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2.
repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 42-51, 2022. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1366970

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el benceno es un hidrocarburo aromático obtenido por destilación del alquitrán utilizado en gasolineras y como solvente industrial, clasificado como cancerígeno por exposición ocupacional o ambiental. Está relacionado con el desarrollo de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) por su absorción principal por vía inhalatoria, y su metabolismo hepático con producción de benzoquinona de alta liposolubilidad que le permite depositarse en la médula ósea y tejido graso. Objetivo: analizar la asociación de las formas de exposición por actividades económicas, oficios, cargos, exposición ambiental y aditiva con el desarrollo de LMA. Materiales y métodos: revisión sistemática de la literatura en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Toxnet y OpenGrey, en inglés y español con los términos benzene, cancer, leukemia, occupational and enviromental exposition. Resultados: la mayoría de los estudios muestran una relación causal entre la exposición a benceno y el desarrollo de LMA, con predominio en ambientes laborales, seguidos de factores ambientales y aditivos como el humo del cigarrillo. Conclusiones: se encontró evidencia de asociación entre la exposición a benceno ocupacional y/o ambiental con el desarrollo de leucemia mieloide aguda, debido a que altera el estrés oxidativo y la desregulación del aryl hidrocarburo generando efectos citogenéticos, mutación genética y alteraciones epigenéticas que se expresan en hematotoxicidad y desarrollo de leucemia.


Introduction: Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon obtained by distillation of tar used in gas stations and as an industrial solvent, classified as a carcinogen by occupational and environmental exposure. It is related with the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mainly due to its absorption by inhalation and hepatic metabolism producing highly-lipid soluble benzoquinone allowing it to deposit in bone marrow and fatty tissue. Objective: to analyze the association of forms of exposure including economic activities, type of workplace, environmental and additive exposure with the development of AML. Material and Methods: systematic review of the literature in Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Toxnet and OpenGrey databases in English and Spanish, using the terms benzene, cancer, leukemia, occupational and environmental exposure. Results: most studies show a causal relationship between benzene exposure and AML development, predominantly in work settings, followed by environmental factors including additive sources such as cigarette smoke. Conclusions: we found evidence of an association between occupational and/or environmental exposure to benzene and the development of AML, for it alters oxidative stress and aryl hydrocarbon deregulation inducing cytogenetic aberrations, genetic mutations and epigenetic changes expressed as hematotoxicity and leukemia development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Benzene , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplasms , Leukemia , Occupational Exposure , Environmental Exposure
3.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1353023

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: traçar o perfil de saúde dos servidores públicos de instituição de ensino localizada no Rio de Janeiro, a partir dos resultados dos exames periódicos de saúde. Método: utilizou-se abordagem quantitativa e transversal, com dados coletados em uma instituição pública federal de ensino. Resultados: verificou-se o risco para desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, dado o histórico familiar aliado ao estilo de vida dos participantes. A atividade física referida não pôde ser associada à diminuição de risco de doenças cardiovasculares e, por isso, pode não estar sendo efetiva sua contribuição para a saúde de seus praticantes. Quanto à exposição ocupacional, foram identificadas alterações nos exames de audiometria, videolaringoestroboscopia e Gama GT dos servidores docentes. Conclusão: torna-se fundamental consolidar as ações voltadas para os servidores públicos, enquanto ferramenta para embasar ações de promoção e proteção da saúde dos trabalhadores e para o fortalecimento de políticas públicas voltadas para o tema


Objective: to draw the health profile of public servants of an educational institution located in Rio de Janeiro, based on the results of periodic health examinations. Method: a quantitative and cross-sectional approach was used, with data collected from a federal public educational institution. Results: the risk for developing non-communicable chronic diseases was verified, given the family history combined with the participants' lifestyle. The referred physical activity could not be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and, therefore, its contribution to the health of its practitioners may not be effective. Regarding occupational exposure, changes in audiometry, videolaryngostroboscopy and Gama GT exams of the teaching staff were identified. Conclusion: it is essential to consolidate actions aimed at public servants, as a tool to support actions to promote and protect workers' health and to strengthen public policies. focused on the theme


Objetivo: dibujar el perfil de salud de los servidores públicos de una institución educativa ubicada en Río de Janeiro, con base en los resultados de los exámenes periódicos de salud. Método: se utilizó un enfoque cuantitativo y transversal, con datos recopilados de una institución educativa pública federal. Resultados: se verificó el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, dada la historia familiar combinada con el estilo de vida de los participantes. La actividad física referida no podría asociarse con un riesgo reducido de enfermedades cardiovasculares y, por lo tanto, su contribución a la salud de sus profesionales puede no ser efectiva. Con respecto a la exposición ocupacional, se identificaron cambios en audiometría, videolaringostroboscopia y exámenes de Gama GT del personal docente. Conclusión: es esencial consolidar las acciones dirigidas a los servidores públicos, como una herramienta para apoyar acciones para promover y proteger la salud de los trabajadores y fortalecer las políticas públicas. centrado en el tema


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Health Profile , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health , Government Employees/statistics & numerical data , Educational Personnel , Life Style
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 481 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378441

ABSTRACT

Introdução - O câncer é doença crônica não transmissível multifatorial e no rol dos seus fatores de risco estão aqueles relacionados ao trabalho. A radiação ionizante é considerada carcinogênica e está presente em alguns ambientes de trabalho. Vários estudos foram feitos no mundo no intuito de estudar a relação sobre a mortalidade e a incidência por câncer em trabalhadores com risco de exposição ocupacional à radiação ionizante. Objetivo - Este estudo visa estimar as taxas de mortalidade e de incidência por câncer em uma unidade de trabalho com radiação ionizante sediada no município de São Paulo e identificar a associação potencial entre câncer e exposição à radiação ionizante no ambiente de trabalho. Métodos - Foi feito estudo de coorte retrospectiva aberta com trabalhadores que tiveram vínculo empregatício desde 31/08/1956 até 31/12/2016 a partir de dados coletados na empresa e em registros oficiais de óbitos e casos novos. Foram calculadas as razões de mortalidade padronizadas (RMP) e as razões de incidência padronizadas (RIP) por sexo de cânceres agrupados segundo o tipo (sólido, indeterminado e hematopoiético), o fator de risco (etilismo, tabagismo, ocupacional e radiação gama e X) e o sistema orgânico (tratos digestório, respiratório, ossos e tecidos moles, pele, geniturinário, olhos e sistema nervoso central, endócrino, indeterminado e hematopoiético) na análise externa comparando a população de estudo com a população geral do município de São Paulo e na análise interna, comparando o subgrupo monitorado para radiação gama e X com o subgrupo não monitorado. Foram feitas análises de regressão de Poisson univariada e múltipla dos fatores associados à incidência de câncer. Resultados - Foi encontrado o efeito do trabalhador sadio na análise externa de mortalidade (RMP = 0,224 IC95%: 0,208; 0,240) e interna de mortalidade (RMP = 0,685 IC95%: 0,618; 0,758). Na análise externa de incidência houve associação com os cânceres de pele (RIP = 19,703 IC95%: 7,303; 43,533) (p<0,001) e na análise interna de incidência houve associação com os cânceres hematopoiéticos (RIP = 1,593 IC95% 1,03; 2,351) (p<0,026), osteomusculares (RIP = 4,559 IC95% 1,821; 9,366) (p<0,001), de pele (RIP = 2,58 IC95%1,538; 2,748) (p<0,001) e de tireoide (RIP = 2,346 IC95% 1,452; 3,587) (p<0,001). Houve aumento da incidência de câncer entre as mulheres, os trabalhadores de nível socioeconômico elevado, entre aqueles que trabalharam por mais de cinco anos na empresa, entre aqueles que encerraram o acompanhamento na coorte até 49 anos de idade e entre aqueles que tiveram dose acumulada igual ou maior do que 20 mSv. Conclusão - este trabalho apresentou resultados semelhantes ao de outros estudos e ratificou os parâmetros de proteção radiológica.


Introduction - Cancer is a multifactorial non-communicable chronic disease and its risk factors include those related to work. Ionizing radiation is considered carcinogenic and is present in some work environments. Several studies have been carried out around the world in order to study the relationship between cancer incidence and mortality in workers at risk of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Objective - This study aims to estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in a work unit with ionizing radiation based in the city of São Paulo and to identify the potential association between cancer and exposure to ionizing radiation in the work environment. Methods - A retrospective open cohort study was carried out with workers who had an employment relationship from 08/31/1956 to 12/31/2016 based on data collected in the company and in official records of deaths and new cases of cancer. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated for sex of cancers grouped according to type (solid, indeterminate and hematopoietic), risk factor (alcoholism, smoking, occupational and gamma and X radiation) and the organic system (digestive, respiratory tracts, bones and soft tissues, skin, genitourinary tract, eyes and central nervous system, endocrine, indeterminate and hematopoietic system) in the external analysis comparing the study population with the general population of the city of São Paulo and in the internal analysis, comparing the monitored subgroup for gamma and X radiation with the unmonitored subgroup. Univariate and multiple Poisson regression analyzes of factors associated with cancer incidence were performed. Results - The healthy worker effect was found in the external analysis of mortality (SMR = 0.224 95%CI: 0.208; 0.240) and internal (SMR = 0.685 95% CI: 0.618; 0.758). In the external analysis of incidence there was an association with skin cancers (SIR = 19.703 CI95%: 7.303; 43.533) (p<0.001) and in the internal analysis of incidence there was an association with hematopoietic cancers (SIR = 1.593 CI95% 1.03; 2.351) (p<0.026), musculoskeletal (SIR = 4.559 95% CI 1.821; 9.366) (p<0.001), skin (SIR = 2.58 95%CI1.538; 2.748) (p<0.001), and thyroid (SIR = 2.346 95%CI 1.452; 3.587) (p<0.001). There was an increase in the incidence of cancer among women, workers of high socioeconomic status, among those who worked for more than five years at the company, among those who ended follow-up in the cohort up to 49 years of age and among those who had an equal accumulated dose or greater than 20 mSv. Conclusion - this study presented results similar to those of other studies and ratified the parameters of radiological protection.


Subject(s)
Radiation, Ionizing , Incidence , Cohort Studies , Mortality , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Groups , Neoplasms
5.
Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2(1): 100-108, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1366192

ABSTRACT

Petroleum refineries are largest chemical industries that are responsible for emission of several pollutants into the atmosphere. Benzene and its metabolites are regarded as the most hazardous compounds that are emitted by petroleum refineries. These contribute to toxic oxidants, which cause many serious health risks to petroleum refineries workers. This study was aimed to analyze the effects of chemical exposure on hematological and biochemical parameters among workers at Zawia oil refinery and Mellituh oil and gas refinery companies. A total of 200 workers participated in this study which consisting of two equal groups (each group: n = 100). The first group consists of petroleum refineries workers and the second group consists of non-oil work civil servants serving were recruited as exposed and control subjects, respectively. The results of blood picture, liver enzymes and kidney functions were compared between the groups. Mean white blood cells counts, platelet counts, and hematocrit count were significantly higher, while the mean red blood cells count was insignificantly changed in petroleum refineries workers. While the mean hemoglobin and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels were significantly lower, whereas the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels were insignificantly changed in petrol refineries workers. Liver enzymes and renal functions were significantly higher in petrol refineries workers. The present findings indicate that occupational exposure to benzene causes significant alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters and workers are at high risk of developing blood, hepatic or renal related disorders. Protection and frequent medical attention should be given to petroleum refineries workers.


Subject(s)
Petroleum , Occupational Exposure , Biological Control Agents , Hematologic Agents , Benzene , Hazardous Substances
6.
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 20-28, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1354557

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 remains a major public health threat globally, and has challenged healthcare systems and services including oral health Objective: This study examines the key public health challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic in low resource settings. While healthcare services are learning to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, dental care services, in particular restorative dental practice have been adversely impacted because of the closeness of caregivers to the patient's mouth as well as the generation of aerosols during most restorative procedures. This presents a challenge for low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Nigeria where weak and poor governance structures characterize healthcare systems in addition to paucity of economic resources. Another challenge in the form of COVID-19 conspiracy theories has threatened to undermine public health efforts designed to control the pandemic. Conclusion: The implementation of optimal guidelines and safety protocols for effective COVID -19 infection prevention and control is a major challenge for restorative dental care practice in low resource settings owing to paucity of key material resources and inappropriate behaviour associated with lingering doubts about COVID-19 reality among the majority of the populace. The Safer Aerosol-Free Emergent Dentistry concept offers a viable practical approach for restorative dental practice in LMICs during and in the post COVID-19 pandemic era. There is a need to deploy all resources, human and material, in the education and enlightenment of the populace regarding the reality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Exposure , Dental Care , Developing Countries , COVID-19 , Public Health , Dentists , General Practice, Dental
7.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1367381

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, poison centres worldwide have reported an increase in exposures to chemicals used for infection prevention. Increased availability and use could lead to an increase in exposures. Potential effects on a South African Poison Information Helpline were unknown, therefore a study was performed to describe changes in call volume and profile of poison exposures. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on an observational database of telephone enquiries. All human-related poisoning exposure call data collected from 01 March to 31 August during 2018, 2019 and 2020 were extracted and analyzed. Summary statistics were used to describe all variables. Results: The total number of calls were 5137, 5508, and 5181 in 2018, 2019, 2020, respectively. The monthly call number during 2020 was mostly less than in 2019. More calls were received from the public calls (39.4% vs 33.1%) and for accidental exposures (65.6% vs 62.3%) increased during 2020 compared to 2019. Exposures to pharmaceuticals decreased by 14.8% from 2019 to 2020, while exposures to eucalyptus oil more than doubled from 21 in 2019 to 43 during 2020. Exposures to antiseptics and disinfectants increased by 60.4%, mainly due to hand sanitizers exposure which showed a 26-fold increase from 2019 (n = 6) to 2020 (n = 156). Conclusion: A change in the profile of poison exposures was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lockdown regulations and greater availability of antiseptics and disinfectants probably led to the increase in exposures. Although symptoms were mostly mild, the public should be educated on safe storage and proper use of all chemicals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Poisons , Occupational Exposure , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Disinfectants
8.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(4): 652-658, dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1352992

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever medidas de prevenção e entraves à redução da exposição ocupacional a infecções por tuberculose e pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana em unidades de saúde prisionais, na perspectiva de profissionais de enfermagem. Método: estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, realizado em cinco unidades prisionais no estado do Pará, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 15 profissionais de enfermagem. Os dados foram analisados por meio da técnica de análise de conteúdo proposta por Bardin. Resultados: as temáticas identificadas foram medidas de prevenção relacionadas a recursos materiais, educação em saúde e cuidado às pessoas privadas de liberdade e entraves à redução da exposição ocupacional a tuberculose e ao vírus da imunodeficiência humana no ambiente prisional. Conclusão: na perspectiva dos profissionais de enfermagem, a prevenção de infecções ocupacionais por tuberculose e pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana perpassa pela necessidade de melhorias estruturais e organizacionais às suas condições de trabalho, as quais influenciariam positivamente para a prestação de assistência qualificada e resolutiva a toda a comunidade prisional. (AU)


Objective: To describe preventive measures and barriers to reducing occupational exposure to infections by tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus in prison health units, from the perspective of nursing professionals. Methods: A descriptive study with a qualitative approach, carried out in five prison units in the state of Pará, through semi-structured interviews with 15 nursing professionals. The data were analyzed using the content analysis technique proposed by Bardin. Results: The themes identified were preventive measures related to material resources, health education and care for people deprived of their liberty and barriers to reducing occupational exposure to tuberculosis and the human immunodeficiency virus in the prison environment. Conclusion: From the perspective of nursing professionals, the prevention of occupational infections by tuberculosis and the human immunodeficiency virus runs through the need for structural and organizational improvements to their working conditions, which would positively influence the provision of qualified and resolving assistance to all the prison community. (AU)


Objetivo: Describir las medidas preventivas y barreras para reducir la exposición ocupacional a infecciones por tuberculosis y virus de inmunodeficiencia humana en unidades de salud penitenciarias, desde la perspectiva de los profesionales de enfermería. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con abordaje cualitativo, realizado en cinco unidades penitenciarias del estado de Pará, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas a 15 profesionales de enfermería. Los datos se analizaron mediante la técnica de análisis de contenido propuesta por Bardin. Resultados: Los temas identificados fueron medidas preventivas relacionadas con los recursos materiales, educación en salud y atención a las personas privadas de libertad y barreras para reducir la exposición ocupacional a la tuberculosis y al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en el ámbito penitenciario. Conclusión: Desde la perspectiva de los profesionales de enfermería, la prevención de las infecciones ocupacionales por tuberculosis y el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana pasa por la necesidad de mejoras estructurales y organizativas de sus condiciones laborales, lo que incidiría positivamente en la prestación de asistencia cualificada y resolutiva a todos. la comunidad carcelaria. (AU)


Subject(s)
Nursing Care , Prisons , Tuberculosis , Occupational Exposure , HIV
9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1358031

ABSTRACT

El mesotelioma es considerado en el mundo industrializado a consecuencia de la exposición ocupacional a fibras de asbesto. A nivel país se considera una enfermedad profesional. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer y describir casos de mesotelioma notificados en Uruguay entre los años 2002 y 2014, con énfasis en los aspectos de la exposición ocupacional. El presente trabajo corresponde a un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, a partir de los casos notificados se recrearon historias médicas enlazando con datos de servicios asistenciales. Se identificaron fuentes de exposición al asbesto en diferentes ocupaciones e industrias en el país. Resultados: fueron notificados 122 casos. Se accedió a la historia clínica en un tercio (47/122). El dato ocupación estaba consignado solo en 27/47, en 3/47 se explicitaba la exposición al asbesto/amianto. Los sectores productivos identificados mayoritariamente correspondieron a transporte, metalúrgico, construcción y limpieza. Se evidenció un registro insuficiente del dato ocupación y de los antecedentes laborales. Ésta información laboral es fundamental para establecer el nexo causal de la exposición en estudio y la condición de enfermedad profesional. La gravedad de la enfermedad y el conocimiento del riesgo derivado de la exposición, laboral, justifica el desarrollo de políticas en salud ocupacional. Es necesario fortalecer la formación de los profesionales de la salud sobre la importancia del trabajo como determinante del proceso salud - enfermedad.


Mesothelioma is considered in the industrialized world as a consequence of occupational exposure to asbestos fibers - asbestos. At the country level it is considered an occupational disease. The objective was to know and describe cases of mesothelioma notified in Uruguay between the years 2002 and 2014, with emphasis on aspects of occupational exposure. The present work corresponds to a retrospective descriptive study, from the reported cases medical records were recreated linking with data from healthcare services. Sources of asbestos exposure were identified in different occupations and industries in the country. Results: 122 cases were notified. The medical history was accessed in one third (47/122). The occupation data was only in 27/47, in 3/47 the exposure to asbestos / asbestos was specified. The productive sectors identified mainly corresponded to transportation, metallurgy, construction and cleaning. Insufficient registration of occupation and employment history was evidenced. This work information is essential to establish the causal link between the exposure under study and the occupational disease condition. The severity of the disease and knowledge of the risk derived from exposure occupational, justify the development of occupation health policies. It is necessary to strengthen the training of health professionals on the importance of work as a determinant of the health - disease process.


O mesotelioma é considerado no mundo industrializado como consequência da exposição ocupacional às fibras de amianto - o asbesto. Em nível nacional, é considerada uma doença ocupacional. O objetivo foi conhecer e descrever os casos de mesotelioma notificados no Uruguai entre os anos de 2002 a 2014, com ênfase nos aspectos de exposição ocupacional. O presente trabalho corresponde a um estudo descritivo retrospectivo, a partir dos casos relatados, prontuários médicos foram recriados vinculando-os a dados de serviços de saúde. Fontes de exposição ao amianto foram identificadas em diferentes ocupações e indústrias no país. Resultados: foram notificados 122 casos. O histórico médico foi acessado em um terço (47/122). Os dados de ocupação foram apenas em 27/47, em 3/47 foi especificada a exposição ao amianto / amianto. Os setores produtivos identificados corresponderam principalmente a transportes, metalurgia, construção e limpeza. Foi evidenciado registro insuficiente de ocupação e histórico de empregos. Essas informações de trabalho são essenciais para estabelecer o nexo causal entre a exposição em estudo e a condição de doença ocupacional. A gravidade da doença e o conhecimento do risco decorrente da exposição ocupacional, justificam o desenvolvimento de políticas de saúde ocupacional. É preciso fortalecer a formação dos profissionais de saúde sobre a importância do trabalho como determinante do processo saúde - doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asbestos/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Mesothelioma/mortality , Mesothelioma/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Mesothelioma/chemically induced
10.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 12-18, 30 Diciembre 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368209

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Según datos de la Organización Mundial de Salud los trastornos musculoesqueléticos son la principal causa de discapacidad en el mundo; retrasar su diagnóstico provocaría una discapacidad prevenible. OBJETIVO. Determinar la prevalencia de síntomas osteomusculares en galponeros de granjas avícolas asociados a condiciones del trabajo. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra aleatoria estratificada de 223 trabajadores, divididos en 106 galponeros y 117 personal administrativo de granjas avícolas de la provincia de Manabí. Criterios de inclusión: trabajadores mayores de 18 años de edad con al menos un año en la misma actividad. Para el análisis de datos, se utilizó Epi Info versión 7. RESULTADOS. La prevalencia de síntomas osteomusculares en los últimos 12 meses fue mayor en los galponeros en: hombro 81,69% y columna lumbar 56,96%. Mediante un análisis a través de regresión logística se determinó que los galponeros que trabajan por más de 10 años y que realizan movimientos repetitivos en menos de un minuto, tienen mayor riesgo de presentar dolor en el hombro (IC del 95% 1,26 ­ 4,98) e (IC del 95% 1,65 ­ 5,29). CONCLUSIÓN. Se registró la prevalencia de síntomas osteomusculares en galponeros de granjas avícolas asociados a condiciones del trabajo. RECOMENDACIÓN. Es necesario contar con sistemas de vigilancia a fin de proponer estrategias públicas en la industria avícola del Ecuador


INTRODUCTION. According to data from the World Health Organization musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability in the world; delaying their diagnosis would result in preventable disability. OBJECTIVE. To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in poultry farm workers associated with working conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Stratified random sample of 223 workers, divided into 106 poultry sheds workers and 117 administrative personnel of poultry farms in the province of Manabí. Inclusion criteria: Workers over 18 years of age with at least 1 year in the same activity. Fort he data analysis, Epi Info version 7 was used. RESULTS. The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the last 12 months was higher in sheds workers in: shoulder 81,69% and lumbar spine 56,96%. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that the sheds workers who have been working for more than 10 years and who perform repetitive movements in less than one minute have a greater risk of presenting shoulder pain (95% CI 1,26 ­ 4,98) and (95% CI 1,65 ­ 5,29). CONCLUSION. The prevalence of osteomuscular symptoms in poultry farm workers associated with working conditions was recorded. RECOMMENDATION. It is necessary to have surveillance systems in order to propose public strategies in the Ecuadorian poultry industry


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Poultry , Poultry Products , Working Conditions , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Spine , Occupational Risks , Workload , Ankle Injuries , Neck Pain , Shoulder Pain , Hip Injuries , Knee Injuries
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 632-641, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153394

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this sense the objective of assessing the levels of pesticide poisoning in rural farmers of San Sebastian and take AL, using acetylcholinesterase enzymes Erythrocyte and plasma as biological indicator of intoxication. This is a prospective, transversal and descriptive variables analyzed were: year whose, sex, age group, education, location, condition, route of exposure. The data were acquired by collecting blood samples and socio demographic information of farmers. Was put as the determining factor the type of conventional and organic farming, and periods of drought and rainy. 56 volunteers were analyzed. The analyses were performed in the automatic biochemical Analyzer Cobas Integra 400 plus®. According to the results of the analyses, it was the largest number of individuals with reduced values of cholinesterase, specifically the Group of conventional farming, the period of greatest change index was in the rainy season, where the activity of AChE, expressive values presented in the city of São Sebastião, with 80% result of intoxicated, in the city of the foot - take, 21.73% over the same period. On analysis of the AChP, São Sebastião has obtained the highest number of contaminated with 18.75% and 30% respectively, in the District Take Foot stood between 10 and 21.73% of reduced levels of cholinesterase. This sets the organic system of cultivation, as the best alternative for prevention of future diseases, in addition to bringing quality of life for rural workers, as well as for consumers.


Resumo Nesse sentido objetivou-se avaliar os níveis de intoxicação por agrotóxicos em agricultores rurais de São Sebastião e Pé Leve - AL, utilizando as enzimas acetilcolinesterase Eritrocitária e Plasmática, como indicador biológico de intoxicação. Trata - se de um estudo prospectivo, transversal e descritivo cujas variáveis analisadas foram: ano, sexo, faixa etária, escolaridade, local, circunstância, via de exposição. Os dados foram adquiridos através da coleta das amostras de sangue e das informações sócio demográficas dos agricultores. Foi posto como fator determinante o tipo de cultivo convencional e orgânico, e os períodos de estiagem e chuvoso. Foram analisados 56 voluntários. As análises foram realizadas no analisador automático de bioquímica Cobas Integra® 400 plus. De acordo com os resultados das análises, percebeu-se maior número de indivíduos com valores diminuídos da colinesterase, especificamente no grupo de cultivo convencional, o período de maior índice de alteração foi na época chuvosa, onde a atividade da AChE, apresentou valores expressivos na cidade de São Sebastião, com resultado de 80% de intoxicados, na cidade do Pé - Leve, obteve-se 21,73% no mesmo período. Na análise da AChP, São Sebastião obteve maior número de contaminados com 18,75% e 30% respectivamente, já no Distrito Pé Leve ficou entre 10 e 21,73% de níveis diminuídos da colinesterase. Isso define o sistema orgânico de cultivo, como a melhor alternativa para prevenção de futuras patologias, além de trazer qualidade de vida para os trabalhadores rurais, como também para os consumidores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Acetylcholinesterase , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Farmers
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(9): 4243-4252, set. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339581

ABSTRACT

Resumo Diferentes práticas agrícolas estão associadas a diferentes riscos para a saúde de camponeses. Objetivou-se analisar a associação entre ideação suicida e exposição a agrotóxicos, comparando camponeses vivendo sob exposição ambiental a agrotóxicos em relação a camponeses envolvidos com práticas agroecológicas, sem o uso de agrotóxicos, no semiárido norte mineiro. As famílias avaliadas foram amostradas, por conveniência, a partir da prática agrícola a qual estavam vinculadas, e os dados coletados por meio de entrevistas com instrumento previamente validado. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas seguidas de regressão logística. Foram entrevistados 547 camponeses, de ambos os sexos, sendo 311 sob exposição a agrotóxicos. Os camponeses expostos a agrotóxicos, em relação a camponeses envolvidos com práticas agroecológicas, tiveram maiores chances para ideação suicida (OR=2,30; IC95% 1,16-4,56), consumo problemático de álcool (OR=2,30; IC95% 1,18-4,48) e episódios prévios de intoxicação aguda por agrotóxicos (OR=8,58; IC95% 2,98-24,72).Conclui-se que as práticas agrícolas que implicam em exposição crônica a agrotóxicos se associam a maiores chances de ideação suicida, independentemente de episódios prévios de intoxicação aguda por agrotóxicos ou do uso problemático do álcool.


Abstract Health risks faced by peasant farmers may vary depending on the type of agriculture they practice. This study examined the association between suicide ideation and exposure to pesticides by comparing two groups of peasant farmers of both sexes living in the semi-arid region of the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil: exposed to pesticides and adopting agroecological practices without the use of pesticides. Group participants were selected using convenience sampling and data was collected using a previously validated questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews. Bivariate analysis was performed, followed by logistic regression. A total of 547 peasant farmers were interviewed (311 in the group exposed to pesticides and 236 in the group adopting agroecological practices). Respondents from the group exposed to pesticides were more likely to report suicidal ideation (OR=2.30; 95%CI 1.16-4.56), harmful alcohol consumption (OR=2.30; 95%CI 1.18-4.48), and lifetime acute pesticide poisoning (OR=8.58; 95%CI 2.98-24.72). The findings suggest that agricultural practices that lead to chronic pesticide exposure are associated with a greater likelihood of suicide ideation, regardless of previous episodes of acute pesticide poisoning or harmful alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pesticides , Occupational Exposure , Brazil/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Farmers
13.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The authors report the case of a veterinarian who acquired brucellosis infection by accidental exposure to Brucella abortus vaccine (BRUCEL-VET B19) while performing animal vaccination. Antibiotic prophylaxis with doxycycline and rifampin for six weeks was indicated, but rifampin was discontinued after 10 days due to gastrointestinal in-tolerance. Despite prophylaxis, the patient seroconverted after 30 days, but was asymptomatic and did not require additional antibiotic therapy. Post-exposure prophylaxis of Brucella is not free from side effects and asymptomatic seroconversion can occur despite prophylaxis. (AU)


RESUMO: Os autores relatam o caso de um veterinário que adquiriu infecção por brucelose por exposição acidental à vacina Brucellaabortus (BRUCEL-VET B19) durante a vacinação animal. A profilaxia antibiótica com doxiciclina e rifampici-na por seis semanas foi indicada, mas a rifampicina foi descontinuada após 10 dias devido à intolerância gastroin-testinal. A profilaxia pós-exposição de Brucella não está isenta de efeitos colaterais e a soroconversãoassintomática pode ocorrer apesar da profilaxia. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brucellosis , Occupational Exposure , Vaccination , Veterinarians , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
14.
Iatreia ; 34(2): 124-136, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250063

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la carga debida al cáncer es alta, y además de su impacto en la salud de las personas tiene efectos económicos. Objetivo: identificar los costos asociados al cáncer como resultado de la exposición ocupacional. Métodos: se realizó una scoping review. Para esta se hizo una búsqueda sistemática de acuerdo con la pregunta PECO en las siguientes bases de datos indexadas: Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Science Direct, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), BVS y PubMed. Como criterios de elegibilidad de los escritos estaba que se tratara sobre cáncer de origen ocupacional y que mencionara los costos; se seleccionaron 19 artículos. Resultados: entre los estudios se identificaron los países donde se han hecho investigaciones al respecto, el tipo de estudio, los tipos de cáncer, sus costos y métodos de estimación. En cuanto a los costos, se encontraron principalmente trabajos centrados en los costos directos, es decir, los que representan la atención en salud, dejando de lado el análisis de los que son indirectos, es decir los que están relacionados con la pérdida de la productividad. Conclusión: se concluye que se requiere de un abordaje interdisciplinario para el análisis de los costos, con el fin de mejorar la comprensión de estos y particularmente la de los indirectos.


SUMMARY Background: The burden of disease due to cancer is high and has an impact on people's health and economic cost. Objective: Identify the costs associated with occupational cancer. For this purpose, a scoping review was carried out. Methods: First, a systematic search was performed according to the PECO question, we used the following indexed databases: Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Science Direct, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), BVS and PubMed. The eligibility criteria were that the study focus in any type of occupational cancer and mention the cost related. After the selection and screening process, 19 articles were included. Results: The studies identified the countries where research has been carried out, the type of study, the types of cancer, the methods of cost estimations and types of cost. In relation with the costs, we mainly found articles focused on direct costs, that is, what health care represents; but there are few studies that included analysis of indirect costs that are related to lost productivity. Conclusion: It is concluded that an interdisciplinary approach to cost analysis is required to improve understanding of costs, particularly indirect costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cost of Illness , Occupational Cancer , Occupational Exposure , Costs and Cost Analysis , Neoplasms
16.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e1939, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289565

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El plomo, por su amplio uso causa una gran contaminación ambiental y problemas de salud en muchas partes del mundo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud incluyó el plomo dentro de una lista de diez productos químicos causantes de graves efectos sobre la salud. Objetivo: Evaluar los niveles de plomo en sangre y de protoporfirina libre eritrocitaria en un grupo de trabajadores expuestos a plomo inorgánico. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal donde se evaluaron 776 casos que acudieron a los laboratorios del Instituto Nacional de Salud de los Trabajadores en el año 2018, provenientes de diferentes sectores industriales. Se les realizó la determinación de plomo en sangre a 288 y la de protoporfirina a 488, según métodos establecidos en el laboratorio. Los datos obtenidos fueron procesados utilizando Microsoft Excel® y el paquete estadístico Statgraphics Centurion XVI.II. Resultados: El 92 por ciento de los pacientes fue del sexo masculino. La concentración de plomo en sangre osciló entre 5 µg/dL y 89 µg/dL para un promedio en hombres de 24 µg/dL ± 21 µg/dL y en las mujeres de 11 µg/dL ± 9 µg/dL. Para la protoporfirina, esta fluctuó entre 21 µg/dL y 274 µg/dL, con un promedio de 47 µg/dL ± 22 µg/dL en hombres y 66 µg/dL ± 32 µg/dL en las mujeres. El 8 por ciento de los casos evaluados tuvo valores de plomo en sangre mayores de 60 µg/dL y para la protoporfirina el 5 por ciento de los casos presentaron valores por encima de 85 μg/dL. Conclusiones: Algunos casos evaluados presentaron niveles elevados de plomo que superan los límites permitidos, lo que pone en evidencia la necesidad de reforzar las medidas de protección aplicadas a los trabajadores y la importancia de detectar precozmente el problema en el ámbito laboral, antes de que aparezcan repercusiones derivadas de una intoxicación por plomo(AU)


Introduction: Lead, due to its large use, causes a major environmental pollution and health problems in many places around the world. The World Health Organization included lead in a list of ten chemical products causing severe effects in health. Objective: To assess lead levels in blood and free-erythtocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels in groups of workers exposed to inorganic lead. Methods: Descriptive. cross-sectional study where 776 cases coming from different industrial sectors were assessed in the laboratories of the National Institute of Workers Health in the year 2018. It was conducted to 288 of the cases a test to determine if there was lead in blood and a test for FEP to 488 cases, according to the methods established in the laboratory. The data collected were processed using Microsoft Excel® and the statistical program called Statgraphics Centurion XVI.II. Results: 92 percent of the patients were males. Lead concentration in blood ranged from 5 µg/dL and 89 µg/dL, for an average in men of 24 µg/dL ± 21 µg/dL, and in women of 11 µg/dL ± µg/dL. FEP concentration swung from 21 µg/dL to 274 µg/dL, with an average of 47 µg/dL ± 22 µg/dL in men, and 66 µg/dL ± 32 µg/dL in women. 8 percent of the assessed cases presented values of lead in blood higher than 60 µg/dL and for FEP, 5 percent of the cases presented values higher than 85 µg/dL. Conclusions: Some of the assessed cases presented high levels of lead which exceed the permitted levels; so, this demonstrates the need of reinforzing the protection measures applied to the workers and the importance of early detecting this problem in work-related environments prior to the onset of repercutions derived from lead poisoning(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Protoporphyrins/blood , Software , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Lead Poisoning , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
17.
Curitiba; s.n; 20210301. 142 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1282831

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Estudo caso-controle, de base hospitalar, realizado em um hospital oncológico no estado do Paraná, com objetivo de avaliar o risco de câncer de pulmão associado à exposição ocupacional a substâncias cancerígenas, cuja hipótese foi estudar se o risco de câncer de pulmão é maior entre indivíduos expostos a essas substâncias quando comparado com indivíduos não expostos. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevista e busca em prontuários físico e eletrônicos, entre janeiro e outubro de 2019. Participaram 99 casos e 227 controles. As variáveis utilizadas para avaliar o risco ocupacional foram ramo de atividade econômica e ocupação, padronizadas por códigos de classificações internacionais. Os códigos foram descritos em ocupações referidas pela Agência Internacional de Pesquisa em Câncer como, reconhecidas ou suspeitas, por acarretarem risco carcinogênico pulmonar, e analisados conforme ferramenta padrão de análise de câncer de pulmão ocupacional. A história ocupacional foi cruzada em uma matriz de exposição ocupacional específica para seis agentes cancerígenos pulmonares, denominada DOM-JEM. Não foi possível pareamento dos controles por sexo e idade. A análise comparativa das variáveis utilizou testes Mann-Whitney e Qui-quadrado. O risco de câncer pulmonar foi estimado pelo Odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%, através da regressão logística condicional. Os modelos foram ajustados por idade, escolaridade, município e tabagismo. As análises ocorreram separadamente por sexo. Tabagismo foi tratado como variável de confusão. Os resultados mostraram risco aumentado de câncer de pulmão para mulheres de serviços agrícolas (OR= 12,9; IC: 3,3-50,9) e das ocupações de: trabalhadoras agrícolas de árvores e arbustos, principalmente, coletoras de café e algodão (OR=3,9; IC: 1,0-15,7); garçonetes (OR= 5,0; IC: 1,0-23,6); e caixas (OR= 10,9; IC: 1,4-79,8). Nos homens, evidências apontaram risco aumentado na fabricação de móveis e acessórios (OR= 27,7; IC: 1,1-677,4) e nas ocupações de: trabalhadores do tratamento de madeira e fabricação de papel/celulose (OR=9,3; IC: 1,0-83,4); e pintores (OR= 14,3; IC: 1,7-116,5). Entre as ocupações reconhecidas por risco carcinogênico pulmonar, apenas a de pintor apresentou risco associado. Não se obteve resultados significativos nas ocupações suspeitas de risco carcinogênico. Entre as mulheres, a exposição concomitante ao cromo e níquel em níveis baixos apontou risco aumentado (OR= 24,8; IC: 1,1-398,7) na matriz de exposição ocupacional. A exposição aos hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos, asbestos e sílica apresentaram riscos aumentados sem associação. Nos homens, não houve associação na matriz. Comprovou-se que a ocupação de pintor esteve associada ao desenvolvimento do câncer nos homens. A exposição aos compostos de cromo-níquel apresentou evidência limitada entre as mulheres. O fato de o trabalho agrícola na coleta de café e algodão representar risco de câncer de pulmão entre as mulheres é pouco estudado e discutido na literatura nacional. O caráter inovador está relacionado à realização de estudos caso-controle para associação entre câncer pulmonar e exposição a agentes químicos. Demonstra-se a necessidade de instrumentalização dos serviços de saúde para que possam identificar as causas do adoecimento do trabalhador relacionado aos agentes químicos, para fins de prevenção e redução dos adoecimentos e dos custos em saúde que oneram a sociedade, o trabalhador e sua família.


Abstract: Hospital-based case-control study conducted at a oncology hospital in the state of Paraná, with objective of assessing the risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposure to carcinogens, whose hypothesis was to study whether the risk of lung cancer is higher among individuals exposed to these substances when compared to unexposed individuals. Data was obtained through interviews and searches in physical and electronic medical records, between January and October 2019. 99 cases and 227 controls participated. The variables used to assess occupational risk were economic activity and occupation, standardized by international classification codes. The codes were later described into occupations recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): carcinogenic risk to the lung, or suspected carcinogenic risk to the lung, according to the standard tool for the analysis of occupational lung cancer in epidemiological studies. Occupational history was crossed with a specific occupational exposure matrix for six lung carcinogens, called DOM-JEM. It was not possible to match the controls by sex and age. The comparative analysis of the variables used the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. The risk of lung cancer was estimated by the Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, through conditional logistic regression. The models were adjusted for age, education, municipality, and smoking. The analysis was conducted separately by sex. Smoking was treated as a confounding variable. The results showed an increased lung cancer risk for females of agricultural services (OR= 12,9; IC: 3,3-50,9), and in the occupations of agricultural workers of trees and shrubs, mainly coffee and cotton collectors (OR=3,9; IC: 1,0-15,7); waitresses (OR= 5,0; IC: 1,0-23,6); cashiers (OR= 10,9; IC: 1,4-79,8). Among men, evidence pointed to an increased risk in the economic areas of furniture and accessories manufacturing (OR= 27,7; IC: 1,1-677,4); workers in wood treatment and paper or cellulose manufacturing (OR=9,3; IC: 1,0-83,4); and painters (OR = 14.3; CI 1.7-116.5). Among the occupations recognized by pulmonary carcinogenic risk, only that of the painter had an associated risk. No significant results were obtained in occupations suspected of presenting carcinogenic risk. Among women, concomitant exposure to chromium and nickel at low levels pointed an increased risk (OR= 24,8; IC: 1,1-398,7) in the occupational exposure matrix. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and silica presented increased risks without association. In men, there was no association in the matrix. It becomes proven that the occupation of painter was associated with the development of cancer in men. Exposure to chromium-nickel compounds presented limited evidence among women. The fact that agricultural work in the collection of coffee and cotton represents a risk of lung cancer among women is little studied and discussed in national literature. The innovative character is related to the conduct of case-control studies for the association between lung cancer and exposure to chemical agents. It demonstrates the need to instrumental health services so that they can identify the causes of the illness of the worker related to chemical agents, for the purposes of prevention and reduction of illnesses and health costs that burden society, the worker and your family.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Occupational Risks , Occupational Exposure , Disease Prevention , Occupational Cancer , Lung Neoplasms
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(2): 248-259, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287808

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop artificial intelligence and machine learning-based models to predict alterations in liver enzymes from the exposure of low annual average effective doses in radiology and nuclear medicine personnel of Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Hospital. METHODS: Ninety workers from the Radiology and Nuclear Medicine departments were included. A high-capacity thermoluminescent was used for annual average effective radiation dose measurements. The liver function tests were conducted for all subjects and controls. Three supervised learning models (multilayer precentron; logistic regression; and random forest) were applied and cross-validated to predict any alteration in liver enzymes. The t-test was applied to see if subjects and controls were significantly different in liver function tests. RESULTS: The annual average effective doses were in the range of 0.07-1.15 mSv. Alanine transaminase was 50% high and aspartate transaminase was 20% high in radiation workers. There existed a significant difference (p=0.0008) in Alanine-aminotransferase between radiation-exposed and radiation-unexposed workers. Random forest model achieved 90-96.6% accuracies in Alanine-aminotransferase and Aspartate-aminotransferase predictions. The second best classifier model was the Multilayer perceptron (65.5-80% accuracies). CONCLUSION: As there is a need of regular monitoring of hepatic function in radiation-exposed people, our artificial intelligence-based predicting model random forest is proved accurate in prediagnosing alterations in liver enzymes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation Dosage , Algorithms , Liver
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887876

ABSTRACT

Objective To design a novel automatic dispensing and injecting system of positron radiopharmaceuticals,for precise dose dispensing,simplified operation,and reduction of occupational radiation exposure. Methods The automatic dispensing and injecting system was fabricated with tungsten alloy as the shielding material.The performance and radiation protection of the device were assessed. Results The total time of injection using the automatic dispensing and injecting system was about 60 s.The ratio of successful injection in stability test was 100%.The deviation of the dispensing dose with the system was ≤3%.With the tungsten alloy shield(40 mmPb of the cabinet,60 mmPb of the countertop,15 mmPb of the protective shield,and 50 mmPb of the inbuilt jar for radiopharmaceuticals),the average dose rate at 30 cm from the device was 1.44 μSv/h,and the radiation dose at the operator's extremity was reduced by 99%. Conclusions This automatic dispensing and injecting system of positron radiopharmaceuticals is easy to operate with precise dispensing dose.It is safe and meets the requirements of radiation protection.


Subject(s)
Electrons , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection , Radiopharmaceuticals
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878361

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was designed to conduct a retrospective and systematic occupational health risk assessment (OHRA) of enterprises that used benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in Shanghai, China.@*Methods@#All data for the study were obtained from 1,705 occupational health examination and evaluation reports from 2013 to 2017, and a semiquantitative model following Chinese OHRA guidelines (GBZ/T 298-2017) was applied for the assessment.@*Results@#The selected enterprises using BTX were mainly involved in manufacturing of products. Using the exposure level method, health risk levels associated with exposure to BTX were classified as medium, negligible, or low. However, the risk levels associated with benzene and toluene were significantly different according to job types, with gluers and inkers exhibiting greater health risks. For the same job type, the health risk levels assessed using the comprehensive index method were higher than those using the exposure level method.@*Conclusion@#Our OHRA reveals that workers who are exposed to BTX still face excessive health risk. Additionally, the risk level varied depending on job categories and exposure to specific chemicals. Therefore, additional control measures recommended by OHRA guidelines are essential to reduce worker exposure levels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , China , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Toluene/analysis , Xylenes/analysis
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