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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929269


Most bacterial cell surface glycans are structurally unique, and have been considered as ideal target molecules for the developments of detection and diagnosis techniques, as well as vaccines. Chemical synthesis has been a promising approach to prepare well-defined oligosaccharides, facilitating the structure-activity relationship exploration and biomedical applications of bacterial glycans. L-Galactosaminuronic acid is a rare sugar that has been only found in cell surface glycans of gram-negative bacteria. Here, an orthogonally protected L-galactosaminuronic acid building block was designed and chemically synthesized. A synthetic strategy based on glycal addition and TEMPO/BAIB-mediated C6 oxidation served well for the transformation of commercial L-galactose to the corresponding L-galactosaminuronic acid. Notably, the C6 oxidation of the allyl glycoside was more efficient than that of the selenoglycoside. In addition, a balance between the formation of allyl glycoside and the recovery of selenoglycoside was essential to improve efficiency of the NIS/TfOH-catalyzed allylation. This synthetically useful L-galactosaminuronic acid building block will provide a basis for the syntheses of complex bacterial glycans.

Carbohydrates , Glycosides , Oligosaccharides , Oxidation-Reduction , Polysaccharides/chemistry
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 104-118, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927696


Alginate is a group of polyuronic saccharides that are widely used in pharmaceutical and food industry due to its unique physicochemical properties and beneficial health effects. However, the low water solubility and high viscosity of alginate hampered its application. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) is a decomposition product of alginate and has received increasing attention due to its low molecular weight, high water solubility, safety, and non-toxicity. The wide-ranging biological functions of AOS are closely related to its structural diversity. AOS with distinct structures and biological functions can be obtained by different methods of preparation. This review summarized the biological functions of AOS reported to date, including anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, prebiotic, and anti-diabetes. The preparation of AOS, as well as the relationship between the structure and biological functions of AOS were discussed, with the aim to provide a reference for further development and application of AOS.

Alginates , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants , Molecular Weight , Oligosaccharides
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(3): 306-313, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249200


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Morinda officinalis oligosaccharide (MOO) capsules for depressive disorder. Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched for relevant studies from inception to April 19, 2020. Randomized controlled trials comparing MOO capsules with antidepressants were included. Data analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3 software. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool, and the quality of the studies was evaluated by two researchers using the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) software. Results: Seven studies involving 1,384 participants were included in this study. The effect of MOO capsules for moderate depressive disorder was not different from that of antidepressants (risk ratio [RR] = 0.99, 95%CI 0.92-1.06). Regarding adverse events, no significant difference was found between MOO capsules and antidepressants (RR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.65-1.07). In addition, the quality of evidence related to these adverse events was rated as low. Conclusion: This systematic review suggests that the efficacy of MOO capsules in the treatment of mild to moderate depression is not inferior to that of conventional antidepressants, which may provide a new direction for clinical alternative selection of antidepressants. However, more high-quality research and detailed assessments are needed.

Humans , Morinda , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Oligosaccharides/adverse effects , Capsules/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 14-21, Jan. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291625


BACKGROUND: Milk whey, a byproduct of the dairy industry has a negative environmental impact, can be used as a raw material for added-value compounds such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) synthesis by bgalactosidases. RESULTS: B-gal42 from Pantoea anthophila strain isolated from tejuino belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family GH42, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and used for GOS synthesis from lactose or milk whey. Crude cell-free enzyme extracts exhibited high stability; they were employed for GOS synthesis reactions. In reactions with 400 g/L lactose, the maximum GOS yield was 40% (w/w) measured by HPAEC-PAD, corresponding to 86% of conversion. This enzyme had a strong predilection to form GOS with b(1 ? 6) and b (1 ? 3) galactosyl linkages. Comparing GOS synthesis between milk whey and pure lactose, both of them at 300 g/L, these two substrates gave rise to a yield of 38% (60% of lactose conversion) with the same product profile determined by HPAEC-PAD. CONCLUSIONS: B-gal42 can be used on whey (a cheap lactose source) to produce added value products such as galactooligosaccharides.

Oligosaccharides/biosynthesis , beta-Galactosidase/metabolism , Pantoea , Lactose/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins , Dairying , Whey
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 64-71, Jan. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291923


BACKGROUND: Manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) is known as a kind of prebiotics. Mannanase plays a key role for the degradation of mannan to produce MOS. In this study, the mannanases of glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 5 Man5HJ14 and GH26 ManAJB13 were employed to prepare MOS from locust bean gum (LBG) and palm kernel cake (PKC). The prebiotic activity and utilization of MOS were assessed in vitro using the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain. RESULTS: Galactomannan from LBG was converted to MOS ranging in size from mannose up to mannoheptose by Man5HJ14 and ManAJB13. Mannoheptose was got from the hydrolysates produced by Man5HJ14, which mannohexaose was obtained from LBG hydrolyzed by ManAJB13. However, the same components of MOS ranging in size from mannose up to mannotetrose were observed between PKC hydrolyzed by the mannanases mentioned above. MOS stability was not affected by high-temperature and high-pressure condition at their natural pH. Based on in vitro growth study, all MOS from LBG and PKC was effective in promoting the growth of L. plantarum CICC 24202, with the strain preferring to use mannose to mannotriose, rather than above mannotetrose. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of mannanases and mannan difference on MOS composition was studied. All of MOS hydrolysates showed the stability in adversity condition and prebiotic activity of L. plantarum, which would have potential application in the biotechnological applications.

Oligosaccharides/metabolism , beta-Mannosidase/metabolism , Plant Gums/chemistry , Mannans , In Vitro Techniques , Enzyme Stability , Sphingomonas , Prebiotics , Fermentation
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1919-1930, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887772


Glycosidases are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its ability to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds of various sugar-containing compounds including glycosides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides to generate derivatives with important physiological and pharmacological activity. While glycosidases often need to be used under high temperature to improve reaction efficiency and reduce contamination, most glycosidases are mesophilic enzymes with low activity under industrial production conditions. It is therefore critical to improve the thermo-stability of glycosidases. This review summarizes the recent advances achieved in engineering the thermo-stability of glycosidases using strategies such as directed evolution, rational design and semi-rational design. We also compared the pros and cons of various techniques and discussed the future prospects in this area.

Glycoside Hydrolases/genetics , Oligosaccharides , Polysaccharides , Protein Engineering
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922755


Chitooligosaccharide-zinc (COS·Zn) is a powerful anti-oxidant and anti-aging scavenger, whose anti-oxidative ability immensely exceeds vitamin C. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of COS·Zn against premature ovarian failure (POF) and potential mechanisms. Female KM adult mice were divided into the following groups: a treatment group (150 mg·kg

Animals , Chitosan , Female , Humans , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Nuclear Proteins , Oligosaccharides , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Zinc
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921693


Polygalae Radix has long been used in China for calming the mind, promoting intelligence, communicating the heart and kidney, eliminating phlegm, and reducing swelling. At present, it is used to treat amnesia, insomnia, and malaise. Modern research has revealed that Polygalae Radix mainly contains triterpenoid saponins, xanthone, oligosaccharide esters, etc., with the activities of improving memory, resisting dementia, protecting the brain, relieving cough, and removing phlegm, as well as sedation and hypnosis. The present study reviews the research progress on chemical composition, pharmacological action, quality control, and metabolism of Polygalae Radix in the past 30 years, to provide a theoretical basis for further research and development.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Oligosaccharides , Plant Roots , Polygala , Quality Control
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 266-275, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878560


As a type of prebiotics and dietary fiber, inulin performs plenty of significant physiological functions and is applied in food and pharmaceutical fields. Inulosucrase from microorganisms can use sucrose as the substrate to synthesize inulin possessing higher molecular weight than that from plants. In this work, a hypothetical gene coding inulosucrase was selected from the GenBank database. The catalytic domain was remained by N- and C- truncation strategies, constructing the recombinant plasmid. The recombinant plasmid was expressed in E. coli expression system, and after purifying the crude enzyme by Ni²⁺ affinity chromatography, a recombinant enzyme with a molecular weight of approximately 65 kDa was obtained. The optimal pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme were 5.5 and 45 °C, respectively, when sucrose was used as the sole substrate. The activity of this enzyme was inhibited by various metal ions at different degrees. After purifying the produced polysaccharide, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to determine that the polysaccharide was inulin connected by β-(2,1) linkages. Finally, the conditions for the production of inulin were optimized. The results showed that the inulin production reached the maximum, approximately 287 g/L after 7 h, when sucrose concentration and enzyme dosage were 700 g/L and 4 U/mL, respectively. The conversion rate from sucrose to inulin was approximately 41%.

Escherichia coli/genetics , Hexosyltransferases/genetics , Inulin , Oligosaccharides , Sucrose
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 848-864, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138622


RESUMEN Los adultos mayores son especialmente vulnerables a sufrir enfermedades asociadas al tracto gastrointestinal, ya que el envejecimiento conlleva naturalmente a un desbalance en la diversidad y cantidad de los microorganismos presentes en el intestino. Por ello, la suplementación de su dieta con oligosacáridos y polisacáridos no digestibles (OPND) ha cobrado gran relevancia científica. Esto, con el propósito de prevenir y revertir, en parte, los cambios negativos en la microbiota intestinal derivados del envejecimiento. Se ha observado que la suplementación de OPND en adultos mayores genera variados beneficios, entre los que destacan una mejora en el sistema inmune, una mayor absorción de calcio, reducción en la incidencia de alergias, reducción de la constipación y una disminución en los niveles de glicemia y colesterol sanguíneos. Debido a que, los efectos del consumo de OPND en adultos mayores han sido escasamente discutidos en la literatura científica en idioma castellano, el propósito de esta revisión es abordar el tema haciendo énfasis en la realidad chilena y latinoamericana. Ello, con miras a fomentar la incorporación de OPND en alimentos y programas de alimentación dirigidos específicamente a personas de la tercera edad.

ABSTRACT Since aging naturally leads to an imbalance in the diversity and quantity of microorganisms present in the intestine, older people are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, supplementing the diet of elderly persons with non-digestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (OPND) has gained scientific relevance. Supplementation aims to prevent and (partially) revert the negative changes in intestinal microbiota due to aging. It has been observed that OPND supplementation in older adults provides several benefits, including an improvement in the immune system, increased calcium absorption, a reduction in the incidence of allergies, a reduction in constipation and a decrease in blood levels of cholesterol and glucose. Because the effects of OPND supplementation in older adults has been scarcely discussed in the scientific literature in the Spanish language, the purpose of this review is to address the issue with emphasis on the Chilean and Latin-American reality. The article promotes the incorporation of OPND in processed food and feeding programs specifically designed for older people in Latin America.

Humans , Oligosaccharides , Polysaccharides , Aged , Probiotics , Functional Food , Prebiotics
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e8-e15, 2020-02-00. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095409


Introducción. Los probióticos y prebióticos presentan beneficios potenciales en la inflamacióncrónica de las mucosas, incluida la prevención de la enterocolitis necrosante. No obstante, los mecanismos y resultados de estos efectos inmunomoduladores son confusos. El objetivo fue investigar la respuesta de las citocinas a Lactobacillus y Bifidobacterium asociados con fructo- y galactooligosacáridos (simbióticos) y lactoferrina en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer.Población y métodos. Se asignó aleatoriamente a lactantes con ≤32 semanas de gestación y ≤1500 g de peso para recibir simbióticos o 1 ml de agua destilada como placebo desde la primera alimentación hasta el alta. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre los días posnatales 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2 y 28 ± 2, y se midieron interferón-γ, interleucina (IL)-5, IL-10 e IL-17A.Resultados. En el grupo del estudio (n = 25), la concentración de IL-10 disminuyó a lo largo del estudio (p = 0,011), pero no cambió en el grupo de referencia. La concentración de IL-5 se mantuvo constante los primeros 14 días y luego disminuyó significativamente (p= 0,042) en el grupo del estudio, mientras que aumentó en los primeros 14 días (p = 0,019) y luego disminuyó en 28 días (p = 0,011) en el grupo de referencia (n = 25).La concentración de otras citocinas no cambió a lo largo del estudio.Conclusión. El uso combinado de probióticos con oligosacáridos y lactoferrina estuvo asociado con una disminución en la concentración de IL-10, pero no se observó un cambio en las otras citocinas.

Introduction. Probiotics and prebiotics, which are multifunctional agents, have potential benefits in chronic mucosal inflammation, including the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the mechanisms and the results of these immunomodulatory effects are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the cytokine response to the combination of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium together with fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides (symbiotic) and lactoferrin in very low birth weight neonates.Population and Methods. Infants ≤ 32 GWs and ≤ 1,500 g were randomly assigned to receive a symbiotic combination or 1 ml distilled water as placebo starting with the first feed until discharge. Blood samples were obtained at postnatal 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2, and 28 ± 2 days, and the serum levels of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, and IL-17A were measured.Results. In the study group (n = 25), the IL-10 levels decreased throughout the study period (p = 0.011) but did not change in the control group. The IL-5 levels remained steady in the first 14 days and decreased significantly thereafter (p = 0.042) in the study group, whereas they increased in the first 14 days (p = 0.019), and then decreased in 28 days (p = 0.011) in the control group (n = 25). The levels of the other cytokines did not change throughout the study period.Conclusion.The combined use of probiotics with oligosaccharides and lactoferrin was associated with a decrease in IL-10 levels, but no change was observed in the other cytokines.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Cytokines/analysis , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Prebiotics , Synbiotics/administration & dosage , Lactoferrin/administration & dosage , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Turkey , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/blood , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Milk, Human
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2767-2778, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878528


Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are important immunoactive components found in breast milk. Scientific research proves that HMOs are significantly beneficial for infant health. 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) is the major component of HMO, which obtained growing attentions from food industry. Besides, 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL) is another important fucosyllactose and it has a similar synthetic route comparing to 2'-FL. Thus, research of the two HMO components has interactive effects for each other. Recently, numerous publications are available for 2'-FL and 3-FL. The microbial cell factory is able to massively produce fucosyllactose via an efficient way, which will show considerable influences in dairy industry. In this paper, we review recent studies on 2'-FL and 3-FL, and discuss their prospects according to published literature and patents.

Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human , Oligosaccharides , Trisaccharides
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 642-656, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056660


ABSTRACT Objective: This narrative review aimed to provide practitioners a synthesis of the current knowledge on the role of a low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in reducing symptoms associated with functional abdominal pain disorders in children. This review is focused on the pathophysiology, efficacy and criticism of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in children. Sources: Cochrane Database, Pubmed and Embase were searched using specific terms for Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet interventions and functional abdominal pain disorders. Summary of the findings: In children, only one Randomized Control Trial and one open-label study reported positive results of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet; one Randomized Control Trial showed exacerbation of symptoms with fructans in children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome; no effect was found for the lactose-free diet whilst fructose-restricted diets were effective in 5/6 studies. Conclusions: In children there are few trials evaluating low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols in functional abdominal pain disorders, with encouraging data on the therapeutic efficacy particularly of fructose-restricted diet. Additional efforts are still needed to fill this research gap and clarify the most efficient way for tailoring dietary restrictions based on the patient's tolerance and/or identification of potential biomarkers of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols efficacy, to maintain nutritional adequacy and to simplify the adherence to diet by labeling Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols content in commercial products.

RESUMO Objetivo: Nos últimos anos, foram feitos esforços consideráveis para esclarecer o papel da dieta com baixo teor de oligossacarídeos fermentáveis, dissacarídeos, monossacarídeos e polióis (FODMAPs) para o tratamento de distúrbios gastrintestinais funcionais (DGIFs). Esta revisão narrativa teve como objetivo fornecer aos profissionais uma síntese do conhecimento atual sobre o papel de uma dieta com baixo teor de FODMAPs (BFM) na redução dos sintomas associados a distúrbios funcionais de dor abdominal (DFDA) em crianças. Esta revisão está focada na fisiopatologia, eficácia e crítica da dieta BFM em crianças. Fontes: O banco de dados Cochrane, Pubmed e Embase foram pesquisados com o uso dos termos específicos para intervenções na dieta FODMAP e DFDA. Resumo dos achados: Em crianças, apenas um estudo controlado randomizado e um estudo aberto relataram resultados positivos da dieta BFM; um estudo controlado randomizado mostrou exacerbação dos sintomas com frutanos em crianças com síndrome do intestino irritável; nenhum efeito foi encontrado para a dieta livre de lactose, enquanto dietas com restrição de frutose foram eficazes em 5/6 estudos. Conclusões: Existem poucos estudos que avaliam BFM em DFDA em crianças, com dados encorajadores sobre a eficácia terapêutica, particularmente de dietas com restrição de frutose. Esforços adicionais ainda são necessários para preencher essa lacuna de pesquisa e esclarecer a maneira mais eficiente de adaptar as restrições dietéticas com base na tolerância do paciente e/ou identificação de biomarcadores potenciais de eficácia da BFM, para manter a adequação nutricional e simplificar a adesão à dieta, ao incluir informações sobre conteúdo de FODMAPs em rótulos de produtos comerciais.

Humans , Abdominal Pain/diet therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Diet , Disaccharides/metabolism , Disaccharides/therapeutic use , Monosaccharides/metabolism , Monosaccharides/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 626-632, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042704


Los oligosacáridos de la leche materna (HMOs) son unas 200 moléculas distintas sintetizadas y secretadas por la glándula mamaria a partir de lactosa a la que diversos enzimas unen monosacáridos simples (glucosa, galactosa, n-acetil galactosamina, fucosa y ácido siálico). Estas uniones y sus diferentes orientaciones espaciales generan una gran diversidad de estructuras químicas y de funcionalidades. La concentración de los HMOs es mayor en el calostro (± 25 g/L), está relacionada con la duración del embarazo y la lactancia: disminuyen progresivamente hasta la mitad de los niveles iniciales. La genética materna influye en el perfil de algunos HMOs; el gen FUT2, que codifica la síntesis de la fucosiltransferasa 2 (FUT2) condiciona el llamado carácter secretor en 75-85% de las mujeres y hace que los antígenos del grupo ABO(H) sean secretados en los líquidos orgánicos (saliva, lágrimas, semen). La ausencia de actividad del gen FUT2 condiciona el carácter no-secretor (15-25% de las mujeres). La actividad del gen FUT3 condiciona la actividad de la fucosiltransferasa 3 (FUT3) que se asocia con el grupo sanguíneo Lewis+ mientras que su ausencia caracteriza a los portadores como Lewis 0. Los HMOs son absorbidos a nivel del intestino como trazas (1%) pero incluso en esas cantidades ejercerían efectos sistémicos.

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a family of some 200 different molecules synthesized by the mammary gland. At the core is a molecule of lactose, which is linked by different enzymes to glucose, galactose, n-acetyl galactosamine, fucose or sialic acid. These linkages and their different spatial orientation generate, besides the possibilities of numerous chemical structures, the potential for different spatial isomers. The concentration of HMOs in human milk depends on pregnancy and breastfeeding duration. They are highest in colostrum (± 25 g/L) and decrease over time to half this initial level. Maternal genetics modifies the concentration and profile of some oligosaccharides. For example, the FUT2 gene codifies the synthesis of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) whose activity generates the secretor status for antigens of the ABO(H) blood group in organic fluids (saliva, milk, tears, semen) among 75-85% of the carriers of the trait. The absence of activity of the FUT2 gene conditions the non-secretor status (15-25% of women). The FUT3 gene regulates the activity of the fucosyltransferase 3 (FUT3) that is associated with the Lewis blood group. Traces of HMOs (1%) are absorbed in the intestinal tract, however, they exert important systemic effects even at low concentrations.

Humans , Oligosaccharides , Carbohydrates , Milk, Human , Fucose , Lactose
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 633-643, oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042705


Durante los primeros meses de vida, los oligosacáridos de la leche materna (HMOs) aportados por la leche materna participan en procesos asociados con la maduración de tejidos y sistemas del tubo digestivo, modulan algunos de sus procesos metabólicos y ejercen efectos prebióticos y antimicrobianos. Otros efectos estudiados son su contribución a la instalación, desarrollo y estimulación de la microbiota residente con predomino de Bifidobacterium y Bacteroides, con efectos protectores frente a posibles colonizaciones o patologías por enteropatógenos (bacterianas, virus o parásitarias) que pueden actuar nivel local en el tubo digestivo, pero también pueden influir a nivel sistémico. Los HMOs modularían el desarrollo de la inmunidad innata y adaptativa, y probablemente previenen el desarrollo de fenómenos de atopia/alergia. Una patología propia de la etapa neonatal de los prematuros es la enterocolitis necrosante y algunos HMOs podrían disminuir el riesgo de su manifestación. Las actividades de los oligosacáridos de la leche materna contribuyen a la adaptación del lactante a los desafíos que plantea su entorno incluyendo la prevención de algunas patologías en edades posteriores, como es el caso de la diabetes tipo 1 y la obesidad.

During the first months of life, breast milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) stimulate development of the gastrointestinal tract in newborns and young infants; they modulate its metabolism and transport capabilities. Additionally, they exert prebiotic and antimicrobial activities and contribute to the development of the resident intestinal microbiota with a predominance of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and protect from colonization and infections by enteropathogens (bacteria, virus or parasites). It is highly probable that their activities extend beyond infancy and persist into adult life. HMOs stimulate the development of the innate and adaptive immune systems and decrease the risk of atopy/allergy. Their intake has been associated with a degree of protection against as necrotizing enterocolitis among premature infants. HMOs contribute to the long term adaptation and protection of newborn infants to unfavorable conditions of their environment and in this way may contribute to protect breastfed infants from type 1 diabetes and obesity.

Oligosaccharides/physiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Milk, Human , Oligosaccharides/immunology
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 644-652, oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042706


Actualmente existe la capacidad de sintetizar oligosacáridos de leche materna (HMOs) en cantidades importantes a partir de hidratos de carbono simples para emplear en estudios en lactantes e incluso en adultos. En los lactantes las fórmulas que contienen HMOs mantienen velocidades normales de incremento del peso, largo corporal y perímetro cefálico con variaciones del largo corporal, el peso y las masas magra y grasa característicos de ciertos HMOs. Algunos HMOs estimulan in vitro en monocitos estimulan en sangre periférica marcadores de inflamación semejantes a los observados con estímulos iguales en lactantes amamantados. Los HMOs están asociados con disminuciones del riesgo de enterocolitis necrosante en prematuros y en ratones. En seguimientos por cuatro meses, lactantes alimentados con una fórmula con 2' fucosil lactosa (2'FL) y lacto-N- neotetraosa (LNnT), mostraron patrones de crecimiento del peso, el largo corporal y el perímetro cefálico comparables a los de un grupo control que recibió la misma fórmula sin HMOs; tampoco hubo diferencias en sus patologías intercurrentes. Las concentraciones de HMOs en la leche pueden variar dependiendo de la localidad geográfica donde fueron obtenidas o el estado de la nutrición materna estos factores deben ser tenidos en cuenta al planificar estudios en grupos de población.

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are currently synthesized in amounts allowing studies with large numbers and longer follow ups of infants and adults. HMOs have been administered to adults in amounts of up to 20 grams per day without associated symptoms of gastrointestinal fermentation. The microbiota of these individuals presents changes considered positive: increases of Bifidobacterium and decreases of Firmicutes and Proteabacteria. A recent study in infants showed that specific HMOs modulate the growth of lean and fat mass or, on the contrary, decrease adipose tissue mass through not well characterized mechanisms. A study in infants fed for 4 months a formula containing both 2'-O-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) with a follow up of 8 months showed that body length, weight gain and head perimeter increased at rates comparable to those of breastfed infants or those fed a control formula. No differences in the incidence of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin allergies or use of antibiotics was observed. In the planning of population studies it is important to consider that in ethnically different populations breast milk may contain different profiles of HMOs depending on the area where live, suggesting that some of these profiles may be influenced by consanguinity.

Humans , Oligosaccharides , Child Development , Milk, Human
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(9): 1167-1175, set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058660


An increasing number of children and adults are currently suffering symptoms due to FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols) consumption. These carbohydrates are poorly digested in the human gastrointestinal tract, exerting an osmotic effect in the small intestine. In the colon, they become substrates to the microbiota. Microbial fermentation explains symptoms such as abdominal distention (postprandial fullness), bloating and flatulence, abdominal pain and loose feces or diarrhea. There are no standardized methods to measure them in daily clinical work. Daily tolerance and the no-effect doses are unclear. How to diagnose and treat FODMAP associated symptoms is also controversial. In this review, we aim to define FODMAP, their associated symptoms and the current techniques for assessing them. The low-FODMAP diet is described and how to implement it.

Humans , Child , Adult , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Monosaccharides/adverse effects , Oligosaccharides , Polymers , Disaccharides
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 71-77, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053491


Background: Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a fructan-rich plant with prebiotic potential. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient enzymatic route to prepare fructooligosaccharides (FOS)-rich and highly antioxidative syrup using burdock root as a raw material. Results: Endo-inulinase significantly improved the yield of FOS 2.4-fold while tannase pretreatment further increased the yield of FOS 2.8-fold. Other enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase, endo-glucanase and endo-xylanase, were able to increase the yield of total soluble sugar by 11.1% (w/w). By this process, a new enzymatic process for burdock syrup was developed and the yield of burdock syrup increased by 25% (w/w), whereas with FOS, total soluble sugars, total soluble protein and total soluble polyphenols were enhanced to 28.8%, 53.3%, 8.9% and 3.3% (w/w), respectively. Additionally, the scavenging abilities of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, and total antioxidant capacity of the syrup were increased by 23.7%, 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results could be applied to the development of efficient extraction of valuable products from agricultural materials using enzyme-mediated methods.

Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Fructose/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical , Arctium , Functional Food , Polyphenols , Fructose/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760864


Human breast milk contains numerous biomolecules. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant component of breast milk, after lactose and lipids. Amongst the synthetized HMOs, 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are widely studied and are considered safe for infant nutrition. Several studies have reported the health benefits of HMOs, which include modulation of the intestinal microbiota, anti-adhesive effect against pathogens, modulation of the intestinal epithelial cell response, and development of the immune system. The amount and diversity of HMOs are determined by the genetic background of the mothers (HMO secretors or non-secretors). The non-secretor mothers secrete lower HMOs than secretor mothers. The breastfed infants of secretor mothers gain more health benefit than those of non-secretor mothers. In conclusion, supplementation of infant formula with 2′-FL and LNnT is a promising innovation for infant nutrition.

Breast Feeding , Epithelial Cells , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genetic Background , Health Maintenance Organizations , Humans , Immune System , Infant Formula , Infant , Insurance Benefits , Lactose , Milk, Human , Mothers , Oligosaccharides