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1.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 58: 13, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560448

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the distribution and association of sociodemographic and occupational factors with self-reported work accidents (WA) in a representative sample of the Brazilian population, with emphasis on occupational class, and to examine gender differences in this distribution. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study, using data from the 2019 National Health Survey (PNS), analyzed the responses of a sample of adults aged 18 or over. Factors associated with WA were investigated using binary logistic regression and hierarchical analysis using blocks (sociodemographic and occupational variables). The final model was adjusted by variables from all blocks, adopting a significance level of 5%. The values of odds ratios (OR) and respective confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS Among the participants, 2.69% reported having suffered a WA, with a higher prevalence in men (3.37%; 95%CI 2.97-3.82%) than in women (1.86%; 95%CI 1.55-2.23%). The analysis identified that age group, night work, working hours, and exposure to occupational risks were associated with WA, with emphasis on gender differences. The class of manual workers, both qualified (ORwomen = 2.87; 95%CI 1.33-6.21 and ORmen = 2.46; 95%CI 1.37-4.40) and unskilled (ORwomen = 2.55; 95%CI 1.44-4.50 and ORmen = 3.70; 95%CI 1.95-7.03), had a higher chance of WA than the class of managers/professionals. CONCLUSION Occupational factors contributed significantly to the increase in the probability of WA for men and women, with greater magnitude among those positioned in the lower strata of the occupational structure. The results obtained are clues for working out WA prevention actions.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a distribuição e associação de fatores sociodemográficos e ocupacionais a acidentes de trabalho (AT) autorrelatados em uma amostra representativa da população brasileira, com ênfase na classe ocupacional, e examinar as diferenças de gênero nessa distribuição. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de base populacional, com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) de 2019, analisou as respostas de uma amostra de adultos com 18 anos ou mais de idade. Fatores associados a AT foram investigados por regressão logística binária e análise hierarquizada por meio de blocos (variáveis sociodemográficas e ocupacionais). O modelo final foi ajustado pelas variáveis de todos os blocos, adotando-se o nível de significância de 5%. Obtiveram-se os valores das razões de chance (RC) e respectivos intervalos de confiança. RESULTADOS Entre os participantes, 2,69% relataram ter sofrido AT, sendo mais alta a prevalência em homens (3,37%; IC95% 2,97-3,82%), se comparados às mulheres (1,86%; IC95% 1,55-2,23%). A análise identificou que faixa etária, trabalho noturno, jornada de trabalho e exposição a riscos laborais foram associados a AT, com destaque para as diferenças de gênero. A classe de trabalhadores manuais, tanto qualificados (RCmulheres = 2,87; IC95% 1,33-6,21 e RChomens = 2,46; IC95% 1,37-4,40) quanto não qualificados (RCmulheres = 2,55; IC95% 1,44-4,50 e RChomens = 3,70; IC95% 1,95-7,03), apresentaram maior chance de AT em comparação à classe de gerentes/profissionais. CONCLUSÃO Fatores ocupacionais contribuíram significativamente para o aumento na probabilidade de AT para homens e mulheres, com maior magnitude entre aqueles posicionados nos estratos inferiores da estrutura ocupacional. Os resultados obtidos são pistas para a elaboração de ações de prevenção de AT.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Accidents, Occupational/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Gender Identity , Sociodemographic Factors , Occupations/classification , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 44: e259089, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1558743

ABSTRACT

Este estudo analisa o estresse ocupacional entre psicólogos que atuavam na Atenção Primária à Saúde durante a pandemia ocasionada pela covid-19, assim como as características sociodemográficas e laborais dos participantes e sua relação com o estresse ocupacional. Participaram da pesquisa 70 psicólogos atuantes em 51 unidades básicas de saúde das regiões Oeste e Extremo Oeste catarinense. Para coleta de dados, um questionário sociodemográfico e a versão reduzida da Job Stress Scale (JSS) foram aplicados. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio da estatística descritiva e inferencial. Identificou-se que 35,7% dos psicólogos apresentaram alto desgaste no trabalho; 28,6% baixo desgaste; 27,1% se mostraram em trabalho passivo; e 8,6% em trabalho ativo. No modelo de regressão linear, os fatores associados à dimensão Demanda da JSS foram: possuir filho (a) (coeficiente -1,49; IC 95% -2,75 a -0,23) e afastamento do trabalho nos últimos 12 meses (coeficiente 1,88; IC 95% 0,60 a 3,15). Os psicólogos com hipertensão arterial sistêmica autorreferida apresentaram, em média, 3,96 pontos a menos no escore de Apoio social (IC 95% -7,06 a -0,85), quando comparados aos não hipertensos, e entre os psicólogos que trabalhavam no turno da manhã identificou-se aumento de 4,46 pontos, em média, no escore de Apoio social (IC 95% 0,90 a 8,02) em relação aos profissionais do turno manhã e tarde. Evidenciou-se que um número significativo de psicólogos apresentava-se em alto desgaste no trabalho, com potenciais implicações para sua saúde e atuação profissional.(AU)


This study analyzed occupational stress among psychologists who worked in Primary Health Care during the COVID-19 pandemic and participants' sociodemographic and work characteristics and their relationship with occupational stress. In total, 70 psychologists working in 51 basic health units in the West and Far West regions of Santa Catarina participated in this research. A sociodemographic questionnaire and the short version of the Job Stress Scale (JSS) were applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. In total, 35.7% of psychologists showed high stress at work; 28.6%, low burn out; 27.1%, passive work; and 8.6%, active work. The factors in the linear regression model that were associated with the JSS demand dimension referred to having children (coefficient −1.49; 95% CI −2.75 to −0.23) and absence from work in the last 12 months (coefficient 1.88; 95% CI 0.60 to 3.15). Psychologists with self-reported systemic arterial hypertension showed, on average, 3.96 points lower in the Social Support score (95% CI −7.06 to −0.85) than non-hypertensive ones and psychologists who worked in the morning shift, an average increase of 4.46 points in the Social Support score (95% CI 0.90 to 8.02) in relation to professionals working in the morning and afternoon shifts. A significant number of psychologists had high stress at work, with potential implications to their health and professional performance.(AU)


Este estudio evalúa el estrés laboral entre los psicólogos que trabajaron en la atención primaria de salud durante la pandemia provocada por la COVID-19, así como las características sociodemográficas y laborales de ellos y su relación con el estrés laboral. En la investigación participaron setenta psicólogos que trabajan en 51 unidades básicas de salud en las regiones oeste y lejano oeste de Santa Catarina (Brasil). Para la recolección de datos se aplicó un cuestionario sociodemográfico y la versión corta de la Job Stress Scale (JSS). El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Se identificó que el 35,7% de los psicólogos presentaban alto estrés en el trabajo; el 28,6% tenían poco desgaste; el 27,1% se encontraban en trabajo pasivo; y el 8,6% en trabajo activo. En el modelo de regresión lineal, los factores asociados a la dimensión demanda de la JSS fueron: tener hijo (coeficiente -1,49; IC 95% -2,75 a -0,23) y baja laboral en los últimos 12 meses (coeficiente 1,88; IC 95% 0,60 a 3,15). Los psicólogos con hipertensión arterial sistémica autoinformada presentaron un promedio de 3,96 puntos más bajo en la puntuación de apoyo social (IC 95% -7,06 a -0,85) en comparación con los no hipertensos, y entre los psicólogos que trabajaban en el turno de la mañana, se identificó un aumento promedio de 4,46 puntos en la puntuación de apoyo social (IC 95% 0,90 a 8,02) con relación a los profesionales que laboran en el turno de mañana y tarde. Quedó evidente que un número significativo de psicólogos se encontraba en situación de alto estrés en el trabajo, con posibles implicaciones para su salud y desempeño profesional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Occupational Health , Occupational Stress , Organization and Administration , Organizational Innovation , Anxiety , Pathologic Processes , Personnel Loyalty , Poverty , Professional Practice , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Aspirations, Psychological , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Signs and Symptoms , Social Conditions , Psychological Distance , Social Isolation , Social Problems , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Task Performance and Analysis , Therapeutics , Unemployment , Viruses , Vocational Guidance , Women, Working , Work Schedule Tolerance , Behavioral Symptoms , Population Characteristics , Work Hours , National Health Strategies , Health Services Administration , Occupational Risks , Burnout, Professional , Activities of Daily Living , Power, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Career Mobility , Organizational Culture , Family , Indicators of Quality of Life , Mental Health , Liability, Legal , Staff Development , Health Strategies , Workload , Mental Competency , Employment, Supported , Health Personnel , Workplace , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Time Management , Efficiency, Organizational , Coronavirus , Conflict, Psychological , Life , Self Efficacy , Counseling , Health Management , Credentialing , Psychosocial Impact , Personal Autonomy , Delivery of Health Care , Friends , Depersonalization , Depression , Air Pollutants , Education , Educational Status , Efficiency , Empathy , Employee Grievances , Employee Incentive Plans , Employee Performance Appraisal , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Workforce , Disease Prevention , Health Status Disparities , Job Market , Ethics, Institutional , Mental Fatigue , Resilience, Psychological , Emotional Intelligence , Capacity Building , Remuneration , Hope , Karoshi Death , Compassion Fatigue , Emotional Adjustment , Self-Control , Work Performance , Alert Fatigue, Health Personnel , Work-Life Balance , Work Engagement , Economic Status , Solidarity , Psychological Distress , Caregiver Burden , Physical Distancing , Financial Stress , Induced Demand , Psychotherapists , Statistical Data , Social Vulnerability , Working Conditions , Overtraining Syndrome , Workforce Diversity , Psychological Growth , Coping Skills , Job Security , Emotional Exhaustion , Time Pressure , Guilt , Health Occupations , Health Promotion , Health Resources , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Research , Ergonomics , Interpersonal Relations , Interprofessional Relations , Job Satisfaction , Labor Unions , Leadership , Motivation , Occupational Groups , Negativism , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health Services , Occupations
3.
Psico USF ; 28(3): 521-532, jul.-set. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1521369

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to identify how racism appears in the lives and careers of Black undergraduate students in a Brazilian Public Higher Education Institution. For this purpose, this study conducted 27 narrative interviews with self-declared black undergraduates, which were analyzed using the technique of thematic Biography and Narrative Analysis. The results indicated that despite the existence of distinctions between the undergraduates' trajectories, usually caused by socioeconomic differences, racism similarly impacts their lives and careers, presenting itself in three frequent themes, named by the researchers as: "Experiences with Racism", "Awareness of Racism", and "Management of Racism". It was found that, although there are distinctions between experiences, motivated especially by socioeconomic origin and available opportunities, all participants manage the effects of racism, individually and collectively, leading them to changes in career prospects, to enable the construction of viable professional trajectories to achieve their ambitions. (AU)


O presente estudo objetivou identificar como o racismo se presentifica na vida e na carreira de universitários negros de uma Instituição Pública de Ensino Superior brasileira. Para tanto, foram conduzidas 27 entrevistas narrativas com graduandos autodeclarados negros, analisadas por meio da técnica de Análise de Biografias e Narrativas do tipo temática. Os resultados indicaram que, apesar da existência de distinções entre as trajetórias dos universitários, habitualmente ocasionada por diferenças socioeconômicas, o racismo impacta similarmente suas vidas e carreiras, apresentando-se em três temas frequentes, nomeados pelos pesquisadores como: "Experiências com o Racismo", "Conscientização sobre o Racismo" e "Manejo ao Racismo". Constatou-se que, embora existam distinções entre as vivências, motivadas, sobretudo, pela origem socioeconômica e oportunidades disponíveis, os efeitos do racismo são manejados por todos os participantes, individual e coletivamente, levando-os a alterações nas perspectivas de carreira, a fim de possibilitar a construção de trajetórias profissionais viáveis às suas ambições. (AU)


El presente estudio objetivó identificar cómo el racismo está presente en la vida y carrera de universitarios negros de una Institución Pública de Educación Superior brasileña. Para ello, se realizaron 27 entrevistas narrativas con universitarios autoproclamados negros, analizadas mediante la técnica de Análisis de Biografías y Narrativas del tipo temática. Los resultados indicaron que, aunque hay distinciones entre las trayectorias de los universitarios, generalmente causadas por diferencias socioeconómicas, el racismo impacta de manera similar sus vidas y carreras, presentándose en tres temas frecuentes, denominados como: "Experiencias con el Racismo", "Concientización sobre el racismo" y "Manejo del racismo". Se encontró que, aunque existen distinciones entre las experiencias, motivadas, especialmente, por el origen socioeconómico y las oportunidades disponibles, los efectos del racismo son manejados por todos los participantes, individual y colectivamente, llevándolos a cambios en las perspectivas de carrera, a fin de posibilitar la construcción de trayectorias profesionales viables para cumplir sus ambiciones. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Students/psychology , Racism/psychology , Occupations , Socioeconomic Factors , Interviews as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Personal Narratives as Topic
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985443

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the core knowledge level and influencing factors of chronic disease prevention and control in Adults in China, and to provide a scientific basis for formulating chronic disease prevention and control measures. Methods: In this study, cross-sectional survey and quota sampling were used to recruit 173 819 permanent residents aged 18 and above from 302 counties of adult chronic diseases and nutrition surveillance in China to conduct an online questionnaire survey, including basic information and core knowledge of chronic diseases. The scores of the core knowledge of chronic disease prevention and control were described by median and interquartile range, the Wilcoxon rank sum test or the Kruskal Wallis test was used for the inter-group comparison, and the correlation factors of the total score were analyzed by the multilinear regression model. Results: A total of 172 808 participants were surveyed in 302 counties and districts, of which 42.60%(73 623) were male and 57.40%(99 185) were female; The proportion of respondents aged 18-44, 45-59, and 60 years old and above was 54.74% (94 594), 30.91% (53 423) and 14.35% (24 791), respectively. The total score of the core knowledge of chronic prevention and control in the total population was 66(13), and the scores of different characteristic groups were different, and the differences were statistically significant: the eastern region had the highest score at 67(11) (H=840.66, P<0.01), the urban 66(12) was higher than the rural 65(14) (Z=-31.35, P<0.01), and the male 66(14) was lower than female 66(12) (Z=-11.66, P<0.01), 18-24 years old 64(13) was lower than other age groups(H=115.80, P<0.01), and undergraduate degree and above had the highest score compared to other academic qualifications, with 68(9) points(H=2 547.25, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that eastern (t=27.42, P<0.01), central (t=17.33, P<0.01), urban (t=5.69, P<0.01), female (t=17.81, P<0.01), high age (t=46.04, P<0.01) and high education (t=57.77, P<0.01) had higher scores of core knowledge of chronic disease prevention and control than other groups, the scores of core knowledge of chronic disease prevention and control of professional and technical personnel (t=8.63, P<0.01), state enterprises and institutions (t=38.67, P<0.01), agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery and water conservancy production (t=5.30, P<0.01), production, transportation and commercial personnel (t=24.87, P<0.01), and other workers (t=8.89, P<0.01) were higher than those of non-employed people. Conclusion: There are differences in the total scores of the core knowledge of chronic disease prevention and control in different characteristics of people in China, and in the future, health education on the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases should be strengthened for specific groups to improve the knowledge level of residents.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , East Asian People , Occupations , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252949, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440791

ABSTRACT

As startups são empresas que apresentam modelos de negócios marcados pela inovação, rapidez, flexibilidade e alta capacidade de adaptação aos mercados. Atuando em diferentes setores socioeconômicos, elas prometem criar e transformar produtos e serviços. A emergência e disseminação dessas empresas ocorrem em um momento histórico de mudanças iniciadas a partir de 1970 e marcadas pelas crises geradas com o esgotamento do paradigma da sociedade urbano industrial. No Brasil, o número desse modelo de negócio apresentou uma expansão expressiva, alcançando a marca de 13.374 nos últimos cinco anos. Atento a esse cenário, o objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em compreender como sujeitos, grupos e instituições atribuem sentidos à experiência de trabalho nas chamadas startups. Na parte teórica, as condições sociais e econômicas que possibilitaram a emergência e disseminação das startups são analisadas em uma perspectiva crítica. A parte empírica, por sua vez, apresenta depoimentos de empreendedores relatando o contexto geral de atuação nas startups. Ao final deste artigo, conclui-se que há uma instrumentalização capitalística de componentes subjetivos específicos selecionados e colocados em circulação para fortalecer o modo de produção capitalista financeirizado.(AU)


Startups are companies that have business models characterized by innovation, speed, flexibility, and a high capacity to adapt to markets. Operating in different socioeconomic sectors, they promise to create and transform products and services. The emergence and dissemination of these companies occur at a historical moment of changes that began from 1970 and are marked by the crises generated by the exhaustion of the paradigm of industrial urban society. In Brazil, the number of businesses in this model showed a significant expansion, reaching 13,374 companies in the last five years. Attentive to this scenario, the objective of this research was to understand how subjects, groups, and institutions attribute meanings to the work experience in so-called startups. In the theoretical part, the social and economic conditions that enabled the emergence and dissemination of startups are analyzed in a critical perspective. The empirical part presents entrepreneurs reporting the general context of action in startups. At the end of this article, it is concluded that there is a capitalistic instrumentalization of specific subjective components that are selected and put into circulation to strengthen the financed capitalist production.(AU)


Las startups son empresas que tienen modelos de negocio marcados por la innovación, la velocidad, la flexibilidad y una alta capacidad de adaptación a los mercados. Desde diferentes sectores socioeconómicos, las startups prometen crear y transformar productos y servicios. La aparición y difusión de estas empresas se produce en un momento histórico de cambios que comenzó a partir de 1970 y que está marcado por crisis generadas por el agotamiento del paradigma de la sociedad urbana industrial. En Brasil, estas empresas se expandieron significativamente alcanzando la marca de 13.374 empresas en los últimos cinco años. En este escenario, el objetivo de esta investigación fue entender cómo los sujetos, grupos e instituciones atribuyen significados a la experiencia laboral en las startups. En la parte teórica, se analizan las condiciones sociales y económicas que permitieron el surgimiento y la difusión de las startups en una perspectiva crítica. La parte empírica presenta testimonios de emprendedores que informan sobre el trabajo en startups. La investigación concluye que hay una instrumentalización capitalista de componentes subjetivos específicos que se seleccionan y ponen en circulación para fortalecer el modo de producción capitalista financiero.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Personal Satisfaction , Psychology, Social , Work , Organizations , Capitalism , Organization and Administration , Organizational Innovation , Peer Group , Personality , Politics , Professional Corporations , Professional Practice , Psychology , Public Relations , Risk Management , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Social Values , Technology , Thinking , Work Hours , Decision Making, Organizational , Competitive Bidding , Capital Financing , Artificial Intelligence , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Organizational Culture , Health , Administrative Personnel , Occupational Health , Planning Techniques , Adolescent , Entrepreneurship , Employment, Supported , Private Sector , Models, Organizational , Interview , Total Quality Management , Time Management , Efficiency, Organizational , Competitive Behavior , Natural Resources , Consumer Behavior , Contract Services , Benchmarking , Patent , Outsourced Services , Cultural Evolution , Marketing , Diffusion of Innovation , Economic Competition , Efficiency , Employment , Scientific and Educational Events , Products Commerce , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Agribusiness , Planning , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Small Business , Social Networking , Financial Management , Inventions , Crowdsourcing , Cloud Computing , Work-Life Balance , Stakeholder Participation , Sustainable Growth , Freedom , Big Data , Facilities and Services Utilization , e-Commerce , Blockchain , Universal Design , Augmented Reality , Intelligence , Investments , Mass Media , Occupations
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255714, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529210

ABSTRACT

Uma das demandas centrais das pessoas em situação de rua é a dificuldade de acesso a trabalho e renda, o que tanto pode levá-las a essa circunstância como dificultar sua saída das ruas. Nessa direção, em parceria com o Movimento Nacional da População em Situação de Rua em Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (MNPR/RN), Brasil, realizamos projeto de extensão com os objetivos de fortalecer as ações de geração de renda para os militantes do referido movimento e para o movimento em si e de promover a organização coletiva e política dos militantes do MNPR/RN em torno da pauta trabalho. Baseamo-nos na Economia Solidária para elaborar ações de geração de renda e fortalecimento político, e na Psicologia Social do Trabalho para informar sobre as intervenções realizadas pela equipe extensionista. Como estratégia de ação, foram realizados cinco bazares solidários em 2019, os quais envolveram militantes do MNPR/RN e extensionistas em reuniões preparatórias, arrecadação de materiais e efetivação dos bazares. Avaliou-se que os bazares foram uma ótima estratégia para a arrecadação de fundos para o movimento e a geração de renda imediata para os militantes envolvidos, mas que não garantiram a médio e longo prazo a renda dessas pessoas. Também possibilitaram o fortalecimento da autonomia, da participação ativa como trabalhadores e trabalhadoras e do aprendizado mútuo sobre princípios da Economia Solidária.(AU)


One of the main demands of people living on the streets is the difficulty in accessing work and income, which can either lead them to this circumstance or make it difficult for them to leave the streets. In this direction, in partnership with the National Movement of Homeless Population in Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (Movimento Nacional População de Rua - MNPR/RN), we carried out an extension project with the objectives of strengthening the actions to generate income for the militants of the referred movement and for the movement itself and to promote the collective and political organization of the MNPR/RN militants around the work agenda. We start with the Solidarity Economy for the elaboration of actions to generate income and political strengthening, and from the Social Psychology of Work to inform about the interventions carried out by the extension team. As an action strategy, five solidarity bazaars were held in 2019, involving MNPR/RN militants and extension workers in preparatory meetings, collection of materials, and holding the bazaars. The bazaars were considered an excellent strategy for raising funds for the movement and generating immediate income for the activists involved, but that they could not guarantee the income of these people in the medium and long term. It also allowed for the strengthening of autonomy, active participation as a female or male worker, and mutual learning on the principles of Solidarity Economy.(AU)


Una de las principales demandas de las personas en situación de calle es la dificultad para acceder al trabajo y a los ingresos, lo que puede llevarlos a esta situación o dificultarles su salida de la calle. En este sentido, en colaboración con el Movimiento Nacional de Población en Situación de Calle en Natal/RN (MNPR/RN), realizamos un proyecto de extensión con los objetivos de fortalecer las acciones de generación de ingresos para los activistas del referido movimiento y para el movimiento en sí y de promover la organización colectiva y política de los activistas del MNPR/RN en torno a las normas del trabajo. Partimos de la economía solidaria para desarrollar acciones de generación de ingresos y de fortalecimiento político, y desde la Psicología Social del Trabajo para informar de las intervenciones que realiza el equipo de extensión. Como estrategia de acción, en el 2019 se realizaron cinco ferias solidarias, en las cuales participaron activistas y grupos de extensión del MNPR/RN en reuniones preparatorias, recolección de materiales y realización de las ferias. Se consideró que las ferias son una excelente estrategia para recaudar fondos para el movimiento y generar ingresos inmediatos para los activistas involucrados, pero no pueden garantizar los ingresos de estas personas a mediano y largo plazo. También permiten fortalecer la autonomía, la participación activa como trabajador y trabajadora, y el aprendizaje mutuo sobre los principios de la economía solidaria.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology, Social , Work , Ill-Housed Persons , Economics , Solidarity , Income , Poverty , Prejudice , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Rest , Retirement , Safety , Self Care , Self Concept , Social Change , Social Conditions , Social Desirability , Social Isolation , Social Planning , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stereotyping , Unemployment , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Body Image , Brazil , Family , Illicit Drugs , Hygiene , Mental Health , Hunger , Workplace , Community-Institutional Relations , Privacy , Credentialing , Shelter , Capitalism , Democracy , Dehumanization , Gift Giving , Human Rights Abuses , Diet , Education , Educational Status , Health Status Disparities , Job Market , User Embracement , Products Commerce , Family Conflict , Social Stigma , Social Participation , Binge Drinking , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Sociological Factors , Literacy , Social Segregation , Survivorship , Academic Failure , Self-Management , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Right to Health , Right to Work , Workhouses , Freedom of Movement , Food Insecurity , Housing Instability , Health Disparate Minority and Vulnerable Populations , Access to Healthy Foods , Home Environment , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Working Conditions , Health Policy , Holidays , Housing , Human Rights , Individuation , Interpersonal Relations , Labor Unions , Leisure Activities , Occupations
8.
Licere (Online) ; 25(1): 369-393, mar.2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371734

ABSTRACT

As festas de aparelhagem são fenômenos socioculturais originados nas áreas periféricas de Belém ­ Pará, que ganharam grandes proporções até se tornarem verdadeiros eventos de expressão da cultura e do lazer paraense. Este estudo analisou o fenômeno do lazer vivenciado a partir da perspectiva dos DJs que conduzem as festas. O estudo consiste em uma pesquisa de campo, de cunho qualitativo, realizada via formulário com método de análise que divide o conteúdo em categorias analíticas. A seleção dos sujeitos da pesquisa se deu pela técnica bola de neve, entrevistando 15 DJs que fazem parte do cenário da aparelhagem no Pará. O estudo pôde visualizar como se desenvolveu esse fenômeno, qual visão os DJs têm sobre o evento e como percebem o lazer entre seu público. É unanime a percepção das aparelhagens como dispositivos populares que perpassam barreiras, possibilitando a construção de espaços democráticos e inclusivos.


The Soundsystem Parties are sociocultural phenomenon, traditional from the peripheral areas of Belém ­ Pará that has earned significant proportions and became an expression of Pará's culture. This study analyzes the leisure phenomenon as observed by the DJs' who hosts these events. To achieve this goal, we have performed a qualitative field survey, carried through a form employing an analytic method and sorting the material into categories to be categorized into different analytic groups. The subjects selection followed the "snowball" technique, interviewing 15 DJs who are part of the Soundsystem scene in Pará. The study was able to visualize how this phenomenon developed, the DJs' view on the event and how they perceive leisure among their audience. The perception of sound systems as popular devices that reach beyond boundaries is unanimous, enabling the constitution of democratic and heterogeneous cultural spaces.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cultural Factors , Qualitative Research , Leisure Activities , Music , Occupations
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(1): 39-48, jan. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356037

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se relatar a experiência de uma produção estética, poética e teatral de ocupação da cidade a partir de um dispositivo da Rede de Atenção Psicossocial, com vistas a oferecer espaço de sociabilidade, produção e intervenção cultural. Trata-se de um relato de experiência a partir do Centro de Convivência e Cultura (CECCO) de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, dentro do campo da desinstitucionalização da loucura e da saúde mental. A intervenção urbana "O Pequeno Príncipe ocupa a Ribeira" foi inspirada na obra do escritor Saint-Exupéry. Os atos artísticos e criativos relatados aconteceram em dezembro de 2019. Experimentamos nessa intervenção os alcances de uma clínica-estética que, ao se abrir para a rua e para a arte, se amplia e se tece no território, instrumentalizado pelo teatro, dança, poesia, percussão, artesanato e ocupação da cidade. O movimento gerou no coletivo um "descer do palco" em direção à rua e se conecta com a desconstrução do modelo manicomial e produção da clínica dos afetos que buscamos sustentar no cotidiano do serviço.


Abstract This study aimed to report the experience of an aesthetic, poetic, and theatrical production of the city's occupation from a device of the Psychosocial Care Network to offer space for sociability, production, and cultural intervention. This is an account of an experience from the Social and Cultural Center (CECCO) in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, within madness and mental health deinstitutionalization. The intervention "The Little Prince occupies the Ribeira" was inspired by the work of author Saint-Exupéry. The artistic and creative acts reported occurred in December 2019. We experienced in this intervention the reach of an aesthetic clinic that, when opened to the street and art, expanded and weaved in the territory, instrumentalized by theater, dance, poetry, percussion, crafts, and city's occupation. The movement led the community to "step down from the stage" to the streets and is connected with the twist of the asylum model and the production of the affection clinic that we seek to sustain in the daily service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Health , Mental Health Services , Brazil , Deinstitutionalization , Esthetics , Occupations
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976030

ABSTRACT

@#Home programs are part of occupational therapy services that improve outcomes and further increase their benefits. However, adherence to home programs can be challenging, and adherence rates range from 40-70%.1 In the Filipino Occupational Therapy practice, this problem is also evident. This model aims to enable practitioners to view the occupational therapy process, specifically the factors involving adherence to home programs, and to effectively consider and address barriers and support the achievement of intended therapeutic goals. The coconut tree depicts the occupational therapy process in relation to home-based rehabilitation programs. Each part of the image corresponds to a vital element. The conceptual framework can also aid Occupational Therapists in determining the rehabilitation potential and prognosis of the client based on the factors seen


Subject(s)
Occupations , Rehabilitation
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987625

ABSTRACT

Background@#Occupational justice is realized when individuals can participate in meaningful activities regardless of their status in society without barriers. However, Filipinos, who identify themselves as lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgenders (LGBT+), continue to encounter prejudice in daily life. Their participation in daily activities during the pandemic is an important facet to be understood. Hence, this study aimed to describe the experiences of working gay men during the pandemic through from an occupational justice perspective. @*Methodology@#Purposive sampling was utilized in gathering individuals from an LGBT+ organization in a city within Batangas Province to attend a focus group discussion and a series of one-on-one in-depth interviews. The Occupational Justice Health Questionnaire (OJHQ) was used to guide the discussion. Deductive thematic analysis was employed to arrive at different themes. @*Results@#The experiences of the eight participants composed of working gay men show that the pandemic has brought injustices into the participants' daily lives. Gay men experienced varying degrees of occupational imbalance, deprivation, alienation, and apartheid such that they expressed frustration due to constraints in community cultural life, local events, and involvement in outdoor physical participation where they could showcase their individuality and talents. @*Conclusion@#The study contributes to the lack of inclusion and discourse on the experiences of the LGBT+ community that are unique and needs additional exploration to address specific needs. Despite being tagged as one of the most gay-friendly countries in Asia, there are still forms of discrimination and prejudice that still exist. Hence, the study was able to shed light on this through an occupational justice perspective, evoking justice-oriented practice among all stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupations
12.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 538-548, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940957

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the current situation of early treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds by professional burn medical staff in China, and to further promote the standardized early clinical treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation was conducted. From November 2020 to February 2021, the self-designed questionnaire for the early treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds was published through the "questionnaire star" website and shared through WeChat to conduct a convenient sampling survey of domestic medical staff engaged in burn specialty who met the inclusion criteria. The number, region, and grade of the affiliated hospital, the age, gender, occupation, and seniority of the respondents were recorded. The respondents were divided into physician group and nurse group, senior group and junior group, eastern region group and non-eastern region group, primary and secondary hospital group and tertiary hospital group. Then the seniority, grade of the affiliated hospital, region of the affiliated hospital of the respondents in physician group and nurse group, conventional treatment of partial-thickness burn blisters, reasons for retaining vesicular skin, reasons for removing vesicular skin, and the conventional selection and optimal solution recommendation of topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage of respondents in each of all the groups were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed with chi-square test. Results: The survey covered 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions in China (except for Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan regions). A total of 979 questionnaires were recovered, which were all valid. The 979 respondents came from 449 hospitals across the country, including 203 hospitals in the eastern region, 116 hospitals in the western region, 99 hospitals in the central region, and 31 hospitals in the northeast region, 348 tertiary hospitals, 79 secondary hospitals, and 22 primary hospitals. The age of the respondents was (39±10) years. There were 543 males and 436 females, 656 physicians and 323 nurses, 473 juniors and 506 seniors, 460 in the eastern regions and 519 in the non-eastern regions, 818 in tertiary hospitals and 161 in primary and secondary hospitals. There were statistically significant differences in the composition of different seniority in the respondents between physician group and nurse group (χ2=44.32, P<0.01), while there were no statistically significant differences in grade or region of the affiliated hospital of the respondents between physician group and nurse group (P>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the conventional treatment of partial-thickness burn blisters among respondents between different occupational groups, seniority groups, and region of the affiliated hospital groups (P>0.05).The respondents in different grade of the affiliated hospital groups differed significantly in the conventional treatment of partial-thickness burn blisters (χ2=6.24, P<0.05). Compared with respondents in nurse group, larger percentage of respondents in physician group chose to retain vesicular skin for protecting the wounds and providing a moist environment, and alleviating the pain of dressing change (with χ2 values of 21.22 and 19.96, respectively, P values below 0.01), and smaller percentage of respondents in physician group chose to retain vesicular skin for prevention of wound infection (χ2=23.55, P<0.01). The reasons for retaining vesicular skin of respondents between physician group and nurse group were similar in accelerating wound healing, alleviating pigmentation and scar hyperplasia post wound healing (P>0.05). Compared with respondents in junior group, larger percentage of respondents in senior group chose to retain vesicular skin for protecting the wounds and providing a moist environment and alleviating the pain of dressing change (with χ2 values of 10.36 and 4.60, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01), and smaller percentage of respondents in senior group chose to retain vesicular skin for prevention of wound infection (χ2=8.20, P<0.01). The reasons for retaining vesicular skin of respondents in senior group and junior group were similar in accelerating wound healing, alleviating pigmentation and scar hyperplasia post wound healing (P>0.05). The 5 reasons for the respondents between eastern region group and non-eastern region group, primary and secondary hospital group and tertiary hospital group chose to retain vesicular skin were all similar (P>0.05). Compared with those in physician group, significantly higher percentage of respondents in nurse group were in favor of the following 6 reasons for removing the vesicular skin, including convenience for using more ideal dressings to protect the wounds, prevention of wound infection, facilitating the effect of topical drugs on the wounds, the likely rupture of blisters and wound contamination, accelerating wound healing, and alleviating pigmentation and scar hyperplasia post wound healing (with χ2 values of 4.35, 25.59, 11.83, 16.76, 46.31, and 17.54, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with respondents in senior group, larger percentage of respondents in junior group chose to remove vesicular skin for the reasons such as the likely blister rupture and wound contamination, preventing wound infection, accelerating wound healing, and alleviating pigmentation and scar hyperplasia post wound healing (with χ2 values of 17.25, 18.63, 14.83, and 10.23, respectively, P values below 0.01). Compared with respondents in non-eastern region group, larger percentage of respondents in eastern region group chose to remove vesicular skin for preventing wound infection and the likely rupture of blisters and wound contamination (with χ2 values of 9.30 and 8.65, respectively, P values below 0.01). The 6 reasons for the respondents between tertiary hospital group and primary and secondary hospital group choose to remove vesicular skin were similar (P>0.05). Compared with respondents in physician group, larger percentage of respondents in nurse group chose to use moisturizing materials for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (χ2=6.18, P<0.05), and smaller percentage of respondents in nurse group chose other topical drugs or dressings (χ2=5.20, P<0.05). Compared with respondents in junior group, larger percentage of respondents in senior group chose to use moisturizing materials and other topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (with χ2 values of 4.97 and 21.80, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with respondents in non-eastern region group, larger percentage of respondents in eastern region group chose to use topical antimicrobial drugs for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (χ2=4.09, P<0.05), and smaller percentage of respondents in eastern region group chose to use other topical drugs or dressings for the partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (χ2=5.63, P<0.05). Compared with respondents in primary and secondary hospital group, larger percentage of respondents in tertiary hospital group chose to use biological dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (χ2=9.38, P<0.01). The optimal solution recommendation of topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage varied significantly among the respondents between different occupational groups and seniority groups (with χ2 values of 39.58 and 19.93, respectively, P values below 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between eastern and non-eastern region groups, tertiary hospital group and primary and secondary hospital groups in optimal solution recommendation of topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (P>0.05). Conclusions: The conventional treatment measures of partial-thickness burn blisters and reasons for preserving blister skin by professional burn medical staff in China are relatively consistent, but there are great differences in the selection of reasons for removing blister skin, the conventional selection and optimal solution recommendation of topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a clinical treatment standard for partial-thickness burn wounds.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blister , Burns/drug therapy , Cicatrix/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperplasia , Medical Staff , Occupations , Pain , Soft Tissue Injuries , Wound Infection
13.
Rev. Ocup. Hum. (En línea) ; 22(2): 188-201, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1390912

ABSTRACT

La investigación tuvo como propósito comprender el aporte de la ocupación al proceso subjetivante de cinco mujeres rurales vinculadas con organizaciones sociales de los departamentos de Caldas y Boyacá, en Colombia. Toma como fundamento teórico lo planteado por el grupo de investigación Ocupación y Realización Humana en el libro Ocupación: sentido, realización y libertad; diálogos en torno al sujeto, la sociedad y el medio ambiente. Se utilizó un diseño metodológico cualitativo en un entorno virtual, con estrategias participativas de interacción, diálogo y vínculo. Los resultados se organizan en dos categorías: ser mujer y hacer cotidiano. Se proponen seis premisas para contribuir a la comprensión del aporte de la ocupación al proceso subjetivante de las mujeres participantes: los haceres significativos reconfiguran lo que se es y desea ser; por medio del hacer el sujeto transforma y trasciende a su propósito de libertad; el sujeto tiene capacidad de decidir sus ocupaciones; la ocupación es una forma de semiotizar formas culturales de ser; la persona se construye en su interacción con el entorno por medio de su actuar ocupacional.


The research aimed to understand the contribution of occupation to the subjective process of five rural women involved in social organizations in the Caldas and Boyacá departments in Colombia. It is based on the theoretical foundation of the Occupation and Human Fulfillment research group in its book Ocupación: sentido, realización y libertad; diálogos en torno al sujeto, la sociedad y el medio ambiente (Occupation: meaning, fulfillment and freedom; dialogues around the subject, society, and the environment). A qualitative methodological design was used in a virtual environment, with participatory interaction, dialogue, and linkage strategies. The results are organized in two categories: being a woman and daily doing. Six premises are proposed to contribute to the understanding of occupation as a subjectivizing process of the participating women, as follows: significant doings reconfigure what one is and wishes to be. Through doing, the subject transforms and transcends their purpose of freedom; the subject has the capacity to decide their occupations; occupation is a way of semiotizing cultural ways of being; a person is constructed in their interaction with the environment through their occupational acting.


O objetivo da pesquisa foi compreender a contribuição da ocupação para o processo subjetivo de cinco mulheres rurais pertencentes às organizações sociais nos departamentos de Caldas e Boyacá, na Colômbia. Esta investigação tem como base teórica as ideias apresentadas pelo grupo de pesquisa Ocupação e Realização Humana no livro Ocupação: significado, realização e liberdade; diálogos sobre o sujeito, a sociedade e o meio ambiente. Um desenho metodológico qualitativo foi utilizado em um ambiente virtual, com estratégias participativas de interação, diálogo e vínculo. Os resultados estão organizados em duas categorias: ser mulher e fazer no cotidiano, o que permite propor seis premissas a fim de contribuir para a compreensão da ocupação como um processo subjetivo das mulheres participantes, tais como: fazer atividades significativas reconfigura o que se é e o que se deseja ser; através do fazer, o sujeito transforma e transcende seu propósito de liberdade; o sujeito tem a capacidade de decidir suas ocupações; a ocupação é uma forma de semiotizar formas culturais de ser; e, por fim, a pessoa se constrói em sua interação com o meio ambiente por meio de suas ações ocupacionais.


Subject(s)
Social Participation , Occupations , Women , Organizations
14.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 15(2): 132-140, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1379812

ABSTRACT

Background: Early initiation of breast feeding and feeding exclusively for six months have great implication for the survival, well-being and growth of new borne. Factors such as maternal age, occupation, religion, spouse age, spouse occupation, parity, antenatal care (ANC) attendance, mode of delivery (MOD) and birth order are significantly associated with exclusive breast feeding (EBF) Methodology: The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among nursing mothers attending child health clinic in General Hospital Bonny, in Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria. All eligible nursing mother who presented at the clinic were enlisted for the study. Enlistment of eligible participants was done on every child welfare clinic day. Data was collected using a pretested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaire which was adapted and prepared in English Language. Categorical data was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression model with statistical significance set at 0.05. Result: Results from this study identified significant association between EBF and some maternal variables such as age, occupation and religion. Spouse age and occupation were significantly associated with EBF. ANC attendance, gestational age, MOD, parity and birth order were also significant variables associated with EBF. Conclusion: Maternal variables such as age, occupation, religion, parity, MOD, ANC attendance including spouse age and occupation significantly influence EBF of new borne.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Occupations , Parity , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Child Health , Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding , Mothers
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 579-591, Fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356061

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to summarize the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) among Brazilian workers through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches were conducted in SciELO, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Articles were included if they had; an observational design, a sample of Brazilian workers, used a validated instrument and cut-off to assess CMD, and provided the prevalence value. A random-effect meta-analysis using professional categories as subgroups and a meta-regression were conducted. In total, 89 studies were included, with a total of 56,278 workers from 26 professional categories. The overall pooled prevalence of CMD was 0.30 (95%CI: 0.27-0.34), varying from 0.07 to 0.58. Professional categories that presented higher prevalences of CMD were: Prostitutes 0.58 (95%CI: 0.51-0.65), Social Educators 0.54 (95%CI: 0.50-0.59), Banking Workers 0.45 (95%CI: 0.44-0.47), Ragpickers 0.45 (95%CI: 0.40-0.49), and Teachers 0.40 (95%CI: 0.32-0.48). No other variable in addition to profession was associated with prevalence of CMD in the meta-regression analysis. Workers from the most affected professional categories should be monitored to prevent social, occupational, and health impairment from CMD.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever a prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns (TMC) em trabalhadores brasileiros por meio de uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise. As buscas foram realizadas no SciELO, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus e Web of Science. Artigos observacionais, com amostra de trabalhadores brasileiros, que utilizaram instrumento e ponto de corte validados e que apresentaram valor de prevalência foram incluídos. Foram realizadas a meta-análise com efeito aleatório utilizando as categorias profissionais como subgrupos e a meta-regressão. Foram incluídos 89 estudos, com um total de 56.278 trabalhadores de 26 categorias profissionais. A prevalência global de TMC foi de 0,30 (IC95%: 0,27-0,34), variando de 0,07 a 0,58. As categorias profissionais que apresentaram maiores valores de TMC foram: prostitutas 0,58 (IC95%: 0,51-0,65), educadores sociais 0.54 (IC95%: 0,50-0,59), bancários 0,45 (IC95%: 0,44-0,47), coletores 0,45 (IC95%: 0,40-0,49) e professores 0,40 (IC95%: 0,32-0,48). Nenhuma outra variável além da profissão se associou ao TMC na meta-regressão. Trabalhadores das categorias profissionais mais afetadas por TMC devem ser monitorados para prevenir os prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais e de saúde associados aos TMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Occupations
16.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1425423

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo problematizamos a categoria trajetórias laborais a partir de duas teses de doutorado em psicologia social do trabalho. Os objetivos das teses foram, de forma sintética, investigar as trajetórias laborais, no primeiro estudo, junto a brasileiros/as retornados/as da Europa ocidental e, no segundo, junto a jovens profissionais diplomados em uma universidade pública brasileira. Ao pensarmos as duas investigações, apontamos aproximações e peculiaridades entre si. Partindo dessas sínteses, buscamos evidenciar a centralidade, os determinantes sociais e históricos e o processo de contínua construção e indeterminação das trajetórias laborais. Assim, consideramos o uso dessa ferramenta teórico-metodológica como profícua para os estudos no campo da psicologia social do trabalho


This study problematizes labor trajectories category based on two doctoral theses in the social psychology of work. These theses aimed to synthetically investigate labors trajectories. The first one analyzed Brazilian migrants' returnees from Western Europe and the second one, young professionals graduated from a Brazilian public university. Analyzing both investigations, we highlight their common aspects and their differences. Based on these syntheses, we have thus problematized the category of labors trajectories: 1) its centrality; 2) its social and historical determinants; and 3) its process of continuous construction and indeterminacy. Thus, we understand that using this theoretical and methodological tool may profit social psychology of work studies


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Work/psychology , Employment/psychology , Occupations , Psychology, Social , Transients and Migrants , Qualitative Research
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(7): e00180221, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384275

ABSTRACT

Nas investigações dos determinantes da duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME), a variável trabalho materno remunerado é quase sempre dicotomizada em não e sim. Este estudo analisa possíveis associações entre características da ocupação materna e menor duração do AME. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte em uma amostra sistemática de nascimentos do Município de São Luís (Maranhão, Brasil) em 2010. As exposições tipo de ocupação materna, números de dias trabalhados/semana e de horas trabalhadas/dia, trabalha em pé a maior parte do tempo e levanta objetos pesados nesse trabalho foram coletadas com 5.166 mães de nascidos vivos. A amostra final desse estudo teve 3.268 observações. Foi utilizada análise de sobrevida para testar associações entre as exposições e os desfechos AME até 4 meses (AME4) e AME até 6 meses (AME6). Não ter trabalho remunerado foi a categoria de referência. Regressões ajustadas de Cox mostraram que mães com ocupações manuais semiespecializadas (intervalo de 95% de confiança, IC95%: 1,02-1,58 para AME4 e IC95%: 1,11-1,56 para AME6) e mães que trabalhavam 8 ou mais horas diárias (IC95%: 1,01-1,36 para AME4 e IC95%: 1,11-1,41 para AME6) mais frequentemente interromperam AME. Mães com ocupações em funções de escritório (IC95%: 1,07-1,46), que trabalhavam 4-5 dias (IC95%: 1,01-1,36) ou 6-7 dias/semana (IC95%: 1,09-1,40) e por 5-7 horas (IC95%: 1,03-1,43) também praticaram menos AME6. Trabalhar (IC95%: 1,08-1,40) ou não (IC95%: 1,03-1,34) em pé a maior parte do tempo e levantar (IC95%: 1,07-1,56) ou não (IC95%: 1,06-1,33) objetos pesados no trabalho diminuíram a duração de AME6. Tipos de ocupação e de jornada de trabalho interferiram mais frequentemente na duração de AME6.


In investigations determining the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), the variable paid maternal work is mostly dichotomized into no and yes. This study analyzes possible associations between the characteristics of maternal occupation and shorter EBF duration. A cohort study was conducted in a systematic sample of births in the city of São Luís (State of Maranhão, Brazil), in 2010. The variables type of maternal occupation, numbers of days worked/week and hours worked/day, if they work while standing for most of the time, and if they lift heavy objects at work were collected with 5,166 mothers of live births. The final sample of this study had 3,268 observations. Survival analysis was used to evaluate associations between variables and EBF outcomes up to 4 months (EBF4) and EBF up to 6 months (EBF6). Not having paid work was the reference category. Adjusted Cox regressions showed that mothers with semi-specialized manual work (95% confidence interval, 95%CI: 1.02-1.58 for EBF4 and 95%CI: 1.11-1.56 for EBF6) and mothers who worked 8 or more hours daily (95%CI: 1.01-1.36 for AME4 and 95%CI: 1.11-1.41 for ESA6) more frequently discontinued EBF. Mothers with in-office occupations (95%CI: 1.07-1.46), who worked 4-5 days (95%CI: 1.01-1.36) or 6-7 days/week (95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and for 5-7 hours (95%CI: 1.03-1.43) also practiced less EBF6. Working (95%CI: 1.08-1.40) or not (95%CI: 1.03-1.34) while standing for most of the workday and lifting (95%CI: 1.07-1.56) or not (95%CI: 1.06-1.33) heavy objects at work decreased the duration of EBF6. Types of occupation and working time interfered more frequently in the duration of EBF6.


En las investigaciones sobre los determinantes de la duración de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME), la variable trabajo materno remunerado casi siempre se dicotomiza en no y sí. Este estudio analiza las posibles asociaciones entre las características de la ocupación materna y la menor duración de la LME. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte sobre una muestra sistemática de nacimientos en el Municipio de São Luís (Maranhão, Brasil), en el 2010. Se recopilaron las exposiciones tipo de ocupación materna, número de días trabajados/semana y horas trabajadas/día, trabajo de pie la mayor parte del tiempo y levantamiento de objetos pesados en el trabajo con 5.166 madres de nacidos vivos. La muestra final de este estudio contó con 3.268 observaciones. Se utilizó el análisis de sobrevida para probar las asociaciones entre las exposiciones y los desenlaces LME hasta 4 meses (LME4) y LME hasta 6 meses (LME6). No tener trabajo remunerado fue la categoría de referencia. Las regresiones ajustadas de Cox mostraron que las madres con ocupaciones manuales semiespecializadas (intervalo del 95% de confianza, IC95%: 1,02-1,58 para LME4 y IC95%: 1,11-1,56 para LME6) y las madres que trabajaban 8 horas o más al día (IC95%: 1,01-1,36 para LME4 y IC95%: 1,11-1,41 para LME6) interrumpieron con más frecuencia la LME. Las madres con ocupaciones en funciones de oficina (IC95%: 1,07-1,46), que trabajaban 4-5 días (IC95%: 1,01-1,36) o 6-7 días/semana (IC95%: 1,09-1,40) y durante 5-7 horas (IC95%: 1,03-1,43) también redujeron la LME6. Trabajar (IC95%: 1,08-1,40) o no (IC95%: 1,03-1,34) estar de pie la mayor parte del tiempo y levantar (IC95%: 1,07-1,56) o no (IC95%: 1,06-1,33) objetos pesados en el trabajo redujo la duración de la LME6. Los tipos de ocupación y la jornada laboral interfirieron con mayor frecuencia en la duración de la LME6.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Breast Feeding , Birth Cohort , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Mothers , Occupations
18.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 495-501, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350914

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract symptoms and infection have been associated with occupational factors that impact hydration habits particularly in women. We compared self-reported urinary symptoms and infection and hydration habits between nurses and other occupations in dialysis units. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Participants worked in five nephrology centers in Brazil and answered an online questionnaire comprising questions regarding urinary tract symptoms and infection episodes in the preceding year; data on usual daily beverage intake, urine frequency, and urine color according to a urine color chart were also collected, as well as perceptions of water access and toilet adequacy at work. Results: We included 133 women (age=36.9±9.5 years). The self-reported usual daily beverage intake was 6.6±2.9 cups/day (~1320 mL), daily urine frequency was 5.4±2.1, and urine color chart score: 3.0±1.2. Nurses (N=66/49.6%) reported higher prevalence of burning sensation (50 versus 27%; P<0.001), urinary urgency (42 versus 21%; P<0.001), and infection (42% versus 25%; P=0.04) as well as lower liquid intake (6.0±2.6 versus 7.3±3.0 cups/day; P=0.01) than controls. Forty four percent of nurses reported being able to drink when thirsty "always" and "most of the time" versus 93% of the control group. Conclusion: Dialysis female nurses reported lower beverage intake and higher prevalence of symptoms and infection than other occupations in the same environment. Interventions to improve hydration can potentially decrease urinary problems in this population.


Resumo Introdução: Sintomas e infecções do trato urinário têm sido associados a fatores ocupacionais que afetam hábitos de hidratação, particularmente em mulheres. Comparamos sintomas e infecções urinárias autorrelatados e hábitos de hidratação entre técnicas de enfermagem e outras ocupações em unidades de diálise. Métodos: Estudo transversal. As participantes trabalhavam em cinco centros de nefrologia no Brasil e responderam um questionário online contendo perguntas sobre sintomas do trato urinário e episódios de infecção no ano anterior; também foram coletados dados sobre a ingestão diária habitual de bebidas, frequência e cor da urina de acordo com uma tabela de cores da urina, assim como percepções sobre o acesso à água e adequação das instalações sanitárias no trabalho. Resultados: Incluímos 133 mulheres (idade=36,9±9,5 anos). Em média, as participantes relataram ingestão de bebidas de 6,6±2,9 copos/dia (~1320 mL), frequência urinária de 5,4±2,1 vezes/dia e escore da tabela de cores da urina de 3,0±1,2. Técnicas de enfremagem (N=66/49,6%) relataram maior prevalência de sensação de ardor (50 versus 27%; P<0,001), urgência urinária (42 versus 21%; P<0,001), e infecção (42% versus 25%; P=0,04), bem como menor ingestão de líquidos (6,0±2,6 versus 7,3±3,0 copos/dia; P=0,01) do que controles. Quarenta e quatro por cento das técnicas de enfermagem relataram poder beber quando têm sede "sempre" e "na maioria das vezes" contra 93% do grupo controle. Conclusão: Técnicas de enfermagem de unidades de diálise relataram menor ingestão de bebidas e maior prevalência de sintomas e infecção do que outras ocupações no mesmo ambiente de trabalho. Intervenções para melhorar a hidratação podem diminuir problemas urinários nesta população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Urinary Tract , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Dialysis , Occupations
19.
Distúrbios da comunicação ; 33(3): 490-499, set.2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410551

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Mismatch Negativity (MMN) é um exame objetivo que não depende da realização de tarefas nem da atenção do sujeito. Tem sido utilizado para estudar o processamento auditivo relacionado à detecção automática de mudanças auditivas. Objetivo: Analisar latências e amplitudes do MMN em músicos adultos e comparar os resultados com um grupo controle de não músicos normouvintes. Método: Estudo transversal e comparativo. A amostra foi composta por 69 sujeitos, 40 sujeitos não músicos (grupo controle) e 29 sujeitos músicos (grupo estudo) todos com no mínimo três anos de experiência musical e idades superiores a 18 anos. Todos realizaram avaliação auditiva periférica e o MMN. Resultados: A média das latências e amplitudes do grupo controle foram, respectivamente, 173,61ms (±49.80) e 4,25µV (±3.60) e do grupo estudo foram, respectivamente, 144,23ms (±17.58) e 5,12µV (±2.73). Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos por orelha (p<0,05), sendo a média das latências e amplitudes do grupo estudo de 140,08ms na orelha direita e 148,37ms na orelha esquerda, e 4,83µV na orelha direita e 5,41µV na orelha esquerda. Conclusão: O grupo de músicos apresentou melhores resultados, como menor latência e maior amplitude do MMN, evidenciando melhor processamento do estímulo acústico em nível central.


Introduction: Mismatch Negativity (MMN) is an objective exam that does not depend on the subjects' task performance or attention. It is regularly used to study auditory processing relative to the automatic detection of auditory changes. Objective: To analyze the latencies and amplitudes of MMN in adult musicians and compare the results with those of the control group of normal hearing non-musicians. Methods: This is a cross sectional and comparative study. The sample consisted of 69 subjects, aged between 18 and 59 years, with 40 non-musician subjects (control group) and 29 musicians (study group) with at least 3 years of musical expertise, and ages over 18 years. All patients were assessed by peripheral auditory evaluation and MMN. Results: The mean latencies and amplitudes were 173.61 ms (±49.80) and 4.25µV (±3.60) in the control group, and 144.23 ms (±17.58) and 5.12µV (±2.73) in the study group. There was a significant difference between the groups per ear (p<0.05), and the mean latencies and amplitudes in the study group were 140.08 ms in the right ear and 148.37 ms in the left while the values of amplitude were 4.83µV in the right ear and 5.41µV in the left ear. Conclusion: The musicians presented better results for MMN, such as lower latency and greater amplitude, showing evidence of improved acoustic stimulus processing at the central level.


Introduccion: Mismatch Negativity (MMN) es un examen objetivo que no depende del desempeño de las tareas ni de la atención del sujeto. Se há utilizado para estudiar el procesamiento auditivo relacionado com la detección automática de câmbios auditivos. Objetivo: Analizar las latencias y amplitudes del MMN en músicos adultos y comparar los resultados con un grupo de control de músicos normales. Metodos: Estudio transversal y comparativo. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 69 sujetos, 40 sujetos no musicales (grupo de control) y 29 sujetos músicos (grupo de estudio) todos con al menos tres años de experiencia musical y mayores de 18 años. Todos se sometieron a evaluación de audición periférica y MMN. Resultados: El promedio de las latencias y amplitudes del grupo control fueron, respectivamente, 173.61ms (± 49.80) y 4.25µV (± 3.60) y del grupo de estudio, respectivamente, 144.23ms (± 17.58) y 5.12 µV (± 2,73). Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos por oído (p <0.05) y el promedio de las latencias y amplitudes del grupo estudiado fue de 140.08ms en el oído derecho y 148.37ms en el oído izquierdo, y 4.83µV en el oído derecho y 5 .41 µV en el oído izquierdo. Conclusión: El grupo de músicos presentó mejores resultados, como menor latencia y mayor amplitud MMN, mostrando un mejor procesamiento del estímulo acústico a nivel central.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Music , Auditory Perception , Control Groups , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupations
20.
Distúrbios da comunicação ; 33(3): 388-403, set.2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402030

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o método coaching é utilizado sob diferentes modalidades e ambientes, mostrando efetividade. Constituído por diversas estratégias e conteúdos, um dos temas principais de seus programas de treinamento é a comunicação, pilar dos comportamentos e atitudes sociais adequados e eficientes. Vários profissionais, entre eles o fonoaudiólogo, participam de modo ativo deste processo. Objetivo: identificar e descrever o perfil de 21 profissionais que participam de processos de coaching em trabalho com a comunicação. Método: estudo descritivo, realizado por meio da aplicação de um questionário elaborado com questões abertas e fechadas, visando ao levantamento dos conteúdos relativos à formação do profissional, áreas de atuação, a formação em coaching, a presença de um instrutor-fonoaudiólogo em cursos de especialização, temas sobre comunicação incluídos nos planos de cursos de formação, itens da prática em comunicação e lugar de inserção profissional. Análise descritiva simples por porcentagem. Resultados: são profissionais com diferentes formações originais complementadas pela formação específica em coaching, com atuação prática em diferentes nichos; os conteúdos trabalhados nesta formação visam à adequação e controle do comportamento, emoções e, principalmente, da comunicação, sobretudo em estratégias de assertividade, não violência e expressividade, sem instrutores-tutores com formação original em fonoaudiologia. Conclusão: pesquisas sobre este tema são importantes e necessárias, pois indicam a especificidade das atuações profissionais em processos de coaching, entre eles o fonoaudiólogo.


Introduction: The coaching method has shown effectiveness when applied on different modalities and environments. Consisting of different strategies and content, communication is one of the main topics of its training programs, which is a pillar of appropriate and efficient social behaviors and attitudes. Several professionals actively participate in this process, including the Speech-language Pathologist. Objective: To identify and describe the profile of 21 professionals working in coaching processes with a focus on communication. Method: This was a descriptive study carried out through the application of a questionnaire prepared with open and closed questions, in order to survey the contents related to professional training, areas of expertise, training in coaching, the presence of an instructor-speech-language pathologist in training courses, topics on communication included in the training course plans, items of practice in communication and place of professional insertion. Simple descriptive analysis by percentage. Results: The study included professionals with different original backgrounds complemented by specific coaching training, with practical experience in different niches. The contents addressed in this training aim at the adequacy and control of behavior, emotions and, mainly, communication, especially in assertiveness strategies, non-violence and expressiveness, with no instructor-tutors with original training in speech-language pathology,. Conclusion: Further research on this topic is important and necessary, as they promote the specificities of professional activities in coaching processes, including the speech-language pathologists.


Introducción: el método coaching es utilizado bajo diferentes modalidades y entornos, mostrando efectividad. Integrado por diferentes estrategias y contenidos, uno de los ejes temáticos de sus programas de formación es la comunicación, pilar de las conductas y actitudes sociales adecuadas y eficientes. Muchos profesionales, incluso el logopeda, participan activamente en este proceso. Objetivo: identificar y describir el perfil de 21 profesionales que participan en procesos de coaching en el trabajo con la comunicación. Método: estudio descriptivo, realizado mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario elaborado con preguntas abiertas y cerradas, con el objetivo de revelar los contenidos relacionados a la formación profesional, áreas de especialización, formación en coaching, la presencia de un instructor logopeda en cursos de especialización, temas sobre comunicación incluidos en los planes de cursos de formación, prácticas de la comunicación y lugar de inserción profesional. Análisis descriptivo simple por porcentaje. Resultados: son profesionales con diferentes formaciones originales complementadas por la formación específica en coaching, con experiencia práctica en diferentes nichos, los contenidos trabajados en esta formación tienen como objetivo la adecuación y control del comportamiento, las emociones y, principalmente, la comunicación, especialmente en estrategias de asertividad, no violencia y expresividad, sin instructores-tutores con formación original en terapia del lenguaje. Conclusión: investigaciones sobre este tema son importantes y necesarias, ya que indican la especificidad de las actividades profesionales en los procesos de coaching, incluido el logopeda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communication , Mentoring , Job Description , Surveys and Questionnaires , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Occupations
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