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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e1678, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347511

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad por depósito graso no alcohólica constituye una pandemia del mundo contemporáneo. Su espectro silente atraviesa estadios de cronicidad y puede llegar a la cirrosis hepática y sobre esta pudiera desarrollarse un hepatocarcinoma. No existen tratamientos y solo se puede actuar sobre los factores de riesgo. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto citohepatoprotector y antifibrótico del propóleos rojo cubano oral en pacientes con esteatohepatitis no alcohólica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo en pacientes seleccionados de las consultas de Gastroenterología, Endocrinología y Medicina Interna del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras durante el periodo de abril 2017 a abril 2018. El universo de estudio fue de 120 pacientes con diagnóstico imagenológico de hígado graso. La muestra quedó conformada por 70 pacientes con diagnóstico de hígado graso, y que cumplieron criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Las pruebas estadísticas aplicadas fueron análisis de frecuencia y porcentaje para las variables demográficas. La prueba T para las muestras relacionadas evaluó el comportamiento enzimático al inicio y al final del tratamiento y los cambios elastográficos fueron analizados mediante test de Kappa y porcentaje. Resultados: Las variables bioquímicas estudiadas mostraron una disminución estadísticamente significativa al final del tratamiento. Los cambios elastográficos al final del estudio evidenciaron la efectividad del tratamiento, en el cual el 91,4 por ciento de los pacientes evolucionaron hacia el menor grado de fibrosis. Conclusiones: El propóleos rojo cubano demostró ser un apifármaco con acción citohepatoprotectora y antifibrótica de valor terapéutico(AU)


Introduction: Nonalcoholic fat deposition disease is a pandemic in the contemporary world. Its silent spectrum goes through stages of chronicity and it can reach liver cirrhosis and on this a hepatic carcinoma could develop. There are no treatments and medical handling can act on only risk factors. Objective: To evaluate cytohepatoprotective and antifibrotic effect of oral Cuban red propolis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out in selected patients from the Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Internal Medicine consultations at Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital from April 2017 to April 2018. The study universe was 120 patients with imaging diagnosis of fatty liver. The sample consisted of 70 patients with fatty liver diagnosis, who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Frequency and percentage analysis for the demographic variables were the statistical tests applied. The T test for the related samples evaluated the enzymatic behavior at the beginning and at the end of the treatment and the elastography changes were analyzed using Kappa and percentage tests. Results: The biochemical variables studied showed statistically significant decrease at the end of the treatment, which evidenced the effectiveness of the treatment. 91.4 percent of the patients progressed to a lower degree of fibrosis. Conclusions: Cuban red propolis proved to be a therapeutic drug with cytohepathoprotective and antifibrotic action(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Apitherapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies
2.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(2): 1-7, 31 de agosto del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284501

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólica se caracteriza por la infiltración grasa mayor al 5% y que en la población pediátrica se encuentra asociada a alteraciones metabólicas adquiridas o congénitas, con alta prevalencia en población hispánica. El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer la correlación entre el índice de masa corporal y el grado ecográfico de esteatosis hepática en niños y adolescentes asistentes a una consulta de control de salud. Métodos: El presente estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, retrospectivo, se llevó a cabo en pacientes de 2 a 17 años de edad con esteatosis hepática, atendidos en el área de consulta externa del Hospital de Niños Dr. Roberto Gilbert Elizalde , Guayaquil-Ecuador, entre los años 2015 a 2019. Se midió el peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, grado de esteatosis y niveles de AST y ALT. Se estableció un análisis de correlación entre esteatosis como variable dependiente. Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio 77 casos con una media de 11 años y el género femenino representó el 39% de la muestra. No hubo asociación entre el grado ecográfico de esteatosis hepática vs. la edad, género, peso, talla o índice de masa corporal. En el análisis entre los niveles de transaminasas en pacientes con grado ecográfico leve a severo, se observó un ascenso significativo de AST (P=0.003) y medianamente significativo de ALT (P=0.0583). Conclusiones: Este estudio demostró la ausencia de correlación del grado ecográfico de esteatosis con el índice de masa corporal. La detección temprana con las herramientas adecuadas de la esteatosis hepática debe ser una prioridad en el cuidado de los pacientes pediátricos para evitar su progresión a cirrosis hepática, por lo cual se recomienda el uso de transaminasas como método de cribado a los pacientes con factores de riesgo.


Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by fat infiltration greater than 5% and that in the pediatric population is associated with acquired or congenital metabolic alterations, with a high prevalence in the Hispanic population. The aim of the present study was to establish the correlation between the body mass index and the ultrasound grade of hepatic steatosis in children and adolescents attending a health check-up. Methods: The present observational, analytical, cross-sectional, retrospective study was carried out in patients from 2 to 17 years of age with hepatic steatosis, treated in the outpa-tient area of the "Dr. Roberto Gilbert Elizalde" Children´s Hospital, Guayaquil -Ecuador, between the years 2015 to 2019. Weight, height, body mass index, degree of steatosis and AST and ALT levels were measured. A correlation analysis was established between steatosis as a dependent variable. Results: 77 cases with an average age of 11 years entered the study and the female gender represented 39% of the sample. There was no association between the ultrasound grade of hepatic steatosis vs. age, gender, weight, height, or body mass index. In the analysis be-tween transaminase levels in patients with mild to severe ultrasound grade, a significant rise in AST (P = 0.003) and a moderately significant rise in ALT (P = 0.0583) were observed. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the absence of correlation of the ultrasound grade of steatosis with the body mass index. Early detection of hepatic steatosis with the appropriate tools should be a priority in the care of pediatric patients to avoid its progression to liver cirrhosis, for which the use of transaminases as a screening method is recommended for patients with risk factors.


Introdução: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica é caracterizada por infiltração gordurosa maior que 5% e que na população pediátrica está associada a alterações metabólicas adquiridas ou congênitas, com alta prevalência na população hispânica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estabelecer a correlação entre o índice de massa corporal e o grau ultrassonográfico de esteatose hepática em crianças e adolescentes em exame de saúde. Métodos: O presente estudo observacional, analítico, transversal e retrospectivo foi realizado em pacientes de 2 a 17 anos com esteatose hepática, atendidos no ambulatório do Hospital de Niños Dr. Roberto Gilbert Elizalde, Guayaquil-Equador, entre os anos de 2015 a 2019. Peso, altura, índice de massa corporal, grau de esteatose e níveis de AST e ALT foram medidos. Uma análise de correlação foi estabelecida entre a esteatose como variável dependente. Resultados: Entraram no estudo 77 casos com idade média de 11 anos e o gênero feminino representou 39% da amostra. Não houve associação entre o grau de ultrassom de esteatose hepática vs. idade, sexo, peso, altura ou índice de massa corporal. Na análise entre os níveis de transaminase em pacientes com grau de ultrassom de leve a grave, um aumento significativo na AST (P = 0,003) e um aumento moderadamente significativo na ALT (P = 0,0583) foram observados. Conclusões: Este estudo demonstrou não haver correlação do grau de esteatose ultrassonográfica com o índice de massa corporal. A detecção precoce da esteatose hepática com as ferramentas adequadas deve ser uma prioridade no atendimento de pacientes pediátricos para evitar sua progressão para cirrose hepática, para a qual o uso de transaminases como método de rastreamento é recomendado para pacientes com fatores de risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Ultrasonography , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Child , Alanine Transaminase
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 234-239, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285332

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The vitamin B12 absorption can be affected in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and low serum vitamin B12 levels has been related to the high homocysteine (HCY) levels and to the degree of NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: To carry out a systematic review and metanalysis of serum vitamin B12 and HCY levels in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Original studies including serum vitamin B12 and HCY levels in humans with NAFLD were included. The searches were performed in four databases. RESULTS: 159 studies were identified, and after excluding the duplicates and non-eligible titles, eight original articles were included. Six out of eight showed higher B12 levels in NAFLD patients (404.9±136.2 pg/mL in relation to controls 353.91±117.3 pg/mL). Seven of the eight studies also showed higher HCY levels in NAFLD patients (14.2±3.44 umol/L in relation to controls 11.05±3.6 umol/L). The results for serum vitamin B12 and HCY levels were submitted to metanalysis, showing no difference in the vitamin B12 levels between patients with NAFLD and controls. However, the levels of Hcy were higher in NAFLD patients than in controls. CONCLUSION: There was no relashionship between the vitamin B12 levels and NAFLD. The levels of HCY were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD, suggesting this could be a potential marker for liver damage.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A absorção de vitamina B12 pode ser afetada em pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA), e baixos níveis séricos de vitamina B12 têm sido relacionados a níveis elevados de homocisteína (HCI) ao grau de DHGNA. OBJETIVO: Realizar revisão sistemática e metanálise dos níveis séricos de vitamina B12 e de HCI em pacientes com DHGNA. MÉTODOS: Estudos originais que incluíssem avaliação dos níveis séricos de vitamina B12 e de HCI em humanos com DHGNA foram incluídos. As buscas foram realizadas em quatro bases de dados. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 159 estudos e, após exclusão das duplicatas e dos não elegíveis, oito artigos originais foram incluídos. Seis dos oito artigos apresentaram níveis mais elevados de vitamina B12 nos pacientes com DHGNA (404,9±136,2 pg/mL) em relação aos controles (353,91±117,3 pg/mL). Sete dos oito estudos determinaram os níveis de HCI, estando aumentados em pacientes com DHGNA (14,2±3,44 umol/L) em relação aos controles (11,05±3,6 umol/L). Os resultados dos níveis séricos de vitamina B12 e HCI foram submetidos à metanálise, mostrando que não há diferença nos níveis de vitamina B12 entre os pacientes com DHGNA e os controles. No entanto, os níveis de HCI foram maiores nos pacientes com DHGNA do que nos controles. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve relação entre DHGNA e nível sérico de vitamina B12. Os níveis de HCI foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com DHGNA, sugerindo que esse poderia ser um potencial marcador de lesão hepática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Vitamin B 12 , Biomarkers , Folic Acid , Homocysteine
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 139-144, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, and its prevalence is increasing alongside obesity. In United States, NAFLD is already the second leading cause of liver transplantation. The spectrum of the disease ranges from simple steatosis, which has a benign course, to steatohepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and its complications. The rising of noninvasive methods for diagnosing and staging non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis decreases the need of liver biopsy, as well as the costs and the occurrence of complications related to it. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of the triglyceride-glucose index to evaluate steatosis, NASH and liver fibrosis in obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Every medical record of patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery at a leading hospital in Southern Brazil were analyzed. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG Index), a method composed only of two simple laboratory tests (serum triglycerides and fasting glucose levels), was performed prior to surgery. The TyG Index performance regarding the anatomopathological findings was evaluated, and the AUROC curve was calculated to evaluate the best cut-off point for diagnosing steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis grade. Also, the NAFLD fibrosis Score (NFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated. The TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.76 excluded significant simple steatosis (grade 2-3) in obese patients, with 67.6% sensitivity, 65.1% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value (PPV), 81.8% negative predictive value (NPV), 65.8% accuracy and 0.66 AUROC (P=0.005). In the evaluation of NASH, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.82 excluded significant NASH (grade 2-3) with 57.3% sensitivity, 58.6% specificity, 33.7% PPV, 78.8% NPV, 58.2% accuracy and 0.58 AUROC (P=0.022). When evaluating liver fibrosis, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.91 showed a sensitivity of 61.8%, a specificity of 62.5%, a PPV of 13.8 and a NPV of 94.4% for exclusion of advanced fibrosis (F3-4), with a 62.4% accuracy and 0.69 AUROC (P<0.001). When analyzing the performance of NFS in the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, the cut-off point <-1.455 excluded advanced fibrosis with sensitivity of 59.4%, specificity of 51%, PPV of 11%, NPV of 92.4% and accuracy of 51.7%. However, the cut-off point of 0.676 to diagnose advanced fibrosis presented sensitivity of 21.9%, specificity of 83%, PPV of 11.7%, NPV of 91.2% and 77.3% accuracy. The AUROC was 0.54 (P=0.480). CONCLUSION: TyG Index did not perform well in the diagnosis of significant steatosis and NASH. However, it was able to exclude advanced fibrosis in obese patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica (DHGNA) é a doença hepática mais prevalente no mundo. Nos Estados Unidos, a DHGNA já é a segunda causa de transplante hepático. O espectro da doença abrange desde a esteatose simples, que apresenta curso benigno, até esteato-hepatite não-alcoólica (EHNA), que pode progredir para cirrose e suas complicações. O desenvolvimento de métodos não invasivos para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da EHNA e da fibrose hepática visa diminuir a necessidade de biópsia hepática, um procedimento invasivo e não raro associado a complicações. OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho do índice triglicerídeo-glicose (TyG Index) para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da DHGNA em pacientes obesos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal retrospectivo. Foram analisados todos os prontuários de pacientes candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica em um hospital de referência do Sul do Brasil e calculado o TyG Index, um escore composto por dois exames laboratoriais (triglicerídeos e glicose de jejum), realizados previamente à cirurgia. O desempenho do TyG Index em relação aos achados anatomopatológicos hepáticos foi avaliado, e calculada a curva ROC para avaliação de esteatose simples, EHNA e fibrose hepática. O NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) também foi avaliado. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 423 pacientes. O melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index para a exclusão de esteatose simples significativa (grau 2-3) foi de 8,76, com sensibilidade 67,6%, especificidade 65,1%, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) 46,3%, valor preditivo negativo (VPN) 81,8%, acurácia 65,8% e AUROC 0,66 (P=0,005). Na avaliação de EHNA significativa (grau 2-3), o melhor ponto de corte foi de 8,82 com sensibilidade 57,3%, especificidade 58,6%, VPP 33,7%, VPN 78,8%, acurácia 58,8% e AUROC 0,58 (P=0,022). Em relação à fibrose avançada (grau 3-4), o melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index foi de 8,91 com sensibilidade 61,8%, especificidade 62,5%, VPP 13,8%, VPN 94,4%, acurácia 62,4% e AUROC 0,69 (P<0,001). Ao analisarmos o desempenho do NFS no diagnóstico de fibrose avançada, o ponto de corte de <-1,455 excluiu fibrose avançada com sensibilidade 59,4%, especificidade 51%, VPP 11%, VPN 92,4% e acurácia 51,7%. Entretanto, o ponto de corte de 0,676 para fibrose avançada apresentou sensibilidade de 21,9%, especificidade 83%, VPP 11,7%, VPN 91,2% e acurácia 77,3%. A AUROC foi de 0,54 (P=0,480). CONCLUSÃO: O TyG Index não apresentou bom desempenho para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da esteatose simples e da EHNA. Entretanto, foi capaz de excluir fibrose avançada em pacientes obesos candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glucose , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Obesity
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 157-163, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285317

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered a global public health problem, with changes in lifestyle being the effective way to treat the disease. To date, there is no recommended standard of assessment to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE) of patients with NAFLD, so that dietary therapy can be properly guided. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the REE of patients with NAFLD through indirect calorimetry and compare with different predictive formulas of REE and with REE by electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Assess body composition through BIA, with NAFLD staging and the presence of comorbidities. METHODS: They were evaluated in patients with NAFLD over 18 years of age treated at the Gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a tertiary level hospital in southern Brazil. NAFLD staging was performed using liver biopsy or a non-invasive method. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined in all patients. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Comorbidities as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were evaluated. To estimate energy expenditure at rest, Harris-Benedict, Jeor Mifflin-St, World Health Organization and Schofield formulas were used. BIA was used to assess resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body mass, and to measure RMR, indirect calorimetry was also used. Associations between categorical variables were tested with Pearson's χ2 test and between groups with McNemar's test. The level of significance assumed was 5%. The degree of agreement between the REE measurement methods was assessed using the Blan-Altman test. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients were evaluated, 70.5% male, with a mean age of 59 years and a mean BMI of 33.08 kg/m2 ±5.13. The average RMR per CI was 1,753 kcal ±614.58. When comparing the RMR estimate by different formulas with indirect calorimetry, only the Jeor Mifflin-St formula showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001), with a difference of +318.49 kcal. BIA and Harris Benedict's formula presented values closer to CI, 1,658 and 1,845 kcal respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the Jeor Mifflin-St formula should not be used to estimate the RMR in patients with NAFLD. In the absence of indirect calorimetry, some alternatives can be used safely in this population, such as BIA and the predictive formulas of Harris Benedict, Schofield and the World Health Organization.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é considerada, atualmente, um problema de saúde pública global, sendo a mudança no estilo de vida a forma efetiva de tratar a doença. Até o momento não há um padrão de avaliação recomendado para determinar o gasto energético de repouso (GER) de pacientes com DHGNA, para que se possa nortear adequadamente a conduta dietoterápica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o GER de pacientes com DHGNA através da calorimetria indireta (CI) e comparar com diferentes fórmulas preditivas do GER e com GER através da bioimpedância elétrica (BIA). Avaliar a composição corporal através da BIA, com o estadiamento da DHGNA e com a presença de comorbidades. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em pacientes com DHGNA maiores de 18 anos de idade atendidos no ambulatório de Gastroenterologia de um Hospital de nível terciário do Sul do Brasil. O estadiamento da DHGNA foi realizado através de biópsia hepática ou método não invasivo. Peso, altura e índice de massa corporal (IMC) foram determinados em todos os pacientes. Para avaliação da atividade física foi utilizada a versão curta do International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Foram avaliadas as comorbidades hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus e dislipidemia. Para a estimativa do gasto energético de repouso utilizou-se as fórmulas de Harris-Benedict, de Jeor Mifflin-St, da Organização Mundial de Saúde e de Schofield. A BIA foi utilizada para avaliação do GER e da massa corporal, e para aferição do GER também se utilizou a CI. Associações entre variáveis categóricas foram testadas com teste χ2 de Pearson e entre grupos com teste de McNemar. O nível de significância assumido foi de 5%. O grau de concordância entre os métodos de mensuração do GER foi aferido pelo teste de Blan-Altman. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 67 pacientes, sendo 70,5% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 59 anos e média de IMC 33,08 kg/m2 ±5,13. O GER médio por CI foi de 1.753 kcal ±614,58. Ao comparar a estimativa do GER por diferentes fórmulas com a calorimetria indireta, apenas a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (P=0,0001), com uma diferença de +318,49 kcal. A BIA e a fórmula de Harris Benedict apresentaram valores mais próximos à CI, 1.658 e 1.845 kcal respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Sugerimos que a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St não deva ser utilizada para estimativa do GER em pacientes com DHGNA. Na ausência da CI algumas alternativas podem ser utilizadas com segurança nesta população, como a BIA e as fórmulas preditivas de Harris Benedict, de Schofield e da Organização Mundial de Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Basal Metabolism , Calorimetry, Indirect , Body Mass Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Energy Metabolism , Middle Aged
6.
Medisan ; 25(2)mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250342

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica se caracteriza por un aumento de la acumulación de lípidos (triglicéridos) de forma macrovesicular, en más de 5 % de los hepatocitos, asociado o no a inflamación y/o fibrosis hepática. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica según variables de interés para el estudio. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 95 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, desde junio hasta diciembre de 2018. Entre las variables figuraron: edad, sexo, factores de riesgo, resultados de exámenes complementarios, ecografía hepática y factores de pronósticos clínicos para la fibrosis. Resultados: En la serie predominaron los grupos etarios de 35-44 y de 45-54 años (65,2 %, respectivamente), el sexo femenino, la obesidad como principal factor de riesgo (50,5 %), la transaminasa glutámico pirúvica-alanina aminotransferasa (39,0 %) entre los exámenes complementario con valores alterados y la esteatosis hepática moderada como hallazgo ecográfico (55,8 %), entre otros. Conclusiones: La enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica prevaleció en los pacientes entre 35-54 años, donde la obesidad constituyó el factor de riesgo más importante; asimismo, un mayor número de pacientes presentó cifras elevadas de transaminasa glutámico pirúvica-alanina aminotransferasa y los hallazgos ecográficos revelaron la primacía de la esteatosis moderada. La presencia de 4 o más factores pronósticos constituyó un riesgo para el desarrollo de fibrosis hepática.


Introduction: The non alcoholic fatty hepatic disease is characterized by an increase of the lipids accumulation (triglycerides) in a macrovesicular way, in more than 5 % of the hepatic cells, associated or not with inflammation and/or hepatic fibrosis. Objective: To characterize patients with non alcoholic fatty hepatic disease according to variables of interest for the study. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients assisted in the Gastroenterology Service of Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from June to December, 2018. Among the variables figured: age, sex, risk factors, results of complementary exams, hepatic echography and clinical prognosis factors for the fibrosis. Results: In the series there was a prevalence of the 35-44 and 45-54 age groups (65.2 %, respectively), female sex, obesity as main risk factor (50.5 %), transaminase glutamic piruvic-alanineaminotransferase (39.0 %) among the complementary exams with altered values and the moderate fatty liver as echographic finding (55.8 %), among others. Conclusions: The non alcoholic fatty hepatic disease prevailed in patients between 35-54 years, where obesity constituted the most important risk factor; also, a greater number of patients presented high figures of transaminase glutamic piruvic-alanineaminotransferase and the echographic findings revealed the primacy of the moderate steatosis. The presence of 4 or more prognosis factors constituted a risk for the development of hepatic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Secondary Care , Alanine Transaminase
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe): 37-39, Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156122

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT As a common metabolic disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of liver disease in western developed countries and an important liver disease in the Asia Pacific region. At present, NAFLD lacks targeted conventional therapy and its basic treatment is the correction of bad living habits. In order to verify the effectiveness of the basic treatment of NAFLD, and explore the prevention methods of NAFLD, this study used ultrasound diagnosis, baseline survey and follow-up survey, and conducted a cross-sectional study on the correlation between nighttime and midday sleep duration and NAFLD, and carried out a prospective study on the correlation between sleep duration and NAFLD. The results showed that there was a negative correlation between the length of sleep at night and the prevalence of NAFLD, while the length of midday sleep was positively correlated with the prevalence of NAFLD. The time of night sleep was an independent factor of NAFLD, and the relationship between midday sleep time and NAFLD was not statistically significant. NAFLD-susceptible people can prevent NAFLD by ensuring adequate sleep at night and reducing midday sleep. This study is expected to provide theoretical reference and data support for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.


RESUMO Como uma doença metabólica comum, a doença doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é o tipo de doença hepática mais comum nos países desenvolvidos ocidentais e uma doença hepática importante na região Ásia Pacífico. Atualmente, a DHGNA carece de terapia convencional orientada, e seu tratamento básico é a correção de maus hábitos de vida. A fim de verificar a eficácia do tratamento básico da DHGNA e explorar os métodos de prevenção da DHGNA, este estudo, baseado no diagnóstico por ultrassom, através do inquérito de base e do inquérito de acompanhamento, consistiu de estudo transversal sobre a correlação entre a duração do sono à noite e de dia e a DHGNA, e realizou um estudo prospectivo sobre a correlação entre a duração do sono e a DHGNA. Os resultados mostraram que havia uma correlação negativa entre a duração do sono à noite e a prevalência de DHGNA, enquanto a duração do sono de dia estava positivamente correlacionada com a prevalência da DHGNA. A hora do sono noturno foi um fator independente de DHGNA, e a relação entre o sono de dia e DHGNA não foi estatisticamente significativa. As pessoas sensíveis à DHGNA podem prevenir a DHGNA garantindo o sono adequado à noite e reduzindo o sono de dia. Espera-se que este estudo possa fornecer referências teóricas e suporte de dados para a prevenção e tratamento da DHGNA.


RESUMEN Como enfermedad metabólica común, la enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (NAFLD) es el tipo más común de enfermedad hepática en los países desarrollados occidentales y una enfermedad hepática importante en la región de Asia que da al Pacífico. En la actualidad, la EHGNA carece de terapia convencional dirigida y su tratamiento básico es la corrección de los malos hábitos de vida. Con el fin de verificar la efectividad del tratamiento básico y explorar los métodos de prevención de la EHGNA, este estudio utilizó un diagnóstico por ultrasonido, una encuesta de referencia y una encuesta de seguimiento, condujo un estudio transversal sobre la correlación entre la duración del sueño nocturno y la siesta y la EHGNA, y realizó un estudio prospectivo sobre la correlación entre la duración del sueño y la EHGNA. Los resultados mostraron que hubo una correlación negativa entre la duración del sueño por la noche y la prevalencia de EHGNA, mientras que la duración de la siesta se correlacionó positivamente con la prevalencia de EHGNA. El tiempo de sueño nocturno fue un factor independiente de la EHGNA, y la relación entre el tiempo de siesta y la EHGNA no fue estadísticamente significativa. Las personas susceptibles a la EHGNA pueden prevenirla asegurando un sueño adecuado por la noche y reduciendo la siesta. Se espera que este estudio proporcione referencias teóricas y soporte de datos para la prevención y el tratamiento de la EHGNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Sleep Hygiene , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control
8.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 7-13, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) es la forma más común de enfermedad hepática. A nivel celular se caracteriza por la acumulación de triglicéridos (TG) en forma de gotas lipídicas (GL) dando lugar a esteatosis e inflamación. Entre los factores relevantes para la síntesis de TG se encuentran las enzimas DGAT1/2 que catalizan la etapa final de la síntesis de TG, y la proteína FABP4 que transporta lípidos intracelulares y se expresa en modelos de enfermedad hepática dependiente de obesidad. Por otra parte, TNF-α es una reconocida citoquina involucrada en el proceso inflamatorio en la EHGNA. La medicina popular del norte de Chile ha utilizado la planta Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) para el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades inflamatorias. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de un extracto hidroalcóholico de lampaya (EHL) sobre la esteatosis y expresión de marcadores de inflamación en hepatocitos tratados con ácidos grasos. Diseño experimental: Estudio in vitro en cultivos de la línea celular humana HepG2 tratadas con ácido oleico (AO) y ácido palmítico (AP). MÉTODOS: Se incubó hepatocitos HepG2 con AO/AP por 24 horas en presencia o no de EHL. Se evaluó la presencia de GL y el contenido de TG intracelulares por Oil Red O y Nile Red, respectivamente. La expresión de DGAT1/2, FABP4 y TNF-α fue evaluada por qPCR. RESULTADOS: Los hepatocitos tratados con AO/AP mostraron un aumento en las GL y TG, así como una mayor expresión de DGAT2 en comparación al control. El cotratamiento con EHL revirtió los efectos inducidos por AO/AP. CONCLUSIONES: EHL revierte el incremento en las GL, TG y en la expresión de DGAT2 inducido por AO/AP en células HepG2. Estos hallazgos sugieren un efecto hepatoprotector de la Lampaya contra la esteatosis, y apoyarían su uso complementario en el tratamiento de patologías con componente inflamatorio como la EHGNA.


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease. At the cellular level, it is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in the form of lipid droplets (LD), which leads to steatosis and inflammation. Among relevant factors for TG synthesis are the enzymes DGAT1/2 catalyzing the final stage of TG synthesis, and the protein FABP4 which transports intracellular lipids and is expressed in cell models of obesity-dependent liver disease. Additionally, TNF-α is a cytokine involved in the inflammatory process associated to NAFDL. Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine in northern Chile to treat some inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lampaya (HEL) on steatosis and the expression of inflammatory markers in hepatocytes treated with fatty acids. Study design: In vitro study in cultures of the human HepG2 cell line treated with oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA). METHODS: HepG2 hepatocytes were incubated with OA/PA for 24 hours in the presence and absence of HEL. The formation of LD and the accumulation of intracellular TG were assessed by Oil Red O and Nile Red, respectively. The expression of DGAT1/2, FABP4 and TNF-α was assessed by qPCR. RESULTS: The treatment with OA/PA increased the levels of LD and TG as well as the expression of DGAT2 in HepG2 hepatocytes compared to control cells. HEL cotreatment counteracted OA/PA-induced effects. CONCLUSIONS: HEL prevents the increase in LD and TG levels and DGAT2 expression induced by OA/PA in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that lampaya may have a protective effect against hepatic steatosis, which would support its complementary use in the treatment of pathologies associated with inflammation, such as NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Triglycerides/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Cell Survival , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Culture Techniques , Oleic Acid , Ethanol/chemistry , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Inflammation
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11391, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285650

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatosteatosis and steatohepatitis, is intrinsically related to obesity. Our previous study reported on the anti-obese activity of α,β-amyrin (AMY), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Protium heptaphyllum. This study investigated its ability to prevent fatty liver and the underlying mechanism using the mouse model of NAFLD. NAFLD was induced in male Swiss mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. The controls were fed a normal chow diet (ND). The mice were simultaneously treated with AMY at 10 and 20 mg/kg or fenofibrate at 50 mg/kg. Lipid levels along with metabolic and inflammatory parameters were assessed in liver and serum. The liver sections were histologically examined using H&E staining. RT-qPCR and western blotting assays were performed to analyze signaling mechanisms. Mice fed HFD developed severe hepatic steatosis with elevated triglycerides and lipid droplets compared with ND controls. This was associated with a decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, an increase of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, and enhanced sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) expression, which have roles in lipogenesis, inhibition of lipolysis, and inflammatory response. AMY treatment reversed these signaling activities and decreased the severity of hepatic steatosis and inflammatory response, evidenced by serum and liver parameters as well as histological findings. AMY-induced reduction in hepatic steatosis seemed to involve AMPK-mTORC1-SREBP1 signaling pathways, which supported its beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Insulin Resistance , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Liver , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202913, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287885

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background and Aims: An association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been previously suggested. This study aims at investigating this association and at identifying potential links between variables of the NAFLD spectrum and PDAC. Methods: A cross-sectional case-matched analytical and comparative study was carried out to analyze patients undergoing surgical resection of PDAC and compare them to a control group of individuals undergoing cholecystectomy at a public tertiary teaching hospital, matched by sex, age and BMI. Hepatic histopathological examinations were compared between cases and controls. Results: Of 56 individuals, 36 were male (64.3%) and the median age was 61.5 years old (interquartile range: 57.5 - 70). The participants' median BMI was 24.3 kg/m2 (interquartile range: 22.1-26.2 kg/m2). Microvesicular steatosis (p=0.04), hepatocellular ballooning (p=0.02), fibrosis (p=0.0003) and steatohepatitis (p=0.03) were significantly more frequent in the group of cases. Odds ratios for hepatocellular ballooning (6.2; 95%CI: 1.2-31.8; p=0.03), fibrosis (9.3; 95%CI: 2.5-34.1; p=0.0008) and steatohepatitis (3.9; 95%CI: 1.1-14.3; p=0.04) were statistically significant in relation to the PDAC prevalence. Conclusions: Significant associations were identified between histopathological aspects of NAFLD (microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, fibrosis, and steatohepatitis) and PDAC.


RESUMO Histórico e objetivos: a associação entre a doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) e o adenocarcinoma ductal pancreático (ACDP) foi sugerida anteriormente. Este estudo visa investigar esta associação e identificar possíveis ligações entre as variáveis do espectro da DHGNA e o ACDP. Métodos: foi realizado estudo transversal caso-controle analítico e comparativo para analisar pacientes submetidos a ressecção cirúrgica de ACDP e compará-los a grupo controle de indivíduos submetidos a colecistectomia em hospital público terciário de ensino, pareados por sexo, idade e IMC. Os exames histopatológicos hepáticos foram comparados entre casos e controles. Resultados: dos 56 indivíduos, 36 eram do sexo masculino (64,3%) e a idade mediana era de 61,5 anos de idade (intervalo interquartil 57,5-70). A mediana do IMC dos participantes foi de 24,3 kg/m2 (intervalo interquartil 22,1 26,2). Esteatose microvesicular (p = 0,04), balonização hepatocelular (p = 0,02), fibrose (p = 0,0003) e esteato-hepatite (p = 0,03) foram significativamente mais frequentes no grupo de casos. As razões de chances para balonização hepatocelular (6,2; IC 95%: 1,2 - 31,8; p = 0,03), fibrose (9,3; IC 95%: 2,5 - 34,1; p = 0,0008) e esteato-hepatite (3,9; IC 95%: 1,1 - 14,3; p = 0,04) foram estatisticamente significativas em relação à prevalência de ACDP. Conclusões: houve associações significativas entre aspectos histopatológicos de DHGNA (esteatose microvesicular, balonização hepatocelular, fibrose e esteato-hepatite) e a ocorrência de ACDP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Middle Aged
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879264

ABSTRACT

Unhealthy diet, habits and drug abuse cause a variety of liver diseases, including steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, which seriously affect human health. The fabrication of highly simulated cell models in vitro is important in the treatment of liver diseases and drug development. This article summarized the common strategies for the construction of liver pathology models


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879186

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) was induced by high-sugar and high-fat diet in mice to investigate the intervention effect of total saponins from Panax japonicus(TSPJ) and explore its possible mechanism. Mice were fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet to establish NASH model, and intervened with different doses of TSPJ(15, 45 mg·kg~(-1)). The animals were fed for 26 weeks. The histomorphology and pathological changes of liver tissues were observed by HE staining. The transcriptional expression levels of miR-199 a-5 p, autophagy related gene 5(ATG5) and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) in mouse liver were measured by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR). Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy-related proteins ATG5, P62/SQSTM1(P62), and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3)-I/Ⅱ proteins in mouse liver. The expression of P62 protein was detected by immunofluorescence staining. In order to verify the targeting regulation relationship between miR-199 a-5 p and ATG5, miR mimic/inhibitor NC and miR-199 a-5 p mimic/inhibitor were transfected into Hepa 1-6 cells, and the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein was detected. pMIR-reportor ATG5-3'UTR luciferase reporter gene plasmid was constructed and co-transfected with miR mimic/inhibitor NC and miR-199 a-5 p mimic/inhibitor into Hepa 1-6 cells to detect luciferase activity. In vivo, HE staining in the model group showed typical fatty degeneration and inflammatory infiltration, with increased expression of miR-199 a-5 p and decreased expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein. The expression of autophagy-associated protein P62 increased significantly, the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ decreased, and the transcriptional expression of inflammatory factors increased significantly. After the intervention by TSPJ, the pathological performance of liver tissue was significantly improved, the expression of miR-199 a-5 p decreased and the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein increased, the expression of autophagy-associated protein P62 decreased significantly, the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ increased, and the transcriptional expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α decreased significantly. In vitro, it was found that the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein and luciferase activity decreased significantly in miR-199 a-5 p overexpression cells, while after inhibition of miR-199 a-5 p expression, the expression level of ATG5 mRNA and protein and luciferase activity increased. The results showed that TSPJ can improve NASH in mice fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of miR-199 a-5 p/ATG5 signal pathway, the regulation of autophagy activity and the improvement of inflammatory response of NASH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Protein 5 , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Panax , Saponins/pharmacology
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 471-476, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common forms of chronic liver disease worldwide. Approximately 20% of individuals with NAFLD develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with increased risk of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Intestinal microflora, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease, as demonstrated in several clinical and experimental studies, by altering intestinal permeability and allowing bacterial endotoxins to enter the circulation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SIBO and endotoxin serum levels with clinical, laboratory, and histopathological aspects of NAFLD and the relationship between SIBO and endotoxin serum levels before and after antibiotic therapy. METHODS: Adult patients with a histological diagnosis of NAFLD, without cirrhosis were included. A comprehensive biochemistry panel, lactulose breath test (for diagnosis of SIBO), and serum endotoxin measurement (chromogenic LAL assay) were performed. SIBO was treated with metronidazole 250 mg q8h for 10 days and refractory cases were given ciprofloxacin 500 mg q12h for 10 days. RESULTS: Overall, 42 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of NAFLD were examined. The prevalence of SIBO was 26.2%. Comparison of demographic and biochemical parameters between patients with SIBO and those without SIBO revealed no statistically significant differences, except for use of proton pump inhibitors, which was significantly more frequent in patients with positive breath testing. The presence of SIBO was also associated with greater severity of hepatocellular ballooning on liver biopsy. Although the sample, as a whole, have elevated circulating endotoxin levels, we found no significant differences in this parameter between the groups with and without SIBO. Endotoxin values before and after antibiotic treatment did not differ, even on paired analysis, suggesting absence of any relationship between these factors. Serum endotoxin levels were inversely correlated with HDL levels, and directly correlated with triglyceride levels. CONCLUSION: Serum endotoxin levels did not differ between patients with and without SIBO, nor did these levels change after antibacterial therapy, virtually ruling out the possibility that elevated endotoxinemia in non-cirrhotic patients with NAFLD is associated with SIBO. Presence of SIBO was associated with greater severity of ballooning degeneration on liver biopsy, but not with a significantly higher prevalence of NASH. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility and importance of this finding in patients with NAFLD and SIBO.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é uma das doenças hepáticas crônicas mais comuns em todo o mundo. Aproximadamente 20% dos indivíduos com DHGNA desenvolvem esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (EHNA) que está associada a maior risco de cirrose, hipertensão portal e/ou carcinoma hepatocelular. Alterações da microflora intestinal, incluindo o supercrescimento bacteriano intestinal (SBI), parecem ter um papel importante na patogênese da doença, como demonstrado em estudos clínicos e experimentais, pela alteração da permeabilidade intestinal e permitindo que endotoxinas bacterianas alcancem a circulação sanguínea. OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre o SBI e níveis de endotoxina sérica em pacientes não cirróticos com DHGNA, com os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e histopatológicos da doença e a relação entre SBI e níveis séricos de endotoxina antes e após tratamento com antibiótico. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes maiores de 18 anos e com diagnóstico histológico de DHGNA, sem cirrose. Foram realizados: avaliação bioquímica geral, teste do H2 expirado com lactulose para diagnóstico de SBI e dosagem de endotoxina sérica - ensaio cromogênico para LAL. Para o tratamento do SBI utilizamos o metronidazol 250 mg de 8/8 horas por 10 dias e para os casos de retratamento foi utilizado ciprofloxacino 500 mg de 12/12 horas por 10 dias. RESULTADOS: Incluímos 42 pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de DHGNA. A prevalência de SBI foi de 26,2%. Quando comparamos o grupo dos pacientes com SBI com aquele sem SBI e analisamos suas variáveis demográficas e bioquímicas, não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significante entre elas, exceto pela utilização de inibidores de bomba de próton, que foi significantemente mais frequente nos pacientes com teste respiratório positivo. A presença de SBI também esteve associada à maior intensidade de balonização na biópsia hepática, quando comparados àqueles sem SBI. Embora o grupo como um todo apresentasse elevação dos níveis circulantes de endotoxinas, não pudemos encontrar diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos com e sem SBI. Os valores de endotoxinas pré e pós tratamento antibiótico não diferiram entre si, mesmo em análise pareada, sugerindo ausência de relação entre esses fatores. Os níveis de endotoxina sérica apresentaram correlação inversa com os níveis de HDL e correlação direta com os níveis de triglicerídeos. CONCLUSÃO: Níveis de endotoxinas séricas não diferiram entre os pacientes com e sem SBI, e que esses níveis não se modificaram após tratamento medicamentoso da proliferação bacteriana, praticamente excluindo a possibilidade de que os níveis elevados de endotoxemia estejam relacionados à SBI. A presença dessa proliferação bacteriana esteve associada à maior intensidade de balonização na biópsia hepática, mas não à maior prevalência de EHNA entre os portadores de SBI. Estudos complementares são necessários para avaliar a reprodutibilidade e a importância desse achado em portadores de DHGNA com SBI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Reproducibility of Results , Endotoxins , Intestine, Small , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 249-253, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131676

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Copper deficiency has been linked to alterations in lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). One of the enzymes that neutralize oxidative stress is Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which depends on the availability of adequate amounts of copper. OBJECTIVE: Correlate the levels of ceruloplasmin and of non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper (NCBC) with clinical, biochemical and histological parameters of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. METHODS: Data from 95 consecutively admitted NAFLD patients who underwent liver biopsy composed the groups based on ceruloplasmin levels lower than 25 mg/dL and on negative NCBC. The risk factors for NAFLD in each group were compared. RESULTS: Body mass index was lower in patients with ceruloplasmin <25 mg/dL (29.1±3.47 vs 32.8±6.24 kg/m2; P=0.005) as were the levels of LDL, HDL and total cholesterol, when compared with their counterparts with ceruloplasmin >25 mg/dL (101±38 vs 116±35 mg/dL, P=0.05; 43±9 vs 51±16 mg/dL, P=0.01; 174±43 vs 197±39 mg/dL, P=0.01, respectively). Mean serum ferritin levels were higher in the ceruloplasmin <25 mg/dL group (343±327 vs 197±190 ng/mL; P=0.02). Otherwise, patients with negative NCBC had higher HOMA-IR (8.2±14.7 vs 4.6±3.7; P=0.03). Age, gender, hypertension and diabetes showed no statistical difference. CONCLUSION: Patients with NAFLD had different clinical and biochemical markers according to the levels of NCBC and ceruloplasmin.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A deficiência de cobre tem sido relacionada a alterações no metabolismo lipídico e esteatose hepática. O estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel fundamental na fisiopatologia da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica. Uma das enzimas que neutralizam o estresse oxidativo é a Cobre/Zinco superoxido dismutase, que depende da disponibilidade de quantidades adequadas de cobre. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar os níveis de ceruloplasmina e de cobre não ligado à ceruloplasmina (NCBC) com parâmetros clínicos, bioquímicos e histológicos de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA). MÉTODOS: Dados de 95 pacientes com DHGNA internados consecutivamente e submetidos à biópsia hepática compuseram os grupos com base em níveis de ceruloplasmina inferiores a 25 mg/dL e em NCBC negativo. Os fatores de risco para DHGNA em cada grupo foram comparados. RESULTADOS: O índice de massa corporal foi menor nos pacientes com ceruloplasmina <25 mg/dL (29,1±3,47 vs 32,8±6,24 kg/m2; P=0,005), assim como os níveis de LDL, HDL e colesterol total, quando comparados aos seus pares com ceruloplasmina >25 mg/dL (101±38 vs 116±35 mg/dL, P=0,05; 43±9 vs 51±16 mg/dL, P=0,01; 174±43 vs 197±39 mg/dL, P=0,01, respectivamente). Os níveis médios de ferritina sérica foram maiores no grupo ceruloplasmina <25 mg/dL (343±327 vs 197±190 mg/mL; P=0,02). Os pacientes com NCBC negativo apresentaram maior HOMA-IR (8,2±14,7 vs 4,6±3,7; P=0,03). Idade, sexo, hipertensão e diabetes não mostraram diferença estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com DHGNA apresentaram diferentes marcadores clínicos e bioquímicos de acordo com os níveis de NCBC e ceruloplasmina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Phenotype , Ceruloplasmin/analysis , Ceruloplasmin/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Copper
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(4): 371-387, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154830

ABSTRACT

Resumen El hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA) es la enfermedad hepática crónica más frecuente en todo el mundo, con una prevalencia aproximada de 25% a nivel global. Su prevalencia es mucho mayor en pacientes con sobrepeso, obesidad y diabetes tipo 2 y es considerada como la manifestación hepática del síndrome metabólico. El espectro de la enfermedad hepática es muy amplio, desde la esteatosis simple a la esteatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrosis y sus complicaciones, como el hepatocarcinoma. La mayoría de los pacientes afectados no progresará a la fibrosis avanzada/cirrosis. A pesar de esto, se ha descripto que la hepatopatía es la tercera causa de muerte entre los pacientes con HGNA, luego de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y las malignas. Entre la enorme cantidad de afectados, lo más importante es identificar a los que están en riesgo de evolución a la cirrosis o sus complicaciones y conocer las opciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento. En esta Guía organizada por la Asociación Argentina para el Estudio de las Enfermedades del Hígado se revisan las definiciones, los aspectos epidemiológicos, la historia natural y un enfoque práctico sobre algoritmos posibles para estimar la gravedad de la hepatopatía en cada caso, además de analizar los avances en el tratamiento y recomendaciones para el seguimiento. Es importante señalar que no se han publicado datos sobre incidencia o prevalencia de la enfermedad en población general de Argentina, y se alienta a la realización de los mismos.


Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent chronic liver disease worldwide, with an estimated global prevalence of approximately 25%, that is much higher in patients with overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD is considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It has a wide spectrum, from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and its complications, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Most of the affected patients will not evolve to advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. Despite this, it has been described that the hepatic disease is the third cause of death among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver, after cardiovascular and malignant diseases. Among the huge number of patients affected, the main challenge is to identify those who are at risk of developing cirrhosis or its complications and to recognize the diagnostic and treatment options. In this Guideline, endorsed by the Argentine Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, the definitions, epidemiological aspects, natural history and a practical approach to possible algorithms to estimate the severity of liver disease in the individual patient are reviewed; in addition to analyzing advances in treatment and proposing recommendations for follow-up. It is important to note that no data on the incidence or prevalence of the disease have been published in the general population of Argentina, and it is encouraged to carry them out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Argentina , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 203-208, Apr.-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131642

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing global health concern defined by excessive hepatic fat content in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption. OBJECTIVE: Given the pivotal role of insulin resistance in NAFLD, we hypothesized that insulin (INS) and insulin receptor (INSR) gene polymorphisms may be associated with NAFLD risk. METHODS: A total of 312 subjects, including 153 cases with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 159 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Four polymorphisms in INS (rs3842752, rs689) and INSR (rs1052371, rs1799817) genes were genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. RESULTS: The cases with NAFLD were older and had higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, as well as higher serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyl transferase than the controls (P<0.001). The "TT" genotype of INSR rs1799817 compared with "CC" genotype occurred more frequently in the controls than the cases with NAFLD and the difference remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (P=0.018; OR=0.10, 95%CI=0.02-0.76). However, no significant difference was found for INS rs3842752, INS rs689, and INSR rs1052371 gene polymorphisms between the cases with NAFLD and the controls either before or after adjustment for the confounders. CONCLUSION: These findings corroborate the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms related to insulin resistance play a role in NAFLD susceptibility. Specifically, the INSR rs1799817 "TT" genotype had a protective effect for NAFLD. However, our results remain to be validated in other studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (NAFLD) é uma preocupação global crescente da saúde definida pelo excesso de teor de gordura hepática na ausência de consumo excessivo de álcool. OBJETIVO: Dado o papel crucial da resistência à insulina no NAFLD, criou-se a hipótese de que os polimorfismos genéticos da insulina (INS) e do receptor de insulina (INSR) podem estar associados ao risco de NAFLD. MÉTODOS: Um total de 312 indivíduos, incluindo 153 casos com NAFLD comprovado por biópsia e 159 controles foram inscritos neste estudo de caso-controle. Quatro polimorfismos em genes INS (rs3842752, rs689) e INSR (rs1052371, rs1799817) foram genotipados utilizando o método PCR-RFLP. RESULTADOS: Os casos com NAFLD foram mais idosos e apresentaram maior IMC, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, bem como níveis séricos mais elevados de aspartato aminotransferase, de alanina aminotransferase e de gama glutamil transpeptidase do que os controles (P<0,001). O genótipo "TT" de INSR rs1799817 em comparação com o genótipo "CC" ocorreu com mais frequência nos controles do que os casos com NAFLD e a diferença permaneceu significativa após ajuste para fatores de confusão (P=0,018; OR=0,10, IC95%=0,02-0,76). No entanto, não foi encontrada diferença significativa para INS rs3842752, INS rs689 e INSR rs1052371 polimorfismos genéticos entre os casos com NAFLD e os controles antes ou depois do ajuste para os fatores de confusão. CONCLUSÃO: Esses achados corroboram a hipótese de que os polimorfismos genéticos relacionados à resistência à insulina desempenham um papel na suscetibilidade do NAFLD. Especificamente, o genótipo INSR rs1799817 "TT" teve um efeito protetor para o NAFLD. No entanto, nossos resultados necessitam ser validados em outros estudos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Receptor, Insulin/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Case-Control Studies , Insulin/genetics , Middle Aged
17.
Actual. nutr ; 21(2): 43-49, Abril-Junio de 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282315

ABSTRACT

En las últimas décadas, los cambios en el estilo de vida pro-vocaron un incremento en la prevalencia del síndrome meta-bólico y que la enfermedad por hígado graso no alcohólico (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD sus siglas en inglés) se convierta en la enfermedad hepática crónica más fre-cuente en todo el mundo. Los componentes del síndrome metabólico no son sólo altamente prevalentes en pacientes con hígado graso no alcohólico, sino que a la vez aumentan el riesgo de desarrollarlo. Esta relación bidireccional ha sido claramente establecida. Asimismo se considera que NAFLD podría ser el componente hepático del síndrome metabólico. Aunque NAFLD se considera principalmente una enfermedad benigna, puede progresar a fibrosis hepática grave y carcino-ma hepatocelular (CHC), incluso se encontraría este último en hígados no cirróticos. El objetivo de esta revisión es determinar los procesos fisio-patológicos comunes a estas entidades, cuáles son las estra-tegias diagnósticas recomendadas y cuáles las intervenciones terapéuticas actualmente aprobadas.


Subject(s)
Fibrosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
18.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(1): e178, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126450

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los adolescentes con historia familiar de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 presentan una mayor frecuencia de factores de riesgo cardiometabólico que elevan la probabilidad de desarrollar esta afección. Bajo esta hipótesis, se realizó este estudio. Objetivo: Identificar factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en adolescentes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, como antecedente familiar. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en adolescentes con estos antecedentes en un consultorio del policlínico Luis A. Turcios Lima. Se exploraron variables clínicas, bioquímicas, de imagen y relacionadas con estilos de vida. Resultados: Se estudiaron 40 adolescentes, el 62,5 por ciento masculino. El 90 por ciento tenía como antecedentes otras enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en familiares de primer y segundo grados, con predominio de la hipertensión arterial. En relación a los estilos de vida, predominó el sedentarismo en el 45 por ciento. Se detectó 50 por ciento con obesidad abdominal, 25 por ciento con sobrepeso/obesidad, 15 por ciento con acantosis nigricans y 10 por ciento con prehipertensión. El 10 por ciento mostró dislipidemia y el 30 por ciento hígado graso no alcohólico, que se relacionó con la presencia de acantosis (p= 0,002) y circunferencia de cintura elevada (p= 0,024). El índice cintura-talla ≥ 0,50 se asoció con la presencia de acantosis nigricans (p= 0,000), aumento de la ecogenicidad hepática (p= 0,001) e hipertrigliceridemia (p= 0,000). Conclusiones: El sedentarismo, la obesidad central y el hígado graso no alcohólico, así como, la historia familiar de hipertensión arterial se presenta con elevada frecuencia en adolescentes con antecedentes familiares de DM2(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Adolescents with family history of diabetes mellitus type 2 present a higher frequency of cardiometabolic risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing this condition. Under this hypothesis, this study was conducted. Objective: To identify cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 2 as a family background. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in adolescents with this background in a Family Doctor´s office belonging to ´´Luis A. Turcios Lima´´ Policlinic. Clinical, biochemical, image and related to lifestyle variables were explored. Results: 40 adolescents were studied, 62.5 percent of them were males. The 90 percent had a history of other chronic non-communicable diseases in relatives of first and second degrees, with predominance of arterial hypertension. In relation to the lifestyle, there was a predominance of physical inactivity in the 45 percent. 50 percent was detected with abdominal obesity, 25 percent with overweight/obesity, 15 percent with acanthosis nigricans and 10 percent with pre-hypertension. The 10 percent showed dyslipidemia and the 30 percent had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which was related to the presence of acanthosis nigricans (p= 0,002) and high waist circumference (p= 0.024). The waist/height rate ≥ 0.50 was associated with the presence of acanthosis nigricans (p= 0.000), increased echogenicity of the liver (p=0.001) and hypertriglyceridemia (p= 0.000). Conclusions: A sedentary lifestyle, central obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as family background of hypertension occurs with high frequency in adolescents with family history of diabetes mellitus type 2(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Sedentary Behavior , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control
19.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 17-24, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100762

ABSTRACT

Se estima que aproximadamente 100 trillones de microorganismos (incluidos bacterias, virus y hongos) residen en el intestino humano adulto y que el total del material genético del microbioma es 100 veces superior al del genoma humano. Esta comunidad, conocida como microbioma se adquiere al momento del nacimiento a través de la flora comensal de la piel, vagina y heces de la madre y se mantiene relativamente estable a partir de los dos años desempeñando un papel crítico tanto en el estado de salud como en la enfermedad. El desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, como los secuenciadores de próxima generación (NGS), permiten actualmente realizar un estudio mucho más preciso de ella que en décadas pasadas cuando se limitaba a su cultivo. Si bien esto ha llevado a un crecimiento exponencial en las publicaciones, los datos sobre las poblaciones Latinoamérica son casi inexistentes. La investigación traslacional en microbioma (InTraMic) es una de las líneas que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). Esta se inició en 2018 con la línea de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) en una colaboración con el Colorectal Cancer Research Group del Leeds Institute of Medical Research en el proyecto Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents. A fines de 2019 se cumplió el objetivo de comprobar la factibilidad de la recolección, envío y análisis de muestras de MBF en 5 continentes, incluyendo muestras provenientes de la Argentina, Chile, India y Vietnam. Luego de haber participado de capacitaciones en Inglaterra, se ha cumplido con el objetivo de la etapa piloto, logrando efectivizar la recolección, envío y análisis metagenómico a partir de la secuenciación de la región V4 del ARNr 16S. En 2019, la línea de enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico se sumó a la InTraMic iniciando una caracterización piloto en el marco de una colaboración con el laboratorio Novartis. Los resultados de ese estudio, así como el de cáncer colorrectal, están siendo enviados a publicación. En 2020, con la incorporación de la línea de trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas, fue presentado un proyecto para un subsidio del CONICET que ha superado la primera etapa de evaluación. En el presente artículo se brinda una actualización sobre la caracterización taxonómica de microbioma y se describen las líneas de investigación en curso. (AU)


It is estimated that approximately 100 trillion microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, and fungi) reside in the adult human intestine, and that the total genetic material of the microbiome is 100 times greater than that of the human genome. This community, known as the microbiome, is acquired at birth through the commensal flora of the mother's skin, vagina, and feces and remains relatively stable after two years, playing a critical role in both the state of health and in disease. The development of new technologies, such as next-generation sequencers (NGS), currently allow for a much more precise study of it than in past decades when it was limited to cultivation. Although this has led to exponential growth in publications, data on Latin American populations is almost non-existent. Translational research in microbiome (InTraMic) is one of the lines developed at the Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). This started in 2018 with the Colorectal Cancer Line (CRC) in a collaboration with the Colorectal Cancer Research Group of the Leeds Institute of Medical Research in the project "Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents". At the end of 2019, the objective of verifying the feasibility of collecting, sending and analyzing MBF samples on 5 continents, including samples from Argentina, Chile, India and Vietnam, was met. After having participated in training in England, the objective of the pilot stage has been met, achieving the collection, delivery and metagenomic analysis from the sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA. In 2019, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease line joined InTraMic, initiating a pilot characterization in the framework of a collaboration with the Novartis laboratory. The results of that study, as well as that of colorectal cancer, are being published. In 2020, with the incorporation of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation line, a project was presented for a grant from the CONICET that has passed the first stage of evaluation. This article provides an update on the taxonomic characterization of the microbiome and describes the lines of ongoing research. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Translational Medical Research/organization & administration , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Transplantation, Homologous , Vietnam , Aztreonam/therapeutic use , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/microbiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Classification/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Metagenomics , Translational Medical Research/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/trends , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/microbiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , India , Latin America , Occult Blood
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 81-86, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091908

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with HIV/AIDS. METHODS The systematic review included articles indexed in MEDLINE (by PubMed), Web of Science, IBECS, and LILACS. Studies eligible included the year of publication, diagnose criteria of NAFLD and HIV, and were published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish from 2006 to 2018. The exclusion criteria were studies with HIV-infection patients and other liver diseases. Two reviewers were involved in the study and applied the same methodology, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). RESULTS One hundred and sixteen papers were selected, including full articles, editorial letters, and reviews. Twenty-seven articles were excluded because they did meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 89 articles were read, and 13 were considered eligible for this review. Four case series used imaging methods to identify NAFLD, and nine included histology. The prevalence of NAFLD in HIV-patients ranged from 30%-100% and, in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), from 20% to 89%. A positive association between dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and body mass index was observed. There was no agreement between the studies that evaluated the relationship between antiretroviral drugs and NAFLD. CONCLUSION This systematic review showed a high prevalence of NAFLD in HIV-patients, which was associated with metabolic risk factors. The possible association between antiretroviral therapy and NAFLD needs further studies.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a relevância da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) em pacientes com HIV / AIDS. MÉTODOS A revisão sistemática foi realizada utilizando instrumentos de busca de material científico indexado, incluindo MEDLINE (pela PubMed), Web of Science, IBECS e LILACS. Estudos elegíveis incluíram o ano de publicação, critérios para diagnostico de DHGNA e HIV, publicados em inglês, português e espanhol, entre 2006 a 2018. Os critérios de exclusão incluíram estudos com pacientes com outras doenças do fígado. Dois revisores foram envolvidos na pesquisa dos artigos e o PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta - Analyses) foi utilizado nas análises. RESULTADOS Cento e dezesseis artigos foram selecionados, 27 excluídos porque não preencheram critérios de inclusão e assim, 89 foram lidos pelos investigadores. Desses, 13 artigos foram incluídos na revisão. Quatro séries de casos utilizaram métodos por imagens para identificação de DHGNA e nove estudos utilizaram biópsia hepática. A prevalência de DHGNA em pacientes com HIV variou de 30% a 100% e esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (EHNA) entre 20% e 89%. Na avaliação das principais variáveis estudadas, observou-se a associação positiva entre dislipidemia, resistência à insulina e índice de massa corporal. Não houve concordância entre os artigos que avaliaram a relação dos antiretrovirais com a DHGNA. CONCLUSÕES A presente revisão sistemática sugere elevada prevalência de DHGNA em pacientes infectados com HIV. DHGNA nesses pacientes foi associada principalmente a fatores metabólicos. A possível associação entre terapia antiretroviral e DHGNA nesses pacientes vem sendo discutida, mas são necessários mais estudos para estabelecer essa associação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects
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