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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 881-888, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013192

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical features, efficacy and prognosis factors of core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) children in South China. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Clinical data of 584 AML patients from 9 hospitals between January 2015 to December 2020 was collected. According to fusion gene results, all patients were divided into two groups: CBF-AML group (189 cases) and non-CBF-AML group (395 cases). CBF-AML group were divided into AML1-ETO subgroup (154 cases) and CBFβ-MYH11 subgroup (35 cases). Patients in CBF-AML group chosen different induction scheme were divided into group A (fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony stimulating factor and idarubicin (FLAG-IDA) scheme, 134 cases) and group B (daunorubicin, cytarabine and etoposide (DAE) scheme, 55 cases). Age, gender, response rate, recurrence rate, mortality, molecular genetic characteristics and other clinical data were compared between groups. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and survival curve was drawn. Cox regression model was used to analyze prognostic factors. Results: A total of 584 AML children were diagnosed, including 346 males and 238 females. And a total of 189 children with CBF-AML were included, including 117 males and 72 females. The age of diagnosis was 7.3 (4.5,10.0)years, and the white blood cell count at initial diagnosis was 21.4 (9.7, 47.7)×109/L.The complete remission rate of the first course (CR1) of induction therapy, relapse rate, and mortality of children with CBF-AML were significantly different from those in the non-CBF-AML group (91.0% (172/189) vs. 78.0% (308/395); 10.1% (19/189) vs. 18.7% (74/395); 13.2% (25/189) vs. 25.6% (101/395), all P<0.05). In children with CBF-AML, the CBFβ-MYH11 subgroup had higher initial white blood cells and lower proportion of extramedullary invasion than the AML1-ETO subgroup, with statistical significance (65.7% (23/35) vs. 14.9% (23/154), 2.9% (1/35) vs. 16.9% (26/154), both P<0.05). AML1-ETO subgroup had more additional chromosome abnormalities (75/154), especially sex chromosome loss (53/154). Compared with group B, group A had more additional chromosome abnormalities and a higher proportion of tumor reduction regimen, with statistical significance (50.0% (67/134) vs. 29.1% (16/55), 34.3% (46/134) vs. 18.2% (10/55), both P<0.05). Significant differences were found in 5-years event free survival (EFS) rate and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate between CBF-AML group and non-CBF-AML group ((77.0±6.4)%vs. (61.9±6.7)%,(83.7±9.0)%vs. (67.3±7.2)%, both P<0.05).EFS and OS rates of AML1-ETO subgroup and CBFβ-MYH11 subgroup in children with CBF-AML were not significantly different (both P>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed in the AML1-ETO subgroup, CR1 rate and high white blood cell count (≥50×109/L) were independent risk factors for EFS (HR=0.24, 95%CI 0.07-0.85,HR=1.01, 95%CI 1.00-1.02, both P<0.05) and OS (HR=0.24, 95%CI 0.06-0.87; HR=1.01, 95%CI 1.00-1.02; both P<0.05). Conclusions: In CBF-AML, AML1-ETO is more common which has a higher extramedullary involvement and additional chromosome abnormalities, especially sex chromosome loss. The prognosis of AML1-ETO was similar to that of CBFβ-MYH11. The selection of induction regimen group FLAG-IDA for high white blood cell count and additional chromosome abnormality can improve the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Retrospective Studies , RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Chromosome Aberrations
2.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 1120-1125, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012375

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype, molecular features and differential diagnosis of primary synovial sarcoma of the lung (PSSL). Methods: Twelve cases of PSSL were collected at Henan Provincial People's Hospital, during May 2010 and April 2021, and their clinicopathological parameters were summarized. SS18-SSX, H3K27Me3, and SOX2 were added to the original immunomarkers to evaluate their diagnostic value for PSSL. Results: The age of 12 patients when diagnosed ranged from 32 to 75 years (mean of 50 years). There were 7 males and 5 females, 2 left lung cases and 10 right lung cases. Of the 6 patients who underwent surgical resection, five cases were confined to lung tissue (T1), one case had mediastinal invasion (T3), two cases had regional lymph node metastasis (N1), and none had distal metastasis. Microscopically, 11 cases showed monophasic spindle cell type and one case showed biphasic type composed of mainly epithelial cells consisting of cuboidal to columnar cells with glandular and cribriform structures. It was difficult to make the diagnosis by using the biopsy specimens. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed CKpan expression in 8 of 12 cases; EMA expression in 11 of 12 case; TLE1 expression in 8 of 12 cases; S-100 protein expression in two of 12 cases; various expression of bcl-2 and vimentin in 12 cases, but no expression of SOX10 and CD34 in all the cases. The Ki-67 index was 15%-30%. The expression of SS18-SSX fusion antibody was diffusely and strongly positive in all 12 cases. SOX2 was partially or diffusely expressed in 8 of 12 cases, with strong expression in the epithelial component. H3K27Me3 was absent in 3 of 12 cases. SS18 gene translocation was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test in all 12 samples. Six cases underwent surgery and postoperative chemotherapy, while the other six cases had chemotherapy alone. Ten patients were followed up after 9-114 months, with an average of 41 months and a median of 26 months. Five patients survived and five died of the disease within two years. Conclusions: PSSL is rare and has a broad morphological spectrum. IHC and molecular tests are needed for definitive diagnosis. Compared with current commonly used IHC markers, SS18-SSX fusion antibody has better sensitivity to PSSL, which could be used as an alternative for FISH, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or next generation sequencing in the diagnosis of PSSL.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Sarcoma, Synovial/diagnosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Histones/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms
3.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 454-459, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985700

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic characteristics of gastric carcinoma with NTRK-rearrangement/amplification. Methods: The clinicopathological data of gastric carcinoma cases with NTRK-rearrangement/amplification diagnosed from January 2011 to September 2020 at the Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, China, were collected. The clinicopathological, immunophenotypic and molecular pathological features were analyzed. The relevant literature was reviewed. Results: There were 4 cases of gastric carcinoma with NTRK-rearrangement/amplification. All 4 patients were male, aged 57-67 years (average, 63 years). Tumor sizes ranged from 3.5 to 5.2 cm (average, 4.8 cm). All tumors were in the antrum. All 4 patients underwent radical gastrectomy and were followed up after the surgery. Morphologically, all tumors showed histological features with enteroblastic-differentiated gastric carcinoma. Tumor cells showed predominantly tubular/papillary architecture, with conspicuous vesicular nuclei and pale staining or transparent cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed pan-TRK expression in all cases, with various degrees of positivity in the cytoplasm. All cases were subject to NTRK1/2/3 detection using fluorescence in situ hybridization. There were NTRK translocations in 2 cases and NTRK amplifications in 2 cases. These cases were further verified by RNAseq next generation sequencing which confirmed that NTRK1 gene translocation (TPM3-NTRK1) and NTRK2 gene translocation (NTRK2-SMCHD1) occurred in two cases, respectively. Conclusions: NTRK mutation occurs less frequently in gastric cancer. In this study, the cases mainly occur in the antrum. The morphology has the characteristics of enteroblastic differentiation. The tumors have unique histological, immunophenotypic and molecular characteristics, which require much attention from pathologists to effectively guide clinicians to choose the best treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Receptor, trkA/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Translocation, Genetic , Carcinoma , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 366-372, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984631

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of the AML1-ETO (AE) fusion gene on the biological function of U937 leukemia cells by establishing a leukemia cell model that induces AE fusion gene expression. Methods: The doxycycline (Dox) -dependent expression of the AE fusion gene in the U937 cell line (U937-AE) were established using a lentivirus vector system. The Cell Counting Kit 8 methods, including the PI and sidanilide induction, were used to detect cell proliferation, cell cycle-induced differentiation assays, respectively. The effect of the AE fusion gene on the biological function of U937-AE cells was preliminarily explored using transcriptome sequencing and metabonomic sequencing. Results: ①The Dox-dependent Tet-on regulatory system was successfully constructed to regulate the stable AE fusion gene expression in U937-AE cells. ②Cell proliferation slowed down and the cell proliferation rate with AE expression (3.47±0.07) was lower than AE non-expression (3.86 ± 0.05) after inducing the AE fusion gene expression for 24 h (P<0.05). The proportion of cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase in the cell cycle increased, with AE expression [ (63.45±3.10) %) ] was higher than AE non-expression [ (41.36± 9.56) %] (P<0.05). The proportion of cells expressing CD13 and CD14 decreased with the expression of AE. The AE negative group is significantly higher than the AE positive group (P<0.05). ③The enrichment analysis of the transcriptome sequencing gene set revealed significantly enriched quiescence, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, interferon-α/γ, and other inflammatory response and immune regulation signals after AE expression. ④Disorder of fatty acid metabolism of U937-AE cells occurred under the influence of AE. The concentration of the medium and short-chain fatty acid acylcarnitine metabolites decreased in cells with AE expressing, propionyl L-carnitine, wherein those with AE expression (0.46±0.13) were lower than those with AE non-expression (1.00±0.27) (P<0.05). The metabolite concentration of some long-chain fatty acid acylcarnitine increased in cells with AE expressing tetradecanoyl carnitine, wherein those with AE expression (1.26±0.01) were higher than those with AE non-expression (1.00±0.05) (P<0.05) . Conclusion: This study successfully established a leukemia cell model that can induce AE expression. The AE expression blocked the cell cycle and inhibited cell differentiation. The gene sets related to the inflammatory reactions was significantly enriched in U937-AE cells that express AE, and fatty acid metabolism was disordered.


Subject(s)
Humans , U937 Cells , RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein , Leukemia/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971182

ABSTRACT

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) accounts for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and is the second most common histological type of lung cancer. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC accounts for only 2%-5% of all NSCLC cases, and is almost exclusively detected in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Thus, ALK testing is not routinely performed in the LSCC population, and the efficacy of such treatment for ALK-rearranged LSCC remains unknown. Echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 (EML4)-ALK (V1) and TP53 co-mutations were identified by next generation sequencing (NGS) in this patient with advanced LSCC. On December 3, 2020, Ensatinib was taken orally and the efficacy was evaluated as partial response (PR). The progression-free survival (PFS) was 19 months. When the disease progressed, the medication was changed to Loratinib. To our knowledge, Enshatinib created the longest PFS of ALK-mutant LSCC patients treated with targeted therapy since literature review. Herein, we described one case treated by Enshatinib involving a patient with both EML4-ALK and TP53 positive LSCC, and the relevant literatures were reviewed for discussing the treatment of this rare disease.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Mutation , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Lung/pathology , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 319-324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982162

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common in incidence and mortality worldwide. With the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) detection technology, more and more patients with rare anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion mutations were detected. A case of advanced lung adenocarcinoma with rare COX7A2L-ALK (C2:A20) fusion detected by NGS was reported in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, and all cases with rare ALK fusion mutations were searched from medical datebase from January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2021, to investigate the treatment of rare ALK fusion mutations with ALK inhibitors. The best response of the patient was assessed as partial response (PR) with Ceritinib treatment. By literature review, 22 cases of rare ALK fusion were reported in 19 articles. Combined with this case, 23 cases were analyzed. The objective response rate (ORR) was 82.6% (19/23) and disease control rate (DCR) was 95.7% (22/23) for rare ALK fusions patients treated with ALK inhibitors. Lung adenocarcinoma patients with rare ALK fusion could benefit from ALK inhibitors.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Crizotinib , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 13-18, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970118

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological and cytogenetic features of cryptic COL1A1-PDGFB fusion dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (CC-DFSP). Methods: Three cases of CC-DFSP diagnosed in West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China from January 2021 to September 2021 were studied. Immunohistochemistry for CD34 and other markers, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for PDGFB, COL1A1-PDGFB and COL1A1, next-generation sequencing (NGS), reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Sanger sequencing were performed. Results: There were three cases of CC-DFSP, including two females and one male. The patients were 29, 44 and 32 years old, respectively. The sites were abdominal wall, caruncle and scapula. Microscopically, they were poorly circumscribed. The spindle cells of the tumors infiltrated into the whole dermis or subcutaneous tissues, typically arranging in a storiform pattern. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells exhibited diffuse CD34 expression, but were negative for S-100, SMA, and Myogenin. Loss of H3K27me3 was not observed in the tumor cells. The Ki-67 index was 10%-15%. The 3 cases were all negative for PDGFB rearrangement and COL1A1-PDGFB fusion, whereas showing unbalanced rearrangement for COL1A1. Case 1 showed a COL1A1 (exon 31)-PDGFB (exon 2) fusion using NGS, which was further validated through RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. All patients underwent extended surgical resection. Except for case 3 with recurrence 2 years after surgical resection, the other 2 cases showed no recurrence or metastasis during the follow-up. Conclusions: FISH has shown its validity for detecting PDGFB rearrangement and COL1A1-PDGFB fusion and widely applied in clinical detection. However, for cases with negative routine FISH screening that were highly suspicious for DFSPs, supplementary NGS or at least COL1A1 break-apart FISH screening could be helpful to identify cryptic COL1A1-PDGFB fusions or other variant fusions.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Adult , Collagen Type I, alpha 1 Chain , Dermatofibrosarcoma/pathology , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
8.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 132-136, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969688

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with SIL-TAL1-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) . Methods: The clinical data of 19 SIL-TAL1-positive T-ALL patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University between January 2014 and February 2022 were retrospectively computed and contrasted with SIL-TAL1-negative T-ALL patients. Results: The median age of the 19 SIL-TAL1-positive T-ALL patients was 15 (7 to 41 years) , including 16 males (84.2%) . SIL-TAL1-positive T-ALL patients had younger age, higher WBC, and hemoglobin compared with SIL-TAL1-negative T-ALL patients. There was no discrepancy in gender distribution, PLT, chromosome abnormality distribution, immunophenotyping, and complete remission (CR) rate. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 60.9% and 74.4%, respectively (HR=2.070, P=0.071) . The 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 49.2% and 70.6%, respectively (HR=2.275, P=0.040) . The 3-year RFS rate of SIL-TAL1-positive T-ALL patients was considerably lower than SIL-TAL1-negative T-ALL patients. Conclusion: SIL-TAL1-positive T-ALL patients were connected to younger age, higher WBC, higher HGB, and poor outcome.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Female , Child , Chromosome Aberrations , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , T-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Protein 1/genetics , T-Lymphocytes
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze 43 leukemia genes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Yunnan province, and provide the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of children with ALL in this area.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 428 children with newly diagnosed ALL in Yunnan area from January 2015 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Multiple nested PCR technology was used to detect 43 common leukemia genes.@*RESULTS@#Among the 428 children with ALL, 159 were positive for leukemia genes, with a positive rate of 37.15% (159/428), and a total of 15 leukemia genes were detected. Among the 159 leukemia gene-positive children, ETV6-RUNX1+ accounted for 25.79% (41/159), followed by E2A-PBX1+ and BCR-ABL+, accounting for 24.53% (39/159) and 23.27% (37/159) respectively. MLL+ accounted for 6.29% (10/159), WT1+ accounted for 4.40% (7/159), IKZF1 gene deletion and CRLF2+ accounted for 3.77% (6/159) respectively. The positive rate of MLL (46.15%) was the highest in <1-year old group, the positive rate of ETV6-RUNX1 (10.56%) was the highest in 1-10-year old group, and BCR-ABL+ rate (23.65%) was the highest in >10-year old group. The distribution of leukemia genes in different age groups was statistically significant (P <0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The most common fusion gene of children with ALL in Yunnan is ETV6-RUNX1, followed by E2A-PBX1 and BCR-ABL.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics , Retrospective Studies , China , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Genotype
10.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 336-341, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935091

ABSTRACT

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the data of Chinese patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) to preliminarily discuss the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics. Methods: From February 2004 to June 2020, patients with newly diagnosed APL aged ≥ 15 years who were admitted to the Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College were chosen. Clinical and laboratory features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 790 cases were included, with a male to female ratio of 1.22. The median age of the patients was 41 (15-76) years. Patients aged between 20 and 59 predominated, with 632 patients (80%) of 790 patients classified as low and intermediate risk and 158 patients (20%) of 790 patients classified as high risk. The white blood cell, platelet, and hemoglobin levels at diagnosis were 2.3 (0.1-176.1) ×10(9)/L, 29.5 (2.0-1220.8) ×10(9)/L, and 89 (15-169) g/L, respectively, and 4.8% of patients were complicated with psoriasis. The long-form type of PML-RARα was most commonly seen in APL, accounting for 58%. Both APTT extension (10.3%) and creatinine>14 mg/L (1%) are rarely seen in patients at diagnosis. Cytogenetics was performed in 715 patients with newly diagnosed APL. t (15;17) with additional chromosomal abnormalities were found in 155 patients, accounting for 21.7%; among which, +8 was most frequently seen. A complex karyotype was found in 64 (9.0%) patients. Next-generation sequencing was performed in 178 patients, and 113 mutated genes were discovered; 75 genes had an incidence rate>1%. FLT3 was the most frequently seen, which accounted for 44.9%, and 20.8% of the 178 patients present with FLT3-ITD. Conclusions: Patients aged 20-59 years are the most common group with newly diagnosed APL. No obvious difference was found in the ratio of males to females. In terms of risk stratification, patients divided into low and intermediate risk predominate. t (15;17) with additional chromosomal abnormalities accounted for 21% of 715 patients, in which +8 was most commonly seen. The long-form subtype was most frequently seen in PML-RARα-positive patients, and FLT3 was most commonly seen in the mutation spectrum of APL.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/genetics , Mutation , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Retrospective Studies
11.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 28-32, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935466

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, molecular characteristics, differential diagnosis and prognosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-translocation renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Two cases of ALK-translocation renal cell carcinoma diagnosed from January 2011 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed to characterize their morphological features, immunohistochemical expression and prognosis. Multiple molecular studies including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and next-generation sequencing were performed to characterize the genetic alterations. Results: Two patients included one male and one female, with 59 and 57 years old, respectively. Morphologically, case 1 resembled collecting duct carcinoma or renal medullary carcinoma, which demonstrated tubular, microcapsule and reticular structures, with a remarkable myxoid background and lymphocytes infiltration; case 2 resembled Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma or type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma, which demonstrated tubular papillary and focal solid structures, with flocculent cytoplasm and many foamy histiocytes, but without myxoid background and lymphocytes infiltration. Immunohistochemistry showed strongly positive expression of ALK. CK7, E-cadherin, vimentin, PAX8 and CD10 showed various degrees of expression, and other antibodies were nonreactive. A variety of molecular assays showed definite ALK gene translocation, with rare VCL-ALK gene fusion (VCL exon and 16-ALK exon 20) in case 1, and EML4-ALK gene fusion (EML4 exon and 2-ALK exon 20) in case 2. Conclusions: ALK-translocation renal cell carcinoma is rare with various morphological features, and is easy to miss and misdiagnose. The characteristic ALK expression and molecular detection of ALK translocation are helpful for diagnosing this type of renal cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Kidney Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Retrospective Studies
12.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 347-371, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888736

ABSTRACT

B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is characterized by genetic alterations with high heterogeneity. Precise subtypes with distinct genomic and/or gene expression patterns have been recently revealed using high-throughput sequencing technology. Most of these profiles are associated with recurrent non-overlapping rearrangements or hotspot point mutations that are analogous to the established subtypes, such as DUX4 rearrangements, MEF2D rearrangements, ZNF384/ZNF362 rearrangements, NUTM1 rearrangements, BCL2/MYC and/or BCL6 rearrangements, ETV6-RUNX1-like gene expression, PAX5alt (diverse PAX5 alterations, including rearrangements, intragenic amplifications, or mutations), and hotspot mutations PAX5 (p.Pro80Arg) with biallelic PAX5 alterations, IKZF1 (p.Asn159Tyr), and ZEB2 (p.His1038Arg). These molecular subtypes could be classified by gene expression patterns with RNA-seq technology. Refined molecular classification greatly improved the treatment strategy. Multiagent therapy regimens, including target inhibitors (e.g., imatinib), immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, are transforming the clinical practice from chemotherapy drugs to personalized medicine in the field of risk-directed disease management. We provide an update on our knowledge of emerging molecular subtypes and therapeutic targets in BCP-ALL.


Subject(s)
Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Mutation , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements AF6 (MLL-AF6) positive.@*METHODS@#In the study, 11 patients who were newly diagnosed with MLL-AF6 positive AML were analyzed retrospectively, related literature was reviewed to clarify the clinical features and prognosis of MLL-AF6 positive patients.@*RESULTS@#Among the 11 patients, there were 6 males and 5 females, with a median age of 36 years. Six patients were diagnosed with AML M5 and five with M4 according to FAB classification (French-American-British classification systems). Gingival swelling and pain occurred in 6 cases and fever occurred in 5 cases. At first diagnosis, the median white blood cells were 55.5×109/L. Immunotype showed the expression of myeloid/monocyte and early stem cell series antigens. The expression level of MLL-AF6 fusion gene (real-time quantitative PCR) was 14.2%-214.5%, and 6/11 cases (54.5%) were associated with high EVI1 gene expression. Mutations of KRAS, TET2, ASXL1, TP53, DNMT3A, and FLT3-ITD were detected by next generation sequencing (NGS) in 4 patients. Chromosome G banding examination showed that 2 cases were t(6;11)(q27, q23) with complex karyotype abnormality, 4 cases with +8 abnormality and 2 cases with normal karyotype. Hematological complete remission (CR) was achieved in 8/11 patients (72.7%) after conventional induction chemotherapy, and primary drug resistance was observed in 3 patients. Two of the eight patients with CR were negative for minimal residual disease (MRD), with a median CR duration of 4.5 months. Two patients with positive MRD and three patients with refractory recurrence underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), but all died due to leukemia progression. At the end of follow-up on December 1, 2019, 2 patients were alive and 9 died, with median survival time of 9 months.@*CONCLUSION@#The AML patients with MLL-AF6 positive were mostly young, the majority of FAB types were M4 and M5, and most of the patients often had fever as the first symptom, with increased white blood cells, accompanied by organ infiltration, and high EVI1 gene expression. The hematological remission rate of routine chemotherapy is not low, but it is difficult to achieve molecular remission, most of which have early recurrence. Early allo-HSCT in a molecular negative state may prolong the CR duration.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the relationship between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients ASXL2, ZBTB7A gene mutations and the prognosis.@*METHODS@#42 AML Patients treated in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 were selected and ASXL2 and ZBTB7A genes of their bone marrow samples were sequenced, the genetic characteristics and prognosis of core-binding factor-AML(CBF-AML) patients with ASXL2 and ZBTB7A mutations were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#ASXL2 (33.3%) and ZBTB7A (9.5%) mutations were found in t (8; 21) AML patients. Compared with wild-type, patients with ASXL2 mutations showed significantly higher white blood cell count at diagnosis [(9.49±1.85)×10@*CONCLUSION@#ASXL2 and ZBTB7A mutations are frequently found in t (8; 21) AML patients. The mutation of ASXL2 and ZBTB7A genes shows no significant effect on the prognosis of AML patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Mutation , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Prognosis , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1831-1836, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the consistency between FCM and PCR on the detecting of MRD in TCF3-PBX1@*METHODS@#55 cases of paediatric TCF3-PBX1@*RESULTS@#Among the 55 children with TCF3-PBX1@*CONCLUSION@#The detection result of MRD in TCF3-PBX1 detect by FCM and PCR shows better consistency. MRD positivity detected by FCM at the end of induction therapy (day 33) predicts a high risk of relapse in TCF3-PBX1 ALL patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Bone Marrow , Neoplasm, Residual , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Recurrence
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879790

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) pediatric patients with different fusion gene backgrounds.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 441 B-ALL children who were treated from January 2008 to April 2015. Among the 441 children, 336 had negative fusion gene, 79 had positive @*RESULTS@#In patients with negative fusion gene, the positive MRD group had significantly lower overall survival (OS) rate and event-free survival (EFS) rate (@*CONCLUSIONS@#MRD has the most definite prognostic significance in pediatric B-ALL patients with negative fusion gene, while it has unsatisfactory prognostic significance in those with positive


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit , Disease-Free Survival , Homeodomain Proteins , Neoplasm, Residual/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 200-207, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009753

ABSTRACT

Fusion between the transmembrane protease serine 2 and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (TMPRSS2-ERG fusion) is a common genetic alteration in prostate cancer among Western populations and has been suggested as playing a role in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. However, the prevalence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion differs among different ethnic groups, and contradictory results have been reported in Asian patients. We aim to evaluate the prevalence and significance of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion as a molecular subtyping and prognosis indicator of prostate cancer in Asians. We identified the fusion status in 669 samples from prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry in China. We examined the association of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion with clinicopathological characteristics and biochemical recurrence by Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Finally, a systematic review was performed to investigate the positive rate of the fusion in Asian prostate cancer patients. McNemar's test was employed to compare the positive rates of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion detected using different methods. The positive rates of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion were 16% in our samples and 27% in Asian patients. In our samples, 9.4% and 19.3% of cases were recognized as fusion positive by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. No significant association between the fusion and clinical parameters was observed. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is not a frequent genomic alteration among Asian prostate cancer patients and has limited significance in clinical practices in China. Besides ethnic difference, detection methods potentially influence the results showing a positive rate of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , China , Oncogene Fusion/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Transcriptional Regulator ERG/genetics
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