturação, e descrever as falhas dos instrumentos de NiTi. Quarenta canais de raízes mésio-vestibulares de primeiros molars superiores foram preparados com WOG Primary, obturados e divididos em 4 grupos (n = 10), de acordo com os instrumentos a serem utilizados: WOG, PTR, DRR ou HF. Água destilada foi utilizada como irrigante, e os debris extruídos foram coletados em tubos Eppendorf e secos. A quantidade de debris extruídos foi determinada subtraindo-se o peso inicial do peso final. O tempo de cada desobturação foi anotado e os instrumentos utilizados foram analisados no pré e pós-operatório em MEV. Os testes Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn foram utilizados para analisar os dados da extrusão de debris, e os testes ANOVA e Tukey para comparar os dados do tempo de trabalho (a=0.05). As deformações e fraturas dos instrumentos foram descritas. O grupo WOG produziu significativamente menos debris quando comparado aos grupos HF e DRR (p<0.05), e foi similar ao grupo PTR (p>0.05). Os grupos HF, PTR e DRR não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0.05). O tempo de trabalho no grupo HF foi significativamente maior do que nos outros grupos (p<0.05). A análise em MEV mostrou que, dos 18 instrumentos avaliados, 3 fraturaram e em 10 foi observado deformação. Todos os sistemas testados causaram extrusão apical de debris. WOG foi associado com menor extrusão do que DRR e HF. A desobturação com HF foi mais lenta do que com os demais instrumentos. Todos os sistemas de NITI apresentaram fratura e deformação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nickel/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Titanium/chemistry , Tooth Apex , Therapeutic Irrigation
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20180144, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954493

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of torsional preloading on the cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of thermally treated NiTi instruments. Material and Methods Ten new instruments New Hyflex CM (HF 30.06; Coltene/Whaladent Inc.), Typhoon CM (TYP 30.06; Clinician's Choice Dental Products) and Vortex Blue (VB 30.06; Dentsply Tulsa Dental) were chosen, based on geometry and specific characteristics of the manufacturing process. The new instruments of each system were tested in a bench device to determine their fatigue resistance through mean value of number of cycles to failure (Nf) (Control Group - CG). Another group of 10 new HF, TYP and VB instruments were submitted to 20 cycles of torsional straining between 0° and 180° (Experimental Group - EG) and then submitted to fatigue until rupture under the same conditions of the CG. Tested instruments were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey's test (α=.05). Results Higher fatigue resistance was accomplished by HF instruments, followed by VB and TYP (p<0.05). During the torsional preloading, the lowest mean torque value was observed for TYP instruments (p<0.05). The torsional preload caused a significant reduction in the Nf values (p<0.05) of about 20%, 39% and 45% for instruments HF, VB and TYP, respectively. Longitudinal cracks, generated during the torsional preloading, were present in VB files, but were not observed in the CM instruments (HF and TYP). Conclusions In conclusion, the flexural fatigue resistance of thermally treated instruments is diminished after cyclic torsional loading.


Subject(s)
Titanium/chemistry , Dental Instruments/standards , Equipment Design/methods , Equipment Failure , Torsion, Mechanical , Nickel/chemistry , Reference Values , Rotation , Stress, Mechanical , Surface Properties , Temperature , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Pliability , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170220, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893730

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coated archwires and ceramic brackets have been developed to improve facial esthetics during orthodontic treatment. However, their mechanical behavior has been shown to be different from metallic archwires and brackets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the deflection forces in coated nickel-titanium (NiTi) and esthetic archwires combined with ceramic brackets. Material and Methods Non-coated NiTi (NC), rhodium coated NiTi (RC), teflon coated NiTi (TC), epoxy coated NiTi (EC), fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), and the three different conventional brackets metal-insert polycrystalline ceramic (MI-PC), polycrystalline ceramic (PC) and monocrystalline ceramic (MC) were used. The specimens were set up on a clinical simulation device and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (Instron). An acrylic device, representative of the right maxillary central incisor was buccolingually activated and the unloading forces generated were recorded at 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm. The speed of the testing machine was 2 mm/min. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to compare the different archwires and brackets. Results The brackets presented the following decreasing force ranking: monocrystalline, polycrystalline and polycrystalline metal-insert. The decreasing force ranking of the archwires was: rhodium coated NiTi (RC), non-coated NiTi (NC), teflon coated NiTi (TC), epoxy coated NiTi (EC) and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP). At 3 mm of unloading the FRP archwire had a plastic deformation and produced an extremely low force in 2; 1 and 0.5 mm of unloading. Conclusion Combinations of the evaluated archwires and brackets will produce a force ranking proportional to the combination of their individual force rankings.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Wires , Titanium/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Orthodontic Brackets , Orthodontic Appliance Design/methods , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Nickel/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Friction , Statistics, Nonparametric , Esthetics, Dental , Mechanical Phenomena
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170215, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893700

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris, percentage of foraminal enlargement and apical foramen (AF) deformation that occurred during root canal preparation with different reciprocation systems: Reciproc, WaveOne (M-Wire), and ProDesign R (Shape Memory Technology Wire) at two different working lengths (WLs): 0.0 and 1.0 mm beyond the AF. Material and methods The AF of 120 root canals in 60 mesial roots of mandibular molars were photographed with stereomicroscope and randomly assigned into four groups: manual, Reciproc (REC), WaveOne (WO), and ProDesign R (PDR); subsequently, they were further subdivided according to the WL (n=15). Teeth were instrumented, coupled to a dual collecting chamber, and then another photograph of each AF was captured. Extrusion was analysed by determining the weight of extruded debris. Each AF diameter was measured in pre- and post-instrumentation images to determine deformation, which was analysed, and afterwards the final format of AFs was classified (circular/oval/deformed). Results We found no significant differences when analysing each system at different WLs. When considering each WL, REC and WO showed highest extrusion values (P<.05); for AF enlargement, differences were observed only for WO, when it was used beyond the AF; differences were observed among M-Wire groups beyond the AF (P<.05). AF deformation was observed in all groups; PDR showed the lowest AF deformation values at both WLs; M-Wire groups showed 50% strain beyond the AF. Conclusion Authors concluded that beyond the apical limit, the alloy and taper are important aspects when considering extrusion and deformation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Titanium/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/adverse effects , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Tooth Apex/chemistry , Nickel/chemistry , Reference Values , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology , Dental Instruments/adverse effects , Equipment Design
11.
Bauru; s.n; 2018. 144 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-884453

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate canal transportation; centering ability; dentin thickness; change in volume, and time spent on shaping ability of maxillary molars prepared with mechanized NiTi file systems composed of a conventional NiTi alloy (Mtwo), a CM-Wire (Prodesign R and Hyflex CM) NiTi alloy, R-phase (Twisted File Adaptive) and an M-Wire (Reciproc) NiTi alloy]. With the purpose of understanding the role of new treated NiTi alloys in larger apical preparations, this type of preparation was evaluated in the mesiobuccal (MB) and distobuccal canal (DB) of maxillary molars, as well as, in the second mesiobuccal (MB2) canals in extracted maxillary first molars by means of micro-computed tomographic (micro- CT) imaging. For the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) evaluation, thirty maxillary molars with Vertucci type IV canal configuration were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 10): Reciproc [REC; VDW, Munich, Germany], Prodesign R [PDR; Easy, Belo Horizonte, Brazil] and Mtwo [MO; VDW, Munich, Germany]. To assess the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals, a total of 45 extracted maxillary molars were selected according to the following criteria: MB canals exhibiting curvatures according to the Weine classification in the 20-30 degree range; and DB canals presenting curvatures in the 0-5 degree range. These teeth were randomly assigned to three groups, Reciproc (REC) [40.06]; Hyflex CM (HF) [40.06] [Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH, USA] and Twisted file Adaptive (TFA) [35.04]. After root canal preparation, all the teeth were scanned to evaluate parameters previously cited. In particular, the percentage of negotiability of the MB2 canal was evaluated. All parameters were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's Multiple comparison tests within groups with a significance level of 5%. For MB2 canals, no statistically significant difference was observed among the three groups with regard to the values of canal transportation, centering ability, remaining dentin thickness in the coronal third, number of specimens with thickness under 0.5 mm in the danger zone, and apical volume (P>0.05). However, the entire volume of the canal in Group MO differed statistically from that of Group PDR (P<0.05), but Group REC did not differ statistically from Groups MO and PDR (P>0.05). Group PDR demanded more time to reach WL than use of the MO and REC systems. For MB and DB canals, the trend of canal transportation was towards inner curvature in apical third, while in the coronal third it was towards the outer curve. There was no difference in apical transportation values in the first apical millimeters for both canals. In MB canal, at 3 and 4 mm, the Reciproc transportation value was significantly lower than that of Hyflex CM(P<0.05). In the DB canal, at 2 and 4 mm, Reciproc showed substantially higher values than Group TFA (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two canals among the three systems for centering ability in the apical third and the remaining dentin thickness (RDT). For DB canal, there was no significant difference in shaping time, but in the MB canal, Group TFA was swifter than Reciproc and Hyflex CM. The initial changes in volume (apical/entire) after canal preparation was statistically significant within groups in MB and DB canals for percentage and volume of dentin removed. TFA had the lowest values for the apical and entire volumes of dentin removed in both canals compared with Reciproc and Hyflex CM (P<0.05). TFA had the lowest percentage of dentin removed from the entire MB canal, and from the apical and entire volume of DB canal. For negotiating and shaping the MB2 canal, the three file systems had similar performance. However, the REC system reached the full working length faster than PDR. The MO and REC systems removed more dentin in the inner furcation area when compared with PDR. For MB and BD canals, the heat treated NiTi alloy systems used for larger apical preparation evenly maintained the morphology of the MB and DB canals of maxillary molars. In shaping procedures, the larger apical preparation produced slight canal transportation without evidence of significant preparation errors. However, these variations may not be feasible of clinical significance. Use of TFA was swifter for preparing the MB canal and produced fewer changes in volume parameters. The TFA system was able to preserve the original canal anatomy with less canal transportation than the Reciproc and Hyflex CM systems.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o transporte do canal, a centralização do canal, a espessura dentinária, a alteração volumétrica e o tempo de trabalho de diferentes sistemas mecanizados de níquel-titânio compostos por ligas convencional (Mtwo) e tratados termicamente (CMWire (Prodesign R e Hyflex CM), M-Wire (Reciproc) e fase-R (Twisted file adaptive) em preparos de canais em molares superiores. O papel dos novos instrumentos de níquel titânio tratados termicamente em preparos apicais mais amplos de canais mésio-vestibulares e distovestibulares dos molares superiores foi avaliado, como também o preparo do canal mésiopalatino (CMP), por meio da microtomografia computadorizada (µ-CT). No estudo do canal mésio-palatino, 30 primeiros molares superiores com configuração tipo IV de Vertucci foram selecionados e divididos em 3 grupos (n = 10): Reciproc [REC; VDW, Munich, Germany], Prodesign R [PDR; Easy, Belo Horizonte, Brazil] and Mtwo [MO; VDW, Munich, Germany]. No estudo dos canais mésio-vestibulares e disto-vestibulares, o total de 45 molares superiores foram selecionados com angulação da raiz mésio vestibular de 20 a 30 graus e apresentando a raiz disto-vestibular com angulação de 0 a 5 graus, de acordo com a classificação de Weine. Os dentes foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 3 grupos (n=15): Reciproc (40.06) [REC, VDW, Munich, Germany]; Hyflex CM (40.06) [HF, Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH, USA]; e Twisted file Adaptive (35.04) [TFA, SybronEndo, Orange, CA]. Após o preparo dos canais mésio-palatino, mésio-vestibular, e disto-vestibular, todos os dentes foram escaneados para avaliação dos parâmetros previamente citados. Especificamente, na avaliação do canal mésiopalatino, foi avaliada a porcentagem de canais que alcançaram patência. Todos os parâmetros foram avaliados estatisticamente pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis e pelo teste Dunn's de múltipla comparação entre grupos, com nível de significância de 5%. O canal mésio-palatino não apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante em relação ao transporte, centralização, remanescente de dentina no terço cervical, quanto ao número de espécime abaixo de 0,5 mm de espessura na zona de perigo e no volume apical (P>0.05). O volume total do canal no grupo MO diferenciou-se do volume total do grupo PDR (P<0.05), enquanto essa diferença não foi evidenciada entre os grupos REC comparado aos grupos MO e PDR (P>0.05). O grupo PDR demandou maior tempo para atingir o comprimento de trabalho comparado aos sistemas MO e REC. Na análise dos canais MV e DV dos molares superiores, o transporte coronal direcionou-se para o interior da curvatura do canal, enquanto no terço apical o transporte direcionou-se para o lado externo da curvatura. O transporte apical no primeiro milímetro de ambos os canais (MV e DV) foi equivalente entre os grupos (P>0.05). O canal MV apresentou nos níveis 3 e 4 mm transporte do grupo Reciproc significantemente menor do que no grupo Hyflex CM (P<0.05). Em relação ao transporte apical, no canal DV, nos milímetros 2 e 4 apicais do grupo Reciproc transportou significantemente mais comparado ao grupo TFA (P<0.05). Contudo, a centralização apical de ambos os canais e a quantidade de remanescente dentinário apical não se diferiram estatisticamente (P<0.05). O preparo do canal MV foi mais rápido com o sistema TFA comparado ao Reciproc e do Hyflex CM (P<0.05), enquanto no canal DV não foi evidenciado diferenças em relação ao tempo de preparo (P>0.05). A porcentagem e o volume de dentina removida em todo o canal e na região apical, após o preparo do canal apresentou diferenças significantes entre os grupos. O grupo TFA teve as menores porcentagens e valores de dentina removida no volume total do canal e no volume apical, em ambos os canais, comparado com os sistemas Reciproc e Hyflex CM (P<0.05). No canal MP, os três sistemas avaliados prepararam e patenciaram semelhantemente os canais MP. Contudo, o sistema Reciproc foi mais rápido para alcançar o comprimento de trabalho do que o sistema Prodesign R. Os grupos Mtwo e Reciproc removeram mais dentina na região voltada para o interior da furca quando comparado ao Prodesign R. Os sistemas compostos por ligas tratadas termicamente em preparos com maior ampliação apical mantiveram a morfologia dos canais MV e DV. Os sistemas promoveram discretos transportes, sem evidência de erros no preparo. Contudo, essas variações não são passíveis de significância clínica. O grupo do TFA foi mais rápido e promoveu menores alterações nos parâmetros volumétricos. O grupo do TFA foi capaz de preservar a anatomia original do canal com menor grau de transporte comparado ao Reciproc e Hyflex CM.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Nickel/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Titanium/chemistry , Dental Instruments , Equipment Design , Molar/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , X-Ray Microtomography/methods
12.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(2): 210-215, mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839140

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effects of three metal primers and one multi-mode adhesive system on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a flowable composite resin to nickel-chrome metal alloy (Ni-Cr). Ninety plates were cast from Ni-Cr and divided in nine groups (n=10). The surfaces were sandblasted with Al2O3 and primed with three adhesive primers: Alloy Primer (AP), Universal Primer (TP) and RelyX Ceramic Primer (CP), and a multi-mode adhesive (Scotchbond Universal, SU). The Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) and SU adhesives were also combined with adhesive primers. Control group did not have any surface treatment. The groups were: AP, AP+SB, AP+SU, TP+SB, TP+SU, CP+SB, CP+SU and SU. Composite cylinders were built on alloy surface. After 24 h, half the specimens were subjected to SBS and the other half to thermal cycling before testing. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (a=0.05). Failure modes were assessed by SEM observation. Higher SBS were obtained with AP and TP combined with adhesives at 24 h and the lowest one for control group. Thermocycling reduced SBS for AP, CP+SU and SU. Combination between TP and SU resulted in the highest SBS after the thermocycling. TP groups showed all types of failures and high incidence of mixed failures. The use of AP and UP metal primers before application of SU and SB adhesive systems increased the SBS of composite to Ni-Cr. These combinations between metal primers and adhesives had the highest SBS after thermocycling.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou os efeitos de três primers para metais e um sistema adesivo multi-mode na resistência da união por cisalhamento (SBS) de um compósito resinoso de baixa viscosidade a uma liga niquel-cromo (Ni-Cr). Noventa placas Ni-Cr foram divididas em 9 grupos (n=10). As superfícies foram jateadas com Al2O3 e condicionadas com três primers adesivos: Alloy Primer (AP), Universal Primer (TP) e Rely X Ceramic Primer (CP) e um adesivo multi-mode (Scotchbond Universal, SU). Os adesivos Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) e SU foram combinados com os primers para metais. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhum tipo de tratamento superficial. Os grupos foram: AP, AP+SB, AP+SU, TP+SB, TP+SU, CP+SB, CP+SU e SU. Cilindros de resina foram construídos na superfície da liga. Após 24 h, metade dos espécimes foi submetido ao SBS, a outra metade foi termociclada previamente. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA dois fatores e Tukey (a=0.05). Os tipos de fraturas foram determinados utilizando microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). Os maiores valores de SBS foram obtidos com AP e TP combinados com adesivos após 24 h e o menor valor foi obtido no grupo controle. A ciclagem térmica reduziu a SBS para AP, CP+SU e SU. Combinação entre TP e SU resultou em altos valores de SBS após termociclagem. Os grupos TP apresentaram todos os modos de fratura e alta incidência de fraturas mistas. O uso dos primers AP e UP para metais antes da aplicação dos sistemas adesivos SU e SB aumentou a SBS entre o Ni-Cr e a resina composta. Essa combinação entre primers e adesivos mostrou os maiores valores de SBS após a termociclagem.


Subject(s)
Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Methacrylates/chemistry , Chromium/chemistry , Materials Testing , Nickel/chemistry
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 27-33, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the NiTi wire in Conventional NiTi (ProTaper Universal PTU) and Controlled Memory NiTi (ProTaper Gold PTG) instrument systems on the quality of root canal preparation. Material and Methods Twelve mandibular molars with separate mesial canals were scanned using a high-definition microcomputed tomography system. The PTU and PTG instruments were used to shape twelve mesial canals each. The canals were scanned after preparation with F2 and F3 instruments of the PTU and PTG systems. The analyzed parameters included the remaining dentin thickness at the apical and cervical levels, root canal volume and untouched canal walls. Data was analyzed for statistical significance by the Friedman and Dunn’s tests. For the comparison of data between groups, the Mann-Whitney test was used. Results In the pre-operative analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the area and volume of root canals (P>.05). There was also no statistically significant difference between the systems with respect to root canal volume after use of the F2 and F3 instruments. There was no statistical difference in the dentin thickness at the first apical level between, before and after instrumentation for both systems. At the 3 cervical levels, the PTG maintained centralization of the preparation on the transition between the F2 and F3 instruments, which did not occur with the PTU. Conclusion The Conventional NiTi (PTU) and Controlled Memory NiTi (PTG) instruments displayed comparable capabilities for shaping the straight mesial root canals of mandibular molars, although the PTG was better than the PTU at maintaining the centralization of the shape in the cervical portion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Titanium/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Instruments , Nickel/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dentin/anatomy & histology , Equipment Design , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar
14.
Bauru; s.n; 2017. 91 p. tab, ilust.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-878245

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of preparation, filling removal material, reinstrumentation and reobturation of root canals with different Ni-Ti alloys in endodontic retreatment. Firstly, the selection and pairing of mesial root canals of mandibular molars (n = 45) were performed by computerized micro-tomography (micro-CT). After pairing, the specimens were divided into three groups (n = 15), instrumented with the Mtwo® (up to file 25.06), ProDesign Logic (25.06) and ProDesign R (25.06) systems. After this, the specimens were scanned again for root canal deviation analysis at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm from the apex and the volume increase of these root canals was evaluated through CTan Then, the root canals were filled with Endofill® with 0.1% rhodamine B and scanned in micro-CT once again. For the retreatment of the specimens, 3 groups were established according to the system used (Reciproc®, Hyflex® and ProDesign Duo Hybrid®). During the retreatment, the specimens were scanned in micro-CT in two more phases, after removal of filling material and after reinstrumentation of the root canals. All the images obtained previous and post-retreatment were compared to evaluate the capacity of removal filling material of each system through the volume of material remaining at 3mm in the apical third. Possible deviation of the root canal was assessed at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm from the apex. In addition, the times of preparation, removal filling material and reinstrumentation of these files were also evaluated. After the removal filling material and reinstrumentation of the root canals, they were refilled with AH Plus with 0.1% fluorescein. The specimens were sectioned crosswise into 2 mm slices to be analyzed by a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) at 1, 3 and 5 mm from the apex, where the volume of material was evaluated through LAS X 3D and 2D software. The time of preparation, removal filling material and reinstrumentation of the root canals between the different systems was measured by a digital timer. The evaluation of canal volumetric increase and preparation time between Mtwo and ProDesign Logic systems were conducted using Student t-test analysis. Non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used to the intragroup comparison at the 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm levels and non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was used to the comparison between groups in the root canal transportation in all sections of the root canal. The intra-group comparison regarding the presence or absence of root canal deviation after removal of root canal filling material and re-instrumentation was submitted to the parametric T-paired statistical test, since it had a normal distribution. The working time with the different alloys used to removal filling material an reinstrumentation was analyzed through parametric ANOVA e Tukey statistical test. The analysis of the remaining material present in the root canals was performed with nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. For the intra-group comparison between the different slices (1, 3 and 5 mm), the data were submitted to nonparametric Friedman and Dunn tests. The level of significance was established at 5% in all analysis. After the initial preparation of the root canals, the ProDesign Logic system proved to be faster than Mtwo system, with statistical difference between them (P <0.05). There was no statistical difference in root canal deviation after initial preparation and after retreatment (P> 0.05). In addition, the groups did not present a significant statistical difference to the volume increase of the root canals after the initial preparation or to the volume of filling material remaining after the retreatment (P> 0.05). The Reciproc system proved to be the fastest system for the removal filling material and reinstrumentation of the root canals (P <0.05). The present study demonstrated that the Prodesign Logic and Mtwo systems presented similar capacity of preparation of mesial root canals. The Reciproc, Hyflex and ProDesign Duo Hybrid systems are similar in the removal of filling material, preserving the original root canal shape in endodontic retreatment. However, Reciproc was the fastest compared to the other groups.(AU)


O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos decorrentes do preparo inicial, desobturação, reinstrumentação e reobturação de canais radiculares com diferentes ligas de Ni-Ti em casos de retratamento endodôntico. Primeiramente, foi realizado a seleção e o pareamento da anatomia de canais mesiais de primeiros molares inferiores (n=45) através de micro-tomografia computadorizada (micro-CT). Após o pareamento dos espécimes, os mesmos foram divididos em três grupos (n =15), instrumentados com os sistemas Mtwo® (até a lima 25.06), ProDesign Logic (25.06) e ProDesign R (25.06) sendo escaneados novamente para análise de desvio do canal radicular a 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mm, além do aumento de volume desses canais, avaliados através do CTan. Em seguida, os canais radiculares foram obturados com o cimento Endofill® acrescido de 0,1% de rodamina B e escaneados em micro-CT mais uma vez. Para o retratamento dos espécimes, foram estabelecidos 3 grupos, de acordo com o sistema utilizado (Reciproc®, Hyflex® e ProDesign Duo Híbrido®). Durante o retratamento, os espécimes foram escaneados em micro-CT em mais duas etapas, após a desobturação e a após a reinstrumentação dos canais. Todas as imagens obtidas referentes ao pré e pós retratamento foram confrontadas com o intuito de avaliar a capacidade de remoção de material obturador de cada sistema através do volume de material remanescente nos 3 mm apicais, além de avaliar possíveis desvios dos canais a 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mm do ápice. Foram avaliados também, o tempo efetivo de preparo, desobturação e de reinstrumentação desses instrumentos. Após a desobturação e reinstrumentação dos canais, os mesmos foram reobturados com cimento AH Plus acrescido de 0,1% de fluoresceína. Os espécimes foram seccionados transversalmente em fatias de 2 mm para serem analisados em microscópio confocal de varredura a laser (MCVL) a 1, 3 e 5 mm do ápice, onde foi avaliado, através do software LAS X 3D e 2D, o volume de material obturador antigo. O tempo de preparo, desobturação e reinstrumentação dos canais entre os diferentes sistemas foi marcado através de um cronômetro digital. A análise do aumento volumétrico e tempo de preparo entre os sistemas Mtwo e ProDesign Logic foi feita através do teste estatístico Student t. Para a análise do desvio do canal radicular após o preparo inicial, o teste não-paramétrico Wilcoxon foi utilizado para a comparação intra-grupos nos níveis a 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mm do ápice, enquanto o teste não-paramétrico Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparação entre os grupos nos mesmos níveis. Para a análise do desvio do canal radicular após a desobturação e reinstrumentação dos canais, os dados foram submetidos ao teste paramétrico T-pareado. O tempo de desobturação e reinstrumentação com os diferentes sistemas foi analisado através do teste ANOVA e Tukey. Os dados referentes ao remanescente de material obturador foram analisados através dos testes não-paramétrico Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn. Para a comparação intra-grupos entre os diferentes níveis (1, 3 e 5 mm) foram utilizados os testes não-paramétricos Friedman e Dunn. O nível de significância foi estabelecido a 5% em todas as análises. Após o preparo inicial dos canais, o sistema ProDesign Logic demonstrou ser mais rápido que o sistema Mtwo, havendo diferença estatística entre eles (P < 0.05). Não houve diferença estatística quanto ao desvio do canal radicular tanto após o preparo inicial quanto após o retratamento (P > 0.05). Além disso, os grupos também não apresentaram diferença estatística significante quanto ao aumento do volume dos canais após o preparo inicial, nem em relação ao volume de remanescente de material obturador após o retratamento (P > 0.05). O sistema Reciproc demonstrou ser o mais rápido dentre os sistemas quanto à desobturação e reinstrumentação dos canais (P < 0.05). O presente trabalho demonstrou que os sistemas Prodesign Logic and Mtwo apresentaram capacidade similar de preparo dos canais mesiais de molares inferiores. Os sistemas Reciproc, Hyflex e ProDesign Duo Híbrido são parecidos quanto à remoção de material obturador, preservando o formato original do canal em casos de retratamentos entodônticos. Entretanto, Reciproc foi o mais rápido comparado aos outros grupos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Instruments , Nickel/chemistry , Retreatment/instrumentation , Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Titanium/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Retreatment/methods , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e74, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952085

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and quantitative assessment of nanoscale alterations and wear on the surfaces of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments, before and after use, through a high-resolution, noncontact, three-dimensional optical profiler, and to verify the accuracy of the evaluation method. Cutting blade surfaces of two different brands of NiTi endodontic instruments, Reciproc R25 (n = 5) and WaveOne Primary (n = 5), were examined and compared before and after two uses in simulated root canals made in clear resin blocks. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional images which were obtained from surface areas measuring 211 × 211 µm, located 3 mm from their tips. The quantitative evaluation of the samples was conducted before and after the first and second usage, by the recordings of three amplitude parameters. The data were subjected to statistical analysis at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed statistically significant increases in the surface wear of both instruments groups after the second use. The presence of irregularities was found on the surface topography of all the instruments, before and after use. Regardless of the evaluation stage, most of the defects were observed in the WaveOne instruments. The three-dimensional technique was suitable and effective for the accurate investigation of the same surfaces of the instruments in different periods of time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Titanium/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Endodontics/instrumentation , Nickel/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Equipment Design , Interferometry/methods
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e68, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952108

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to compare coating dimensions and surface characteristics of two different esthetic covered nickel-titanium orthodontic rectangular archwires, as-received from the manufacturer and after oral exposure. The study was designed for comparative purposes. Both archwires, as-received from the manufacturer, were observed using a stereomicroscope to measure coating thickness and inner metallic dimensions. The wires were also exposed to oral environment in 11 orthodontic active patients for 21 days. After removing the samples, stereomicroscopy images were captured, coating loss was measured and its percentage was calculated. Three segments of each wire (one as-received and two after oral exposure) were observed using scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis of the labial surface of the wires. The Lilliefors test and independent t-test were applied to verify normality of data and statistical differences between wires, respectively. The significance level adopted was 0.05. The results showed that the differences between the wires while comparing inner height and thickness were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). In average, the most recently launched wire presented a coating thickness twice that of the control wire, which was also a statistically significant difference. The coating loss percentage was also statistically different (p = 0.0346) when the latest launched wire (13.27%) was compared to the control (29.63%). In conclusion, the coating of the most recent wire was thicker and more uniform, whereas the control had a thinner coating on the edges. After oral exposure, both tested wires presented coating loss, but the most recently launched wire exhibited better results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthodontic Wires , Titanium/chemistry , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Nickel/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Orthodontic Brackets , Esthetics, Dental , Mouth/chemistry
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e49, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952103

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate deflection forces of orthodontic wires of different alloys engaged into conventional brackets using several ligation types. Stainless steel, conventional superelastic nickel-titanium and thermally activated nickel-titanium archwires tied into conventional brackets by a ring-shaped elastomeric ligature (RSEL), a 8-shaped elastomeric ligature (8SEL) and a metal ligature (ML) were tested. A clinical simulation device was created especially for this study and forces were measured with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. For the testing procedure, the block representing the maxillary right central incisor was moved 0.5 and 1 mm bucco-lingually at a constant speed of 2 mm/min, and the forces released by the wires were recorded, in accordance with the ISO 15841 guidelines. In general, the RSEL showed lighter forces, while 8SEL and ML showed higher values. At the 0.5 mm deflection, the 8SEL presented the greatest force, but at the 1.0 mm deflection the ML had a statistically similar force. Based on our evaluations, to obtain lighter forces, the thermally activated nickel-titanium wire with the RSEL are recommended, while the steel wire with the 8SEL or the ML are recommended when larger forces are desired. The ML exhibited the highest force increase with increased deflections, compared with the elastomeric ligatures.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Wires , Orthodontic Brackets , Orthodontic Appliance Design/methods , Reference Values , Stainless Steel/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Friction , Elastomers/chemistry , Elasticity , Nickel/chemistry
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(5): 496-502, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-797980

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Material and Methods: Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342), using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (p<0.05). Results: Self-ligating brackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Conclusions: Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Wires , Orthodontic Brackets , Alloys/chemistry , Polycarboxylate Cement/chemistry , Reference Values , Titanium/chemistry , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Friction , Statistics, Nonparametric , Elasticity , Nickel/chemistry
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(4): 436-441, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794615

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present study, GTX and ProTaper as continuous rotating endodontic files were numerically compared with WaveOne reciprocating file using finite element analysis, aiming at having a low cost, accurate/trustworthy comparison as well as finding out the effect of instrument design and manufacturing material on its lifespan. Two 3D finite element models were especially prepared for this comparison. Commercial engineering CAD/CAM package was used to model full detailed flute geometries of the instruments. Multi-linear materials were defined in analysis by using real strain-stress data of NiTi and M-Wire. Non-linear static analysis was performed to simulate the instrument inside root canal at a 45° angle in the apical portion and subjected to 0.3 N.cm torsion. The three simulations in this study showed that M-Wire is slightly more resistant to failure than conventional NiTi. On the other hand, both materials are fairly similar in case of severe locking conditions. For the same instrument geometry, M-Wire instruments may have longer lifespan than the conventional NiTi ones. In case of severe locking conditions both materials will fail similarly. Larger cross sectional area (function of instrument taper) resisted better to failure than the smaller ones, while the cross sectional shape and its cutting angles could affect instrument cutting efficiency.


Resumo As limas rotativas GTX e ProTaper foram comparadas numericamente com as limas reciprocatórias WaveOne pela análise de elementos finitos, com o objetivo de baixar custos, comparação fiel e exata, além de pesquisar o efeito do projeto das limas e de seu material sobre a durabilidade. Dois modelos tridimensionais de análise de elementos finitos foram especialmente elaborados para esta comparação. Utilizou-se um sistema de engenharia CAD/CAM comercial para construir o modelo totalmente detalhado da geometria das estrias das limas. Materiais multi-lineares foram definidos na análise usando dados reais de deformação por estresse de NiTi e M-Wire. Procedeu-se à análise estática não linear para simular a ação do instrumento dentro do canal radicular em ângulo de 45° na região apical, submetido a uma torsão de 0.3 N.cm. As três simulações realizadas no presente estudo demonstraram que o M-Wire é um pouco mais resistente a falhas que o NiTi convencional. Por outro lado, ambos os materiais são bastante similares em condições de travamento severo. No caso da geometria das limas, os instrumentos de M-Wire podem ter vida útil mais longa que os de NiTi convencional. Em condições de travamento severo, ambos os materiais terão falhas similares. Maior área transversal (em função da conicidade do instrumento) resiste melhor a falhas que as áreas transversais menores, ao passo que a geometria da área transversal e seus ângulos de corte podem afetar a eficiência de corte das limas.


Subject(s)
Dental Instruments , Nickel/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry , Finite Element Analysis
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 305-313, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780840

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fourteen Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their tolerance to two heavy metals, nickel and cadmium. Three isolates, MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-I, showed high levels of nickel tolerance, whereas MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-II showed better tolerance of cadmium than the other isolates. Under nickel stress, biomass production increased up to a Ni concentration of 60 ppm in all strains but then decreased as the concentrations of nickel were further increased. Among the nickel-tolerant isolates, UBT-18 produced significantly higher biomass upon exposure to nickel (up to 150 ppm); however, the minimum concentration of nickel required to inhibit 50% of growth (MIC50) was highest in IBT-I. Among the cadmium-tolerant isolates, IBT-II showed both maximum biomass production and a maximum MIC50 value in cadmium stress. As the biomass of the Trichoderma isolates increased, a higher percentage of nickel removal was observed up to a concentration of 40 ppm, followed by an increase in residual nickel and a decrease in biomass production at higher nickel concentrations in the medium. The increase in cadmium concentrations resulted in a decrease in biomass production and positively correlated with an increase in residual cadmium in the culture broth. Nickel and cadmium stress also influenced the sensitivity of the Trichoderma isolates to soil fungistasis. Isolates IBT-I and UBT-18 were most tolerant to fungistasis under nickel and cadmium stress, respectively.


Subject(s)
Trichoderma/metabolism , Cadmium/metabolism , Nickel/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichoderma/classification , Trichoderma/growth & development , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/chemistry , Kinetics , Nickel/chemistry
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