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1.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e213, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1339133

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: estimar la ingesta calórica y de nutrientes vinculados con enfermedades no transmisibles, según el nivel de procesamiento de los alimentos, en escolares de 4 a 12 años de la ciudad de Montevideo. Método: estudio transversal a partir de recordatorios de 24 horas realizados en 21 escuelas públicas con servicio de comedor escolar de la ciudad de Montevideo en 2018, en el marco de la evaluación nacional del Programa de Alimentación Escolar (PAE) de la Administración Nacional de Educación Pública. Para esto se analizó el aporte calórico, grasas totales, grasas saturadas, sodio, potasio, fibra dietética y azúcares libres en la dieta de los niños según su origen alimentario. Se utilizó el software PC SIDE para estimar la distribución de la ingesta de nutrientes y ajustar las varianzas interindividuales e intraindividuales. Resultados: en promedio la adecuación calórica alcanzó el 113% del requerimiento para el grupo y el 54% de los escolares consume calorías en forma excesiva. El 28% de las calorías provienen de productos ultraprocesados (PUP) y el 18,9% proviene de azúcares libres, equivalente prácticamente a 100 gramos de consumo diario. El consumo de PUP se constató en prácticamente todos los escolares estudiados y se asoció a un perfil alimentario más desfavorable, lo que se incrementa a medida que aumenta su ingesta. Conclusiones: los datos hallados permiten afirmar que el consumo de PUP es generalizado, de inicio en edades tempranas y que su mayor consumo se asocia a un perfil alimentario desfavorable.


Goals: estimate the caloric and nutritional intake associated with non-communicable diseases, according to the level of food processing in schoolchildren aged 4 to 12 in the city of Montevideo. Method: cross-sectional study based on 24-hour reminders carried out in 21 public schools with a school canteen service in the city of Montevideo in 2018, within the framework of the national evaluation of the School Food Program of the National Public Education Administration. With this purpose, the children's diet source was analyzed in terms of caloric intake, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, potassium, dietary fiber and free sugars. We used PC SIDE software to estimate the distribution of nutrient intake and adjust for interindividual and intraindividual variances. Results: on average, caloric adequacy reached 113% of the group's requirement and 54% of schoolchildren consume calories excessively. 28% of the calories come from Ultra-Processed Products (UPP) and 18.9% come from free sugars, equivalent to practically 100 grams of daily consumption. UPP consumption was found in practically all the schoolchildren studied and was associated with a more unfavorable dietary profile, which increases intake does. Conclusions: these findings enable us to state that the consumption of UPP is generalized, starts at an early age and that its higher consumption is associated with an unfavorable dietary profile.


Objetivos: estimar a ingestão calórica e de nutrientes associada às doenças não transmissíveis, segundo o nível de processamento de alimentos em escolares de 4 a 12 anos na cidade de Montevidéu. Método: estudo transversal com base em lembretes 24 horas realizados em 21 escolas públicas com serviço de cantina escolar na cidade de Montevidéu em 2018, no âmbito da avaliação nacional do Programa de Alimentação Escolar da Administração Nacional de Educação Pública. Para isso, foi analisada a ingestão calórica, gordura total, gordura saturada, sódio, potássio, fibra alimentar e açúcares livres na dieta das crianças, de acordo com a origem alimentar. O software PC SIDE foi usado para estimar a distribuição da ingestão de nutrientes e ajustar as variâncias interindividuais e intraindividuais. Resultados: em média, a adequação calórica atingiu 113% da necessidade do grupo e 54% dos escolares consomem calorias em excesso. 28% das calorias vêm de Produtos Ultraprocessados (PUP) e 18,9% vêm de açúcares livres, o que equivale a praticamente 100 gramas de consumo diário. O consumo de PUPs foi encontrado em praticamente todos os escolares estudados e esteve associado a um perfil alimentar mais desfavorável, que aumenta à medida que aumenta o consumo. Conclusões: os dados encontrados permitem afirmar que o consumo de PUPs é generalizado, acontece a partir de idade precoce e que seu maior consumo está associado a um perfil alimentar desfavorável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Energy Intake , Nutrition Assessment , Child Nutrition , Adolescent Nutrition , Feeding Behavior , Fast Foods , Food Quality , Diet Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutritive Value
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 105-110, maio-ago. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252353

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional em relação à presença de cáries dentárias em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade, do município de Cajamar, São Paulo. Trata-se de estudo transversal com crianças entre 4 a 6 anos (n=1642), acompanhadas pelo Programa Saúde na Escola (PSE) do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo. A classificação do estado nutricional foi baseada no Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e a avaliação das condições bucais, por meio do índice ceo-d e critério para Risco de Cárie. A análise do estado nutricional, faixa etária e sexo conforme o número de cáries, foi feita por meio dos testes Mann-Whitney U e Kruskal-Wallis (p<0,05). Observou-se maior prevalência de meninos entre 4 a 6 anos. Em todas as faixas etárias a prevalência de excesso de peso foi de aproximadamente 30% e eutrofia em torno de 70%. 65% (n=1068) das crianças não apresentavam risco de cárie (A) e 28,8% (n=475), alto risco (D, E e F). Das 1162 crianças sem cáries, 0,2% eram magras (n=2), 67,2% (n=781) eutróficas e 32,7% (n=380) possuíam excesso de peso. A frequência de 1 a 5 cáries maior entre meninas e de 6 ou mais cáries, entre meninos. Segundo estado nutricional, o número médio do número de cáries foi de 2,17 para magreza, 0,93 para eutrofia e 0,65 para excesso de peso (p<0,010). Conclui-se que houve diferença entre número cáries e estado nutricional, na qual crianças com déficit nutricional apresentavam maior número de cáries dentárias comparadas às eutróficas ou com excesso de peso, sugerindo-se a inclusão do estado nutricional na avaliação odontológica.


This article aims at evaluating the nutritional status in relation to the presence of dental caries in children aged 4 to 6 years in the city of Cajamar, in the state of São Paulo. It is a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 6 years (n=1642) accompanied by the School Health Program of the City of Cajamar, São Paulo. The nutritional status classification was based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the evaluation of oral conditions, through the ceo-d index, and criteria for risk for caries. The analysis of the nutritional status, age, and sex according to the number of caries was made through the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p<0.05). A higher prevalence was observed among boys aged 4 to 6 years. In all age groups, there was a prevalence of 30% of overweight children, and eutrophy of approximately 70%. A total of 65% (n=1068) of the children presented no risk of caries (A), whereas 28.8% (n=475) showed high risk (D, E, and F). Among the 1162 children with no caries, 0.2% were thin (n=2); 67.2% (n=781) eutrophic; and 32.7% (n=380) were overweight. Girls presented a higher frequency of 1 to 5 caries while boys presented frequency of having 6 or more caries. According to the nutritional status, the average number of caries was 2.17 for thin individuals; 0.93 for eutrophic individuals; and 0.65 for overweight individuals (p<0.010). It could be concluded that there was a difference between the number of caries and the nutritional status, in which children with nutritional deficit presented a higher number of dental caries when compared to eutrophic or overweight ones, suggesting the inclusion of the nutritional status in the dental evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Nutrition Assessment , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Thinness , Nutrition Programs/organization & administration , Body Mass Index , Public Health/education , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/diagnosis , Dentistry , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Diet, Healthy
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 246-252, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is a chronic and progressive liver disease that occurs from prolonged hepatocellular injury. Malnutrition causes complications in cirrhosis patients that worsen the condition to liver failure. Both are closely linked and increase the chances of morbidity and mortality. Regular nutritional screening and monitoring is prime concern for such patients including comprehensive dietary history, laboratory tests, and evaluation of muscle loss and strength capabilities to determine the degree of frailty. For efficient assessment of liver cirrhosis patients Subjective Global Assessment has been used worldwide. The nutritional objectives for such individuals should be to regain liver functions, to prevent complications associated, and to overcome nutritional deficiencies causing malnutrition. METHODS: We conducted a literature review using PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct for this purpose, a total of 130 articles were reviewed out of which 80 (from the past 5 years) including originally published research, review articles and abstracts were also included. Exclusion criteria of the selected studies was year of publication, irrelevancy and animal studies based on the purpose of current study. The aim of this study was to check nutritional management in patients having complications of liver cirrhosis. RESULTS: According to the guidelines, for the conservation of normal nutritional status of the malnourished patients', energy should be provided 35 kcal/kg/day while to prevent hypoalbuminemia and maintain the protein stores in the body, 1.5 g/kg/day protein has been recommended. Carbohydrates and fats for cirrhosis patients are recommended 50% to 60% and 10% to 20% of the total dietary intake respectively. CONCLUSION: Initial identification and prevention of malnutrition have the probability to lead to better health outcomes, prevention of complications of the disease, and improving quality of life.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A cirrose hepática é uma doença crônica e progressiva que ocorre por lesão hepatocelular prolongada. A desnutrição causa complicações em pacientes com cirrose que pioram a condição para insuficiência hepática. A cirrose e a desnutrição estão intimamente ligadas e aumentam as chances de morbidade e mortalidade. O rastreamento e monitoramento nutricional regulares são as principais preocupações para esses pacientes, incluindo histórico alimentar abrangente, testes laboratoriais e avaliação de capacidades de perda muscular e força para determinar o grau de fragilidade. Para uma avaliação eficiente de pacientes com cirrose hepática, a Avaliação Global Subjetiva tem sido usada em todo o mundo. Os objetivos nutricionais desses indivíduos devem ser recuperar as funções hepáticas, prevenir complicações associadas e superar deficiências nutricionais que causam desnutrição. MÉTODOS: Realizada uma revisão de literatura usando PubMed, Google Scholar e Science Direct para este fim, e um total de 130 artigos foram revisados dos quais 80 (dos últimos 5 anos), incluindo pesquisas publicadas originalmente. Artigos de revisão e resumos também foram incluídos. Os critérios de exclusão dos estudos selecionados foram ano de publicação, irrelevância e estudos em animais com base na finalidade do estudo atual. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o manejo nutricional em pacientes com complicações da cirrose hepática. RESULTADOS: De acordo com as diretrizes, para a conservação do estado nutricional normal dos pacientes desnutridos, a energia deve ser fornecida 35 kcal/kg/dia, enquanto para prevenir hipoalbuminemia e manter os estoques de proteínas no corpo, 1,5 g/kg/dia de proteína foi recomendada. Carboidratos e gorduras para pacientes com cirrose são recomendados de 50% a 60% e 10% a 20% da ingestão alimentar total, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A identificação inicial e a prevenção da desnutrição têm a probabilidade de levar a melhores desfechos de saúde, prevenção de complicações da doença e melhoria da qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutrition Assessment , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Nutritional Status , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
4.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021220, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343353

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Body composition changes related to aging alter the capacity of predicting risk through anthropometric parameters. OBJECTIVE: To discuss methodological aspects of anthropometry in active elderly based on associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and other nutritional indicators. METHODS: Crosssectional study with active elderly from Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2014/2015). Nutritional status was described according to the BMI (Nutritional Screening Initiative, 1994). Linear regression analysis was performed: the outcome variable was BMI and the dependent ones were circumferences of waist, hip, neck, calf, arm and waist-tohip ratio (WHR). RESULTS: We assessed 173 people (55.5% female; median 71 years old). Calf and neck circumferences and WHR presented low R2 value. Among women, hip (R2=0.825) and waist circumferences (R2=0.729) individually explained much of the variation in BMI; and among men, waist (R2=0.759) and arm circumferences (R2=0.741) performed better. The cut-off points for waist circumference corresponding to the critical BMI value (27 kg/m2) were 87.9 and 96.8 cm, respectively for women and men. In multiple analysis, the association of waist, hip and arm circumferences with BMI remained significant. CONCLUSION: Circumferences traditionally used to assess adults had higher linear association with BMI than specific indicators for elderly people. The body composition of active elderly can be more similar to adults' than that of elderly with other profiles. The waist circumference cut-off points established for adults may not be suitable for elderly populations. We suggest testing the cut-off points obtained by this study on other groups of active elderly.


INTRODUÇÃO: Mudanças de composição corporal decorrentes do envelhecimento alteram a capacidade preditiva de risco dos parâmetros antropométricos. OBJETIVO: Discutir aspectos metodológicos da antropometria em idosos ativos, baseando-se nas associações do Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) com outros indicadores nutricionais. MÉTODOS: Inquérito com idosos ativos de Macaé/RJ, Brazil (2014/2015). Descreveu-se o estado nutricional segundo o IMC (Nutritional Screening Initiative, 1994). Realizou-se análise de regressão linear tendo o IMC como variável resposta e, como dependentes, perímetros da cintura, quadril, pescoço, panturrilha, braço e razão cintura-quadril (RCQ). RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 173 idosos (55,5% do sexo feminino; mediana de 71 anos de idade). Os perímetros da panturrilha, pescoço e a RCQ apresentaram baixo coeficiente de determinação. Entre mulheres, perímetros do quadril (R2=0,825) e da cintura (R2=0,729) explicaram, individualmente, grande parte da variação do IMC; e entre homens, cintura (R2=0,759) e braço (R2=0,741). Os pontos de corte de perímetro da cintura correspondentes ao valor crítico de IMC (27 kg/m2) foram 87,9 e 96,8 cm, respectivamente para mulheres e homens. Na análise múltipla, a associação dos perímetros da cintura, quadril e braço com IMC permaneceu significativa. CONCLUSÃO: A composição corporal de idosos ativos, em comparação com idosos de outros perfis, pode ser mais semelhante à de adultos. Os pontos de corte de perímetro da cintura estabelecidos para adultos podem ser inadequados para idosos. Sugere-se testar os valores limite obtidos neste estudo em outros grupos de idosos ativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Nutrition Assessment , Anthropometry , Health of the Elderly , Health Profile , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-8, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1252527

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El estado nutricional, la actividad física (AF) y las variables psicosociales plantean nuevos desafíos en los adultos mayores (AM). El objetivo fue explorar y describir aspectos psicosociales, nutricionales, aptitud y AF en AM que asisten a centros de jubilados de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA). MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio exploratorio, observacional, transversal y cuantitativo con una muestra no probabilística de AM de ambos sexos, auto-válidos, en seis comunas de CABA durante 2017-2018. Se evaluó edad, sexo, índice de nivel socioeconómico (NSE), valoración sociofamiliar, cuestionario de reserva cognitiva e índice de bienestar de Pemberton, estado nutricional por Mini Nutritional Assessment, antropometría por índice de masa corporal, aptitud física por fuerza muscular y funcionalidad, gasto energético y nivel de AF por acelerometría. RESULTADOS: En una muestra de 150 AM de 74±7 años, el 90% (n=135) eran mujeres. El 48% pertenecía a un NSE bajo. Hubo presencia de riesgo social en el 50%, bienestar en el 97,6% y reserva cognitiva satisfactoria en el 53,6%. El 53,7% presentó sobrepeso/ obesidad con predominio en cuartil 1, y hubo 10,2% con riesgo o malnutrición. La debilidad muscular prevaleció en el tercer y cuarto cuartil. De los 57 AM que usaron acelerómetro, la mayoría tenía AF sedentaria y bajo gasto energético. DISCUSIÓN: La muestra explorada mostró riesgo/ problema social, exceso de peso y sedentarismo


Subject(s)
Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Physical Fitness , Risk Factors , Cognitive Reserve
6.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 14(3): 4183-4195, 2021.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1292353

ABSTRACT

Contexte & objectif. La dimension nutritionnelle du confinement instauré à l'occasion de la pandémie COVID-19 n'a pas encore était étudiée en milieu africain. La présente étude a pour objectifs d'identifier et analyser les caractéristiques nutritionnelles chez l'adulte actif et la personne âgée congolais pour dépister d'éventuelles carences. Méthodes. Dans une enquête transversale menée lors du second confinement entre avril et mai 2020, quelques ménages de Bacongo (Brazzaville, Congo) recrutés aléatoirement, ont été interviewés sur base d'un questionnaire de type alimentaire quantitatif. Elle portait sur la nature et la quantité des aliments consommés durant toute la journée, du lever au coucher. Les apports quotidiens ont été calculés, et rendus en termes de % d'énergie fournie respectivement par les glucides, les lipides et les protides ; ainsi que les oligo-éléments, et les vitamines (A, B et C). Résultats. La valeur nutritionnelle moyenne globale était de 2123,5 ± 494,5 Kcal, chez les 183 sujets inclus (107 adultes en activité professionnelle âgés entre 31 et 59 and et 76 personnes âgées de 66 à 80 ans). Spécifiquement, les besoins en glucides étaient couverts à hauteur de 81,5 %, tandis que ceux en protéines et en lipides étaient insuffisants, respectivement de l'ordre 33,5 g/j et 59,5 g/j en moyenne. Les apports en calcium, phosphore, et magnésium, étaient conformes aux normes recommandées, étant respectivement : de 613,9 mg, 709,8 mg et 267,5 mg. Les apports en fer se situaient à la limite inférieure de la normale (7,7 mg) chez les sujets âgés de plus de 66 ans. Les apports en vitamines A et C étaient satisfaisants, tandis qu'un risque de carence était observé pour les vitamines B1 et B2, dans le groupe des sujets âgés de 31 à 59 ans (0,17 mg et 0,58 mg). Conclusion. Ces observations suggèrent un effet négatif du confinement dans le domaine nutritionnel, justifiant des stratégies adaptées de supplémentation alimentaire, en vue de renforcer les capacités immunitaires dans la population exposée.


Context & objective. Nutritional impact of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has not yet been studied in African environment. This study aimed to analyze the nutritional characteristics of active adults and the elderly Congolese to screen for possible deficiencies. Methods. The cross-sectional survey was carried out between April and May 2020, during the 2nd Covid-19 lockdown. Few households in Bacongo (Brazzaville) were randomly recruited and interviewed, using a quantitative food-type questionnaire, adressing the nature and quantity of food consumed throughout the day. Daily intakes were measured and reported as percentage of energy supplied respectively by carbohydrates, lipids and proteins; as well as trace elements, and few vitamins. Results. The overall average nutritional value around 2123.5 ± 494.5 kcal reflects an insufficient intake; specifically for proteins (33,5g/d) and fat (59,5g/d) requirements, except for carbohydrates (81,5%). The intakes of calcium (613.9 mg), phosphorus (709,8 mg), and magnesium (267,5 mg) met the recommended standards. Iron intakes were at the lower limit of normal (7.7 mg) in subjects aged more than 66 yrs to. Vitamin intakes were relevant for vitamins A and C, while slightly deficient in subjects aged 31- 59 yrs for vitamins B1 and B2. Conclusion. The present observations suggest a negative nutritional impact of lockdown, highlighting the need for targeted nutritional strategies of food supplementation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutrition Assessment , Containment of Biohazards , COVID-19 , Congo , Adult
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879832

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical application of the modified nutritional risk screening tool and nutrition assessment in pediatric patients in China, and to provide a theoretical basis for establishing a standardized nutritional management process for pediatric patients.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the nutritional risk screening and nutrition assessment data of 16 249 hospitalized children. According to the degree of nutritional risk, the children were divided into a high nutritional risk group with 588 children, a moderate nutritional risk group with 4 330 children, and a non-nutritional risk group with 11 331 children. Nutrition assessment results were compared between groups. The composition of nutritional risk screening scores and the impact of nutritional risk screening on the rate of nutrition support therapy were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The incidence rate of nutritional risk was 30.27% (4 918/16 249), and the incidence rates of malnutrition and overnutrition were 27.37% (4 448/16 249) and 11.29% (1 834/16 249), respectively. Nutrition assessment results were significantly correlated with nutritional risk (≥ 5 years old:@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a high incidence rate of nutritional risk in hospitalized children. The use of the modified pediatric nutritional risk screening tool can promote the implementation of standardized nutritional management.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Humans , Malnutrition , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies
8.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 45 p. ilust, tabelas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1255243

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a desnutrição é comum nos pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço e traz como conseqüência o aumento de complicações pós-operatório e no tempo hospitalização, diminuição da qualidade de vida e aumento da mortalidade. A avaliação nutricional é importante para pacientes que apresentam risco nutricional e imprescindível para determinar uma terapia nutricional mais adequada. O uso da tomografia computadorizada (TC) para avaliação do status nutricional tem sido recomendada para os pacientes oncológicos, pois permite uma quantificação da massa muscular, além de ser um exame amplamente utilizado no estadiamento oncológico. Objetivos: avaliar a massa muscular de pacientes portadores de câncer de cabeça e pescoço no pré-operatório através da TC, comparando avaliação em L3 com C3 e T4, e avaliar o estado nutricional por diferentes métodos de avaliação nutricional, correlacionando-os com as complicações pós-operatórias e tempo de hospitalização. Materiais e Métodos: foram avaliados 63 pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço no pré-operatório. A avaliação da massa muscular foi através da TC de L3 e a avaliação nutricional foi pela Avaliação Subjetiva Global Produzida pelo Paciente (ASG-PPP), força de preensão manual e antropometria (Índice da Massa Corpórea [IMC] e circunferência muscular do braço [CMB]). Foram analisados cortes da TC de C3 e T4 e a área e morfologia do músculo psoas e foram comparados com os resultados de L3. Resultados: a maior parte dos pacientes (73%) apresentou massa muscular inadequada pela TC de L3, IMC de eutrofia (50,8%), ASG-PPP com risco de desnutrição ou desnutrição já presente (82,5%) e CMB de eutrofia (55,6%). Houve associação significativa da massa muscular pela TC de L3 apenas com o IMC (p=0,038). O tempo de internação apresentou diferença significativa para IMC (p=0,018), CMB (p=0,023) e ASG-PPP (p=0,002). As complicações foram associadas significativamente ao resultado da ASG-PPP (p=0,018). Forte correlação foi observada entre as áreas e índice de massa muscular de L3 com C3 e T4. Conclusão: a desnutrição e a baixa massa muscular têm alta prevalência em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço, desfavorecendo os resultados clínicos. A análise de C3 e T4 podem ser alternativas para avaliação da massa muscular nestes pacientes


Introduction: malnutrition is common in patients with head and neck cancer and results in increased postoperative complications and length of hospital stay, decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Nutritional assessment is important for patients who are at nutritional risk and essential to determine a more appropriate nutritional therapy. The use of computed tomography (CT) to assess body composition has been recommended for cancer patients, as it allows the quantification of muscle mass, and this exam is already used in cancer staging. Aim: to assess the muscle mass of patients with head and neck cancer in the preoperative period through CT, comparing L3 evaluation with C3 and T4, and to assess nutritional status using different methods, correlating nutritional assessment with postoperative complications and length of hospital stay. Materials and Methods: 63 patients with head and neck cancer in the preoperative period were evaluated. Muscle mass was assessed through the L3-level on CT and the nutritional assessment included the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength and anthropometry (body mass index [BMI] and mid-arm muscle circumference [MAMC]). CT assessments on C3 and T4-levels, as well as the morphology of the psoas muscle were also analyzed and compared with the results of L3-level. Results: most patients (73%) had inadequate muscle mass by L3 CT, normal BMI (50.8%), PG-SGA with risk of malnutrition or malnutrition already present (82, 5%) and eutrophic anthropometry (55.6%). There was a significant association of muscle mass by L3 CT only with BMI (p = 0.038). The length of hospital stay showed a significant difference for BMI (p = 0.018), mid-arm muscle circumference (p = 0.023) and PG-SGA (p = 0.002). The complications were significantly associated with the result of the PG-SGA (p = 0.018). There was a strong correlation of muscle mass obtained on L3-level with C3 and T4-levels. Conclusion: malnutrition and low muscle mass have a high prevalence in patients with head and neck cancer, disfavoring clinical results. The analysis of C3 and T4 may be alternatives for assessing muscle mass in these patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Preoperative Care/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Nutrition Assessment , Anthropometry , Head and Neck Neoplasms
9.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178047

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O estado nutricional do paciente oncológico apresenta grande variação ao longo da doença, além de efeitos adversos relacionados ao trato gastrointestinal serem comuns durante o tratamento quimioterápico. Objetivo: Avaliar o estado nutricional e a presença de sintomas gastrointestinais em pacientes oncológicos submetidos à quimioterapia. Método: Estudo transversal com pacientes em tratamento no setor de Quimioterapia do Hospital Escola da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS, no período de abril a julho de 2019. Dados sociodemográficos e questões relacionadas à doença foram obtidos por meio de um questionário. Para avaliação do estado nutricional e dos sintomas gastrointestinais, utilizou-se a avaliação subjetiva global produzida pelo paciente. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio de análise descritiva, e a associação entre variáveis categóricas, verificada pelo teste qui-quadrado de Pearson (p<0,05). Resultados:Foram avaliados 101 pacientes, com média de idade de 58,6 anos e maior prevalência de indivíduos do sexo feminino (58,4%), de cor branca (77,2%), casados (53,0%), pertencentes à classe C (50,4%). Encontrou-se maior prevalência dos cânceres do trato gastrointestinal (34,6%) e mama (27,8%). A maioria dos pacientes foi classificada como bem nutrido (66,3%), enquanto saciedade precoce (56,0%), xerostomia (54,0%), inapetência (42,0%) e náusea (37,0%) foram os sintomas mais citados. Não foi encontrada associação estatística entre o estado nutricional e qualquer um dos sintomas gastrointestinais. Conclusão: O estado nutricional da maioria dos pacientes foi classificado como bem nutrido, mas necessitando de atenção para a ocorrência dos sintomas gastrointestinais.


Introduction: The nutritional status of oncologic patients varies greatly throughout the disease, further to gastrointestinal tract related adverse effects that are common during chemotherapy treatment. Objective: Evaluate the nutritional status and the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms in oncologic patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: Cross-sectional study with patients in treatment in the Chemotherapy Unit of the Hospital School of Pelotas Federal University (UFPel), RS, from April to July 2019. Sociodemographic data and questions related to the disease were obtained through a questionnaire. To assess the nutritional status and gastrointestinal symptoms the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment was utilized. Data analysis was performed through descriptive analysis, and the association between categorical variables was verified by Pearson's chi-square test (p<0.05). Results: A total of one hundred one patients was evaluated, mean age of 58.6 years, with higher prevalence of females (58.4%), Caucasian (77.2%), married (53.0%), belonging to class C (50.4%). Higher prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (34.6%) and breast (27.8%) cancer was found. Most patients were classified as well-nourished (66.3%), while early satiety (56.0%), xerostomia (54.0%), loss of apetite (42.0%), and nausea (37.0%) were the symptoms most cited. No statistical association was encountered between nutritional status and any of the gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion: The nutritional status of most patients was classified as well nourished, but attention is needed for the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms.


Introducción: El estado nutricional del paciente oncológico presenta variacones durante la enfermedad, además de los efectos adversos relacionados con el tracto gastrointestinal comunes durante la quimioterapia. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado nutricional y la presencia de síntomas gastrointestinales en pacientes con cáncer sometidos a quimioterapia. Método: Estudio transversal con pacientes tratados en el sector de quimioterapia del Hospital Escuela de la Universidad Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS, de abril a julio de 2019. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos y relacionados con la enfermedad a través de un cuestionario. Para evaluar el estado nutricional y los síntomas gastrointestinales se utilizó la Evaluación Subjetiva Global Producida por el Paciente. Las análisis de los datos se realizó mediante análisis descriptiva, y la asociación entre variables categóricas se verificó mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado de Pearson (p<0,05). Resultados: Se evaluaron 101 pacientes, con edad media de 58,6 años, mayor prevalencia de mujeres (58,4%), blancos (77,2%), casados (53,0%), pertenecientes a la clase C (50,4%). Se encontró una mayor prevalencia de cánceres del tracto gastrointestinal (34,6%) y de mama (27,8%). La mayoría de los pacientes se clasificó como bien nutrido (66,3%), mientras que saciedad temprana (56,0%), boca seca (54,0%), falta de apetito (42,0%) y náuseas (37,0%) fueron los síntomas más frecuentemente. No se encontró asociación estadística entre el estado nutricional y los síntomas gastrointestinales. Conclusión: El estado nutricional de la mayoría de los pacientes se clasificó como bien nutrido, pero necesita la atención a presencia de síntomas gastrointestinales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nutritional Status , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Nutrition Assessment
10.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(3): 212-219, 20210000. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342394

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study investigated the applicability of the Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment (SGNA) tool to evaluate the nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients. Methods: This was a multicenter, observational cohort study of infants, children, and adolescents diagnosed with malignant tumors. Participants were evaluated at the moment they were diagnosed with a malignant tumor (EV1) and at the third month of treatment (EV2). Objective data were collected and the SGNA questionnaire was applied. Correlation between the methods was performed using the Kendall test. Results: We evaluated 216 patients at EV1 and 172 patients at EV2. During EV1, 7% of patients presented with some degree of malnutrition, according to objective measures, and 35.7% according to the SGNA. During EV2, they presented 6.4% and 26.8%, respectively. The SGNA showed ability to diagnose more malnutrition than objective indicators and the agreement found between both methods was moderate and weak. We observed a significant correlation between the SGNA and the nutritional indicators (p = <0.002), thus proving its efficacy in assessing nutritional status. Conclusion: The SGNA was applicable for evaluating the nutritional status of children and adolescents diagnosed with malignant tumors, and effective in tracking malnutrition prevalence when compared to objective nutritional assessment methods. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Nutrition Assessment , Neoplasms
11.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 147 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222354

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A adolescência é um período de transição entre a infância e a vida adulta, caracterizada por alterações físicas, psicológicas, biológicas, comportamentais, emocionais e sociais. Nessa fase surge a prática de novos comportamentos como o uso do tabaco, consumo de álcool, alimentação inadequada e sedentarismo, que podem desencadear o surgimento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, com consequências graves na fase adulta e idosa. A avaliação do estado nutricional do adolescente contribui para a prevenção dessas doenças, por meio da identificação da presença do sobrepeso e obesidade, principalmente na puberdade. Objetivo: Avaliar as associações entre aspectos comportamentais dos hábitos de vida, variáveis antropométricas e o estado nutricional do adolescente definido de forma multidimensional. Método: Estudo transversal de base populacional. A amostra foi composta por 351 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, ambos os sexos, selecionados por amostragem complexa em domicílios da zona urbana dos municípios de Teresina e Picos - Piauí, no período de setembro de 2018 a fevereiro de 2020. Os perfis antropométricos e de comportamentos de risco foram definidos por Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP), a partir de dados antropométricos (peso, altura, pregas cutâneas), demográficos (sexo e idade), hábitos de vida (uso de cinto de segurança, de capacete, consumo de bebida alcoólica, tabagismo, atividade física) Para avaliar a associação entre os escores dos perfis antropométricos, de comportamentos de risco, os estágios de maturação sexual e a variável desfecho Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) foi realizado a análise de regressão linear múltipla, com a utilização do estimador estatístico de Pearson, ajustado para sexo, idade e escore de condição socioeconômica. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética da Faculdade de Saúde Pública e da Universidade Federal do Piauí. Resultados: Os perfis antropométricos definidos na primeira ACP foram: Perfil 1 com adiposidade, caracterizado pela associação positiva com as variáveis peso, pregas cutâneas tricipital e subescapular; Perfil 2 de massa não adiposa, caracterizado pela associação positiva com as variáveis peso, altura e idade; Perfil 3 de sexo, com associação positiva com o sexo feminino e idade mais elevadas e indireta com altura e peso. Os perfis de comportamentos de risco extraídos foram: Perfil de comportamento de consumo bebida alcoólica; de tabagismo; de uso de cinto de segurança; de uso de capacete e de inatividade física no lazer. A associação entre o IMC escore z e os perfis antropométricas apresentaram uma relação positiva para o Perfil 1, demonstrando que para cada aumento do escore do perfil, houve aumento de 0,73 kg/m2 no IMC. Em relação à análise dos perfis de comportamento de risco e o IMC escore z, somente o escore do perfil de comportamento de risco para consumo de bebida alcoólica e tabagismo se mostrou associado ao ganho de massa corporal entre os adolescentes. Considerações Finais: A avaliação nutricional dos adolescentes e seus riscos à saúde podem ser mais bem traduzidos por escores multidimensionais que incorporem aspectos antropométricos e comportamentais. Esses escores podem mostrar uma capacidade descritiva sintética superior àquela observada nos indicadores unidimensionais tradicionais, com possíveis resultados precisos nesse público.


Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood, characterized by physical, psychological, biological, behavioral, emotional and social changes. In this phase, the practice of new behaviors appears, such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate diet and physical inactivity, which can trigger the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases, with serious consequences in adulthood and the elderly. The assessment of the adolescent's nutritional status contributes to the prevention of these diseases, by identifying the presence of overweight and obesity, especially at puberty. Objective: To evaluate the associations between behavioral aspects of lifestyle, anthropometric variables and the nutritional status of adolescents defined in a multidimensional way. Method: Cross-sectional population-based study. The sample consisted of 351 adolescents from 10 to 19 years old, both sexes, selected by complex sampling in households in the urban area of the municipalities of Teresina and Picos - Piauí, from September 2018 to February 2020. The anthropometric and of risk behaviors were defined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on anthropometric data (weight, height, skinfolds), demographics (sex and age), life habits (wearing a seat belt, helmet, consumption multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between anthropometric profile scores, risk behaviors, sexual maturation stages and the outcome variable Body Mass Index (BMI), using Pearson's statistical estimator, adjusted for sex, age and socioeconomic status score. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Public Health and the Federal University of Piauí. Results: The anthropometric profiles defined in the first PCA were: Profile 1 with adiposity, characterized by a positive association with the variables weight, tricipital and subscapular skin folds; Profile 2 of non-adipose mass, characterized by a positive association with the variables weight, height and age; Sex profile 3, with positive association with the female sex and higher age and indirect with height and weight. The risk behavior profiles extracted were: alcohol consumption behavior profile; smoking; wearing a seat belt; helmet use and physical inactivity at leisure. The association between the BMI score z and the anthropometric profiles showed a positive relationship for Profile 1, demonstrating that for each increase in the profile score, there was an increase of 0.73 kg m2 in the BMI. Regarding the analysis of risk behavior profiles and the BMI z score, only the score of the risk behavior profile for alcohol consumption and smoking was associated with body mass gain among adolescents. Final considerations: The nutritional assessment of adolescents and their health risks can be better translated by multidimensional scores that incorporate anthropometric and behavioral aspects. These scores may show a synthetic descriptive capacity superior to that observed in traditional one-dimensional indicators, with possible precise results in this audience.


Subject(s)
Health Profile , Nutrition Assessment , Health Surveys , Adolescent , Health Promotion
12.
Clinics ; 76: e2258, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) might predict the all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between GNRI and all-cause mortality in patients with HF. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases for clinical trials investigating the association between GNRI and all-cause mortality in patients with HF, having the primary endpoint as all-cause mortality. RESULTS: In total, nine studies involving 7,659 subjects were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The results indicated that major risk and moderate risk GNRI (GNRI<92) was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in elderly patients with HF (hazard ratios [HR] 1.59, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.37-1.85). Low risk GNRI (GNRI<98) group predicted all-cause mortality in elderly HF patients (HR 1.56, 95%CI 1.12-2.18) when compared with the high GNRI value group. A subgroup analysis indicated that the relationship between GNRI and HF might differ based on the subtype of heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: GNRI is a simple and well-established nutritional assessment tool to predict all-cause mortality in patients with HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Malnutrition , Heart Failure , Geriatric Assessment , Nutrition Assessment , Proportional Hazards Models , Nutritional Status , Risk Factors
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337493

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la causa de la mayoría de las defunciones a nivel mundial. Estas se pueden prevenir mediante hábitos alimentarios y estilo de vida saludables, que pueden ser promovidos a través de la educación nutricional. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir los cambios en el estado nutricional por antropometría posterior a sesiones de educación nutricional en escolares del ciclo primario de la colonia Menno. El estudio es de diseño cuasi-experimental. Los sujetos de estudio fueron los alumnos inscriptos en las escuelas primarias privadas de la colonia Menno en el periodo 2016. Se realizaron 4 intervenciones de educación nutricional durante el año escolar y 2 sesiones de mediciones antropométricas (marzo y octubre). La mayoría de los escolares presentaron un IMC adecuado para la edad, se encontró mayor prevalencia de obesidad en varones y a lo que se refiere la circunferencia de cintura, se vio aumentada en las mujeres. Se puede concluir que se logró describir los cambios en el estado nutricional por antropometría posterior a las sesiones de educación nutricional


Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide. These can be prevented, with healthy eating habits and lifestyle, wich can be promoted by nutritional education. The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in the nutritional status by anthrophometry after sesions of nutritional education en schoolchildren from the Menno colony. This study has a quasi-experimental design. The subjects of the study were schoolchildren enrolled in the private Schools of the Menno colony in the period of 2016. There were held 4 interventions of nutritional education during the schoolyear and 2 sesions of antropometrical measurements (march and october). The mayority of the schoolchildren presented a BMI adecuate for their age and it was found that there were more prevalence of obesity in males and there were more elevated waist circumference in women. It can be concluded that the changes in the nutritional status could be described by anthtopometry after nutritional education sesions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Food and Nutrition Education , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , School Health Services , Public Health
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(4): 237-246, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247618

ABSTRACT

To evaluate diet quality and relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), diet quality and inflammatory markers in adolescents of public schools in São Luís-MA. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 384 adolescents aged 17 and 18 years. The nutritional status was evaluated through the BMI. The quality of the diet was evaluated through the Revised Diet Quality Index (IQD-R). The inflammatory markers used were C-Reactive Ultrasensitive Protein (hs-CRP), IL-6 (Interleukin-6) and TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor α). Multivariate analysis was performed using a decision tree using the CART (Classification and Regression Trees) algorithm to evaluate the relationship between BMI, diet quality and inflammatory markers. Results: The mean age was 17.3±0.5 years, predominance of females (56.5%) and eutrophic (69.3%). The mean IQD-R score was 55.3±12.7. Adolescents in the lowest tertile of IQD-R (T1) had a higher mean BMI (22.1±4.3 kg/m2 vs 21.5 ± 3.7kg/m2). Higher levels of IL-6 were observed in those located on the IQD-R T1 (1,345 mg/L vs 1,205 mg/L). In the same group (T1), adolescents who had higher IL-6 levels also had a higher mean BMI (23.6±5.1kg/m2 vs 20.8±3.0kg/m2). The adolescents in the largest tertiles of IQD-R (T2 and T3) and who had higher concentrations of IL-6 and CR-us had also a higher mean BMI (23.8±4.9kg/m2). Conclusions: The diet quality of adolescents studied needs modifications. BMI averages varied with diet quality and levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP(AU)


Avaliar a qualidade da dieta e a relação entre Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC), qualidade da dieta e marcadores inflamatórios em adolescentes de escolas públicas de São Luís-MA. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 384 adolescentes de 17 e 18 anos. O estado nutricional foi avaliado por meio do IMC. A qualidade da dieta foi avaliada por meio do Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado (IQD-R). Os marcadores inflamatórios utilizados foram Proteína C Reativa Ultrassensível (PCR-us), IL-6 (Interleucina-6) e TNF-α (Fator de Necrose Tumoral α). A análise multivariada foi realizada usando uma árvore de decisão usando o algoritmo CART (Classification and Regression Trees) para avaliar a relação entre IMC, qualidade da dieta e marcadores inflamatórios. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 17,3 ± 0,5 anos, predomínio do sexo feminino (56,5%) e eutrófico (69,3%). A pontuação média do IQD-R foi de 55,3 ± 12,7. Os adolescentes no tercil inferior do IQD-R (T1) tiveram uma média de IMC mais alta (22,1 ± 4,3kg/m2 vs 21,5 ± 3,7kg/m2). Níveis mais elevados de IL-6 foram observados naqueles localizados no IQD-R T1 (1.345 mg/L vs 1.205 mg/L). No mesmo grupo (T1), os adolescentes que apresentaram níveis mais elevados de IL-6 também apresentaram média de IMC mais elevada (23,6 ± 5,1kg/m2 vs 20,8 ± 3,0kg/m2). Os adolescentes nos maiores tercis de IQD-R (T2 e T3) e que apresentaram maiores concentrações de IL-6 e CR-us também apresentaram maior IMC médio (23,8 ± 4,9kg/m2). Conclusões: A qualidade da dieta dos adolescentes estudados necessita de modificações. As médias do IMC variaram com a qualidade da dieta e os níveis de IL-6 e PCR-us(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Feeding Behavior , Anthropometry , Chronic Disease , Adolescent Nutrition , Noncommunicable Diseases
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 622-632, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250284

ABSTRACT

Resumen El índice PROFUND es una de las puntuaciones pronósticas sugeridas en pacientes pluripatológicos (PP). A pesar del valor pronóstico de la desnutrición y su prevalencia en esta población, el mismo no incluye una variable que estime el estado nutricional. La valoración global subjetiva (VGS) es una herramienta ampliamente validada para tal fin. Se evaluó mediante un estudio prospectivo y observacional, la capacidad pronóstica de mortalidad a 12 meses del índice PROFUND y VGS en PP internados en clínica médica. Ingresaron al estudio 111 pacientes. Edad 75.8 (± 9.3) años. Índice PROFUND 7.6 (± 4.7) puntos. El 60.1% presentaba desnutrición moderada-severa por VGS. Fallecieron 66 dentro del año. En el modelo de Cox, la VGS y el índice PROFUND se asocian con mortalidad a los 12 meses (p < 0.0001 y p 0.0026 respectivamente). En los desnutridos severos, el riesgo es aproximadamente 6 veces mayor en comparación a los normonutridos (HR: 6.514, IC95% 2.826-15.016) y para un mismo nivel de VGS, el riesgo es un 10% mayor por cada punto que aumenta el índice PROFUND (HR: 1.106, IC95% 1.036-1.181). El AUC para predecir mortalidad a 12 meses del índice PROFUND y VGS fue: 0.747 (IC95%: 0.656-0.838); 0.733 (IC95%: 0.651-0.816) y al combinar las dos variables: 0.788 (IC95%: 0.703-0.872, p 0.048). Como conclusión el índice PROFUND y la VGS se asocian con mortalidad y tienen un valor pronóstico similar. La combinación de ambas herramientas permitiría establecer mejor el pronóstico y el manejo en esta compleja población


Abstract The PROFUND index is one of the suggested prognostic scores in pluripathological patients (PP). Despite the prognostic value of malnutrition and its prevalence in this population, it does not include a variable that estimates nutritional status. Subjective global assessment (SGA) is a widely validated tool for this purpose. The prognostic capacity of 12-month mortality of PROFUND index and SGA in PP admitted to a medical clinic was evaluated by a prospective and observational study. 111 patients entered the study. Age 75.8 (± 9.3) years. PROFUND index 7.6 (± 4.7) points. 60.1% had moderate-severe malnutrition due to VGS. 66 died within the year. In the Cox model, SGA and PROFUND index are associated with mortality at 12 months (p <0.0001 and p 0.0026 respectively). In severe malnutrition, the risk is approximately 6 times higher compared to normonutrition (HR: 6.514, 95% CI 2.826-15.016) and for the same level of SGA, the risk is 10% higher for each point that the PROFUND index increases (HR: 1.106, 95% CI 1.036-1.181). The AUC for predicting 12-month mortality from PROFUND index and SGA was: 0.747 (95% CI: 0.656-0.838); 0.733 (95% CI: 0.651-0.816) and when combining the two variables: 0.788 (95% CI: 0.703-0.872, p 0.048). In conclusion, PROFUND index and SGA are associated with mortality and have a similar prognostic value. The combination of both tools would allow better prognosis and management in this complex population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Prognosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Prospective Studies
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 375-380, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142350

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The protein-energy malnutrition alters the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis. Its prevalence may vary according to the etiology of liver disease, it´s severity and the evaluation of the method applied. The infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and alcoholism are the main etiologies of cirrhosis and result in a significant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status of patients with cirrhosis according the liver disease etiology and severity. METHODS: It is a prospective study, in which the sample was for convenience and consisted of patients with cirrhosis, infected by HCV or alcoholic etiology. The nutritional status evaluation was carried out through anthropometry, food consumption, bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and subjective global assessment (SGA). The anthropometric data evaluated were weight, height, body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold (TSF), circumference of the arm (CA), non-dominant handshake strength (FAM) and the adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APM). Patients were classified according to the severity of liver disease, using the Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Diseases (MELD) scores. RESULTS: Ninety patients with cirrhosis were evaluated, 47 with HCV and 43 with alcoholic etiology. The prevalence of protein-calorie malnutrition ranged from 10.9% to 54.3% in the HCV group and from 4.7% to 20.9% in the alcoholic group, depending on the method used for evaluation. The group with HCV infection presented a higher malnutrition prevalence in comparison to the alcoholic in the following evaluations: TSF (P<0.001), phase angle (PA) (P=0.016) and SGA (P=0.010). PA values were lower in patients with viral cirrhosis (5.68±1.05) when compared to those with alcoholic etiology (6.61±2.31) (P=0.016). When all patients were analyzed, regardless of etiology, an inversely correlation was observed among Child-Pugh score and PA values (P=0.018). CONCLUSION: HCV cirrhosis showed worse nutritional parameters in comparison to alcoholic etiology; however, the PA was associated with worse liver function in both etiologies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A desnutrição proteico-calórica altera o prognóstico dos pacientes com cirrose. Sua prevalência pode variar de acordo com a etiologia da hepatopatia, gravidade da doença e o método de avaliação empregado. A infeção pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC) e o alcoolismo, estão entre as principais etiologias da cirrose e acarretam significativa morbidade e mortalidade. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional do paciente com cirrose de acordo com a etiologia e gravidade da hepatopatia. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, em que a amostra foi por conveniência constituída de pacientes com cirrose, infectados pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC) ou etiologia alcoólica. A avaliação do estado nutricional foi realizada através da antropometria, consumo alimentar, bioimpedância elétrica (BIA) e da avaliação subjetiva global (ASG). Os dados antropométricos avaliados foram: peso, altura, índice de massa corporal (IMC), prega cutânea triciptal (PCT), circunferências do braço (CB), força do aperto de mão não dominante (FAM) e a espessura do músculo adutor do polegar (MAP). Os pacientes foram classificados de acordo com a gravidade da hepatopatia, através do escore Child-Pugh e Model for End-stage Liver Diseases (MELD). RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 90 pacientes com cirrose, 47 com etiologia pelo VHC e 43 com etiologia alcoólica. A prevalência de desnutrição proteico-calórica variou de 10,9% a 54,3% no grupo do VHC e de 4,7% a 20,9% no grupo dos alcoolistas, dependendo do método utilizado para avaliação. O grupo com infecção pelo VHC apresentou maior prevalência de desnutrição em relação ao de etiologia alcoólica nas seguintes avaliações: PCT (P<0,001), ângulo de fase (AF) (P=0,016) e ASG (P=0,010). Os valores do AF foram menores nos pacientes com cirrose viral (5,68±1,05) quando comparados aos com etiologia alcoólica (6,61±2,31) (P=0,016). Quando analisados todos os pacientes, independente da etiologia da hepatopatia, observou-se uma correlação inversamente proporcional entre a classificação de Child-Pugh e os valores de AF (P=0,018). CONCLUSÃO: A cirrose pelo VHC demonstrou piores parâmetros nutricionais em relação à etiologia alcoólica; entretanto, em ambas etiologias o AF foi associado com pior função hepática em ambas etiologias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Prospective Studies , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2315-2329, 01-11-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148395

ABSTRACT

Assess the nutritional and biochemical state of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) compared to a control group. This is an observational, case-control and descriptive type study, based on the recruiting of 22 elderly individuals with a clinical diagnosis of AD considered as the case group, and 22 other elderly individuals considered as the control group. Evaluations were made using the results from the following scales Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), anthropometric measurements for obtaining the body mass index (BMI) and biochemical analyses. The analyses were performed on the program SPSS version 20.0, using absolute and relative measures, T test for independent samples for measurement comparisons and the Spearman correlation test. In the cognitive evaluation MMSE, those participants with AD present higher risk of cognitive decline (81.8%), greater risk of malnutrition according to MNA (45.5%) and altered levels of leptin (90.9%). Upon performing the comparison analysis between the group with AD and the control group, there existed noteworthy differences between the means for the variables MNA (4.40; BMI95% 2.75 ­ 6.06), MMSE (10.54; BMI95% 7.09 ­ 13.99) and doses of HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) (14.53; BMI95% 6.18 ­ 22.88). As well as differences in the p-value < 0.09 in the leptin doses (11.54; BMI95% (-24.98 ­ 1.89) and transferrin dose (-72.31; BMI95% -159.48 ­ 14.84). The Spearman correlation demonstrated that the cognitive decline in the group of senior citizens with AD was strongly associated with nutritional conditions MNA (R 0.484) and the leptin dose (R 0.590). Senior citizens with AD present worse nutritional conditions, cognitive decline and biochemical alterations when compared to senior citizens in the control group. As such, the study demonstrated the need for an integrated healthcare assistance concerning senior citizens with AD.


Avaliar o estado nutricional e bioquímico de pacientes com Doença de Alzheimer (DA) comparando com um grupo controle. Materiais e métodos: trata-se de um tipo observacional, caso-controle e descritivo a partir do recrutamento de 22 idosos diagnosticados clinicamente com DA considerados grupo caso e outros 22 idosos considerados controle, foi utilizado a escala Mini Avaliação nutricional (MNA), Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MMSE), medidas antropométricas para obtenção do índice de massa corporal (IMC) e análises bioquímicas. As análises foram realizadas no programa SPSS versão 20.0, utilizou-se de medidas absolutas e relativas, teste T para amostras independentes para comparação de médias e o teste de correlação de Spearman. Na avaliação cognitiva MMSE os participantes com DA apresentaram maior prevalência de declínio cognitivo (81,8%), maior prevalência de risco para desnutrição segundo MNA (45,5%) e níveis alterados de leptina (90,9%). Ao se realizar a análise de comparação o grupo com DA e o controle observou-se diferenças significativas entre as médias das variáveis MNA (4,40; IC95% 2,75 ­ 6,06), MMSE (10,54; IC95% 7,09 ­ 13,99) e dosagens de HDL (14,53; IC95% 6,18 ­ 22,88). E diferenças com o p-valor < 0,09 nas dosagens de leptina (11,54; IC95% (-24,98 ­ 1,89) e dosagem de transferrina (-72,31; IC95% -159,48 ­ 14,84). A correlação de Spearman demonstrou que o declínio cognitivo no grupo de idosos com DA, esteve associado significativamente às condições nutricionais MNA (R 0,484) e dosagem de leptina (R 0,590). Idosos com DA apresentaram piores condições nutricionais, declínio cognitivo e alterações bioquímicas, ao compara-los com idosos controles. Desta forma, o estudo demonstra a necessidade de uma assistência integral a esses idosos.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biomarkers , Nutrition Assessment , Leptin , Alzheimer Disease
18.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 36(3): e3100, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280269

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El envejecimiento es un proceso de cambios progresivos que repercute en la capacidad funcional física y el nivel de dependencia de la población adulta mayor, estos, a su vez, afectan paulatinamente su salud y sus actividades cotidianas. Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad funcional y el grado de dependencia de los adultos mayores que asisten a una Fundación para la Inclusión Social. Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo de corte transversal, realizado en la Fundación para la Inclusión Social Melvin Jones, Ecuador, durante 2018. El universo fue de 126 adultos mayores. Se evaluaron las características sociodemográficas y de salud, la funcionalidad y dependencia, donde se utilizó el índice de Barthel. Se obtuvo el consentimiento informado y se utilizó estadística descriptiva, X2, para comparaciones entre los sexos. Las diferencias se consideraron estadísticamente significativas, con una p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 65 años. En relación a sus actividades básicas, 56 por ciento mostró total dependencia, 91,04 por ciento dependencia leve, con mayor frecuencia en las mujeres, situación agravante entre las personas adultas mayores. Estadísticamente no hubo diferencia significativa según el sexo (p = 0,36). Las actividades básicas con mayor dependencia total fueron: bañarse, vestirse, trasladarse y deambulación, subir, bajar escaleras y hacer deposiciones; además, se constató que 32,83 por ciento tenía sobrepeso. Conclusiones: La capacidad funcional y el grado de dependencia del adulto mayor en la Fundación Melvin Jones están determinados por la edad, las características sociodemográficas y la evaluación nutricional; sin embargo, representa una oportunidad para el cuidado de enfermería al adulto mayor(AU)


Introduction: Aging is a process of progressive changes affecting the physical functional capacity and the level of dependency of the older adult population. These, in turn, gradually become affected regarding their health and daily activities. Objective: To evaluate the functional capacity and degree of dependency of older adults who attend a Foundation for Social Inclusion. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out at Melvin Jones Foundation for Social Inclusion, in Ecuador, during 2018. The study population consisted of 126 older adults. Sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, functionality and dependence were evaluated, for which the Barthel index was used. Informed consent was obtained and descriptive statistics, chi square, were used for comparisons between sexes. The differences were considered statistically significant, with P ≤ 0.05. Results: The average age was 65 years. Regarding their basic activities, 56 percent showed total dependence; 91.04 percent, mild dependence, more frequently in women, which is considered an aggravating situation among older adults. There was no statistically significant difference regarding sex (P = 0.36). The basic activities with the greatest total dependence were bathing, dressing, moving around and walking, going up and down stairs, and having bowel movements. Furthermore, it was found that 32.83 percent were overweight. Conclusions: Functional capacity and degree of dependency of the older adults at Melvin Jones Foundation are determined by age, sociodemographic characteristics and nutritional evaluation. However, it represents an opportunity for nursing care for the elderly(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Aging , Nutrition Assessment , Informed Consent , Nursing Care/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(4): 685-691, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138604

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El trabajo del nutricionista clínico implica realizar una evaluación y diagnóstico nutricional basados en el pensamiento crítico y razonamiento clínico, para una atención nutricional adecuada, y tomar una decisión de intervención basada en la evidencia científica disponible. Luego, se debe monitorizar los resultados de la intervención, para generar un impacto a corto y largo plazo en las patologías que requieren tratamiento nutricional. Para lograr esto, es necesario implementar en los programas curriculares del pregrado un proceso estructurado de enseñanza que siga una secuencia lógica dependiente del nivel de formación, para adquirir habilidades del trabajo clínico en nutrición. El siguiente ensayo tiene por objetivo realizar un análisis de la literatura con respecto a la adquisición de habilidades del pensamiento crítico y razonamiento clínico, junto con conocer los modelos de atención nutricional para generar una propuesta de atención nutricional para aplicar en la práctica clínica.


ABSTRACT The activities of a clinical dietitian involve nutritional assessment and diagnosis based on critical thinking and clinical reasoning. The objective is to offer proper nutritional care and deciding on interventions based on available scientific evidence. The results of the intervention should be monitored to generate short- and long-term impact on the pathologies that require nutritional treatment. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to implement a structured teaching process in the undergraduate program that follows a logical sequence depending on the level of training. The following essay aims to conduct an analysis of the literature regarding the acquisition of critical thinking skills and clinical reasoning, together with knowing the models of nutritional care to generate a nutritional care proposal for application in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Nutritional Sciences , Nutritionists , Pathology , Nutrition Assessment , Diagnosis
20.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(4): e2854, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139175

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Se desconoce qué marcadores de riesgo nutricional estratifican mejor el riesgo en pacientes críticos. Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo nutricional en pacientes críticos mediante dos escalas. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, transversal, con 222 pacientes ingresados en la Terapia 8B del Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras" (septiembre 2017 / mayo 2018). Se utilizaron el Control Nutricional (CONUT) y el Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill modificado (mNutric). Resultados: Según CONUT el 96,4 por ciento estaba desnutrido; según mNutric el 27,5 por ciento eran pacientes en alto riesgo nutricional. Hubo asociación entre las escalas (Kappa = 0,102). El 78.3 por ciento de los sobrevivientes eran bajo riesgo por mNutric (p=0,013). Hubo asociación entre la sepsis y la desnutrición por mNutric (p=0,013), no así entre la ventilación mecánica artificial (VMA) y la desnutrición estimada por dicha escala (p=0,116). No se encontraron diferencias entre la sepsis y la desnutrición según CONUT (p=0,126). Hubo diferencias entre la VMA en relación con la desnutrición según CONUT (p=0,027). La frecuencia de fallecidos se incrementó paralelo al grado de desnutrición según CONUT (p=0,004). La variable que más influyó sobre la mortalidad fue la VMA (OR= 8,5). Conclusiones: Según el CONUT, la mayoría de los pacientes estaban desnutridos, y según el mNutric, predominaron los pacientes en bajo riesgo nutricional. Se demostró el valor predictivo de muerte de la presencia de VMA. La desnutrición ligera y moderada y la variable no desnutrido de la escala CONUT, se consideraron categorías de menor riesgo de muerte con respecto a la desnutrición grave(AU)


Introduction: Nutritional status markers that better stratify risk in critically ill patients have yet to be established. Objective: To assess nutritional risk in critically ill patients through the use of two assessment scales. Material and Methods: A prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 222 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (8B) at the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital from September, 2017 to May, 2018. The Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) and the modified Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill (mNutric) were used. Results: According to CONUT, 96.4 percent of patients were alnourished; according to mNutric, 27.5 percent of patients were categorized as high nutritional risk. There was an association between the scales (Kappa = 0.102). Among survivors, 78.3 percent of patients were at low risk according to mNutric score (p=0,013). There was an association between sepsis and malnutrition due to mNutric (p = 0.013) versus artificial mechanical ventilation (AMV) and malnutrition estimated by this scale (p = 0.116). No differences were found between sepsis and malnutrition according to CONUT (p = 0.126). There were differences between the AMV in relation to malnutrition according to CONUT score (p = 0.027). The frequency of deaths increased in parallel to the degree of malnutrition according to CONUT (p = 0.004). AMV was the variable that most influenced mortality (OR = 8,5). Conclusions: According to CONUT, most of the patients were malnourished; according to mNutric, patients at low nutritional risk predominated. The predictive value of death in patients receiving AMV was demonstrated. The light and moderate malnutrition and the variable related with the not malnourished group (CONUT scale) were considered as categories associated with lower risk of death with regard to severe malnutrition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutrition Assessment , Mass Screening/methods , Critical Care , Nutrition Disorders/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness
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