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1.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(109): 30-37, 20220000. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392512

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por VIH continúa siendo un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Las restricciones tomadas durante la pandemia por COVID-19 podrían afectar el alcance de las metas 95-95-95 propuestas por ONUSIDA. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en la realización de pruebas rápidas de VIH en un hospital general de agudos.Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de los datos de pacientes mayores de 16 años, de ambos sexos, que se realizaron una prueba rápida de VIH durante la pandemia por COVID-19 vs. el período previo.Resultados: De 611 tests, 473 (77,4%) corresponden al período prepandémico y 138 (22,6%) al pandémico. La mediana de edad (rango intercuartílico) fue 32 años (24-40); sexo masculino 386 (63,2%), sin diferencias significativas. Durante el período prepandémico los motivos de testeo fueron control de salud 47,6% (n=225) y situaciones de riesgo/síntomas 52,4% (n=248), mientras que en el período pandémico fueron control de salud 27,5% (n=38) y situaciones de riesgo/síntomas 72,5% (n=100) respectivamente, p=0.0001. Tests positivos: 5,7% (n=27) vs. 8,7% (n=12), p=0.28. Las medianas de recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ y carga viral fueron: 327 cel/uL (135-718) y 66300 copias/mL (5260-192000), sin diferencias significativas.Conclusiones: La cantidad de testeos realizados durante la pandemia corresponde a un tercio de los realizados durante el período previo, con un descenso en aquellos motivados por controles de salud, evidenciando el impacto de la pandemia en el diagnóstico de VIH


INTRODUCTION: HIV infection remains as a public health worldwide problem. The restrictions taken during the COVID-19 pandemic could have affected the scope of the 95-95-95 goals proposed by UNAIDS. The aim of this work is to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performance of rapid HIV tests in an Acute General Hospital.METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from patients over 16 years old, of both sexes, who underwent a rapid HIV test during the COVID-19 pandemic vs. the previous period.RESULTS: Of 611 tests, 473 (77.4%) correspond to the pre-pandemic period and 138 (22.6%) to the pandemic. The median age (interquartile range) was 32 years old (24-40); male sex 386 (63.2%), without significant differences. During the pre-pandemic vs pandemic period, the reasons for testing were: health control 47.6% (n=225) and risk situations/symptoms 52.4% (n=248), vs 27.5% (n= 38) and 72.5% (n=100) respectively, p=0.0001. Positive tests: 5.7% (n=27) vs 8.7% (n=12), p=0.28. The median CD4+ T lymphocyte count and viral load were: 327 cells/uL (135-718) and 66,300 copies/mL (5,260-192,000), with no significant differences.CONCLUSIONS: The number of tests carried out during the pandemic equals to a third of those performed during the previous period, with a decrease in those motivated by health controls; evidencing the impact of the pandemic on the diagnosis of HIV


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Early Diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , HIV Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control
2.
Medwave ; 22(5): e8741, jun.-2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378544

ABSTRACT

En marzo 2020 se despliega la primera versión de EPIVIGILA en un ambiente productivo, plataforma de integración tecnológica de vigilancia epidemiológica nacional para enfermedades de notificación obligatoria (a pocos días del caso 1 de COVID- 19 local). Anteriormente, Chile usaba un proceso manual que probablemente hubiese fracasado ante un volumen máximo superior a 38 000 notificaciones diarias, en un país con 18 millones de habitantes, de geografía larga y angosta y gobernanza centralizada. El objetivo del trabajo es relevar la importancia que tiene en el manejo de la pandemia el sistema nacional de vigilancia electrónico EPIVIGILA. La principal fortaleza del sistema es su capacidad de adaptación a las necesidades de información fidedigna, precisa, oportuna y en tiempo real. EPIVIGILA fue capaz de incluir, en el curso de las circunstancias, distintos flujos, actores, datos y funcionalidades con altas expectativas de exactitud. Ello permitió que las autoridades pudieran evaluar el impacto de las medidas implementadas para el manejo y control de la pandemia. Su versatilidad posiciona a esta plataforma entre las pocas en el mundo que opera datos nacionales en una pandemia con un alto nivel de granularidad en un único sistema. En Chile, EPIVIGILA es la principal fuente de información para los reportes diarios, informes epidemiológicos y datos publicados en sitios web gubernamentales sobre COVID- 19. Así, el uso de sistemas electrónicos muestran ser un soporte fundamental para la salud pública, porque el registro y procesamiento de los datos genera información clara, confiable y oportuna, contribuyendo a que las autoridades puedan tomar decisiones orientadas a disminuir la propagación de enfermedades transmisibles, evitar muertes y mejorar la calidad de vida de la población.


In March 2020, the first version of EPIVIGILA was deployed in a productive environment a few days after the first local case of COVID- 19. This system is a technological integration plat-form for national epidemiological surveillance of notifiable diseases. Previously, Chile used a manual process that would probably have failed with a peak volume of more than 38 000 daily notifications; in a country with 18 million inhabitants, long and narrow geography, and centralized governance. This work highlights the importance of the national electronic surveillance system ­ EPIVIGILA ­ in managing the pandemic. The system's main strength is its ability to adapt to the needs of reliable, precise, timely, and real- time information. EPIVIGILA was able to include, under the circumstances, different flows, actors, data, and functionalities with high expectations of accuracy. This valuable information allowed the authorities to assess the impact of the measures to manage and control the pandemic. Its versatility positions this platform among the few globally that operates national data with a high level of granularity in a single system through a pandemic. In Chile, EPIVIGILA is the primary source of information for daily reports, epidemiological reports, and data published on government websites about COVID- 19. Thus, electronic systems prove fundamental for public health because the recording and processing of data generate clear, reliable, and timely information, helping authorities make decisions to reduce the spread of infectious diseases, prevent deaths, and improve the population's quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Public Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 969-978, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364705

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 nos valores de vacinação para as imunizações voltadas a indivíduos com menos de um ano de vida no Brasil. Analisou-se os valores de cobertura vacinal, em território nacional, de dez vacinas presentes no calendário do Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI) durante os últimos oito anos (2013-2020). Esse é um estudo ecológico e todos os dados foram extraídos do PNI. Comparativamente aos anos prévios, em 2020 registrou-se o menor valor de cobertura vacinal da média do conjunto das vacinas estudadas, 75,07%, enquanto em 2019 esse mesmo índice ficou em 84,44%, resultando em uma queda de 11,10% entre esses dois períodos. Além disso, no ano da pandemia, das dez vacinas analisadas, nove registraram o seu menor valor histórico de cobertura, todas estando a no mínimo 14 pontos percentuais abaixo da meta do Ministério da Saúde. Embora já houvesse uma tendência de queda na cobertura vacinal, por diversos motivos, o presente estudo demonstra que os valores registrados em 2020 foram significativamente menores, fenômeno também registrado em outros países. Portanto, mesmo não conseguindo afirmar que a pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de distanciamento sejam as causas da queda dos valores de imunização, podemos inferir que há uma associação.


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the vaccination numbers for immunization geared toward individuals under 12 months of age in Brazil. This study analyzed the numbers of the nationwide vaccination coverage of ten vaccines present in the calendar from the National Immunization Program (NIP) over the past eight years (2013-2020). This is an ecological study, and all data were taken from the NIP. In comparison to the previous years, 2020 recorded the lowest figures of vaccination coverage (VC) of the average of the group of studied vaccines - 79.07% - while in 2019, this same index was 84.44%, resulting in a drop of 11.10% between these two periods. Moreover, during the year of the pandemic, of the ten analyzed vaccines, nine recorded their lowest historical VC figures, all of which were at least 14 percentage points below the goals set by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS, in Portuguese). Although there had already been a tendency toward a decline in VC, for various reasons, the present study illustrates that the numbers recorded in 2020 were significantly lower, a phenomenon also reported in other countries. Therefore, although it is impossible to affirm that the COVID-19 pandemic and its distancing measures are the causes for the drop in the immunization numbers, it can be inferred that there is indeed an association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage
5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 305-309, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366034

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Meningitis is listed as one of the diseases requiring compulsory notification in Brazil. It can affect all age groups and also has no seasonality. Cases can be recorded in all months of the year and in all states of Brazil. Despite its importance, the obligation of immediate notification may have been compromised by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on compulsory notifications of meningitis in Brazil and its states during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an ecological study involving all confirmed cases of meningitis in Brazil, in its regions and in its states. METHODS: Data for the months from 2015 to 2020 were obtained from the database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN), in the Department of Informatics of the National Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS). The P-score was used to obtain the percentage change in the numbers of cases reported in 2020. RESULTS: A 45.7% reduction in notifications of meningitis in Brazil was observed. Regarding the regions and the states, with the exception of Roraima, all of them showed a negative P-score, with decreasing curves each month. CONCLUSION: The pandemic caused a negative impact on meningitis notifications in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Meningitis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Pandemics/prevention & control
6.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e57231, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367678

ABSTRACT

Aim of the present study was to assess physical activity, nutrition and psychological status of the population during lockdown due to covid-19. Online survey was conductedamong 534 participants within the age range of 16-78 years using convenient sampling. Participantsfrom varied regions within India and abroad were enrolled for the present study. Volunteered participants were solicited to take part in a survey that has to be carried out by filling an online questionnaire form available to them as a URL link in the invitation through WhatsApp/Messenger. The gathered data has been compiled, coded and cleaned using Microsoft Excel. Analysis has been carried out employing descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 17.0.Majority of participants in the studied population showed significant change in their nutrition and physical activity status due to lockdown. Covid-19 lockdown did limit their daily activities. It also had impacted their psychological status.The current investigation accentuates the need to pursue suitable life style for the maintenance of optimum metabolism and physiology. Sticking to more regular timetable of meals, effective management of stress levels and continued physical activity during the quarantine and in all the following phases of living is desirable.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Mental Health , Feeding Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep , Social Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Life Style
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00118621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355987

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Os estudos publicados sobre a resposta da Coreia do Sul à COVID-19 apontam para distintos motivos para seu êxito. Não foram identificadas revisões sobre a Coreia do Sul entre janeiro de 2020 e abril de 2021 ou que analisassem o recrudescimento da pandemia. Visando melhor sistematização sobre o seu sucesso no controle da epidemia, desenvolveu-se uma revisão integrativa para analisar a experiência daquele país no enfrentamento da pandemia de COVID-19, buscando identificar a relação entre as medidas adotadas, as características do sistema de saúde e a evolução de indicadores selecionados. Utilizaram-se distintas bases de dados, além dos boletins epidemiológicos e conferências de imprensa do Centro Sul-coreano de Prevenção e Controle de Doenças (KCDC). Adicionalmente, analisaram-se relatórios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), do Observatório Europeu de Políticas e Sistemas de Saúde. Os resultados do presente estudo permitem identificar um conjunto de lições com base na experiência sul-coreana visando o controle e manejo da doença. A resposta da Coreia do Sul foi bem-sucedida devido às ações no controle de riscos e danos, atuação sobre determinantes sociais para mitigar os efeitos socioeconômicos da crise sanitária, a experiência prévia em outras epidemias respiratórias e a coordenação nacional expressiva.


Resumen: Los estudios publicados sobre la respuesta de Corea del Sur a la COVID-19 apuntan distintos motivos para su éxito. No se identificaron revisiones sobre Corea del Sur entre enero de 2020 y abril de 2021 o que analizaran el recrudecimiento de la pandemia. Con el fin de una mejor sistematización sobre el éxito en el control de la epidemia, se desarrolló una revisión integradora para analizar la experiencia de aquel país en el combate de la pandemia de COVID-19, buscando identificar la relación entre las medidas adoptadas, las características del sistema de salud y la evolución de indicadores seleccionados. Se utilizaron distintas bases de datos, además de los boletines epidemiológicos y conferencias de prensa del Centro Surcoreano para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (KCDC). Asimismo, se analizaron informes de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y del Observatorio Europeo de Políticas y Sistemas Sanitarios. Los resultados del presente estudio permiten identificar un conjunto de lecciones, basadas en la experiencia surcoreana, con el fin del control y manejo de la enfermedad. La respuesta de Corea del Sur fue exitosa, debido a las acciones en el control de riesgos y daños, actuación sobre determinantes sociales para mitigar los efectos socioeconómicos de la crisis sanitaria, así como su experiencia previa en otras epidemias respiratorias y su significativa coordinación nacional.


Abstract: The studies published on the South Korean response to COVID-19 point to different reasons for the country's success. No reviews were identified on South Korea from January 2020 to April 2021 or that analyzed the pandemic's recrudescence. Aimed at better systematization of South Korea's success in controlling the epidemic, we conducted an integrative review to analyze that country´s experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, seeking to identify the relationship between the measures adopted, the health system's characteristics, and evolution of the selected indicators. Various databases were used, beside epidemiological bulletins and press conferences of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). We also analyzed reports by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. The study's results allow identifying a set of lessons based on the South Korean experience with control and management of the disease. The response by South Korea was successful, due to action in the control of risks and harms, action on social determinants to mitigate the socioeconomic effects of the health crisis, prior experience with other respiratory disease epidemics, and effective national coordination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Brazil , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 196-207, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929203

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic disease. SARS-CoV-2 variants have aroused great concern and are expected to continue spreading. Although many countries have promoted roll-out vaccination, the immune barrier has not yet been fully established, indicating that populations remain susceptible to infection. In this review, we summarize the literature on variants of concern and focus on the changes in their transmissibility, pathogenicity, and resistance to the immunity constructed by current vaccines. Furthermore, we analyzed relationships between variants and breakthrough infections, as well as the paradigm of new variants in countries with high vaccination rates. Terminating transmission, continuing to strengthen variant surveillance, and combining nonpharmaceutical intervention measures and vaccines are necessary to control these variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 185-195, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929202

ABSTRACT

The record speed at which Chinese scientists identified severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and shared its genomic sequence with the world, has greatly facilitated the development of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines. It is unprecedented in pandemic control history to develop a dozen successful vaccines in the first year and to immunize over half of the global population in the second year, due to the efforts of the scientific community, biopharmaceutical industry, and regulatory agencies worldwide. The challenges are both great and multidimensional due to the rapid emergence of virus variants and waning of vaccine immunity. Vaccination strategies need to adapt to these challenges to keep population immunity above the herd immunity threshold, by increasing vaccine coverage, especially for older adults and young people, and providing timely booster doses with homologous or heterologous vaccine boosts. Further research should be undertaken to develop more effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants and to understand the best prime-boost vaccine combinations and immunization strategies to provide sufficient and sustainable immune protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 39-55, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929196

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the most effective and feasible way to contain the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The rapid development of effective COVID-19 vaccines is an extraordinary achievement. This study reviewed the efficacy/effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety profile of the 12 most progressed COVID-19 vaccines and discussed the challenges and prospects of the vaccine-based approaches in a global crisis. Overall, most of the current vaccines have shown safety and efficacy/effectiveness during actual clinical trials or in the real-world studies, indicating a development of pandemic control. However, many challenges are faced by pandemic control in terms of maximizing the effect of vaccines, such as rapid vaccine coverage, strategies to address variants with immune escape capability, and surveillance of vaccine safety in the medium- and long-terms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928833

ABSTRACT

Tobacco intersects with the COVID-19 pandemic not only in terms of health consequences, but also environmental change and planetary health. Tobacco use exacerbates inequalities, causes catastrophic environmental degradation and climate change and adds burdens to COVID-19-related mortality, which are major challenges to recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic has provided a chance to combat tobacco use and accelerate efforts to alleviate these challenges in response. The MPOWER measures introduced by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) can play a crucial role in COVID-19 recovery to fight tobacco use and contribute to sustainable and equitable development. To accelerate recovery, it is critical to call for actions for governments and policy-makers to strengthen synergies and coordinate policy actions emphasising tobacco control and cessation across equity, public health, and climate actions as global authorities pledge to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and net zero emissions targets as part of the Climate Change Conference 2021 (COP26).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tobacco , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To protect the health and safety of healthcare workers (HCWs), it is essential to ensure the provision of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services and standard precautions in healthcare facilities (HCF). The objectives of this short communication were 1) to assess the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs in seven provinces in Afghanistan before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 2) to elucidate the relevance of these patterns with the number of reported HCW infections from COVID-19 in the mentioned provinces.@*METHODS@#We analyzed secondary data from the 2018-19 Afghanistan Service Provision Assessment survey, which included 142 public and private HCFs in seven major provinces in Afghanistan. Data on COVID-19 cases were obtained from the Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health Data Warehouse. Weighted prevalence of WASH services and standard precautions were calculated using frequencies and percentages. ArcGIS maps were used to visualize the distribution of COVID-19 cases, and scatter plots were created to visualize the relevance of WASH services and standard precautions to COVID-19 cases in provinces.@*RESULTS@#Of the 142 facilities surveyed, about 97% had improved water sources, and over 94% had improved toilet for clients. Overall, HCFs had limited availability of hygiene services and standard precautions, which was lower in private than public facilities. More than half of the facilities had safe final disposal and appropriate storage of sharps and medical waste. Of the seven provinces, Herat province had the highest cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population and reported lower availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs compared to other provinces.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings show disparities in the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in public and private facilities. Private facilities had a lower availability of hygiene services and standard precautions than public facilities. Provinces with higher availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs had a lower cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population. Pre-pandemic preparation of adequate WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs could be potentially important in combating infectious disease emergence.


Subject(s)
Afghanistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sanitation , Water , Water Supply
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927680

ABSTRACT

Taking the Chinese city of Xiamen as an example, simulation and quantitative analysis were performed on the transmissions of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the influence of intervention combinations to assist policymakers in the preparation of targeted response measures. A machine learning model was built to estimate the effectiveness of interventions and simulate transmission in different scenarios. The comparison was conducted between simulated and real cases in Xiamen. A web interface with adjustable parameters, including choice of intervention measures, intervention weights, vaccination, and viral variants, was designed for users to run the simulation. The total case number was set as the outcome. The cumulative number was 4,614,641 without restrictions and 78 under the strictest intervention set. Simulation with the parameters closest to the real situation of the Xiamen outbreak was performed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the model. The simulation model generated a duration of 52 days before the daily cases dropped to zero and the final cumulative case number of 200, which were 25 more days and 36 fewer cases than the real situation, respectively. Targeted interventions could benefit the prevention and control of COVID-19 outbreak while safeguarding public health and mitigating impacts on people's livelihood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00168121, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355975

ABSTRACT

Em novembro de 2021, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) deu início à negociação de uma convenção, acordo ou outro instrumento internacional sobre a resposta às pandemias. Neste ensaio, defendemos e justificamos a tese de que o novo pacto deve ser um tratado de direitos humanos, como condição indispensável para a prevenção de novas pandemias e eficiência da resposta global quando elas ocorrem. Após o breve resgate da origem das negociações, apresentamos os principais conteúdos normativos que correspondem a um enfoque de direitos humanos: a instituição da regra de indissociabilidade entre medidas quarentenárias e de proteção social; e a regulamentação do acesso a tecnologias farmacêuticas. A seguir, em seção dedicada ao tema da efetividade do futuro tratado, classificamos as propostas existentes em ajustes tecnocráticos, como alterações no procedimento de declaração de emergências; mecanismos de transparência e controle, a exemplo da adoção de um mecanismo de Revisão Periódica Universal (RPU), similar ao do Conselho de Direitos Humanos das Nações Unidas, para monitorar obrigações dos Estados relacionadas à saúde; poderes coercitivos que seriam outorgados à OMS ou outra agência, tais como inspeções nos territórios nacionais realizadas por cientistas independentes; e mecanismos de coordenação política, como a criação de um Conselho Global de Ameaças à Saúde. Concluímos que há risco de adoção de um sistema mais eficiente de vigilância para alertar o mundo desenvolvido sobre ameaças oriundas de países em desenvolvimento, em lugar de um tratado capaz de contribuir para evitar que populações mais vulneráveis continuem sendo devastadas por pandemias cada vez mais frequentes.


En noviembre de 2021, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) inició negociaciones de una convención, acuerdo u otro instrumento internacional sobre una respuesta a las pandemias. En este ensayo, defendemos y justificamos la tesis de que el nuevo pacto debe ser un tratado de derechos humanos, como condición indispensable para la prevención de nuevas pandemias y eficiencia de la respuesta global cuando se produzcan. Tras un breve recordatorio del origen de las negociaciones, presentamos los principales contenidos normativos que corresponden a un enfoque de derechos humanos: la institución de la regla de indisociabilidad entre medidas cuarentenarias y de protección social; y la regulación del acceso a tecnologías farmacéuticas. A continuación, en la sección dedicada al tema de la efectividad del futuro tratado, clasificamos las propuestas existentes en ajustes tecnocráticos, como alteraciones en el procedimiento de declaración de emergencias; mecanismos de transparencia y control, como por ejemplo la adopción de un mecanismo de Revisión Periódica Universal (RPU), similar al del Consejo de Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas, para monitorear obligaciones de los Estados relacionados con la salud; poderes coercitivos que serían otorgados a la OMS o a otra agencia, tales como inspecciones en territorios nacionales, realizadas por científicos independientes; y mecanismos de coordinación política, como la creación de un Consejo Global de Amenazas a la Salud. Concluimos que existe riesgo de adopción de un sistema más eficiente de vigilancia para alertar al mundo desarrollado sobre amenazas oriundas de países en desarrollo, en lugar de un tratado capaz de contribuir para evitar que poblaciones más vulnerables continúen siendo devastadas por pandemias cada vez más frecuentes.


In November 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the negotiation of a convention, agreement, or other international instrument on the response to pandemics. In this essay we defend and justify the position that this new pact should be a human rights treaty, as an indispensable condition for the prevention of new pandemics and for efficiency of the global response when they occur. After briefly reviewing the origin of the negotiations, we present the principal normative contents that reflect a human rights approach: the establishment of the rule of inseparability between quarantine and social protection measures; regulation of access to pharmaceutical technologies. Next, in a section dedicated to the future treaty's effectiveness, we classify the existing proposals as technocratic adjustments, such as alterations in the procedure for declaring emergencies; mechanisms of transparency and control such as the adoption of a mechanism of Universal Periodic Review (UPR), similar to that of the UN Human Rights Council, to monitor States' health-related obligations; coercive powers to be granted to the WHO or another agency such as inspections in national territories by independent scientists; and mechanisms of political coordination such as the creation of a Global Health Threats Council. We conclude that there is a risk of adoption of a more efficient surveillance system to alert the developed world of threats coming from developing countries rather than a treaty capable of contributing to preventing more vulnerable populations from continuing to be devastated by increasingly frequent pandemics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Brazil , Human Rights , International Cooperation
15.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 27: e59776, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376059

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El artículo problematiza, a través de relatos de prácticas cotidianas de cuidado, emociones que se organizan en torno a las diferentes configuraciones del cuidado infantil en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (Argentina). De esta forma, se trata de alimentar la mirada de las infancias, maternidades y paternidades urbanas en 'plural', con la meta de poder considerar el amplio repertorio de formas de disponerse, de estar y sentir que atraviesan el arco de experiencias de los arreglos familiares y el cuidado de hijos e hijas. ¿Cómo se reorganizaron los cuidados domésticos durante la pandemia? ¿Qué emociones y 'reglas del sentir' esto puso en evidencia? ¿Cómo impactaron los cambios en las fronteras del 'adentro' y el 'afuera' en las familias y en las subjetividades laborales y personales? Un primer nivel de análisis de la información empírica está estructurada por las formas de habitar (quiénes vivían con quiénes en términos de parentesco, con qué tipos de vivienda, haciendo qué uso del barrio), para presentar sobre ellas las tensiones emocionales, necesidades y estrategias que emergieron en los relatos.


RESUMO O artigo problematiza, por meio de relatos de práticas cotidianas do cuidado, as emoções que organizam-se em torno das diferentes configurações do cuidado das crianças na Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, (Argentina). Dessa forma, o artigo pretende contribuir a um olhar das infâncias, das maternidades e das paternidades no plural, com o objetivo de poder contemplar o amplo repertório de modos de experienciar, ser e sentir que perpassam o arco de experiências das dinâmicas familiares e do cuidado das crianças. Como os cuidados domésticos foram reorganizados durante a pandemia? Que emoções e regras do sentir isso trouxe à tona? Como as mudanças nas fronteiras do 'dentro' e 'fora' impactaram as famílias e as subjetividades pessoais e do trabalho? Um primeiro nível de análise da informação empírica é estruturado pelos modos de viver (quem conviveu com quem em termos do parentesco, em que tipo de habitação, qual uso da vizinhança), para apresentar tensões emocionais, necessidades e estratégias que surgiram nos relatos.


ABSTRACT. This article addresses the emotions around different configurations of childcare in the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, based on narratives about everyday care practices. In doing so, the article aims to contribute to a pluralistic view of childhood and parenthood in order to consider the vast repertoire of dispositions, of being and feeling that are intertwined in family arrangements and childcare. How did the interviewees rearrange domestic care during the pandemic? What emotions and 'emotional norms' does that new situation reveal? How did the changes in the limits of inside and outside affect families and personal and labor subjectivities? A first level empirical data analysis is performed on the modes of inhabiting a home -who lived with whom, in which type of house, and what use they make of the resources in their neighborhood — in order to reflect upon the emotional tensions, needs and strategies that emerged from the narratives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Child Care/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Paternity , Family , Residence Characteristics , Parenting/psychology , Affect , Emotions , Family Relations/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Networking , Teleworking/trends , Interpersonal Relations
16.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 21: e58691, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1384527

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: compreender a vivência do medo por estudantes universitários durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: estudo exploratório, qualitativo, realizado com 16 estudantes matriculados em instituições de ensino superior brasileiras. Os dados foram coletados em junho de 2020, através de grupo focal realizado virtualmente, utilizando-se um roteiro semiestruturado com questões norteadoras. A partir da análise de conteúdo, modalidade temática, emergiram as categorias: Medo do desconhecido e suas repercussões na vida de estudantes universitários e viver daqui por diante: desafios impostos pela pandemia e semelhanças com experiências anteriores. Resultados: a pandemia de COVID-19 simbolizava o novo, evidenciado pelo sentimento de medo dos participantes frente ao imprevisível, à solidão, ao sofrimento e à finitude humana. As narrativas mostraram mudanças no viver dos estudantes universitários. Conclusão: apesar de seu ineditismo, a vivência da pandemia encontrou semelhanças em experiências pregressas de eventos estressores que possibilitaram aos participantes aprender e desenvolver sua capacidade de resiliência.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comprender la vivencia del miedo por estudiantes universitarios durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: estudio exploratorio, cualitativo, realizado con 16 estudiantes inscriptos en instituciones de enseñanza superior brasileñas. Los datos fueron recolectados en junio de 2020, a través de un grupo focal realizado virtualmente, utilizando una guion semiestructurado con cuestiones orientadoras. A partir del análisis de contenido, modalidad temática, surgieron las categorías: Miedo a lo desconocido y sus repercusiones en la vida de estudiantes universitários y Vivir de aquí en adelante: desafíos impuestos por la pandemia y semejanzas con experiencias anteriores. Resultados: la pandemia de COVID-19 simbolizaba lo nuevo, evidenciado por el sentimiento de miedo de los participantes frente a lo impredecible, a la soledad, al sufrimiento y a la finitud humana. Los relatos mostraron cambios en el vivir de los estudiantes universitarios. Conclusión: pese su carácter inédito, la vivencia de la pandemia encontró similitudes en experiencias anteriores de eventos estresantes que permitieron a los participantes aprender y desarrollar su capacidad de resiliencia.


ABSTRACT Objective: aprehending the experience of fear by university students during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: an exploratory, qualitative study conducted with 16 students enrolled in Brazilian higher education institutions. Data were collected in June 2020 through a virtually performed focus group using a semi-structured script with north-section questions. From the content analysis, thematic modality, the following categories emerged: Fear of the unknown and its repercussions on the lives of university students and Living going forward: challenges imposed by the pandemic and similarities with previous experiences. Results: the Covid-19 pandemic symbolized the new, evidenced by the participants' feeling of fear in the face of the unpredictable, loneliness, suffering and human finitude. The narratives showed changes in the lives of university students. Conclusion: despite its originality, the experience of the pandemic found similarities in previous experiences of stressful events that allowed participants to learn and develop their resilience.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Fear/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Focus Groups/methods , Education, Distance/methods , Emotions , Psychological Distress , Loneliness/psychology
18.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAE6307, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364798

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic imposed restrictive measures on dentistry in different regions of the world, ranging from stoppage of care to only permission for urgent and emergency dental services. Thus, new biosafety guidelines for resuming activities, whether in single dental offices, large clinics or dental education activities, are urgently required. In this sense, herein, guidelines that incorporate common points of the main protocols found in the literature for the resumption of dental activities at their different levels, whether in the scope of care or education, are presented. Furthermore, we present the incorporation of measures that allow an increase in the level of biosafety, such as the control of the dental team, the inclusion in the history of conjunctivitis as a possible alert for COVID-19, and the use of the pulse oximeter to assess the risk of silent hypoxemia, which may indicate a complication of COVID-19. In addition, new perspectives for directing research and innovation for biosafety in dentistry are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Pandemics/prevention & control
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6175, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364792

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the first COVID-19 pandemic at Casa Ondina Lobo, a philanthropic nursing home in São Paulo city, and the containment measures against the pandemic that proved to be effective. Methods: Several preventive measures were taken before and during the pandemic, with emphasis on universal testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19. All residents and employees were tested twice in a D9 period. Results: Among the 62 residents and 55 employees, in both testing, eight residents and nine employees tested positive for COVID-19. Of 22% of employees and 75% of residents evolved asymptomatic, emphasizing the importance of universal testing for the detection and isolation of these cases. A quarter of residents evolved without any symptoms, however, with COVID-19 signs, reinforcing the importance of monitoring vital signs. The second testing did not detect any new cases among residents, demonstrating the effectiveness of the containment measures, however, it found four new cases among employees. This emphasized their role in COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes. Only one patient died, a 12.5% lethality among those known to be infected and a 1.6% mortality in the total population of residents were seen. Conclusion: The adoption of appropriate containment measures enabled to contain an COVID-19 pandemic in studied nursing home. Universal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing for COVID-19 has proved to be particularly important and effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Nursing Homes
20.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 21: e58841, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1384531

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: realizar a tradução, adaptação cultural e validação da Reason of Using Face Mask Scale entre brasileiros. Métodos: estudo metodológico realizado entre abril e maio de 2020 mediante as seguintes etapas: tradução; síntese das traduções; retrotradução; comitê de juízes; pré-teste e avaliação das propriedades psicométricas. A coleta dos dados foi online a partir de mensagens enviadas por meio de mídias sociais. O questionário foi disponibilizado a partir de um link e os dados armazenados no Google Forms. Utilizou-se a Análise Fatorial Exploratória, testes de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin e de Esfericidade de Bartlett para constatar se a amostra era adequada e passível de fatoração. Resultados: a escala foi traduzida para o português, avaliada por cinco especialistas, pré-testada com 20 adultos e aplicada em 500 pessoas da população brasileira. O índice de validade de conteúdo para a escala como um todo foi de 0,92. Os valores de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (0,639) e teste de esfericidade de Bartlett (p=0,000) indicaram que os itens eram fatoráveis. A variância explicada foi de 62,18%. Na validade de construto por grupos distintos, obteve-se resultado satisfatório (p<0,05). Conclusão: a Versão Brasileira da escalafoi adaptada para a cultura brasileira, sendo válida para avaliar os motivos para o uso de máscaras entre brasileiros.


RESUMEN Objetivo: realizar la traducción, adaptación cultural y validación de la Reason ofUsingFaceMaskScale entre brasileños. Métodos: estudio metodológico realizado entre abril y mayo de 2020 a través de las siguientes etapas: traducción; síntesis de las traducciones; retrotraducción; evaluación por jueces; pretest y evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas. La recolección de datos se realizó online a partir de mensajes enviados a través de redes sociales. La encuesta se hizo disponible a partir de un enlace y los datos almacenados en Google Forms. Se utilizó el Análisis Factorial Exploratorio, pruebas de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin y de Esfericidad de Bartlett para determinar si la muestra era adecuada y susceptible a la factorización. Resultados: la escala fue traducida al portugués, evaluada por cinco especialistas, pre-testada con 20 adultos y aplicada en 500 personas de la población brasileña. El índice de validez del contenido para la escala como un todo fue de 0,92. Los valores de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (0,639) y test de esfericidad de Bartlett (p=0,000) indicaron que los ítems eran susceptibles a la factorización. La varianza explicada fue de 62,18%. En la validez de constructo por grupos distintos se obtuvo resultado satisfactorio (p<0,05). Conclusión: la Versión Brasileña de la escala fue adaptada para la cultura brasileña yes válida para evaluar los motivos para el uso de máscaras entre brasileños.


ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Reason of Using Face Mask Scale among Brazilians. Methods: methodological study conducted between April and May 2020 using the following steps: translation; synthesis of translations; back-translation; committee of judges; pre-test and evaluation of psychometric properties. Data collection took place online from messages sent through social media. The questionnaire was made available from a link and the data stored in Google Forms. Exploratory Factor Analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Sphericity tests were used to check if the sample was adequate and factorable. Results: the scale was translated into Portuguese, evaluated by five experts, pre-tested with 20 adults and applied to 500 people from the Brazilian population. The content validity index for the scale as a whole was 0.92. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (0.639) and Bartlett's Sphericity test (p=0.000) values indicated that the items were factorable. The explained variance was 62.18%. In the construct validity for different groups, a satisfactory result was obtained (p<0.05). Conclusion: the Brazilian Version of the scale was adapted to the Brazilian culture and is valid to evaluate the reasons for the use of masks among Brazilians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Adjustment , Adaptation, Psychological/ethics , Validation Studies as Topic , COVID-19/transmission , Masks/virology , Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data , Translating , Brazil/epidemiology , Cultural Characteristics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Networking , Personal Protective Equipment/virology
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