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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985469


Childhood and adolescent obesity has become a global epidemic. The interventions mainly include lifestyle intervention, medication treatment and bariatric surgery. Among them, lifestyle intervention, especially intensive lifestyle intervention with participation of family members, is the first-line treatment for obesity in children and adolescents. Both medication and bariatric surgery are adjuvant treatments for severely obese children and adolescents. Currently, metformin is the most widely used drug for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents in both China and other countries; orlistat and liraglutide are also the drugs that are safe and often used in other countries; other drugs are not recommended. As a tertiary prevention and treatment strategy for obesity, bariatric surgery should be carried out on the basis of good compliance from both the children and their family members, with the cooperation of multiple disciplines. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are the most common types of procedure performed. Meanwhile, as a new treatment method, intra-gastric balloon procedure needs to be paid more attention to its efficacy and safety.

Adolescent , Humans , Child , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass/methods , Metformin , Gastrectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008138


Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy characterized by simple operation and few postoperative complications have gradually become the two most commonly used surgical methods in clinical practice.A series of complications often occur after bariatric surgery,including gallstone disease,anemia,malnutrition,gastroesophageal reflux disease,kidney stones,and birth defects in offspring of women of childbearing age.There are controversies regarding the causes and countermeasures of these complications.This article mainly reviews the risk factors and countermeasures for the complications after bariatric surgery.

Humans , Female , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Gastric Bypass/methods , Gastroesophageal Reflux/surgery , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Gastrectomy/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986803


With the increasing number of obese patients worldwide, metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) has quickly become an effective way to treat obesity and related metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, lipid abnormalities, etc. Although MBS has become an important part of general surgery, there is still controversy regarding the indications for MBS. In 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a statement on the surgical treatment of severe obesity and other related issues, which continues to be the standard for insurance companies, health care systems, and hospital selection of patients. The standard no longer reflects the best practice data and lacks relevance to today's modern surgeries and patient populations. After 31 years, in October 2022, the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) and the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO), the world's leading authorities on weight loss and metabolic surgery, jointly released new guidelines for MBS indications, based on increasing awareness of obesity and its comorbidities and the accumulation of evidence of obesity metabolic diseases. In a series of recommendations, the eligibility of patients for bariatric surgery has been expanded. Specific key updates include the following: (1) MBS is recommended for individuals with BMI≥35 kg/m2, regardless of the presence, absence, or severity of co-morbidities; (2) MBS should be considered for individuals with metabolic diseases and BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m2; (3) the BMI threshold should be adjusted for the Asian population:: BMI≥25 kg/m2 suggest clinical obesity, and BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2 population should consider MBS; (4) Appropriately selected children and adolescents should be considered for MBS.

Adolescent , Child , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/surgery , Bariatric Surgery , Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Weight Loss
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1755, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505418


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Weight regain in the postoperative period after bariatric surgery is directly related to the relapse of preoperative comorbidities and a negative impact on the patients' biochemical profile. AIMS: To assess the metabolic impact of weight regain on preoperative comorbidities and on patients' biochemical profiles, in order to show the impact of the complications on the metabolic outcomes of bariatric surgery. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out with 75 women in the late postoperative period of bariatric surgery who presented pathological weight regain (≥20% of the maximum weight loss). Data of interest consisted of glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory profile measurements at three different moments of evaluation: preoperative period, at the weight nadir (minimum weight), and after weight regain. A multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: The mean age was 46.39±12.09 years. Preoperative body mass index was 40.10±4.11 kg/m2. There was an overall increase of 3.36 points in the mean body mass index between the nadir and after regain: from 26.30±3.9 kg/m2 to 29.66±4.66 kg/m2. The mean time to reach the nadir was 18±7.6 months, with an average percentage of excess weight loss of 91.08±11.8%. The median time for pathological weight regain was 48 months, and the mean regain amongst the sample was 8.85±5.65 kg. There was a significant correlation between pathological weight regain and levels of insulin (r=0.351; p<0.011), C-peptide (r=0.303; p<0.011), C-reactive protein (r=0.402; p<0.001), and vitamin D (r=-0.435; p<0.001), the last two being the most influenced by the percentage of weight regained. CONCLUSIONS: The pathological weight regain in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery results in losses in the patients' metabolic and inflammatory profiles. However, the biochemical benefits are sustained up to the preoperative levels of the parameters analyzed.

RESUMO RACIONAL: Reganho de peso no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica está diretamente relacionado à recidiva das comorbidades pré-operatórias e a um impacto negativo no perfil bioquímico desses pacientes. OBJETIVOS: avaliar o impacto metabólico do reganho de peso nas comorbidades pré-operatórias e no perfil bioquímico desses pacientes, a fim de mostrar o impacto das complicações nos desfechos metabólicos finais da cirurgia bariátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo que analisou 75 mulheres no pós-operatório tardio de cirurgia bariátrica que apresentaram reganho patológico de peso (=20% do máximo de peso perdido). Foram coletados dados referentes às medidas dos perfis glicêmico, lipídico e inflamatório em três momentos distintos de avaliação: no pré-operatório, no nadir de peso (menor peso) e após o reganho ponderal. Foi realizada uma análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi 46.39±12.09 anos. IMC médio pré-operatório foi 40.10±4.11 kg/m2. Houve um aumento de 3,36 pontos no IMC médio entre o nadir e após reganho: de 26.30±3.9 Kg/m2 para 29.66±4.66 Kg/m2. O tempo médio para atingir o nadir foi de 18±7.6 meses, com uma %PEP de 91.08±11.8%. O tempo médio para o reganho patológico foi de 48 meses, e a média de reganho foi 8.85±5.65 kg. Houve correlação significativa entre o reganho patológico e os níveis de insulina (r=0.351; p<0.011), peptídeo C (r=0.303; p<0.011), proteína C reativa (r=0.402; p<0.001) e vitamina D (r=-0.435; p<0.001), sendo os dois últimos os mais influenciados pela porcentagem de reganho de peso. CONCLUSÕES: O reganho de peso patológico no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica resulta em prejuízos ao perfil metabólico e inflamatório dos pacientes. No entanto, os benefícios bioquímicos perduram em relação aos níveis pré-operatórios dos parâmetros analisados

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/metabolism , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Weight Gain , Bariatric Surgery , Weight Loss , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1748, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447014


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions among adolescents. Methods, such as bariatric surgery, have become the most effective treatment for patients with classes III and IV obesity. AIM: To evaluate weight loss, comorbidity remission, and long-term results of bariatric surgery in adolescents. METHODS: Study with adolescent patients undergoing bariatric surgery, evaluating laboratory tests, comorbidities, and the percentage of excess weight loss in the preoperative period and at one, two, and five years postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 65 patients who met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 18.6 years, were included in the analysis. In the preoperative period, 30.8% of hypercholesterolemia, 23.1% of systemic arterial hypertension, and 18.4% of type 2 diabetes were recorded, with remission of these percentages occurring in 60, 66.7 and 83.4%, respectively. The mean percentage of excess weight loss was 63.48% after one year of surgery, 64.75% after two years, and 57.28% after five years. The mean preoperative total cholesterol level was 180.26 mg/dL, and after one, two, and five years, it was 156.89 mg/dL, 161.39 mg/dL, and 150.97 mg/dL, respectively. The initial mean of low-density lipoprotein was 102.19mg/dL and after five years the mean value reduced to 81.81 mg/dL. The mean preoperative glycemia was 85.08 mg/dL and reduced to 79.13 mg/dL after one year, and to 76.19 mg/dL after five years. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery is safe and effective in adolescents, with low morbidity, resulting in a loss of excess weight and long-term stability, improving laboratory tests, and leading to remission of comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and systemic arterial hypertension.

RESUMO RACIONAL: A obesidade tomou proporções epidêmicas entre adolescentes, e procedimentos como a cirurgia bariátrica tornou-se o tratamento mais efetivo em pacientes com obesidade grau III e IV. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a perda peso, a remissão de comorbidades, e resultados a longo prazo da cirurgia bariátrica em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo com pacientes adolescentes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica, avaliando exames laboratoriais, comorbidades e o percentual de perda de excesso de peso, nos períodos pré-operatório e com 1, 2 e 5 anos de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 65 pacientes que preencheram os critérios de inclusão, com a média de idade de 18,6 anos. No pré-operatório foram registrados: 30,8% hipercolesterolemia, 23,1% hipertensão arterial sistêmica e 18,4% diabetes tipo 2, ocorrendo remissão destes porcentuais em 60, 66,7 e 83,4%, respectivamente. O percentual médio de perda de excesso de peso após 1 ano foi de 63,48%, após 2 anos foi de 64,75% e após 5 anos foi 57,28%. O valor médio do colesterol total no pré-operatório era de 180,26mg/dL, e após 1 ano, 2 anos e 5 anos foram de 156,89mg/dL,161,39mg/dL e de 150,97mg/dL, respectivamente. A média inicial de lipoproteína de baixa densidade era 102,19mg/dL e após 5 anos o valor médio reduziu para 81,81 mg/dL. O valor médio da glicose pré-operatório era 85,08 mg/dL, após um ano uma média 79,13mg/dL, e com 5 anos 76,19 mg/dL. CONCLUSÕES: A cirurgia bariátrica é segura e eficaz em adolescentes, com baixa morbidade, resultando em uma perda do excesso de peso e estabilidade a longo prazo, melhorando exames laboratoriais e levando a remissão de comorbidades como diabetes mellitus, hipercolesterolemia e hipertensão arterial sistêmica.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Pediatric Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/diagnosis , Weight Loss , Comorbidity , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis
Rev. argent. cir ; 114(3): 269-274, set. 2022. il
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1422937


RESUMEN La obesidad y el sobrepeso se definen como una acumulación anormal o excesiva de grasa que puede ser perjudicial para la salud. Es una enfermedad crónica de origen multifactorial, que como consecuencia ocasiona problemas higiénicos, discapacidad funcional y alteración de la calidad de vida. La dermolipectomía abdominal es una técnica quirúrgica que constituye la única opción para el tratamiento de pacientes con panículo adiposo prominente; de esa forma se logra disminuir las complicaciones y se reintegra socialmente al paciente que, a causa del enorme faldón abdominal, estuvo limitado por muchos años. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 53 años con lipodistrofia abdominal grave, que llegaba a ambos tobillos con afectación cutánea, y discapacidad para realizar actividades diarias, resuelta con dermolipectomía abdominal y resección de 29 kg de tejido dermograso. Se realizará, además, una revisión bibliográfica del tema.

ABSTRACT Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. It is a chronic disease caused by multiple factors, which results in hygienic issues, functional disability and impaired quality of life. Abdominal dermolipectomy is the only surgical option for the treatment of patients with prominent panniculus morbidus, thus reducing complications and providing social reintegration for the patient who has been limited for many years due to the enormous abdominal panniculus. We report the case of a 53-year-old female patient with severe abdominal lipodystrophy with coverage of both ankles, skin involvement, and disability to perform daily activities, that was managed with abdominal dermolipectomy and resection of 29 kg of dermo-adipose tissue. Bibliographic research is also presented.

Female , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Lipodystrophy/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Infections , Lipodystrophy/diagnosis
Cir. Urug ; 6(1): e501, jul. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1384408


El by pass gástrico (BPG) es una técnica de cirugía bariátrica de probada eficacia en el control de la obesidad y la resolución de enfermedades asociadas, como diabetes e hipertensión. El dolor abdominal en el postoperatorio alejado del BPG es un verdadero desafío, y exige para su diagnóstico etiológico comprender la técnica quirúrgica y las posibles causas que originan el dolor. Las principales causas de dolor son la úlcera de neoboca, las hernias internas (por el espacio de Petersen o la brecha mesentérica), la litiasis vesicular sintomática y el síndrome del "bastón de caramelo" (o "Candy Cane syndrome" por su nombre anglosajón). El mismo resulta de una excesiva longitud del cabo yeyunal ciego del asa alimentaria, luego de la anastomosis gastro yeyunal. Cuando mide más de 4 cm puede llenarse de alimentos, actuando como una bolsa o reservorio, generando dolor, náuseas o vómitos. El diagnóstico surge de la clínica y un estudio contrastado que demuestre la longitud excesiva del extremo del asa alimentaria. El tratamiento es quirúrgico y la desaparición de los síntomas confirma el diagnóstico.

Female , Middle Aged , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Laparoscopy , Pain, Postoperative/surgery , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Postoperative Complications , Reoperation , Syndrome , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Abdominal Pain/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936102


Objective: To investigate the safety and learning curve of Da Vinci robotic single-anastomosis duodenal-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) in the treatment of obesity patients. Methods: A descriptive case series study was performed. Clinical data of obesity patients who were treated with Da Vinci robotic SADI-S in China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University from March 2020 to May 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. Case inclusion criteria: (1) uncomplicated obese patients with body mass index (BMI)≥37.5 kg/m(2); (2) patients with BMI of 28 to <37.5 kg/m(2) complicated with type 2 diabetes or two metabolic syndrome components, or obesity comorbidities; (3) patients undergoing SADI-S by Da Vinci robotic surgery system. Those who received other bariatric procedures other than SADI-S or underwent Da Vince robotic SADI-S as revisional operation were excluded. A total of 77 patients were enrolled in the study, including 31 males and 46 females, with median age of 33 (18-59) years, preoperative body weight of (123.0±26.2) kg, BMI of (42.2±7.1) kg/m(2) and waistline of (127.6±16.3) cm. According to the order of operation date, the patients were numbered as 1-77. The textbook outcome (TO) and Clavien-Dindo grading standard were used to analyze the clinical outcome of each patient and to classify surgical complications, respectively. The standard of textbook outcome was as follows: the operative time less than or equal to the 75th percentile of the patient's operation time (210 min); the postoperative hospital stay less than or equal to the 75th percentile of the patient's postoperative hospital stay (7 d); complication grade lower than Clavien grade II; no readmission; no conversion to laparotomy or death. The patient undergoing robotic SADI-S was considered to meet the TO standard when meeting the above 5 criteria. The TO rate was calculated by cumulative sum analysis (CUSUM) method. The curve was drawn by case number as X-axis and CUSUM (TO rate) as Y-axis so as to understand the learning curve of robotic SADI-S. Results: The operative time of 77 robotic SADI-S was (182.9±37.5) minutes, and the length of postoperative hospital stay was 6 (4-55) days. There was no conversion to laparotomy or death. Seven patients suffered from complications (7/77, 9.1%). Four patients had grade II complications (5.2%), including one with duodeno-ileal anastomotic leakage, one with abdominal bleeding, one with peritoneal effusion and one with delayed gastric emptying; two patients were grade IIIb complications (2.6%) and both of them were diagnosed with gastric leakage; one patient was grade IV complication diagnosed with postoperative respiratory failure (1.3%), and all of them were cured successfully. A total of 51 patients met the textbook outcome standard, and the TO rate was positive and was steadily increasing after the number of surgical cases accumulated to the 46th case. Taking the 46th case as the boundary, all the patients were divided into learning stage group (n=46) and mastery stage group (n=31). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of gender, age, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, ASA classification, standard liver volume, operative time and morbidity of postoperative complication (all P>0.05). The percent of abdominal drainage tube in learning stage group was higher than that in mastery stage group (54.3% versus 16.1%, P<0.05). The length of postoperative hospital stay in learning stage group was longer than that in mastery stage group [6 (4-22) d versus 6 (5-55) d, P<0.05)]. Conclusion: The Da Vinci robotic SADI-S is safe and feasible with a learning curve of 46 cases.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anastomosis, Surgical , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/surgery , Gastrectomy/methods , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Learning Curve , Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Robotic Surgical Procedures
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 188-192, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935599


Bariatric-metabolic surgery (BMS) has the potential of decreasing body weight and improving obesity-related metabolic syndrome by restricting food intake and malabsorption. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch are four major BMS procedures. Sleeve plus surgery, one-anastomosis gastric bypass, intragastric balloon and endoscopic surgery are also arising and gaining popularity due to their specific efficacy. Currently, BMS is now experiencing an era with deeply integrated interdisciplinarity, optimizing and innovating of surgeries and well-illustrated clinical efficacy, as a result, more obese patients would benefit from BMS.

Humans , Bariatric Surgery , Gastrectomy , Gastric Balloon , Gastric Bypass , Laparoscopy , Morbidity , Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/surgery
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 103-115, 30 Diciembre 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368456


1. INTRODUCCIÓN. La obesidad mórbida es una enfermedad crónica multifactorial asociada a complicaciones físicas y psicológicas que empeoran la calidad de vida de los pacientes y disminuyen su esperanza de vida; es un problema sanitario de primera magnitud debido al incremento de esta patología en Ecuador y a las dificultades que entraña su prevención y tratamiento. La cirugía de la obesidad es compleja, no exenta de complicaciones, cuyo objetivo es reducir de manera significativa las comorbilidades asociadas y mejorar el bienestar de los pacientes, cuya técnica quirúrgica sea fácil de reproducir, con porcentajes de revisión bajos y que constituya un tratamiento eficaz y seguro para la obesidad clínicamente grave, con evidencia que demuestra reducción de la mortalidad por todas las causas, mejoría en la expectativa y calidad de vida de los pacientes1.

1. INTRODUCTION. Morbid obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease associated with physical and psychological complications that worsen the quality of life of patients and decrease their life expectancy; it is a health problem of the first magnitude due to the increase of this pathology in Ecuador and the difficulties involved in its prevention and treatment. Obesity surgery is complex, not exempt of complications, whose objective is to significantly reduce associated comorbidities and improve the well-being of patients, whose surgical technique is easy to reproduce, with low revision percentages and that constitutes an effective and safe treatment for clinically severe obesity, with evidence that shows a reduction in all-cause mortality, improvement in life expectancy and quality of life of patients1.

Humans , Male , Female , Bariatric Surgery , Obesity/surgery , Obesity/metabolism , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/diagnosis , Obesity, Morbid/metabolism , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology
São Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 598-606, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352299


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Few reports have examined the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on changes to serum albumin (Alb) and liver enzyme levels. OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term post-surgery changes in serum Alb, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) levels. Body composition changes were also measured and compared among three groups. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study conducted in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: 151 OAGB, RYGB and SG patients referred to the obesity clinic of Hazrat-e Rasool General Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated. Physical characteristics and biochemical parameters were measured pre-surgery and then after three and six months. RESULTS: Through repeated measurements to determine intragroup changes, significant changes in serum AST (P = 0.003) and ALT (P < 0.001) were observed in follow-ups. However, Alb levels did not change (P = 0.413). Body fat, fat-free mass and muscle mass decreased significantly in each group (P < 0.05). In a univariate general linear model for determining intergroup changes, SG showed greater decreases in ALT and AST at three and six months (P < 0.05) and in ALKP at six months (P = 0.037), compared with OAGB. There were no significant differences in Alb levels. Also, RYGB had a greater effect on reducing fat percentage (three months, P = 0.011; six months, P = 0.059) and fat mass (three months, P = 0.042) than OAGB. CONCLUSION: SG and RYGB may be superior to OAGB in reducing liver enzymes and body fat, respectively. However, Alb levels showed no significant differences.

Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass , Bariatric Surgery , Serum Albumin , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Gastrectomy , Iran , Liver
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 763-770, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388899


Resumen La obesidad es reconocida como "la gran epidemia" del siglo XXI. Los primeros tratamientos fueron enfocados en el manejo médico, sin lograr los resultados esperados, por lo cual surge la cirugía bariátrica (CB) como la mejor alternativa. Inicialmente la obesidad se concibe como una figura de poder en el imperio egipcio, luego como enfermedad por Galeno e Hipócrates, reapareciendo más tarde como símbolo de fecundidad en Europa. Las primeras técnicas fueron el bypass yeyuno-colónico por Payne y De Wind modificado luego por Scopinaro, consolidándose más tarde como el bypass actual por Mason, Wittgrove e Higa. Por su parte, la gastrectomía en manga fue concebida por Gagner como puente de la derivación biliopancreática, pero dado sus excelentes resultados se consolida como técnica por sí sola. A su vez, la CB evidencia efectos metabólicos inesperados, posicionándose en la actualidad como el mejor tratamiento tanto para la obesidad como para el síndrome metabólico. En Chile la CB se inicia en 1986 con González del Hospital Van Buren con la experiencia en bypass yeyuno-ileal, continuando con Awad y Loehnert del Hospital San Juan de Dios. Luego se consolida con el desarrollo de la CB moderna tanto en la Universidad Católica como en la Universidad de Chile, llegando en la actualidad a ser un procedimiento ampliamente difundido en todo el país. El objetivo principal de la siguiente revisión es analizar el concepto de obesidad en la historia y la evolución de la CB en Chile y el mundo, rememorando sus inicios y destacando su constante desarrollo.

Obesity is recognized as "the great epidemic" of the 21st century. The first treatments were focused on medical management, failing to achieve the expected results, which is why bariatric surgery (BC) emerges as the best alternative. Obesity was initially conceived as a power figure in the Egyptian empire, later as a disease by Galen and Hippocrates, later reappearing as a symbol of fertility in Europe. The first techniques were the jejuno-colonic bypass by Payne and De Wind, later modified by Scopinaro, to finally consolidate as the current bypass by Mason, Wittgrove and Higa. For its part, sleeve gastrectomy was conceived by Gagner as a bridge for biliopancreatic diversion, but given its excellent results, it is consolidated as a technique by itself. In turn, BC shows unexpected metabolic effects, currently positioning itself as the best treatment for both obesity and metabolic syndrome. In Chile, BC started in 1986 with González at the Van Buren Hospital with his experience in jejuno-ileal bypass, continuing with Awad and Loehnert at the San Juan de Dios Hospital. Later, it was consolidated with the development of modern BC both at the Catholic University and at the University of Chile, currently becoming a widely disseminated procedure throughout the country. The main objective of the following review is to analyze the concept of obesity in history and the evolution of BC in Chile and the world, recalling its beginnings and highlighting its continuous development.

Humans , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Metabolism/physiology , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass/methods , Chile , Bariatric Surgery/history , Bariatric Medicine/history
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 668-676, dic. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388900


Resumen Introducción: La experiencia internacional no ha logrado reproducir los resultados de los primeros trabajos de plicatura gástrica laparoscópica (PGL). Objetivo: Analizar los resultados a largo plazo de pacientes sometidos a PGL. Materiales y Método: Estudio prospectivo y descriptivo, se incluyeron pacientes obesos adultos que cumplieron criterios universales para cirugía bariátrica. Se registraron datos epidemiológicos, comorbilidades, tiempo operatorio, estadía hospitalaria, porcentaje de pérdida de exceso de IMC (% PEIMC), complicaciones posoperatorias y resolución de comorbilidades. El seguimiento se efectuó con controles periódicos anuales hasta el año 2020. Resultados: Se inició la selección de pacientes durante el año 2010. Se realizaron 26 intervenciones desde enero de 2011 hasta mayo de 2012. Todas las pacientes fueron de género femenino. El IMC preoperatorio promedio fue 38,8 kg/m2 (DS 3,8). El % PEIMC promedio al año, 3 años y 9 años de posoperado, fue 62,2% (DS 27,1), 40,2% (DS 24,5) y 28% (DS 31,9), respectivamente. Las complicaciones, basadas en la clasificación de Clavien-Dindo (CD), durante los primeros 30 días de posoperatorio fueron 21 pacientes con tipo I, 1 con tipo II, y 2 pacientes con complicaciones tipo IVa. A los 9 años de posoperado, 9 pacientes presentaban efectos adversos tipo I. No hubo mortalidad. Hasta los 3 años hubo corrección de comorbilidades. Se objetivaron 3 pacientes diabéticas al final del estudio, 2 de ellas previamente sanas. Conclusiones: El % PEIMC a largo plazo fue insuficiente. El porcentaje de complicaciones es mayor que en otras técnicas. No recomendamos la realización de la PGL.

Background: The international experience has failed to reproduce the first studies of laparoscopic gastric plication (LGP). Aim: The objective is to analyze the outcomes after 10 years of follow-up of patients subjected to LGP. Materials and Method: Prospective and descriptive study, in which obese adult patients who met universal criteria for bariatric surgery were included. Epidemiological data, comorbidities, operating time, hospital stay, percentage of excess BMI loss (% EBMIL) and resolution of comorbidities were collected. The follow-up was realized by annual periodic controls until 2020. Results: Patient selection began in 2010. A total of 26 interventions were performed from January 2011 to May 2012. All patients were female. The average preoperative Body Mass Index (BMI) was 38.8 kg/m2 (SD 3.8). The average % EBMIL at 1st, 3rd and 9 th postoperative years was 62.2% (SD 27.1), 40.2% (SD 24.5) and 28% (SD 31.9), respectively.Complications, based in Clavien Dindo classification, during the first 30 postoperative days was: 21 patients with type I, 1 type II, and 2 patients with complications type IVa. At 9 th postoperative year, 9 patients presented adverse effect type I. There was no mortality. Until the 3rd year there was correction of comorbidities. Three diabetic patients were observed at the end of the study, 2 previously healthy. Conclusions: The long term % EBMIL was insufficient. The percentage of complications is higher than in other techniques. We do not recommend the LGP.

Humans , Female , Adult , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Bariatric Surgery , Comorbidity , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Practice Guidelines as Topic
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 684-690, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388903


Resumen Objetivo: Comparar los resultados obtenidos en calidad de vida, pérdida ponderal y resolución de comorbilidades al año, en pacientes con obesidad mórbida intervenidos de Gastrectomía vertical laparoscópica (GVL) o bypass gástrico en Y de Roux laparoscópico (BGYRL) en nuestro centro. Materiales y Método: Estudio observacional de una base de datos prospectiva. Las variables del estudio fueron IMC pre y posoperatorio, porcentaje de exceso de IMC perdido (PEIMCP), puntuación obtenida en los cuestionarios Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) y Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcomes System (BAROS) y la resolución de las comorbilidades. Resultados: De 60 pacientes: 37 fueron intervenidos de GVL y 23 de BGYRL. El IMC posoperatorio al año fue 29,9 ± 4 kg/m2 en BGYRL y 31,3 ± 5 kg/m2 en GVL. El PEIMCP fue de 74,5 ± 19,2% (BGYRL) y de 67,5 ± 23,1% (GVL). Con BAROS, se obtuvieron resultados buenos o superiores en el 87% (BGYRL) y en 83,8% (GVL). Con GIQLI se obtuvo una puntuación media de 108,3 ± 19 (BGYRL) y 109,8 ± 18,3 (GVL). No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos en ninguna de las variables previas. En cuanto a la evolución de las comorbilidades, 50% de BGYRL y 53,8% de GVL presentaron resolución de todas las comorbilidades. Conclusiones: Ambas técnicas son eficaces en cuanto al PEIMCP, a la calidad de vida y al control de comorbilidades al año de la intervención. El BGYRL presenta mejores resultados en PEIMCP y BAROS, y la GVL presenta mejor puntación global y especifica de síntomas digestivos con GIQLI, sin ser diferencias estadísticamente significativas.

Aim: The purpose of our study was to compare the postoperative quality of life, weight loss and improvement of co-morbidities in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) patients one year after surgery. Materials and Method: Match pair analysis of the prospectively collected database of the 23 gastric bypass and 37 gastric sleeve patients operated on in our hospital was performed. Weight loss, quality of life and improvement of co-morbidities were measured at one year after surgery. The quality of life parameters were measured with two standard questionnaires: Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) and Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcomes System (BAROS). Results: After one year of follow-up the mean BMI was 29.9 ± 4 kg/m2 in LRYGB and 31.3 ± 5 kg/m2 in LSG. The percent excess BMI Loss (%EBMIL) was 74.5 ± 19.2% (LRYGB) and 67.5 ± 23.1% (LSG). A success score in BAROS was obtained in 87% (LRYGB) and 83.8% (LSG). The mean GIQLI score was 108.3 ± 19 (LRYGB) and 109.8 ± 18.3 (LSG). These results did not differ significantly. Remission of co-morbidities was similar in the BGYRL and LSG groups (50 vs 53.8%). Conclusions: Both types of surgery are effective in quality of life, co-morbidities and weight loss after one year of follow-up. The LRYGB produced better results in %EBMIL and BAROS, and the LSG produced better results in GIQLI (overall and digestive symptoms). These results did not differ significantly.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass/methods , Laparoscopy , Gastrectomy/methods , Quality of Life , Weight Loss , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 625-633, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388870


Resumen Introducción: Debido a su eficacia en el tratamiento de la obesidad mórbida, el bypass gástrico (BPG) sigue siendo una intervención realizada frecuentemente. Sin embargo, un grupo reducido de pacientes puede desarrollar complicaciones nutricionales y metabólicas que no logran controlarse con un tratamiento médico óptimo. En estos casos, puede ser necesario reestablecer la continuidad del tracto gastrointestinal por medio de la reversión del BPG (R-BPG). Objetivo: Presentar las indicaciones y resultados obtenidos en una serie de pacientes sometidos a una R-BPG. Materiales y Método: Identificación y evaluación retrospectiva de todos los pacientes sometidos a una R-BPG en nuestra institución de manera consecutiva. Se registraron las características demográficas y antropométricas de la cirugía original y al momento de la reversión. Las complicaciones se registraron de acuerdo con la clasificación de Clavien-Dindo. Resultados: Se identificaron 7 pacientes en los cuales se realizó una R-BPG. En 2 casos la reversión fue por síndrome de intestino corto, en 3 casos por hipoglicemias severas refractarias a manejo médico y en 2 casos por diarrea crónica. La mediana de edad al momento de la reversión fue de 55 años. La mediana de tiempo desde la cirugía original hasta el momento de la reversión fue de 77 meses. La mediana de estadía hospitalaria fue de 6 días. No hubo complicaciones Clavien-Dindo ≥ III. La R-BPG logró revertir en todos los casos las complicaciones nutricionales y metabólicas. Conclusión: La restauración de la continuidad del tracto gastrointestinal permite el control de las complicaciones nutricionales y metabólicas.

Introduction: Due to its efficacy in the treatment of morbid obesity, roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) continues to be a frequently performed intervention. However, a small group of patients may develop nutritional and metabolic complications that cannot be controlled with optimal medical treatment. In these cases, it may be necessary to reestablish the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract by reversing the RYGB (R-RYGB). Aim: To present the indications and results obtained in a series of patients who underwent to R-RYGB. Materials and Method: Identification and retrospective evaluation of all patients who underwent consecutive R-RYGB in our institution. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the original surgery and at the time of the reversal were recorded. Complications were classified according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: Seven patients were identified in whom an R-RYGB was performed. In 2 cases the reversal was due to short bowel syndrome, in 3 cases due to severe hypoglycemia refractory to medical treatment and in 2 cases due to chronic diarrhea. The median age at the time of the reversal was 55 years. The median time from primary surgery to reversal was 77 months. The median hospital stay was 6 days. There were no Clavien-Dindo complications ≥ III. The R-RYGB was able to reverse nutritional and metabolic complications in all cases. Conclusion: Restoring the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract allows control of nutritional and metabolic complications.

Humans , Esophagoplasty/methods , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Prostheses and Implants , Obesity, Morbid/surgery
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 67(9): 1274-1278, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351460


SUMMARY Obesity is a disease characterized by the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat that can damage health. Bariatric surgery, an effective and safe way to treat this disease, requires multidisciplinary monitoring with an educational nature to change lifestyle. Adherence to routine physical activity can be a part of adopting a healthier lifestyle and can assist in the treatment of this disease and its related comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the evolution of anthropometric variables and the domains of quality of life at different times, including at one year after bariatric surgery in very active and irregularly active individuals. METHODS: This was a longitudinal, observational, prospective, and analytical study. The collected data included anamnesis, level of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form), height, weight, body mass index (BMI), average waist circumference, percentage of fat, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Bref. RESULTS: Seven female individuals were evaluated and divided into two groups: a very active group and an irregularly active group. In the very active individuals, significant results were found in the evolutionary variables: weight (p<0.001); body mass index (p<0.001); average waist circumference (p<0.001); percentage of fat (p<0.001); and quality of life general (p=0.001). In the irregularly active individuals, a significant result was found only in one evolutionary variable: body mass index (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Thus, it is evident that the improvement and maintenance of good health is more effective in bariatric individuals who maintain a routine with regular physical activity.

Humans , Female , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Bariatric Surgery , Quality of Life , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Prospective Studies
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 67-73, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279076


Resumen Introducción: En México no se han utilizado los instrumentos Shorth Form 36 Items (SF-36) ni Baryatric Assesment Reporting Outcomes System (BAROS) para evaluar la calidad de vida (CV) antes y después de la cirugía bariátrica (CB). Objetivo: Describir los cambios en la CV con los cuestionarios SF-36 y BAROS, en pacientes con obesidad severa antes y después de la CB. Métodos: Se recolectaron los datos clínicos y antropométricos de pacientes sometidos a cirugía baríatrica entre 2015 y 2016. Se consideró con significación estadística una p < 0.05. Resultados: Se analizaron 230 pacientes, 98 y 132 antes y después de la CB; la mayoría fue del sexo femenino (81 %). El índice de masa corporal inicial fue de 48 kg/m2 (44-53). La CV medida con el SF-36 demostró un incremento en la puntuación del componente físico de 43 a 54.2 (p < 0.001) y en el componente mental, de 53.3 a 56.6 después de la CB. Con BAROS, en 98.5 % se registraron resultados buenos a excelentes en la CV en los primeros tres meses. Conclusión: Al ser medida con los cuestionarios SF-36 y BAROS se definió que la CV de los pacientes mexicanos con obesidad severa mejora después de la CB.

Abstract Introduction: In Mexico, neither the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) nor the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) instruments have been used to assess quality of life (QoL) before and after bariatric surgery (BS). Objective: To describe changes in QoL using the SF-36 and BAROS questionnaires in patients with severe obesity before and after BS. Methods: Clinical and anthropometric data of patients undergoing bariatric surgery between 2015 and 2016 were collected. Statistical significance was considered with a p-value < 0.05. Results: 230 patients were analyzed, 98 before and 132 and after BS; most were females (81 %). Initial body mass index was 48 kg/m2 (44-53). SF-36-measured QoL showed an increase in the physical component score from 43 to 54.2 points (p < 0.001), and in the mental component, from 53.3 to 56.6 points after BS. With BAROS, 98.5 % showed good to excellent QoL results within the first three months after BS. Conclusion: When measured with the SF-36 and BAROS questionnaires, QoL of Mexican patients with severe obesity was found to improve after BS.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/psychology , Bariatric Surgery/psychology , Postoperative Period , Body Mass Index , Health Surveys , Preoperative Period , Mexico
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(2): 229-236, feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389431


Background: Bariatric surgery (BS) is the most effective procedure in the management of obesity, achieving a significant decrease in energy intake. Aim: To measure calorie and macronutrient intake in patients subjected to gastric bypass (GBP) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Material and Methods: We studied 53 patients subjected to SG and 27 subjected to GBP, who were in the first, second or sixth postoperative month. A food frequency consumption survey was applied by specialized nutritionists and their nutritional status was assessed. Results: Mean calorie intake in months 1, 2 and 6 were 505, 600 and 829.8 kcal, respectively. A significantly higher intake was observed at month 1 in patients with those subjected to SG, compared with GBP patients. Protein consumption was <60 g/d, except at 6 months in patients with GBP. At months 1, 2 and 6, mean consumption of lipids were 17, 28 and 30 g/day, respectively. The figures for carbohydrates were 42, 31 and 77 g/day, respectively. At month 1, patients with GBP had a higher BMI, equalizing at 6 months with those of SG. At 6 months 37% of patients had a normal body mass index and 17% remained obese. A negative correlation was observed between weight loss and energy intake during the first month (rho: −0.40; p = 0.033). Conclusions: Patients subjected to BS had a low calorie and macronutrient intake in the first six postoperative months. Their calorie intake is negatively associated with weight loss, mainly during the first postoperative month.

Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass , Bariatric Surgery , Energy Intake , Treatment Outcome , Eating , Gastrectomy
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(1): 30-36, ene. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389346


ABSTRACT Background: Weight regain (WR) after bariatric surgery is common. Several factors involved in WR have been identified, but there has been little research on specific eating habits such as eating snacks rather than regular meals and being a "sweet-eater". AIM: To determine whether nutritional status, energy and macronutrient intake, eating behaviors and habits were associated with WR in the postoperative period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of patients who had undergone bariatric surgery. Cases were defined as those patients who gained ≥ 15% of weight in the first two years after surgery and controls as those who gained < 15% of weight. Participants completed a 24-hour dietary recall by phone; weight history was obtained from the medical chart. Logistic regression was used to identify nutritional and behavioral factors significantly related to WR. RESULTS: Fifty-four cases (77% female, 57% had undergone sleeve gastrectomy) and 50 controls (70% female, 58% had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery) participated. Their mean age was 43 and 40 years, respectively. We observed four eating and lifestyle habits independently associated with greater odds of post-surgery WR, namely being a "sweet-eater", a "grazer", sedentarism and consuming more daily calories. Conclusions: Eating more daily calories, being a "sweet-eater", a "grazer", and sedentarism were factors related with a greater risk of regaining weight after surgery.

ANTECEDENTES: La ganancia de peso después de la cirugía bariátrica es común. Se han identificado varios factores involucrados en la recuperación de peso, pero existe poca evidencia sobre hábitos alimentarios específicos tales como el patrón picoteador o ser un comedor de dulces. OBJETIVO: Determinar si el estado nutricional, ingesta calórica y de macronutrientes, patrones de ingesta alimentaria, y conducta alimentaria estuvieron asociados con la recuperación de peso en el período postoperatorio en pacientes de cirugía bariátrica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio de casos y controles de pacientes sometidos a cirugía bariatrica. Los casos fueron definidos como aquellos pacientes que aumentaron ≥ 15% de peso en los dos años siguientes a la cirugía, y los controles fueron aquellos que no tuvieron ganancia de peso. Los participantes respondieron telefónicamente un recordatorio de ingesta. El historial de peso se obtuvo de la ficha clínica. Se utilizó una regresión logística para identificar factores nutricionales y de comportamiento relacionados significativamente con la recuperación de peso. RESULTADOS: Participaron 54 casos (77% mujeres; 58% sometidos a manga gástrica) y 50 controles (70 % mujeres; 58% sometidos a baipás gástrico). La edad promedio de ellos fue 43 y 40 años, respectivamente. Se observó cuatro hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida asociados independientemente con mayores probabilidades de ganancia de peso postcirugía: comedor de dulces, picoteador, sedentarismo y mayor ingesta calórica diaria. Conclusiones: Una mayor ingesta energética diaria, el consumo de dulces, los picoteos y el sedentarismo se relacionan con una mayor probabilidad de ganancia de peso en el postoperatorio de cirugía bariátrica.

Humans , Male , Female , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Weight Gain , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Gastrectomy