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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369163

ABSTRACT

Introduction: One of the challenges of maxillofacial surgery is the rehabilitation of patients with severe bone loss, using implant-supported prostheses. This challenge is based on the small remaining bone structure, and on the need to reconstruct the structure for the rehabilitation with autogenous or exogenous grafts. Case report: We report the case of a patient with severe maxillary atrophy, where a skullcap graft was performed associated with implant placement and prosthetic completion 14 months after the start of treatment. Final considerations: We demonstrate clinical safety for the use of extraoral grafts without complications, representing a good alternative treatment for this group of patients.


Introdução: um dos desafios da cirurgia bucomaxilofacial é a reabilitação de pacientes com perda óssea severa, utilizando próteses implantossuportadas. Este desafio baseia-se na pequena estrutura óssea remanescente e na necessidade de reconstrução da estrutura para a reabilitação com enxertos autógenos ou exógenos. Relato de caso: Relatamos o caso de um paciente com atrofia maxilar grave, onde foi realizado enxerto de calota craniana associado à instalação de implante, com finalização protética 14 meses após o início do tratamento. Consideracoes finais: Demonstramos segurança clínica para o uso de enxertos extrabucais sem complicações, representando uma boa alternativa de tratamento para este grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Mandible , Patients , Prostheses and Implants , Atrophy , Skull , Surgery, Oral , Jaw, Edentulous
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369172

ABSTRACT

Introduction: It is reported a case of a 57-year-old woman with multiple psychiatric hospitalizations, during which different diagnostic hypotheses and therapeutic procedures were proposed. Case report: After analyzing the patient's clinical records, the medical team proposed a diagnosis of Schizoaffective Disorder. This disorder presents a high risk of recurrent hospitalizations and high costs associated with therapeutic and follow-up withdrawal, yet there is limited data to assess the post-discharge critical periods. Final considerations: Further research in this area is required to adopt effective therapeutic strategies, reduce the probability of hospital admissions, improve prognosis, and lessen associated financial costs.


Introdução: é relatado o caso de uma mulher de 57 anos com múltiplas hospitalizações psiquiátricas, durante as quais diferentes hipóteses diagnósticas e terapêuticas associadas foram propostas. Relato do caso: Após análise dos registos clínicos, a equipa médica propôs o diagnóstico de Perturbação Esquizoafetiva. Esta Perturbação apresenta um elevado risco de re-internamento, para além do custo associado ao abandono do seguimento clínico e terapêutico. Porém, não existem dados suficientes que avaliem os períodos pós-alta. Consideracoes finais: Portanto, tornam-se necessárias pesquisas mais amplas na área para adotar estratégias terapêuticas eficazes, reduzir a probabilidade de re-internamento, melhorar o prognóstico e minimizar os custos financeiros associados.


Subject(s)
Psychotic Disorders , Patients , Prognosis , Therapeutics , Women
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368288

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Osteogênese Imperfeita (OI) é uma doença genética rara com fragilidade óssea. A classificação inclui muitos tipos. Além do risco de recorrência, o manejo pode variar com o tipo de OI. Relato do caso: Apresentamos um paciente do sexo masculino nascido com 39 semanas, de pais não consanguíneos e saudáveis. A hidrocefalia foi diagnosticada no pré-natal. Com 50 dias de vida, detectamos muitas fraturas e calos ósseos. O teste molecular identificou uma deleção em homozigose do éxon 4 do gene WNT1. Considerações finais: Concluímos que o caso apresentado tinha características clínicas de OI XV, e o teste molecular foi fundamental para o diagnóstico preciso e aconselhamento genético.


Introduction: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disease with bone fragility. The classification includes many types. In addition, the risk of a recurrence, the management can vary with the kind of OI. Case report: We report a male patient born at 39 weeks from non-consanguineous healthy parents. The patient was diagnosed with Hydrocephalus at prenatal. At 50 days of life, we detected many fractures and bone calluses. The molecular test identified a homozygous deletion of exon 4 of the WNT1 gene. Final considerations: We conclude this case had clinical features of OI XV, and the molecular test was fundamental for the precise diagnosis and the genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta , Osteogenesis , Patients , Prenatal Care , Sex , Infant, Premature , Fractures, Bone , Genetic Counseling , Genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Hydrocephalus , Men
4.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. ESSALUD. Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación; 1 ed; May. 2022. 125 p. ilus.(GPC, 51).
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1373372

ABSTRACT

La presente publicación en versión extensa, describe las recomendaciones para el manejo infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntomas, con el fin de contribuir a reducir la mortalidad, mejorar la calidad de vida, y reducir las complicaciones de los pacientes con esta condición, la población a la cual se aplicará la GPC:, o sea los pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntoma. El infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) es una emergencia médica, producto de la oclusión de las arterias coronarias, que conllevan a la isquemia miocárdica transmural, y que de persistir lleva a una lesión miocárdica o necrosis. Se ha reportado una mortalidad de la enfermedad del 23 % antes de llegar al hospital, 13% durante el ingreso hospitalario, y de 10% posterior al alta. Lo cual, inclusive, puede aumentar en ausencia de tratamiento entre un 5 a 10% (2). En el caso de Perú, se ha reportado una por IMCEST de aproximadamente 9%, pero con una incidencia de insuficiencia cardíaca posinfarto fue de 28% y de choque cardiogénico de 12% (3). Esta alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad hace hincapié en la necesidad de garantizar una evaluación y manejo adecuado de la enfermedad. Por ello, el Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) priorizó la realización de la presente guía de práctica clínica (GPC) para establecer lineamientos basados en evidencia para gestionar de la mejor manera los procesos y procedimientos asistenciales de la presente condición


Subject(s)
Patients , Shock, Cardiogenic , Wounds and Injuries , Myocardial Ischemia , Coronary Vessels , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction
5.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. ESSALUD. Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación; 1 ed; May. 2022. 24 p. ilus.(GPC, 51).
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1373371

ABSTRACT

La presente publicación en versión corta, describe las recomendaciones para el manejo infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntomas, con el fin de contribuir a reducir la mortalidad, mejorar la calidad de vida, y reducir las complicaciones de los pacientes con esta condición. El infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) es una emergencia médica, producto de la oclusión de las arterias coronarias, que conllevan a la isquemia miocárdica transmural, y que de persistir lleva a una lesión miocárdica o necrosis (1). Se ha reportado una mortalidad de la enfermedad del 23 % antes de llegar al hospital, 13% durante el ingreso hospitalario, y de 10% posterior al alta. Lo cual, inclusive, puede aumentar en ausencia de tratamiento entre un 5 a 10% (2). En el caso de Perú, se ha reportado una por IMCEST de aproximadamente 9%, pero con una incidencia de insuficiencia cardíaca postinfarto fue de 28% y de choque cardiogénico de 12% (3). Esta alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad hace hincapié en la necesidad de garantizar una evaluación y manejo adecuado de la enfermedad. Por ello, el Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) priorizó la realización de la presente guía de práctica clínica (GPC) para establecer lineamientos basados en evidencia para gestionar de la mejor manera los procesos y procedimientos asistenciales de la presente condición


Subject(s)
Patients , Shock, Cardiogenic , Myocardial Ischemia , Coronary Vessels , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Absenteeism , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Heart Failure
6.
San Salvador; INS; abr. 05, 2022. 30 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1363436

ABSTRACT

La presente guía de práctica clínica es un esfuerzo realizado por profesionales del Sistema Integrado de Salud (SNIS) coordinado por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) ante la amenaza de la COVID-19 considerada una infección potencialmente mortal causada por el virus SARS-Cov2 y que actualmente representa un desafío sanitario mundial. Por tal razón, se ha generado este documento como herramienta de apoyo a los profesionales de la salud en su práctica diaria


This clinical practice guideline is an effort carried out by professionals from the Integrated Health System (SNIS) coordinated by the National Institute of Health (INS) in the face of the threat of COVID-19, considered a life-threatening infection caused by the SARS-Cov2 virus. and that currently represents a global health challenge. For this reason, this document has been generated as a support tool for health professionals in their daily practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Patients , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged , Health Systems
7.
San Salvador; MINSAL; 4 ed; abr.07, 2022. 33 p. ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1368059

ABSTRACT

Los presentes lineamientos técnicos establecen las disposiciones relacionadas con el uso apropiado del equipo de protección personal que debe ser utilizado por el personal del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud, para protegerse y proteger al paciente y familia, el presente documento se constituye en una actualización e incluye consideraciones prácticas basadas en datos científicos concernientes al uso de equipos de protección personal destinados a reducir la propagación del SARS-CoV-2


These technical guidelines establish the provisions related to the appropriate use of personal protection equipment that must be used by the personnel of the National Integrated Health System, to protect themselves and the patient and family, this document is an update and includes practical considerations based on scientific data concerning the use of personal protective equipment intended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Patients , Personal Protection
8.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 95-101, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361190

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad arterial hipertensiva no controlada (EAHNC), se asoció en 2008 con alta mortalidad por enfermedad cardiovascular que genera 9,4 millones de fallecimientos y 7% de la carga de enfermedad expresada en Años de Vida Ajustados por Discapacidad (AVAD). Un 50% de los pacientes no se adhieren al tratamiento EAH y se desconoce sobre las causas en el nivel básico de atención en Colombia. Objetivo: Identificar factores asociados con la adherencia al tratamiento de EAH en una Empresa Social del Estado (E.S.E), pública de un municipio colombiano. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos y controles, 75 casos y 75 controles seleccionados aleatoriamente a partir de una base de pacientes del programa de control de hipertensión arterial. Resultados: La edad mayor a 50 años fue el único factor asociado con falta de adherencia al tratamiento, sujetos entre 50-59 años con un OR=3,18 (Intervalo al 95% de confianza) IC95% 1,01-10,00; y entre 60-69 años OR=3,70 IC95% 1,17-11,60 tienen mayor probabilidad de no adherirse al tratamiento. Conclusiones: Los mayores de 50 a 69 años de edad presentaron la más alta probabilidad de no adherencia al tratamiento de la EAH. Se requieren reforzar medidas de seguimiento para mejorar su adherencia al tratamiento.


Introduction: In 2008, uncontrolled hypertensive arterial disease (UHAD) was associated with a high cardiovascular mortality that caused 9.4 million deaths and 7% of the disease burden expressed as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). The reasons why 50% of the patients treated in primary care facilities in Colombia do not adhere to UHAD treatment are unknown. Objective: To identify factors associated with UHAD treatment adherence in a Public Health Care institution from a Colombian city. Materials and methods: A case-control study with 75 cases and 75 controls randomly selected from a patient database of the arterial hypertension control program. Results: Being older than 50 years was the only factor associated with lack of adherence to treatment. Participants who were 50-59 (OR=3.18; IC95% 1.01-10.00) and 60-69 (OR=3.70; IC95% 1.17-11.60) are less likely to adhere to treatment. Conclusions: Patients who are 50-69 years old had the highest probability of non-adherence to UHAD treatment. Follow-up measures are necessary to improve this figure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , Patients , Public Health , Communicable Diseases , Hypertension
9.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 23-32, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362667

ABSTRACT

O descarte inadequado de medicamentos pode levar a impactos ambientais negativos e deve ser considerado um problema de saúde pública. O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar dados quantitativos e qualitativos relacionados ao perfil dos medicamentos descartados no município de Governador Valadares - MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nas UAPS/ESF que possuíam farmácias, e também na Farmácia Central/Policlínica Municipal. Nesses locais, foi realizada uma análise dos medicamentos descartados no período de julho de 2017 a maio de 2018. Por meio dos dados obtidos nesse período foi possível perceber que as principais classes de medicamentos descartadas foram os inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina, antagonistas da angiotensina II, agentes betabloqueadores, diuréticos, hipoglicemiantes, contraceptivos hormonais e agentes modificadores de lipídeos. Além disso, foi realizada uma ação de educação em saúde e aplicado um questionário semiestruturado aos usuários participantes dos grupos operativos. Dos 34 usuários respondentes do questionário, 23 (69,70%) não tinham acesso a informação sobre o local correto de descarte e armazenamento de medicamentos. Após a ação de educação em saúde verificou-se um aumento no quantitativo de medicamentos descartados pelos usuários nas UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I e II, Altinópolis III e IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I e II e Esperança e Nossa Senhora das Graças. O trabalho desenvolvido permitiu apresentar dados relevantes para a gestão municipal demonstrando a importância do farmacêutico no cuidado em saúde e o caráter epidemiológico local da prevalência das doenças crônico não transmissíveis.


The inadequate disposal of drugs can lead to negative environmental impacts and should be treated as a public health problem. This study aimed at surveying quantitative and qualitative data related to the profile of drugs discarded in the city of Governador Valadares - MG. The work was developed in the UAPS / ESF that had pharmacies, and also in the Central Pharmacy/Municipal Polyclinic. In these locations, an analysis of the drugs discarded between July 2017 and May 2018 was carried out. Through the data obtained in this period, it was possible to notice that the main classes of drugs discarded were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, beta-blocking agents, diuretics, hypoglycemic agents, hormonal contraceptives, and lipid-modifying agents. In addition, a health education action was carried out and a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to users participating in the operating groups. From the 34 users who responded the questionnaire, 23 (69.70%) did not have access to information on the correct place to dispose and store medicines. After the health education action, there was an increase in the amount of drugs discarded by users in the UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I and II, Altinópolis III and IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I and II, and Esperança and Nossa Senhora das Graças. The work carried out made it possible to present relevant data for municipal management, demonstrating the importance of the pharmacist in health care and the local epidemiological character of the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacies/supply & distribution , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Patients , Pharmacists/supply & distribution , Tablets/supply & distribution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/supply & distribution , Health Centers , Public Health/education , Health Education , Municipal Management/legislation & jurisprudence , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Drug Storage , Environment , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/supply & distribution , Lipids/supply & distribution
10.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 619-623, fev 11, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359379

ABSTRACT

Introduction: intestinal parasitic infections are common major problem closely related to poverty, inadequate sanitation, insufficient health care and overcrowding. They cause significant morbidity among institutionalized patients, however, there are few studies that analyze the frequency of intestinal parasites in disabled patients that are not institutionalized. Objective: the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in disabled patients and their guardians. Methodology: a total of 336 fecal samples were collected from 53 disabled patients and history of diarrhea during the study period and 31 guardians, parents and professional staff of Institution. Parasite research was carried out using zinc sulphate centrifugal-flotation technique, Lutz/Hoffman Pons and Janer method, Rugai method and Gram-Chromotrope, Leishman, Kinyoun, Kato-Katz and Trichrome stains were used. Results: we found 15.5% of positive sample for enteroparasites in all analyzed individuals (13/84), with 11.3% (6/53) of prevalence in disabled patients and 22.5% (7/31) for guardians, with significant difference. There was no difference between gender, but there was a higher number of positives in patients between 6 and 11 years of age. Monoparasitism and the presence of protozoa, especially Blastocystis hominis, were the most prevalent conditions. Conclusions: despite the aforementioned intrinsic susceptibility of patients with special needs, the prevalence of intestinal parasites was low. In guardians, the prevalence was higher, suggesting extreme attention to the care process, which may have prevented the transmission to their disabled patients contact.


Introdução: as infecções parasitárias intestinais são um problema comum, intimamente relacionado à pobreza, saneamento inadequado, assistência médica insuficiente e superpopulação. Essas infecções causam morbidade significativa em pacientes institucionalizados, no entanto, existem poucos estudos que analisam a frequência de parasitas intestinais em pacientes com necessidades especiais não institucionalizados. Objetivo: o presente estudo teve como propósito determinar a prevalência de infecção parasitária intestinal em pacientes com necessidades especiais e seus responsáveis/tutores. Metodologia: foram coletadas 336 amostras fecais de 53 pacientes com necessidades especiais e histórico de diarréia durante o período do estudo e 31 responsáveis/ tutores, pais e equipe profissional relacionada. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco, método Lutz/Hoffman Pons e Janer, método Rugai e Gram-Cromotrópico, Leishman, Kinyoun, Kato-Katz e Tricrômica foram utilizadas para a pesquisa de helmintos e protozoários. Resultados: foi encontrado 15,5% (13/84) de prevalência de enteroparasitos em todos os indivíduos analisados, sendo 11,3% (6/53) de prevalência em pacientes com necessidades especiais e 22,5% (7/31) de responsáveis/tutores, com diferença significativa. Não houve diferença entre os sexos, mas encontrou-se maior número de positivos em pacientes com 6 a 11 anos de idade. O monoparasitismo e a presença de protozoários, especialmente Blastocystis hominis, foram as condições mais prevalentes. Conclusões: apesar da suscetibilidade intrínseca dos pacientes com necessidades especiais, a prevalência de parasitas intestinais foi baixa. Nos responsáveis, a prevalência foi maior, sugerindo extrema atenção ao processo de cuidar, o que pode ter evitado a transmissão para os seus pacientes com necessidades especiais contactantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Parasitic Diseases , Patients , Protozoan Infections , Mentors , Helminths
11.
Aquichan ; 22(1): e2216, ene. 26, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1353836

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Surviving Intensive Care Unit (ICU) brings positive and negative feelings, depending on each person's experience. Likewise, some patients may present with negative mental and physical consequences after discharge, causing a very complex stay at home. Aim: To understand the experience of critical illness survivors after three months of ICU discharge. Methods: Hermeneutical phenomenological study using in-depth interviews with 15 adult participants after three months of ICU discharge. Data analysis was made considering Cohen, Kahn, and Steeves' procedures. Results: Phenomenological analysis revealed three existential themes: Changes in memory and mood, Changes in day-to-day life, and My body after ICU. Conclusion: Surviving ICU brings with it positive aspects such as winning a battle against death. However, psychological, emotional, and physical consequences after discharge turn it into an exhausting experience.


Introducción: sobrevivir a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) trae sentimientos positivos y negativos, dependiendo de la experiencia de cada persona. Asimismo, algunos pacientes pueden presentar consecuencias físicas y mentales negativas tras el alta, lo que ocasiona una estadía en casa muy compleja. Objetivo: comprender la experiencia de los sobrevivientes de enfermedades críticas después de tres meses del alta de la UCI. Métodos: estudio fenomenológico hermenéutico mediante entrevistas a profundidad a 15 participantes adultos después de tres meses del alta de la UCI. El análisis de datos se realizó con base en los procedimientos de Cohen, Kahn y Steeves. Resultados: el análisis fenomenológico reveló tres temas existenciales: Cambios en la memoria y el estado de ánimo, Cambios en la vida cotidiana y Mi cuerpo después de la UCI. Conclusión: sobrevivir en la UCI trae consigo aspectos positivos como ganarle una batalla a la muerte; sin embargo, las consecuencias psicológicas, emocionales y físicas tras el alta convierten todo esto en una experiencia agotadora.


Introdução: sobreviver à Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo (UTI) traz sentimentos positivos e negativos, dependendo da experiência de cada um. Além disso, alguns pacientes podem apresentar consequências físicas e mentais negativas após a alta, o que ocasiona um período complexo de repouso domiciliar. Objetivo: compreender a experiência dos sobreviventes de doenças críticas depois de três meses da alta da UTI. Materiais e métodos: estudo fenomenológico hermenêutico mediante entrevistas a profundidade com 15 participantes adultos depois de três meses de receberem alta da UTI. A análise de dados foi realizada com base nos procedimentos de Cohen, Kahn e Steeves. Resultados: a análise fenomenológica revelou três temas existenciais: "mudanças na memória e no humor", "mudanças na vida cotidiana" e "meu corpo depois da UTI". Conclusões: sobreviver à UTI traz consigo aspectos positivos como o sentimento de ter ganhado uma batalha contra a morte; contudo, as consequências psicológicas, emocionais e físicas após receber a alta tornam tudo isso uma experiência exaustiva.


Subject(s)
Patients , Critical Illness , Survivors , Critical Care , Qualitative Research
12.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 71-80, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353012

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública. Al respecto, se realizó un estudio no experimental de corte transversal, con el objetivo de caracterizar clínica y epidemiológica-mente el estado de la TB resistente a medicamentos de primera línea en la ciudad de Durán, desde enero 2015 hasta diciembre 2019. Los datos incluidos en los documentos de la matriz del programa de tuberculosis resistente. De 1111 casos nuevos de tuberculosis reportados en el cantón Durán durante el período estudiado, 45 de estos presentaron resistencia a medicamentos de primera línea. El 88,89% tuvo resistencia a rifampicina, el 33,33% de los pacientes se dispen-sarizaron en 2019. Los valores de chi cuadrado de Pearson no mostraron asociación estadística-mente significativa entre las variables investigadas (p>0,05). Entre los involucrados predominó el grupo de edades de 20 a 39 años, el sexo masculino, la tuberculosis pulmonar, infectados con VIH/sida, resistencia clasificada como primaria, los que abandonaron el seguimiento al trata-miento y la no manifestación de reacciones adversas a los medicamentos. No se observó mortali-dad entre los casos nuevos, predominando entre aquellos con recaída, el género masculino y los que tuvieron tuberculosis extrapulmonar.


Tuberculosis is a disease that continues to be a public health problem. In this regard, a non-expe-rimental cross-sectional study was carried out to characterize clinically and epidemiologically the status of TB resistant to first-line drugs in the city of Durán, from January 2015 to December 2019. The data included in the resistant tuberculosis program matrix documents. 1111 new cases of tuberculosis were reported in the Duran canton during the study period, 45 of these ones presented resistance to first-line drugs. 88.89% had rifampicin resistance, 33.33% of the patients were dispensed in 2019. Pearson's chi-square values did not show a statistically significant asso-ciation between the investigated variables (p> 0.05). Among the study population, it was predo-minated the age group between 20 and 39, male sex, pulmonary tuberculosis, infected with HIV / AIDS, resistance classified as primary, those who abandoned the follow-up to treatment and the non-manifestation of adverse drug reactions. No mortality was observed among new cases, predominantly among those ones with relapse, the male gender and those ones who had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients , Tuberculosis , Drug Resistance , Therapeutics , Epidemiologic Factors , HIV
13.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 112-121, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353016

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 43 años, que ingresa con cuadro clínico caracterizado por dolor precordial de tipo opresivo con irradiación a cuello y mandíbula, cuya intensidad era de 8/10 atendiendo a la escala del dolor visual análoga (EVA). Además, manifestó diaforesis, disnea de pequeños esfuerzos, hiposmia y ageusia. El diagnóstico establecido fue de infección por coronavirus más infarto del miocardio. Las condiciones extraordinarias generadas por la pandemia de Covid-19 provocó que se decidiera una intervención mediante tratamiento fibrinolítico, obteniendo resultados positivos


The case of a 43-year-old male patient is presented, who is admitted with a clinical picture characterized by Chest pain of an oppressive type with irradiation to the neck and jaw, whose intensity was 8/10 according to the analogous visual pain scale (VAS). In addition, he manifes-ted diaphoresis, dyspnea on small efforts, hyposmia and ageusia. The determined diagnosis was coronavirus infection plus myocardial infarction. The extraordinary conditions generated by the Covid-19 pandemic led to an intervention by fibrinolytic treatment being decided, obtaining positive results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Diagnosis , COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Patients , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Coronavirus Infections
14.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 12-16, ene. 28, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354268

ABSTRACT

El neuroblastoma olfativo, también conocido como estesioneuroblastoma, es un tumor derivado de la capa basal del epitelio olfativo. Se presenta como una masa de tejido blando en la porción superior de la cavidad nasal que involucra las células de aire etmoides anteriores y medias en un lado y se extiende a través de la placa cribiforme en la fosa craneal anterior, es poco frecuente y representa menos del 3 % de las neoplasias intranasales. De acuerdo con la evolución epidemiológica, su distribución por edades es bimodal con un pico en pacientes adultos en la segunda década de la vida y otro en los quinta y sexta, sin existir predilección por género reconocida


Olfactory neuroblastoma, also known as esthesioneuroblastoma, is a tumor derived from the basal layer of the olfactory epithelium. It presents as a soft tissue mass in the upper portion of the nasal cavity that involves the anterior and middle ethmoid air cells on one side and extends through the cribriform plate in the anterior cranial fossa, it is rare and represents less 3% of intranasal neoplasms. According to the epidemiological evolution, its age distribution is bimodal with a peak in adult patients in the second decade of life and another in the fifth and sixth, with no recognized gender predilection


Subject(s)
Olfactory Mucosa , Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory , Epithelium , Nasal Cavity , Patients , Air , Neoplasms
15.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 64-73, ene. 28, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354468

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos hipertensivos asociados al embarazo constituyen uno de los síndromes de mayor interés a escala mundial, cerca de 600 000 mujeres mueren anualmente por causas relacionadas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud considera que la incidencia de preeclampsia es siete veces mayor en los países en vías de desarrollo en comparación a los industrializados (2,8 % y 0,4 %, respectivamente). El estrés oxidativo es una de las principales causas asociadas a la preeclampsia, cuyo diagnóstico y manejo adecuado y oportuno son medidas eficaces para disminuir la tasa de morbimortalidad, por lo que diversos autores se han centrado en la búsqueda de biomarcadores predictores de estrés oxidativo entre los cuales encontramos: especies reactivas del ácido tiobarbitúrico, superóxido, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa. El presente trabajo describe los principales biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo estudiados mediante la técnica espectrofotométrica debido a que es económica, rápida y precisa


Hypertensive disorders associated with pregnancy are one of the syndromes of greatest interest worldwide, nearly 600,000 women die annually from related causes. The World Health Organization considers that the incidence of preeclampsia is seven times higher in developing countries compared to industrialized ones (2.8% and 0.4%, respectively). Oxidative stress is one of the main causes associated with preeclampsia, whose proper and timely diagnosis and management are effective measures to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate, which is why various authors have focused on the search for predictive biomarkers of oxidative stress among which we find: reactive species of thiobarbituric acid, superoxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The present work describes the main biomarkers of oxidative stress studied by means of the spectrophotometric technique because it is cheap, fast and precise


Subject(s)
Patients , Pre-Eclampsia , Spectrophotometry , Women , Oxidative Stress , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Morbidity , Methods
16.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 74-80, ene. 28, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354469

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva es parte importante de la morbimortalidad mundial. Estos pacientes pierden calidad de vida de manera considerable, particularmente por su trayecto impredecible. Los cuidados paliativos representan una oportunidad para mejorar el control sintomático y prevenir reingresos hospitalarios, especialmente en las fases avanzadas de la enfermedad (New York Heart Association III-IV). El objetivo de esta revisión es determinar la influencia de los cuidados paliativos en la calidad de vida de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca en enfermedad avanzada, puesto que se ha demostrado que sufren múltiples hospitalizaciones: 84% tendrá ≥1 en sus últimos 12 meses de vida, y el reingreso hospitalario a los 30 días posteriores al alta circunda 20-50 %. En general, reciben menos cuidados paliativos que los pacientes oncológicos, y al recibirlos lo hacen presentando una menor funcionalidad (p<0,001). Al implementar los cuidados paliativos aumenta la calidad de vida (p=0,03) y mejoran la depresión (p=0,02), la ansiedad (p=0,048) y la frecuencia de reingresos hospitalarios en comparación con el manejo usual, 33,63 % vs. 61 %, y visitas a emergencias, 35,0 % vs. 60,0 %. Múltiples evidencias señalan que la mortalidad no es influenciada (p>0,19, p>0,22). Según la bibliografía, se concluye que los cuidados paliativos deben ser implementados desde el diagnóstico de esta patología, puesto que ofrecen una mayor calidad de vida, especialmente en enfermedad avanzada


Congestive heart failure is an important part of global morbidity and mortality. These patients lose quality of life considerably, particularly due to their unpredictable path. Palliative care represents an opportunity to improve symptom control and prevent hospital readmissions, especially in the advanced stages of the disease (New York Heart Association III-IV). The objective of this review is to determine the influence of palliative care on the quality of life of patients with heart failure in advanced disease, since it has been shown that they suffer multiple hospitalizations: 84% will have ≥1 in their last 12 months of life, and hospital readmission 30 days after discharge is around 20-50%. In general, they receive less palliative care than cancer patients, and when they receive it they do so with less functionality (p<0.001). When implementing palliative care, quality of life increases (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.02), anxiety (p=0.048) and the frequency of hospital readmissions improve compared to usual management, 33 .63%vs. 61%, and ER visits, 35.0% vs. 60.0%. Multiple pieces of evidence indicate that mortality is not influenced (p>0.19, p>0.22). According to the bibliography, it is concluded that palliative care should be implemented from the diagnosis of this pathology, since it offers a better quality of life, especially in advanced disease


Subject(s)
Palliative Care , Quality of Life , Heart Failure , Patient Readmission , Patients , Disease , Heart
17.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 177-184, jan./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354485

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: explorar a percepção de um paciente cirúrgico queimado em relação à sede e seu manejo no período pré-operatório e pós-operatório imediato. Relato de caso: trata-se de um estudo com abordagem qualitativa, exploratória, do tipo estudo de caso. Os critérios de inclusão foram: paciente estar internado no centro de tratamento de queimados, ser submetido a procedimento cirúrgico ou balneoterapia, ter experenciado a sede no período pré-operatório ou pós-operatório e ter recebido o manejo da sede. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se entrevista semiestruturada, gravada e transcrita. Paciente do sexo feminino, de 32 anos, admitida com queimaduras de segundo grau em extensão de tórax, membros superiores e pescoço por tentativa de autoextermínio com álcool. Passou por seis procedimentos e esteve internada por 15 dias até o momento da coleta. Experienciou o desconforto sede durante o jejum pré-operatório e pós-operatório, considerado intenso e muito estressante durante sua internação. Conclusão: a partir da identificação do desconforto sede, utilizou-se como estratégia o picolé de gelo, que fez diferença em seu tratamento. O modelo de manejo da sede é pioneiro no cuidado ao paciente queimado e apresenta benefícios para minorar a sede.


Objective: explore thirst perception of a burnt surgical patient and its management in the preoperative and immediate postoperative period. Case report: study with a qualitative and exploratory approach, named as case study. Inclusion criteria were: inpatient at burnt treatment unit, undergone surgical procedure or balneotherapy, experienced thirst in the preoperative or postoperative period and received thirst management. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were performed, recorded and transcribed. Female patient, 32 years old, admitted with second degree burns in extension of thorax, upper limbs and neck due to attempted self-extermination with alcohol. Underwent six procedures and was hospitalized for 15 days until the data collection. Experienced thirst discomfort during preoperative and postoperative fasting, which was considered intense and very stressful during his hospitalization. Conclusion: since the identification of thirst discomfort, the ice popsicle was used as a strategy, which made difference in her treatment. The thirst management model is pioneer in care of burnt patients and has benefits to alleviate thirst.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Patients , Thirst , Balneology , Burns , Ice , Postoperative Period , Therapeutics , Data Collection , Fasting , Preoperative Period , Hospitalization , Inpatients , Neck
18.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e235684, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1360641

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estima-se que um a cada cinco estudantes universitários ao redor do mundo apresenta algum tipo de transtorno psicológico, dentre os quais os transtornos de ansiedade são os mais prevalentes. Este estudo consiste em um ensaio clínico randomizado com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia e efetividade de um protocolo semiestruturado de psicoterapia em grupo baseado nos princípios da Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso (ACT) para o tratamento de ansiedade entre estudantes universitários. Os participantes foram alocados aleatoriamente entre os grupos intervenção e controle. Os níveis de ansiedade pré e pós-intervenção foram avaliados por meio do instrumento General Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7). A amostra final do estudo foi composta por 15 pessoas, dentre as quais 10 foram alocadas no grupo intervenção e 5, no grupo controle. Os resultados foram analisados de duas formas: a) por protocolo (Per-protocol analysis); e b) por intenção de tratar (Intention-to-treat Analysis). Este tratamento reduziu a sintomatologia ansiosa em 39,7% entre os pacientes que completaram o tratamento (por protocolo, p=0,030) e em 30,8% entre todos alocados para o grupo intervenção (i.e., por intenção de tratar, incluindo os dropouts, p=0,035), enquanto os controles não tiveram redução significativa no mesmo período. Portanto, recomenda-se a utilização deste protocolo dentro do contexto universitário como uma alternativa viável ao acompanhamento individual em situações de transtornos de ansiedade. Pesquisas futuras com amostras maiores podem contribuir na consolidação deste protocolo.


Abstract One in every five university students around the world is estimated to have some type of psychological disorder, considering anxiety disorders as the most prevalent. This study consists in a randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate efficacy and effectiveness of a semi-structured group psychotherapy protocol based on the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for the treatment of anxiety among university students. Participants were randomly allocated in the intervention and control groups. Pre- and post-intervention anxiety levels were measured using the General Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire. The study sample was composed of 15 people, 10 of whom were allocated to the intervention group and 5 to the control group. Results were analyzed in two ways: 1) Per protocol analysis; and 2) Intention-to-treat analysis. This treatment reduced anxiety symptoms by 39.7% among patients who completed treatment (Per protocol, p=0.003) and by 30.8% among all those allocated to the intervention group (i.e., by Intention-to-treat, including dropouts, p=0.035), whereas controls showed no significant reduction in same period. Therefore, we recommend the use of this protocol within the university context as a viable alternative to individual counselling in situations of anxiety disorders. Future research with larger samples may contribute to consolidate this protocol.


Resumen Se estima que uno de cada cinco estudiantes universitarios en todo el mundo tiene algún tipo de trastorno psicológico, entre los cuales los trastornos de ansiedad son los más frecuentes. Este estudio consiste en un ensayo clínico aleatorizado cuyo objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia y efectividad de un protocolo de psicoterapia grupal semiestructurada basado en los principios de la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT) para el tratamiento de la ansiedad en estudiantes universitarios. Se asignaron aleatoriamente a los participantes en los grupos de intervención y control. Los niveles de ansiedad antes y después de la intervención se midieron utilizando el instrumento General Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7). La muestra final del estudio estuvo compuesta por 15 personas, de las cuales 10 fueron asignadas al grupo de intervención y 5 al grupo de control. Los resultados se analizaron de dos maneras: 1) por protocolo (Per protocol analysis); y 2) por intención de tratar (Intention-to-treat Analysis). Con este tratamiento los síntomas de ansiedad se redujeron en un 39,7% entre los pacientes que completaron el tratamiento (por protocolo, p=0,030) y en un 30,8% entre todos los asignados al grupo de intervención (es decir, por intención de tratar, incluidos los dropouts, p=0,035), mientras que los controles no tuvieron una reducción significativa en el mismo periodo. Por lo tanto, se recomienda utilizar este protocolo dentro del contexto universitario como una alternativa viable a lo asesoramiento individual en situaciones de trastornos de ansiedad. La investigación futura con muestras más grandes puede contribuir a la consolidación de esta modalidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anxiety Disorders , Psychotherapy, Group , Students , Randomized Controlled Trial , Acceptance and Commitment Therapy , Anxiety , Patients , Psychotherapy , Psychotherapy, Group , Therapeutics , Universities , Patient Health Questionnaire , Persons
19.
repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 71-78, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367056

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los servicios de salud en zonas rurales dispersas se han focalizado en la atención primaria. Para lograr integralidad es necesario brindar accesibilidad a los servicios de tercer nivel, lo que representa un reto para los sistemas de salud por los costos y la disponibilidad de profesionales. Varios países desplazan especialistas y equipos a las zonas rurales; en Colombia son los pacientes quienes se trasladan a los centros especializados y las aseguradoras en salud administran dineros provenientes del estado para cubrir los costos. Para ello se requiere el apoyo de albergues temporales que brinden alojamiento y alimentación a pacientes y familiares de bajos recursos. Métodos: estudio cualitativo de caso con enfoque fenomenológico para conocer la experiencia de los usuarios de dos albergues que atienden pacientes y acompañantes provenientes de una zona distante 700 km de Bogotá. Resultados: los servicios de los albergues son bien percibidos por los usuarios, aunque sedestacan aspectos locativos por mejorar. El servicio se focaliza en hospedaje, transporte y alimentación quedando un vacío en otras necesidades como ocupación del tiempo libre, apoyo emocional y social. La demora en la atención en salud es la principal causa de inconformidad pues afecta la cotidianidad de las familias por el desplazamiento y la incomunicación. Conclusiones: la atención especializada trasladando pacientes de las zonas dispersas a los centros urbanos representa una experiencia innovadora que debe ser evaluada desde el punto de vista económico y emocional para analizar su relación costo beneficio y su sostenibilidad.


Introduction: health services in disperse rural areas have focused on primary care. In order to achieve comprehensive services, access to tertiary health care services needs to be provided. This represents a challenge for health systems in terms of costs and availability of healthcare professionals. In several countries, specialists and equipment are moved to rural areas; while in Colombia it is the patient who travels to the specialized centers. Health insurers administer money from the state to cover the expenses. This requires temporary shelters providing accommodation and food to low-income patients and their families. Methods: a phenomenological qualitative case study approach to learn about users experiences in two lodges serving patients and their companions who come from an area 700 km away from Bogota. Results: shelters ́ services are well qualified by users, although facilities need to be improved in some aspects. Services are centered on accommodation, transportation and food leaving a gap in other needs such as free time and leisure activities and emotional and social support. Delay in health care provision is the main cause of dissatisfaction for it affects family everyday life due to displacement and lack of communication. Conclusions: specialized assistance by transferring patients from dispersed areas to urban centers represents an innovative experience which should be evaluated from the economic and emotional perspective to enable a cost-benefit and sustainability analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Comprehensive Health Care , Patient Care , Health Services Accessibility , Patients , Rural Health Services , Medical Chaperones
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18893, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364414

ABSTRACT

Abstract On the increasing prevalence of using mAbs (monoclonal antibodies) in cancer therapy and the severe risk of hyperglycemia, we aimed to analyze the main clinical ADRs of mAbs, with a focus on adverse hyperglycemic events associated with currently clinically used mAbs. mAbs as well as target information were selected from Martinadale book and published articles. Drug approving information was collected from each government website, and ADR statistic data were collected from VigibaseR, comparing with Adverse Event Reporting System of US FDA. Top 10 mAbs were classified within listing in total ADR records, ADRs per year, hyperglycemic ADR records. Vigibase data were updated onto 15 Feb 2019. 20 mAbs were analyzed with 263217 ADR reports, wherein 16751 records on Metabolism and nutrition disorders and 1444 records on Glucose metabolism disorders. The geographic, age, gender distributions and annual ADR report numbers were listed respectively. Of the top 10, Rituximab, Bevacizumab and Nivolumab were on the top 3 in total ADR record and hyperglycemic record. Top 3 record results were similar in Vigibase and FDA database. It is of increasing importance for clinicians to be aware of early detection, patient management, or drug selection strategies when using mAbs, particularly within the high glycemic risk-reported mAbs, to improve the efficacy and tolerability of mAbs regiment and optimize patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/pathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Research Report , Rituximab , Glucose/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia , Antibodies, Monoclonal/classification , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Computer Communication Networks/instrumentation , Efficacy/statistics & numerical data , Health Strategies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Neoplasms
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