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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758890

ABSTRACT

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has various applications in research, as well as in the medical field and animal husbandry. However, the efficiency of SCNT is low and the accurate mechanism of SCNT in murine embryo development is unreported. In general, the developmental rate of SCNT murine embryos is lower than in vivo counterparts. In previous studies, polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) was reported to be a crucial element in cell division including centrosome maturation, cytokinesis, and spindle formation. In an initial series of experiments in this study, BI2536, a Plk1 inhibitor, was treated to in vivo-fertilized embryos and the embryos failed to develop beyond the 2-cell stage. This confirmed previous findings that Plk1 is crucial for the first mitotic division of murine embryos. Next, we investigated Plk1's localization and intensity by immunofluorescence analysis. In contrast to normally developed embryos, SCNT murine embryos that failed to develop exhibited two types of Plk1 expressions; a low Plk1 expression pattern and ectopic expression of Plk1. The results show that Plk1 has a critical role in SCNT murine embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the SCNT murine embryos fail to develop beyond the 2-cell stage, and the embryos show abnormal Plk1 expression patterns, which may one of the main causes of developmental failure of early SCNT murine embryos.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry , Cell Division , Centrosome , Cytokinesis , Ectopic Gene Expression , Embryonic Development , Embryonic Structures , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Phosphotransferases , Pregnancy
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758810

ABSTRACT

Transgenic (TG) pigs are important in biomedical research and are used in disease modeling, pharmaceutical toxicity testing, and regenerative medicine. In this study, we constructed two vector systems by using the promoter of the pig glial fibrillary acidic protein (pGFAP) gene, which is an astrocyte cell marker. We established donor TG fibroblasts with pGFAP-CreER(T2)/LCMV-EGFP(LoxP) and evaluated the effect of the transgenes on TG-somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo development. Cleavage rates were not significantly different between control and transgene-donor groups. Embryo transfer was performed thrice just before ovulation of the surrogate sows. One sow delivered 5 TG piglets at 115 days after pregnancy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with genomic DNA isolated from skin tissues of TG pigs revealed that all 5 TG pigs had the transgenes. EGFP expression in all organs tested was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and PCR. Real-time PCR analysis showed that pGFAP promoter-driven Cre fused to the mutated human ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (CreER(T2)) mRNA was highly expressed in the cerebrum. Semi-nested PCR analysis revealed that CreER(T2)-mediated recombination was induced in cerebrum and cerebellum but not in skin. Thus, we successfully generated a TG pig with a 4-hydroxytamoxifen (TM)-inducible pGFAP-CreER(T2)/EGFP(LoxP) recombination system via SCNT.


Subject(s)
Animals, Genetically Modified , Astrocytes , Central Nervous System , Cerebellum , Cerebrum , DNA , Embryo Transfer , Embryonic Development , Estrogens , Female , Fibroblasts , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Ovulation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombination, Genetic , Regenerative Medicine , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Swine , Tissue Donors , Toxicity Tests , Transgenes
3.
Acta bioeth ; 22(2): 203-211, nov. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-827607

ABSTRACT

En febrero de 2015 el Reino Unido dio el primer paso para la aprobación de la transferencia mitocondrial como técnica terapéutica. Teóricamente, gracias a eso será posible para muchas mujeres engendrar descendencia libre de patologías asociadas a defectos mitocondriales. Sin embargo, esta práctica enfrenta severas dudas desde un punto de vista ético. Entre las objeciones destacan: su estrecha vinculación con la clonación humana; la alteración de los genes de la línea germinal; la modificación de la identidad del ser humano al que dará lugar; la destrucción de embriones humanos que envuelve, o el elevado riesgo que encierra para la salud del ser humano resultante. En este texto se analiza la solvencia de todas estas objeciones de forma crítica, resaltando las fortalezas de algunas de ellas. En particular, se aboga por una restricción cuidadosa del uso de esta técnica, que promueva el empleo de alternativas más respetuosas con la salud del futuro ser humano.


In February 2015 the United Kingdom took the first step towards the adoption of mitochondrial transfer as a therapeutic technique. Theoretically, it will make it possible for many women to get rid of pathologies associated with mitochondrial defects. However, this practice has been subjected to severe doubts from an ethical standpoint. Among these objections, we could highlight the following: its close association with human cloning; the alteration of the germline genes; the modification in the identity of the human being involved; the destruction of human embryos; or the high risk to the health of the human being. In this text we will analyze these objections critically, highlighting the strength of all of them. As a result, we will call for a careful restriction of the use of this technique, and the promotion of the use of alternative options much more respectful of the human future.


Em fevereiro de 2015 o Reino Unido deu o primeiro passo para a aprovação da transferência mitocondrial como técnica terapêutica. Teoricamente, graças a isso será possível a muitas mulheres engendrar descendência livre de patologias associadas a defeitos mitocondriais. No entanto, esta prática enfrenta severas dúvidas a partir de um ponto de vista ético. Entre as objeções destacam: sua estreita vinculação com a clonagem humana; a alteração dos genes da linha germinal; a modificação da identidade do ser humano ao qual dará lugar; a destruição de embriões humanos que envolve, ou o elevado risco que encerra para a saúde do ser humano resultante. Neste texto se analisa a solvência de todas estas objeções de forma crítica, ressaltando as fortalezas de algumas delas. Em particular, se advoga por uma restrição cuidadosa do uso desta técnica, que se promova o emprego de alternativas mais respeitosas com a saúde do futuro ser humano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cloning, Organism/ethics , Genetic Therapy/ethics , Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy/ethics , Mitochondria/transplantation , Nuclear Transfer Techniques/ethics , Bioethics
4.
Acta bioeth ; 22(2): 213-220, nov. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-827608

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades mitocondriales son un grupo de desórdenes clínicamente heterogéneo con manifestaciones clínicas muy variables y alta tasa de morbi-mortalidad. Tienen complejas implicancias en la reproducción, ya que los riesgos de repetición en la familia son variables, 25% en las formas autosómicas recesivas, alrededor de 4% en los casos de mutaciones mitocondriales de novo, y un riesgo incierto pero elevado si la madre es portadora de las mutaciones mitocondriales. Por ello, se proponen distintas técnicas de diagnóstico preimplantacional, prenatal o de reproducción asistida a fin de evitar el nacimiento de niños con esta patología. En el presente trabajo se describen y analizan las implicancias científicas y éticas de las nuevas técnicas de reproducción asistida que se proponen a las familias con alto riesgo.


Mitochondrial diseases are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical features and high morbidity and mortality. As there are different hereditary patterns, complex implications in reproduction are expected; the recurrence risk may be about 25% in autosomal recessive inheritance, 4% in de novo mitochondrial mutations, and an uncertain, but high risk, when the mother is carrier of mitochondrial mutations. Thus, different preimplantation and prenatal diagnosis or assisted reproductive techniques are proposed to avoid the birth of children with these diseases. In this paper scientific and ethical implications of new assisted reproductive techniques offer to high risk families are describe and analyzed.


As enfermidades mitocondriais são um grupo de desordens clinicamente heterogêneos com manifestações clínicas muito variáveis e alta taxa de morbi-mortalidade. Têm complexas implicações na reprodução, já que os riscos de repetição na família são variáveis, 25% nas formas autossômicas recessivas, ao redor de 4% nos casos de mutações mitocondriais de novo, e um risco incerto porém elevado se a mãe é portadora das mutações mitocondriais. Por isso, se propõem distintas técnicas de diagnóstico pré-implantacional, pré-natal ou de reprodução assistida a fim de evitar o nascimento de crianças com esta patologia. No presente trabalho se descrevem e analisam as implicações científicas e éticas das novas técnicas de reprodução assistida que se propõem às famílias com alto risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mitochondrial Diseases , Mitochondria/transplantation , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/ethics , Nuclear Transfer Techniques
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110761

ABSTRACT

Recent developments in genome editing technology using meganucleases demonstrate an efficient method of producing gene edited pigs. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system in generating specific mutations on the pig genome. Specific TALEN was designed to induce a double-strand break on exon 9 of the porcine α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) gene as it is the main cause of hyperacute rejection after xenotransplantation. Human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF) gene, which can produce a complement inhibitor to protect cells from complement attack after xenotransplantation, was also integrated into the genome simultaneously. Plasmids coding for the TALEN pair and hDAF gene were transfected into porcine cells by electroporation to disrupt the porcine GGTA1 gene and express hDAF. The transfected cells were then sorted using a biotin-labeled IB4 lectin attached to magnetic beads to obtain GGTA1 deficient cells. As a result, we established GGTA1 knockout (KO) cell lines with biallelic modification (35.0%) and GGTA1 KO cell lines expressing hDAF (13.0%). When these cells were used for somatic cell nuclear transfer, we successfully obtained live GGTA1 KO pigs expressing hDAF. Our results demonstrate that TALEN-mediated genome editing is efficient and can be successfully used to generate gene edited pigs.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD55 Antigens/genetics , Cell Line , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , Exons/genetics , Galactosyltransferases/genetics , Gene Editing/veterinary , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Swine , Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 329-338, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337411

ABSTRACT

To knock out β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene and insert human lactoferrin (hLF) coding sequence at BLG locus of goat, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) mediated recombination was used to edit the BLG gene of goat fetal fibroblast, then as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We designed a pair of specific plasmid TALEN-3-L/R for goat BLG exon III recognition sites, and BLC14-TK vector containing a negative selection gene HSV-TK, was used for the knock in of hLF gene. TALENs plasmids were transfected into the goat fetal fibroblast cells, and the cells were screened three days by 2 μg/mL puromycin. DNA cleavage activities of cells were verified by PCR amplification and DNA production sequencing. Then, targeting vector BLC14-TK and plasmids TALEN-3-L/R were co-transfected into goat fetal fibroblasts, both 700 μg/mL G418 and 2 μg/mL GCV were simultaneously used to screen G418-resistant cells. Detections of integration and recombination were implemented to obtain cells with hLF gene site-specific integration. We chose targeting cells as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. The mutagenicity of TALEN-3-L/R was between 25% and 30%. A total of 335 reconstructed embryos with 6 BLG-/hLF+ targeting cell lines were transferred into 16 recipient goats. There were 9 pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound on day 30 to 35 (pregnancy rate of 39.1%), and one of 50-day-old fetus with BLG-/hLF+ was achieved. These results provide the basis for hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus of goat and cultivating transgenic goat of low allergens and rich hLF in the milk.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Genetics , Female , Fibroblasts , Gene Knock-In Techniques , Gene Knockout Techniques , Goats , Genetics , Humans , Lactoferrin , Genetics , Lactoglobulins , Genetics , Milk , Chemistry , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Plasmids , Pregnancy , Transfection
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250373

ABSTRACT

Somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) has been considered the most effective method for conserving endangered animals and expanding the quantity of adult animal models. Bama miniature pigs are genetically stable and share similar biological features to humans. These pigs have been used to establish animal models for human diseases, and for many other applications. However, there is a paucity of studies on the effect of ear fibroblasts derived from different age of adult Bama miniature pigs on nucleus transfer (NT). The present study examined the NT efficiency of ear fibroblasts from fetal, newborn, 1-, 2-, 4-, 6-, 12-month-old miniature pigs by using trypan blue staining, flow cytometry and NT technique, etc., and the cell biological function and SCNT efficiency were compared between groups. The results showed that ear fibroblasts grew well after passage in each group. Spindle-shaped cells initially predominated, and gradually declined with increase of culture time and replaced by polygonal cells. Irregular cell growth occurred in the 2-month-old group and the elder groups. The growth curves of the ear fibroblasts were "S-shaped" in different age groups. The cell proliferation of postnatal ear fibroblasts, especially those from 2-, 4-, 6-, 12-month-old miniature pigs was significantly different from that of fetus ear fibroblasts (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Two-month- and 4-month-old ear fibroblasts had a significantly higher proportion of G1 stage cells (85% to 91%) than those at 6 and 12 months (66% to 74%, P<0.01). The blastocyst rate of reconstructed embryos originating from newborn, 1-, 2-, 4-month-old donor pigs was 6.06% to 7.69% with no significant difference from that in fetus fibroblast group (8.06%). It was concluded that <4-month-old adult Bama miniature pigs represent a better donor cell resource than elder pigs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blastocyst , Physiology , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Ear , Embryology , Fibroblasts , Cell Biology , Physiology , Transplantation , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Swine , Swine, Miniature , Embryology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66447

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rapamycin treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) on oocyte maturation and embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs. Morphologically good (MGCOCs) and poor oocytes (MPCOCs) were untreated or treated with 1 nM rapamycin during 0-22 h, 22-42 h, or 0-42 h of IVM. Rapamycin had no significant effects on nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation after PA of MGCOCs. Blastocyst formation after PA was significantly increased by rapamycin treatment during 22-42 h and 0-42 h (46.6% and 46.5%, respectively) relative to the control (33.3%) and 0-22 h groups (38.6%) in MPCOCs. In SCNT, blastocyst formation tended to increase in MPCOCs treated with rapamycin during 0-42 h of IVM relative to untreated oocytes (20.3% vs. 14.3%, 0.05 < p < 0.1), while no improvement was observed in MGCOCs. Gene expression analysis revealed that transcript abundance of Beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 mRNAs was significantly increased in MPCOCs by rapamycin relative to the control. Our results demonstrated that autophagy induction by rapamycin during IVM improved developmental competence of oocytes derived from MPCOCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Female , In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques/veterinary , Nuclear Transfer Techniques/veterinary , Oocytes/growth & development , Parthenogenesis , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Sus scrofa/growth & development
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86394

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%) or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blastocyst/cytology , Cloning, Organism/veterinary , Culture Media/metabolism , Dogs/embryology , Embryo Culture Techniques/veterinary , Embryonic Development , Nuclear Transfer Techniques/veterinary
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86392

ABSTRACT

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a cost-effective technique for producing transgenic pigs. However, abnormalities in the cloned pigs might prevent use these animals for clinical applications or disease modeling. In the present study, we generated several cloned pigs. One of the pigs was found to have intrapancreatic ectopic splenic tissue during histopathology analysis although this animal was grossly normal and genetically identical to the other cloned pigs. Ectopic splenic tissue in the pancreas is very rare, especially in animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report for cloned pigs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Choristoma/pathology , Cloning, Organism , Nuclear Transfer Techniques/veterinary , Pancreas , Splenic Diseases/pathology , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Swine, Miniature
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157121

ABSTRACT

The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ‘discarded’ or ‘spare’ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. in case a couple does not desire to ‘cryopreserve’ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ‘spare’ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ‘cryopreserved’ embryos then these also can be considered as ‘spare’. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, “what about ‘slightly’ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ‘discarded’ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ‘discarding’ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ‘use’ of ESC derived from the ‘abnormal appearing’ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.


Subject(s)
Cryopreservation/methods , Embryo, Mammalian/cytology , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Female , Humans , Nuclear Transfer Techniques
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Oct; 52(10): 925-934
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153779

ABSTRACT

Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 μM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blastocyst/physiology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Embryonic Development/physiology , Female , Male , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Oocytes/physiology , Parthenogenesis , Sheep
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(4): 287-298, 8/4/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705764

ABSTRACT

The compounds 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide promote the successful production of cloned mammals and have been used in the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study investigated the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide in vitro, using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the trypan blue exclusion assay to assess cell viability, the comet assay to assess genotoxicity, and the micronucleus test with cytokinesis block to test mutagenicity. In addition, the comet assay and the micronucleus test were also performed on peripheral blood cells of 54 male Swiss mice, 35 g each, to assess the effects of the compounds in vivo. The results indicated that both 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide, at the concentrations and doses tested, were cytotoxic in vitro and genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, altered the nuclear division index in vitro, but did not diminish cell viability in vitro. Considering that alterations in DNA play important roles in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and morphofunctional teratogenesis and reduce embryonic viability, this study indicated that 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide utilized in the process of mammalian cloning may be responsible for the low embryo viability commonly seen in nuclear transfer after implantation in utero.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Comet Assay , Cloning, Organism/methods , Cycloheximide/toxicity , Mutagens/toxicity , Adenine/toxicity , Cell Culture Techniques , Coloring Agents , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokinesis/drug effects , /drug effects , Mammals , Micronucleus Tests , Mutagenicity Tests , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Tetrazolium Salts/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Trypan Blue/pharmacology
14.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 382-393, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757502

ABSTRACT

Insufficient epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei is believed to be one of the most important causes of low development efficiency of mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Previous studies have shown that both the in vitro and in vivo development of mouse SCNT embryos could be increased significantly by treatment with various histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), including Trichostatin A, Scriptaid, and m-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxamide (CBHA), in which only the effect of CBHA has not yet been tested in other species. In this paper we examine the effect of CBHA treatment on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. We have discovered the optimum dosage and time for CBHA treatment: incubating SCNT embryos with 2 μmol/L CBHA for 24 h after activation could increase the blastocyst rate from 12.7% to 26.5%. Immunofluorescence results showed that the level of acetylation at histone 3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9), acetylation at histone 3 lysine 18 (AcH3K18), and acetylation at histone 4 lysine 16 (AcH4K16) was raised after CBHA treatment. Meanwhile, CBHA treatment improved the expression of development relating genes such as pou5f1, cdx2, and the imprinted genes like igf2. Despite these promising in vitro results and histone reprogramming, the full term development was not significantly increased after treatment. In conclusion, CBHA improves the in vitro development of pig SCNT embryos, increases the global histone acetylation and corrects the expression of some developmentally important genes at early stages. As in mouse SCNT, we have shown that nuclear epigenetic reprogramming in pig early SCNT embryos can be modified by CBHA treatment.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Blastocyst , Cell Biology , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Cinnamates , Pharmacology , Embryo, Mammalian , Metabolism , Embryonic Development , Epigenesis, Genetic , Female , Gene Expression , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Histones , Metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II , Genetics , Metabolism , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Octamer Transcription Factor-3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Swine
15.
IJFS-International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2014; 8 (1): 43-50
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-157595

ABSTRACT

Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation [IVM] medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes [Bubalus bubalis] with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 [TCM-199], 10% fetal bovine serum [FBS], 22 microg/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone [oFSH], 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone [oLH], 1 microg/ml oestradiol, 50 microg/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 [control], 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes [batches of 10 oocytes] were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 microl droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5?C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V - propidium iodide [PI] staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 [control], 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the percentage of oocytes apoptosis was 9.83, 9.54, 9.93, and 10.42%, respectively. Our results showed that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to buffalo IVM medium increased oocyte maturation, significantly, as compared with that in control group. However, addition of leptin to IVM medium had no significant influence on buffalo oocyte apoptosis. Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptosis


Subject(s)
Animals , Leptin/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Embryo Culture Techniques , Social Control, Formal , Buffaloes/embryology , Embryonic Development , Oocytes/ultrastructure , Nuclear Transfer Techniques
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191846

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the expression of three genes related to early embryonic development in bovine transgenic cloned embryos. To accomplish this, development of bovine transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was compared with non-transgenic embryos. Next, mRNA transcription of three specific genes (DNMT1, Hsp 70.1, and Mash2) related to early embryo development in transgenic SCNT embryos was compared between transgenic and non-transgenic SCNTs, parthenogenetic embryos, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Transgenic SCNT embryos showed significantly lower rates of development to the blastocyst stage than non-transgenic ones. To investigate normal gene expression, RNA was extracted from ten blastocysts derived from parthenogenesis, IVF, non-transgenic, and transgenic SCNT embryos and reverse-transcribed to synthesize cDNA. The cDNA was then subjected to PCR amplification and semi-quantified. More DNMT1 mRNA was detected in the transgenic SCNT group than the other three groups. Hsp 70.1 mRNA was detected in the IVF embryos, while lower levels were found in SCNT and parthenogenetic embryos. Mash2 mRNA was present at the highest levels in transgenic SCNT embryos. In conclusion, the higher levels of methylation and lower protein synthesis after heat shock in the transgenic SCNT embryos expected based on our results may cause lower embryonic development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Cattle/embryology , DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases/genetics , Embryo, Mammalian/embryology , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Transfer Techniques/veterinary , Parthenogenesis , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Transcription, Genetic
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56431

ABSTRACT

Various somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) techniques for mammalian species have been developed to adjust species-specific procedures to oocyte-associated differences among species. Species-specific SCNT protocols may result in different expression levels of developmentally important genes that may affect embryonic development and pregnancy. In the present study, porcine oocytes were treated with demecolcine that facilitated enucleation with protruding genetic material. Enucleation and donor cell injection were performed either simultaneously with a single pipette (simplified one-step SCNT; SONT) or separately with different pipettes (conventional two-step SCNT; CTNT) as the control procedure. After blastocysts from both groups were cultured in vitro, the expression levels of developmentally important genes (OCT4, NANOG, EOMES, CDX2, GLUT-1, PolyA, and HSP70) were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both the developmental rate according to blastocyst stage as well as the expression levels CDX2, EOMES, and HSP70 were elevated with SONT compared to CTNT. The genes with elevated expression are known to influence trophectoderm formation and heat stress-induced arrest. These results showed that our SONT technique improved the development of SCNT porcine embryos, and increased the expression of genes that are important for placental formation and stress-induced arrest.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cloning, Organism , Embryo, Mammalian/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Nuclear Transfer Techniques/instrumentation , Oocytes/metabolism , Pregnancy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine/embryology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56419

ABSTRACT

The level of P4 at the time of embryo transfer (ET) is important. P4 concentrations and numbers of corpora lutea for 126 recipients were evaluated. Nuclear transfer embryos were transferred into 126 surrogates. 11 maintained their pregnancy until full-term delivery, 17 miscarried, and implantation failed in 98 animals. P4 levels in the full-term group were significantly different from those of the pigs that aborted or in which implantation failed (p < 0.05). However, the numbers of corpora lutea were not significantly different. These findings indicate that the concentration of progesterone can be an important factor for successful ET in pigs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Corpus Luteum/physiology , Embryo Transfer/veterinary , Embryo, Mammalian/physiology , Female , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Rate , Progesterone/blood , Retrospective Studies , Sus scrofa/physiology
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(supl.1): 113-118, dez. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705861

ABSTRACT

Transgenic technology has become an essential tool for the development of animal biotechnologies, and animal cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enabled the generation of genetically modified animals utilizing previously modified and selected cell lineages as nuclei donors, assuring therefore the generation of homogeneous herds expressing the desired modification. The present study aimed to discuss the use of SCNT as an important methodology for the production of transgenic herds, and also some recent insights on genetic modification of nuclei donors and possible effects of gene induction of pluripotency on SCNT.


Tecnologias de modificação genética têm se tornado ferramentas essenciais para o desenvolvimento de biotecnologias animais. A clonagem animal mediante transferência nuclear de célula somática (TNCS) possibilitou a geração de animais geneticamente modificados através da utilização de linhagens celulares previamente modificadas e selecionadas como doadoras de núcleo, garantindo desta maneira a geração de rebanhos homogênoes expressando a modificação desejada. O presente estudo objetivou discutir o uso da TNCS como importante metodologia para a produção de rebanhos transgênicos, assim como experiências recentes na manipulação genética de células doadoras de núcleo e possíveis efeitos da indução gênica à pluripotência na TNCS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Animals, Genetically Modified/genetics , Biotechnology/methods , Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation , Cloning, Organism/veterinary , Nuclear Transfer Techniques/veterinary
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 158-164, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333121

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to observe the dynamic changes of γ-tubulin in mouse somatic nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos. The γ-tubulin was detected and analyzed in the enucleated oocyte and SCNT embryos by immunofluorescence and laser confocal microscopy. The results showed that γ-tubulin distributed in the cortex of the enucleated MII oocytes, and decreased in this area during the activation of oocytes. Meanwhile cytoplasmic asters appeared, but there was no spindle formed. Spindle formation could be observed in the enucleated oocytes which were injected with cumulus cells and activated by SrCl2. The spots-like γ-tubulin signals spread between chromosomes at the prophase, and the signals arrayed with spindle or aggregated at two poles of the spindle at the early metaphase. Furthermore, γ-tubulin signals were localized between the segregated sister chromatids at anaphase or telophase. Some reconstructed embryos exhibited advanced activation, showing abnormal spindles and aberrant distribution of γ-tubulin and chromosomes. Two spindles would be formed when the cumulus cell was injected into an intact oocyte, and the distribution of γ-tubulin was similar to that of the normal SCNT. Moreover, advanced activation also occurred in this case and formed either two small spindles or one big barrel-shaped spindle. These results suggest that γ-tubulin plays a pivotal role in spindle assembling in mouse SCNT embryos. The reconstructed oocytes were easily to be activated, and aberrant distribution of γ-tubulin is associated with formation of abnormal spindles and chromosome misalignment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Embryo, Mammalian , Metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Metaphase , Mice , Microscopy, Confocal , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Oocytes , Cell Biology , Spindle Apparatus , Metabolism , Telophase , Tubulin , Metabolism
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