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1.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 17-24, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352899

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La actividad física insuficiente es uno de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel global. Los patrones de conducta en los adolescentes, y el estilo de vida, podrían afectar su salud física y mental. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer los patrones de actividad física y los comportamientos sedentarios en la población de adolescentes a nivel nacional. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo de corte transverso, se aplicó el cuestionario de la Encuesta Global de Salud Escolar en adolescentes escolares del octavo y noveno grados del 3° ciclo de la Educación Escolar Básica y al 1°, 2° y 3° cursos de la Educación Media de 49 escuelas y colegios del país. En este estudio fueron incluidos 1.803 estudiantes de edades comprendidas entre 13 a 15 años. Resultados: El 27% de los adolescentes de 13 a 15 años de Paraguay son activos, siendo significativamente mayor en hombres que en mujeres (p-valor 0,000) y el 22% son inactivos con mayor frecuencia en mujeres que en hombres (p-valor 0,000). Se observo que el 33,5% de los adolescentes tenían comportamiento sedentario, el 43,4% de los adolescentes no utilizo el desplazamiento activo para asistir a la escuela. Los adolescentes que no participaron de las clases de educación física en la escuela representaron el15,6%. Conclusión: Si bien en un 27% los adolescentes de 13 a 15 años son activos, es preocupante el gran porcentaje de adolescentes inactivos y con comportamiento sedentario.


Introduction: Insufficient physical activity is one of the main public health problems globally. Teen behavior patterns and lifestyle may affect their physical and mental health. Objectives: The objective of this study was to know the patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the adolescent population nationwide. Materials and methods: A quantitative, observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, the questionnaire of the Global School Health Survey was applied in school adolescents of the eighth and ninth grades of the 3rd cycle of Basic School Education and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of Secondary Education in 49 schools and colleges in the country. 1,803 students aged 13 to 15 years were included in this study. Results: 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 in Paraguay are active, being significantly higher in men than in women (p-value 0.000) and 22% are inactive more frequently in women than in men (p-value 0.000). It was observed that 33.5% of the adolescents had sedentary behavior, 43.4% of the adolescents did not use active displacement to attend school. Adolescents who did not participate in physical education classes at school accounted for 15.6%. Conclusion: Although 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 are active, the large percentage of inactive adolescents with sedentary behavior is worrying.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Sedentary Behavior , Pattern Recognition, Automated/classification , Exercise/physiology , Adolescent/physiology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1258-1265, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134434

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this exploratory design science research (DSR) study was to design a computer-based teaching simulation tool (CBTST) for training medical imaging (MI) students in chest pattern recognition. A DSR methodology used in the design of the CBTST entailed the following phases: 1) awareness of the problem (proposal design); 2) suggestion; 3) development; 4) evaluation; and 5) conclusion. The CBTST was designed using Microsoft Visual Studio which operates on the Structured Query Language server. The designed CBTST was evaluated using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and MI educators. The designed CBTST evaluation yielded an average score of 70.1 which exceeded the score of 68 which is generally accepted to indicate that the CBTST has good usability. The CBTST proved to be an authentic tool that is user-friendly and allows communication and feedback between the educator and the students. It is envisaged that the implementation of this tool will enhance the future training of MI students in pattern recognition while contributing immensely to the current development of the use of computer-based simulation.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio de investigación en ciencias de diseño (DSR) fue desarrollar una herramienta de simulación de enseñanza basada en computadora (CBTST) para capacitar a los estudiantes en el reconocimiento de patrones de tórax a través de la imagenología médica. Una metodología DSR utilizada en el diseño del CBTST implicaba las siguientes fases: 1) conciencia del problema (diseño de la propuesta); 2) sugerencia; 3) desarrollo; 4) evaluación; y 5) conclusión. El CBTST se diseñó con Microsoft Visual Studio, que opera en el servidor de Structured Query Language. El CBTST diseñado se evaluó utilizando la escala de usabilidad del sistema (SUS) y educadores de IM. La evaluación CBTST diseñada arrojó un puntaje promedio de 70,1 que excedió el puntaje de 68 que generalmente se acepta para indicar que el CBTST tiene buena usabilidad. El CBTST demostró ser una herramienta auténtica, fácil de usar y que permite la comunicación y la retroalimentación entre el educador y los estudiantes. Se prevé que la implementación de esta herramienta mejorará la formación futura de los estudiantes de IM en el reconocimiento de patrones y contribuirá de manera importante al desarrollo actual del uso de la simulación basada en computadora.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Computer Simulation , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Aptitude , Software , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Educational Measurement , Simulation Training/methods , Anatomy/education
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774132

ABSTRACT

Brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a direct communicating and controlling approach between the brain and surrounding environment, which attracts a wide range of interest in the fields of brain science and artificial intelligence. It is a core to decode the electroencephalogram (EEG) feature in the BCI system. The decoding efficiency highly depends on the feature extraction and feature classification algorithms. In this paper, we first introduce the commonly-used EEG features in the BCI system. Then we introduce the basic classical algorithms and their advanced versions used in the BCI system. Finally, we present some new BCI algorithms proposed in recent years. We hope this paper can spark fresh thinking for the research and development of high-performance BCI system.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Brain , Physiology , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Electroencephalography , Humans , Pattern Recognition, Automated
4.
E-Cienc. inf ; 8(1): 7-31, ene.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1089835

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presentan los resultados de una investigación, cuyo objetivo es identificar patrones de conocimiento significativo en el contenido de la documentación presentada para la evaluación del Ambiente Organizacional de 13 empresas mexicanas, que integran el ranking de Súper Empresas ® elaborado por la Consultora Top Companies ® . Por medio del procesamiento cuantitativo de seis variables, seis indicadores y el Análisis de Redes Sociales, se visualizan mapas de relaciones entre las empresas y los atributos de las variables seleccionadas. Con el uso de la fuente y la metodología empleadas se revelan patrones de comportamiento informativo presentes en la documentación objeto de estudio que aportan nuevo conocimiento para la toma de decisiones sobre la evaluación y la elaboración de los rankings empresariales que generan las consultoras especializadas sobre la referida temática.


Abstract This paper reports the results of research aimed at identifying patterns of significant knowledge contained in the documentation of thirteen Mexican companies submitted for the purpose of the Organizational Environment evaluation of "Super Companies", a ranking issued exclusively by the consulting firm Top Companies®. Maps of company relationships and the attributes of the selected variables are developed on the basis of the quantitative processing of six variables and indicators, and an analysis of social networks. The sources and the methodology employed reveal patterns of informational behavior in the specialized documentation that can serve to support decision making with regard to the evaluation and preparation of the rankings issued by the specialized consultants.


Subject(s)
Pattern Recognition, Automated , Organizations/trends , Capacity Building , Information Management/statistics & numerical data , Internet Access , Social Network Analysis , Data Analysis , Mexico
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Clinical discharge summaries provide valuable information about patients' clinical history, which is helpful for the realization of intelligent healthcare applications. The documents tend to take the form of separate segments based on temporal or topical information. If a patient's clinical history can be seen as a consecutive sequence of clinical events, then each temporal segment can be seen as a snapshot, providing a certain clinical context at a specific moment. This study aimed to demonstrate a temporal segmentation method of Korean clinical narratives for identifying textual snapshots of patient history as a proof-of-a-concept. METHODS: Our method uses pattern-based segmentation to approximate human recognition of the temporal or topical shifts in clinical documents. We utilized rheumatic patients' discharge summaries and transformed them into sequences of constituent chunks. We built 97 single pattern functions to denote whether a certain chunk has attributes that indicate that it can be a segment boundary. We manually defined the relationships between the pattern functions to resolve multiple pattern matchings and to make a final decision. RESULTS: The algorithm segmented 30 discharge summaries and processed 1,849 decision points. Three human judges were asked whether they agreed with the algorithm's prediction, and the agreement percentage on the judges' majority opinion was 89.61%. CONCLUSIONS: Although this method is based on manually constructed rules, our findings demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve fairly good segmentation results, and it may be the basis for methodological improvement in the future.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Methods , Natural Language Processing , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Rheumatic Diseases
6.
Univ. salud ; 19(3): 388-399, sep.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-904676

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) desde el año 1993 y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en 1996, aceptaron que la violencia es un problema de salud pública, situación que se corrobora en el Informe de Violencia y Salud, en el cual América Latina presentó una tasa de homicidios de 18 por cada 100.000 personas, y es considerada como una de las regiones más violentas del mundo. Objetivo: Detectar patrones delictivos con técnicas de minería de datos en el Observatorio del Delito del municipio de Pasto (Colombia). Materiales y métodos: Se aplicó Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM), una de las metodologías utilizadas en el desarrollo de proyectos de minería de datos en los ambientes académico e industrial. La fuente de información fue el Observatorio del Delito del municipio de Pasto, donde está almacenadas las cifras históricas, limpias y transformadas sobre las lesiones de causa externa (fatales y no fatales), registrados en 11 años. Resultados: Se construyó un modelo de clasificación basado en árboles de decisión que permitió descubrir patrones de muertes por causa externa. Para el caso de homicidios, estos sucedieron en su mayoría en la Comuna 5 de Pasto, los fines de semana, en la madrugada, en el segundo semestre del año, en la vía pública y las víctimas fueron hombres adultos, de oficios varios, la causa de los homicidios fueron riñas y se produjeron con arma de fuego. Conclusión: El conocimiento generado ayudará a los organismos gubernamentales y de seguridad a tomar decisiones eficaces en lo relacionado a la implementación de planes de prevención de delitos y seguridad ciudadana.


Abstract Introduction: The Pan American Health Organization (PHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) accepted, since the year 1993 and 1996 respectively, that violence is a public health problem, a situation that is corroborated in the report on violence and health, in which Latin America presented a homicide rate of 18 per 100,000 people, and it is considered one of the most violent regions in the world. Objective: To detect criminal patterns with data mining techniques in the Crime Observatory of the municipality of Pasto (Colombia). Materials and methods: Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) was applied, which is one of the methodologies used in the development of data mining projects in academic and industrial environments. The source of information was the Crime Observatory of the municipality of Pasto, where the historical clean and transformed figures on the injuries of external cause (fatal and nonfatal) recorded in 11 years are stored. Results: A decision tree-based classification model was built that allowed the discovery of patterns of deaths from external causes. In the case of homicide, these happened mostly in the commune 5 in Pasto under the following circumstances: during the weekends, in the early morning, in the second semester of the year and in the public thoroughfare; besides, the victims were adult men of various professions; and the cause of the homicides were quarrels and they were produced with a fire gun. Conclusion: The generated knowledge will help government and security agencies make effective decisions regarding the implementation of crime prevention and citizen security plans.


Subject(s)
Pattern Recognition, Automated , Classification , Data Mining , Decision Trees
7.
International Journal of Radiation Research. 2017; 15 (1): 49-61
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187496

ABSTRACT

Background: A method to track liver tumor motion signals from fluoroscopic images without any implanted gold fiducial markers was proposed in this study to overcome the adverse effects on precise tumor irradiation caused by respiratory movement


Materials and Methods: The method was based on the following idea: [i] Before treatment, a series of fluoroscopic images corresponding to different breathing phases and tumor positions were acquired after patient set-up; [iii] The wavelet transform method and Canny edge detection algorithm were used to detect motion trajectory of the diaphragm; [iv] The motion curves of center of lipiodol in the images were obtained by mathematical morphology and median filtering algorithm. The method was evaluated using by five sequences of fluoroscopic images from TACE patients who received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization therapy


Results: The position of liver tumor was significantly affected by respiratory motion; the motion trajectories of the diaphragm and lipiodolagreed well with the manually marked locations in amplitude and period; the motion trajectories of the diaphragm and lipiodol almost had similar period and amplitude in one treatment fraction. The respiratory period and amplitude of the same patient in different fractions had no significant differences; however, the difference was obvious for different patients. The proposed lipiodol detection methods can effectively reflect the relevant rules of tumor location caused by respiratory movement


Conclusion: Direct tracking of liver tumor motion in fluoroscopic images is feasible. The automatic detection method can reflect the characteristics of respiratory and tumor motions, which can save much time and significantly improve measurement precision compared with manual measurement


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Fiducial Markers , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided , Fluoroscopy , Pattern Recognition, Automated/methods
8.
J. health inform ; 8(supl.I): 521-528, 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-906390

ABSTRACT

Este estudo analisou a eficiência de diferentes algoritmos de máquina de vetor de suporte (SVM) para discriminar dados de diferentes sujeitos. Utilizou-se dados previamente coletados de idosos e jovens com 3 coletas por sujeito, em um estudo de controle postural na plataforma de força. Os dados foram analisados a partir da densidade espectral de potência (PSD) do centro de pressão sobre a qual foi aplicada a análise de componentes principais (PCA) para reduzir a dimensionalidade dos dados. A SVM recebeu a PCA com 90% de variância da PSD original e utilizando diferentes núcleos de produto interno calculou a eficiência de cada um para diferenciar grupos com características distintas.A SVM que obteve o melhor desempenho foi a de núcleo Polinomial, com uma eficiência de 90% aproximadamente, no entanto, o resultado é dependente dos dados a serem classificados, e se faz necessário então uma ferramenta que possa utilizar diferentes núcleos.


This study analyze the efficiency of different algorithms of support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate data from different subjects. It was used data previously collected from elderly and young people with 3 collectionsby subject, in a postural control study on a force plate. Data were analyzed from the power spectral density (PSD)of the center of pressure on which was applied principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensionality ofthe data. The SVM received the PCA with 90% of the variance of the original PSD and using different inner productkernels was calculated the efficiency of each one to differentiate between groups with different characteristics. TheSVM that have the best performances was the Polynomial with an efficiency of 90% approximately, however, the result depends on data to be classified and it is necessary then a tool that can use different cores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Neural Networks, Computer , Congresses as Topic
9.
J. health inform ; 8(supl.I): 762-772, 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-906615

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve por objetivo demonstrar a melhora no desempenho da classificação de coloração imuno-histoquímica em imagens microscópicas, utilizando a abordagem de aprendizado supervisionada que emprega a projeção polinomial da distância de Mahalanobis. Foi definido um descritor de características híbrido, combinando core textura baseada no método Local Binary Pattern, proporcionado inicialmente um descritor 23-dimensional para cada píxel. Uma análise de componentes principais foi realizada e um segundo descritor 12-dimensional foi empregado na avaliação. Os testes foram realizados em imagens e metadados obtidos no The Human Protein Atlas, avaliando uma série de medidas de acerto e erro. Com os resultados encontrados percebeu-se que a utilização do descritor híbrido tornou o processo de classificação mais específico e restritivo nas predições positivas.


This study aimed to demonstrate the improvement in performance of immunohistochemical staining classification in microscopic images using a supervised learning approach that employs the polynomial projection of the Mahalanobis distance. A hybrid feature descriptor was defined by combining color and texture based on Local Binary Pattern method, initially provided a 23-dimensional descriptor, for each pixel. A principal component analysis was performed and a second 12-dimensional descriptor was used in the assay. The tests were performed on images and metadata, obtained on The Human Protein Atlas. With the results it can be seen that the use of hybrid descriptor has made the classification process more specific and restrictive on the positive predictions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Immunohistochemistry/classification , Congresses as Topic
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 731-738, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328167

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To review theories and technologies of big data mining and their application in clinical medicine.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>Literatures published in English or Chinese regarding theories and technologies of big data mining and the concrete applications of data mining technology in clinical medicine were obtained from PubMed and Chinese Hospital Knowledge Database from 1975 to 2015.</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>Original articles regarding big data mining theory/technology and big data mining's application in the medical field were selected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>This review characterized the basic theories and technologies of big data mining including fuzzy theory, rough set theory, cloud theory, Dempster-Shafer theory, artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, inductive learning theory, Bayesian network, decision tree, pattern recognition, high-performance computing, and statistical analysis. The application of big data mining in clinical medicine was analyzed in the fields of disease risk assessment, clinical decision support, prediction of disease development, guidance of rational use of drugs, medical management, and evidence-based medicine.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Big data mining has the potential to play an important role in clinical medicine.</p>


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Clinical Medicine , Data Mining , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Decision Trees , Evidence-Based Medicine , Fuzzy Logic , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Pattern Recognition, Automated
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106779

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the maturation disparity of hand-wrist bones using the BoneXpert system and Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas in a sample of normal children from China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 229 boys and 168 girls aged 2-14 years. The bones in the hand and wrist were divided into five groups: distal radius and ulna, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges and distal phalanges. Bone age (BA) was assessed separately using the automatic BoneXpert and GP atlas by two raters. Differences in the BA between the most advanced and retarded individual bones and bone groups were analyzed. RESULTS: In 75.8% of children assessed with the BoneXpert and 59.4% of children assessed with the GP atlas, the BA difference between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones exceeded 2.0 years. The BA mean differences between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones were 2.58 and 2.25 years for the BoneXpert and GP atlas methods, respectively. Furthermore, for both methods, the middle phalanges were the most advanced group. The most retarded group was metacarpals for BoneXpert, while metacarpals and the distal radius and ulna were the most retarded groups according to the GP atlas. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges were closer to the chronological ages than those of the other bone groups. CONCLUSION: Obvious and regular maturation disparities are common in normal children. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges are more useful for BA estimation than those of the other bone groups.


Subject(s)
Age Determination by Skeleton , Asians , Bone and Bones , Child , China , Developmental Disabilities , Female , Hand , Humans , Metacarpal Bones , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Radiography , Radius , Ulna , Wrist
12.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(3): 191-199, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intraoperative use of opioids may be associated with postoperative hyperalgesia and increased analgesic consumption. Side effects due to perioperative use of opioids, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting may delay discharge. We hypothesized that total intravenous anesthesia consisting of lidocaine and dexmedetomidine as an opioid substitute may be an alternative technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and would be associated with lower fentanyl requirements in the postoperative period and less incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: 80 Anesthesiologists I-II adults were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups to have either opioid-free anesthesia with dexmedetomidine, lidocaine, and propofol infusions (Group DL) or opioid-based anesthesia with remifentanil, and propofol infusions (Group RF). All patients received a standard multimodal analgesia regimen. A patient controlled analgesia device was set to deliver IV fentanyl for 6 h after surgery. The primary outcome variable was postoperative fentanyl consumption. RESULTS: Fentanyl consumption at postoperative 2nd hour was statistically significantly less in Group DL, compared with Group RF, which were 75 ± 59 µg and 120 ± 94 µg respectively, while it was comparable at postoperative 6th hour. During anesthesia, there were more hypotensive events in Group RF, while there were more hypertensive events in Group DL, which were both statistically significant. Despite higher recovery times, Group DL had significantly lower pain scores, rescue analgesic and ondansetron need. CONCLUSION: Opioid-free anesthesia with dexmedetomidine, lidocaine and propofol infusions may be an alternative technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy especially in patients with high risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting. .


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O uso de opioides no período intraoperatório pode estar associado à hiperalgesia e ao aumento do consumo de analgésicos no período pós-operatório. Efeitos colaterais como náusea e vômito no período pós-operatório, por causa do uso perioperatório de opioides, podem prolongar a alta. Nossa hipótese foi que a anestesia venosa total com o uso de lidocaína e dexmedetomidina em substituição a opioides pode ser uma técnica opcional para a colecistectomia laparoscópica e estaria associada a uma menor solicitação de fentanil e incidência de náusea e vômito no período pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Foram programados para colecistectomia laparoscópica eletiva 80 pacientes adultos, estado físico ASA I-II. Os pacientes foram randomicamente alocados em dois grupos para receber anestesia livre de opioides com infusões intravenosas (IV) de dexmedetomidina, lidocaína e propofol (Grupo DL) ou anestesia baseada em opioides com infusões de remifentanil e propofol (Grupo RF). Todos os pacientes receberam um regime padrão de analgesia multimodal. Um dispositivo de analgesia controlada pelo paciente foi ajustado para liberar fentanil IV por seis horas após a cirurgia. O desfecho primário foi o consumo de fentanil no pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O consumo de fentanil na segunda hora de pós-operatório foi significativamente menor no grupo DL do que no Grupo RF, 75 ± 59 µg e 120 ± 94 µg, respectivamente, mas foi comparável na sexta hora de pós-operatório. Durante a anestesia, houve mais eventos hipotensivos no Grupo RF e mais eventos hipertensivos no grupo DL, ambos estatisticamente significativos. Apesar de apresentar um tempo de recuperação mais prolongado, o Grupo DL apresentou escores de dor e consumo de analgésicos de resgate e de ondansetrona significativamente mais baixos. CONCLUSÃO: A anestesia livre de opioides com infusões de dexmedetomidina, lidocaína e propofol pode ser uma técnica opcional para a colecistectomia laparoscópica, ...


JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: El uso de opiáceos en el período intraoperatorio puede estar asociado con la hiperalgesia y con el aumento del consumo de analgésicos en el período postoperatorio. Los efectos colaterales como náuseas y vómito en el período postoperatorio, debido al uso perioperatorio de opiáceos, pueden retrasar el alta. Nuestra hipótesis fue que la anestesia venosa total con el uso de lidocaína y dexmedetomidina como reemplazo de los opiáceos puede ser una técnica alternativa para la colecistectomía laparoscópica y estaría asociada con un requerimiento menor de fentanilo y con una menor incidencia de náuseas y vómito en el período postoperatorio. MÉTODOS: Ochenta pacientes adultos, estado físico ASA I-II, fueron programados para colecistectomía laparoscópica electiva. Los pacientes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en 2 grupos para recibir anestesia libre de opiáceos con infusiones de dexmedetomidina, lidocaína y propofol (grupo DL), o anestesia basada en opiáceos con infusiones de remifentanilo y propofol (grupo RF). Todos los pacientes recibieron un régimen estándar de analgesia multimodal. Un dispositivo de analgesia controlada por el paciente fue ajustado para liberar el fentanilo intravenoso durante 6 h después de la cirugía. El resultado primario fue el consumo de fentanilo en el postoperatorio. RESULTADOS: El consumo de fentanilo en la segunda hora del postoperatorio fue significativamente menor en el grupo DL que en el grupo RF, 75 ± 59 µg y 120 ± 94 µg, respectivamente, pero se pudo comparar en la sexta hora del postoperatorio. Durante la anestesia hubo más eventos hipotensivos en el grupo RF y más eventos hipertensivos en el grupo DL, ambos estadísticamente significativos. A pesar de presentar un tiempo de recuperación más prolongado, el grupo DL tuvo puntuaciones de dolor y consumo de analgésicos de rescate y de ondansetrón significativamente más bajos. CONCLUSIÓN: La anestesia libre de opiáceos con infusiones de ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Embryo, Mammalian/physiology , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Algorithms , Alleles , Automation , Databases, Factual , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Mutant Strains , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Phenotype , Software
13.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(3): 406-413, maio-jun. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-756543

ABSTRACT

RESUMOObjetivo:caracterizar as famílias e situação de saúde de idosos na Estratégia de Saúde da Família e verificar a associação da composição familiar com as características sociodemográficas e de saúde dos idosos.Método:estudo de base populacional, com 215 famílias e 266 idosos, adscritos à Estratégia da Saúde da Família, de um município do Rio Grande do Sul.Resultados:predomínio da composição familiar nuclear, considerada como a principal fonte de apoio informal, de famílias de idosos do sexo feminino e agravos cardiovasculares. A estrutura parental nuclear teve associação bruta significativa com o sexo feminino e o consumo do tabaco.Conclusão:os resultados reforçam a necessidade de manutenção de uma rede de apoio formal e informal ao idoso e sua família para preservar a independência ou postergar o declínio da capacidade funcional.


RESUMENObjetivo:la caracterización de las familias y de la situación de salud de ancianos en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia y, además, la verifi cación de la asociación de la composición familiar con las características sociodemográfi cas y de salud de los mayores.Método:estudio de base poblacional, con 215 familias y 266 ancianos, adscritos a la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia, de un municipio del Rio Grande del Sur. Prevaleció la composición familiar nuclear, considerada como la principal fuente de apoyo informal y de familias de ancianos del sexo femenino (62,6%).Resultados:los resultados de la asociación bruta de las variables en el estudio con la composición parental nuclear ha demostrado asociación signifi cativa (p<0,05) con el sexo femenino (RP=0,77; p=0,025) y el consumo de tabaco (RP=1,35; p=0,009).Conclusión:estos resultados refuerzan la necesidad de manutención de una red de apoyo formal e informal al anciano y a su familia para preservar la independencia o postergar el descenso de la capacidad funcional.


ABSTRACTObjective:to characterize families and health status of the elderly in the Family Health Strategy and to verify the association of family composition with sociodemographic characteristics and health of the elderly.Method:population-based study with 215 families and 266 elderly, linked to the Family Health Strategy from a city of Rio Grande do Sul state.Results:there was predominance of nuclear family composition, considered as the main source of informal support, families of female elderly (62.6%) and cardiovascular complication. The nuclear structure was signifi cantly associated with female gender (PR = 0.77; p = 0.025) and smoking (PR = 1.35; p = 0.009).Conclusion:the results reinforce the need to maintain a network of formal and informal support to the elderly and their families to preserve the independence or to postpone the decline in functional capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Mammography , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Clinical Competence , Mammography/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Observer Variation , Program Evaluation , Prospective Studies , Radiology/standards , Reproducibility of Results
14.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 755-766, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-744856

ABSTRACT

Para estimar el costo económico de la discapacidad permanente causada por lesiones de tránsito en México durante 2012, desde las perspectivas del Sistema de Salud y de la Sociedad, se realizó un estudio de costos que utiliza metodología bottom-up, considerando costos directos médicos (hospitalización, consultas ambulatorias y de rehabilitación y prótesis), y costos indirectos (pérdida de productividad del lesionado y cuidador) con una aproximación de capital humano. La discapacidad causada por lesiones de tránsito tiene un alto costo para el sistema de salud y la sociedad mexicana. Desde la perspectiva del sistema de salud, el costo en pesos mexicanos de la discapacidad permanente fue de US$269.529.480,72, equivalente a US$1.496,33 por persona. Desde la perspectiva de la sociedad, se estimaron US$3.445,45 durante el primer año. En promedio, se estimó un costo total de US$4.941,77 por persona, resultando en un total de US$1.119.761.632,53 en 2012. Los resultados de este estudio evidencian la necesidad de diseñar e implementar políticas más enérgicas y eficientes para el control de las lesiones de tránsito en México.


This study estimated the economic costs of permanent disability caused by road traffic injuries in Mexico during 2012. From the health system's perspective, a bottom-up approach was used to calculate direct medical costs (hospitalization, outpatient care, rehabilitation, and prostheses). From society's perspective, using a human capital approach, indirect costs were associated with loss of productivity for the victims and their caregivers. Permanent disability due to road traffic injuries takes a high toll on the health system and Mexican society. From the health system perspective, the cost was US$269,529,480.72, or US$1,496.33 per victim. The estimated average cost to society was US$3,445.45 during the first year. The total average cost per victim was US$4,941.77, resulting in a total economic cost of US$1,119,761,632.53 during 2012. The study's findings highlight the need to design and implement more rigorous and efficient public polices to control and prevent road traffic injuries in Mexico.


Para estimar o custo econômico da incapacidade permanente causada por acidentes de trânsito no México no ano de 2012, com base nas perspectivas do Sistema de Saúde e da sociedade, foi realizado um estudo de custos utilizando-se a metodologia bottom-up, considerando por um lado os custos diretos médicos (hospitalização, consultas ambulatoriais e de reabilitação e próteses) e, por outro, os custos indiretos associados à perda de produtividade do acidentado e cuidador, usando-se a aproximação metodológica do capital humano. A incapacidade causada por acidentes de trânsito tem um alto custo para o sistema de saúde e sociedade mexicana. Baseando-se na perspectiva do sistema de saúde, o custo em pesos mexicanos da incapacidade permanente foi de US$269.529.480,72, equivalente a US$1.496,33 por pessoa. Com base na perspectiva da sociedade, estimou-se em US$3.445,45 no primeiro ano. Em média, estimou-se um custo total de US$4.941,77 por pessoa, resultando num total de US$1.119.761.632,53 em 2012. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciam a necessidade de delinear e implementar políticas mais rígidas no México.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Asthma/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Cross-Over Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Models, Statistical , Pattern Recognition, Automated/methods , Causality , Computer Simulation , Likelihood Functions , Prevalence , Research Design , Risk Assessment/methods
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(3): 165-169, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741037

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of fasting on gastric emptying in mice. METHODS: Twenty-eight mice were distributed into three study groups: a normal group (N=4): normal standard animals; a total fasting group (N=12): subjected to food and water deprivation and a partial fasting group (N=12): subjected to food deprivation only. The fasting groups were subdivided into three subgroups of four animals each, according to the date of euthanasia: 24, 48 and 72 hours. Was analyzed: the gastric volume, degree of the gastric wall distention and the presence of food debris in gastrointestinal tract. RESULTS: The mean gastric volume was 1601 mm3in the normal group, 847 mm3in total fasting group and 997 mm3in partial fasting group. There was difference between the fasting groups in any analyzed period (p<0.05). Regarding the presence of food debris in the gastrointestinal tract and the degree of distension of the stomach, there was no difference between the groups that underwent total or partial fasting (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Total fasting or only-solids deprivation does not induce gastric emptying in mice. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Aging/pathology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Brain/pathology , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Algorithms , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Computer Simulation , Diagnosis, Differential , Models, Statistical , Multivariate Analysis , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Pattern Recognition, Automated/methods , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359610

ABSTRACT

Multivariate time series problems widely exist in production and life in the society. Anomaly detection has provided people with a lot of valuable information in financial, hydrological, meteorological fields, and the research areas of earthquake, video surveillance, medicine and others. In order to quickly and efficiently find exceptions in time sequence so that it can be presented in front of people in an intuitive way, we in this study combined the Riemannian manifold with statistical process control charts, based on sliding window, with a description of the covariance matrix as the time sequence, to achieve the multivariate time series of anomaly detection and its visualization. We made MA analog data flow and abnormal electrocardiogram data from MIT-BIH as experimental objects, and verified the anomaly detection method. The results showed that the method was reasonable and effective.


Subject(s)
Data Interpretation, Statistical , Electrocardiography , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Pattern Recognition, Automated
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although acronyms and abbreviations in clinical text are used widely on a daily basis, relatively little research has focused upon word sense disambiguation (WSD) of acronyms and abbreviations in the healthcare domain. Since clinical notes have distinctive characteristics, it is unclear whether techniques effective for acronym and abbreviation WSD from biomedical literature are sufficient. METHODS: The authors discuss feature selection for automated techniques and challenges with WSD of acronyms and abbreviations in the clinical domain. RESULTS: There are significant challenges associated with the informal nature of clinical text, such as typographical errors and incomplete sentences; difficulty with insufficient clinical resources, such as clinical sense inventories; and obstacles with privacy and security for conducting research with clinical text. Although we anticipated that using sophisticated techniques, such as biomedical terminologies, semantic types, part-of-speech, and language modeling, would be needed for feature selection with automated machine learning approaches, we found instead that simple techniques, such as bag-of-words, were quite effective in many cases. Factors, such as majority sense prevalence and the degree of separateness between sense meanings, were also important considerations. CONCLUSIONS: The first lesson is that a comprehensive understanding of the unique characteristics of clinical text is important for automatic acronym and abbreviation WSD. The second lesson learned is that investigators may find that using simple approaches is an effective starting point for these tasks. Finally, similar to other WSD tasks, an understanding of baseline majority sense rates and separateness between senses is important. Further studies and practical solutions are needed to better address these issues.


Subject(s)
Abbreviations as Topic , Delivery of Health Care , Equipment and Supplies , Humans , Machine Learning , Medical Records , Natural Language Processing , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Prevalence , Privacy , Research Personnel , Semantics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23738

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the second leading cancer for Korean women and its incidence rate has been increasing annually. If early diagnosis were implemented with epidemiologic data, the women could easily assess breast cancer risk using internet. National Cancer Institute in the United States has released a Web-based Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool based on Gail model. However, it is inapplicable directly to Korean women since breast cancer risk is dependent on race. Also, it shows low accuracy (58%-59%). In this study, breast cancer discrimination models for Korean women are developed using only epidemiological case-control data (n = 4,574). The models are configured by different classification techniques: support vector machine, artificial neural network, and Bayesian network. A 1,000-time repeated random sub-sampling validation is performed for diverse parameter conditions, respectively. The performance is evaluated and compared as an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). According to age group and classification techniques, AUC, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and calculation time of all models were calculated and compared. Although the support vector machine took the longest calculation time, the highest classification performance has been achieved in the case of women older than 50 yr (AUC = 64%). The proposed model is dependent on demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, and lifestyle habits without using any clinical or genetic test. It is expected that the model could be implemented as a web-based discrimination tool for breast cancer. This tool can encourage potential breast cancer prone women to go the hospital for diagnostic tests.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Middle Aged , Pattern Recognition, Automated/methods , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Women's Health/statistics & numerical data
19.
Rev. MED ; 22(2): 79-91, jul.-dic. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-760080

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art in histopathology image representation used in automatic image analysis tasks. Automatic analysis of histopathology images is important for building computer-assisted diagnosis tools, automatic image enhancing systems and virtual microscopy systems, among other applications. Histopathology images have a rich mix of visual patterns with particularities that make them difficult to analyze. The paper discusses these particularities, the acquisition process and the challenges found when doing automatic analysis. Second an overview of recent works and methods addressed to deal with visual content representation in different automatic image analysis tasks is presented. Third an overview of applications of image representation methods in several medical domains and tasks is presented. Finally, the paper concludes with current trends of automatic analysis of histopathology images like digital pathology.


Este artículo presenta una revisión del estado del arte en la representación de imágenes de histopatología utilizada en tareas de análisis automático. El análisis de imágenes hispatológicas es importante en la construcción de herramientas para el diagnóstico asistido por computador, sistemas de mejoramiento automático de imágenes y sistemas de microscopía virtual, entre otras aplicaciones. Estas imágenes tienen una gran mezcla de patrones visuales con características particulares que hacen de su análisis una tarea difícil. El artículo discute estas particularidades, el proceso de adquisición y los retos particulares al realizar un análisis automático. En la segunda sección se presenta una revisión de trabajos y métodos recientes enfocados a la representación del contenido visual en diferentes tareas de análisis automático. En tercer lugar, se presenta una visión general de las aplicaciones para los métodos de representación en diferentes dominios médicos. Finalmente el trabajo concluye con las actuales tendencias del análisis automático de imágenes de histopatología como la patología digital.


Este artigo é uma revisão do estado da arte na representação de imagens histopatológicas utilizadas nas tarefas de análise automáticos. O análise de imagens histopatológicas é importante na construção de ferramentas para o diagnóstico assistido por computador, sistemas de melhoramento automático de imagens e sistemas de microscopia virtual. Essas imagens tem uma grande mistura de padrões visuais com caraterísticas particulares, que fazem do análise uma tarefa difícil. O artigo discute essas particularidades, o processo de aquisição, e os desafios particulares no momento de realizar uma análise automático. Na segunda seção se apresenta uma revisão dos trabalhos e métodos recentes, com foco à representação do conteúdo visual em diferentes tarefas de análise automático. Na terceira, se apresenta uma visão geral das aplicações para os métodos de representação em diferentes domínios médicos. Finalmente, o artigo conclui com as atuais tendências do análise automático de imagens histopatológicas como a patologia digital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Medical Informatics , Pathology , Pattern Recognition, Automated
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To provide accurate personalized medical care, it is necessary to gather individual-related data or contextual information regarding the target person. Nowadays a large number of people possess smartphones, which enables sensors in the smartphones to be used for lifelogging. The objective of the study is to analyze human activity pattern by using lifelog agent cooperating with the Health Avatar platform. METHODS: Using the lifelog measured by accelerometer and gyroscope in a smartphone at a 50 Hz rate, the agent reveals how long the user walks, runs, sits, stands, and lies down, and this information is summarized by hours. The summaries are sent to the Health Avatar platform and finally are written in the Continuity of Care Record (CCR) format. RESULTS: The lifelog agent is successfully operated with the Health Avatar platform. In addition, we implement an application that displays the user's activity patterns in a graph and calculates the metabolic equivalent of task based calorie burned by hour or by day using the lifelog of the CCR form to show that the lifelog can be used as medical records. CONCLUSIONS: The agent shows how lifelogs are analyzed and summarized to help activity recognition. We believe that our agent demonstrates a way of incorporating lifelogs into medical care and a way of exploiting lifelogs in a medical format.


Subject(s)
4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid , Activities of Daily Living , Burns , Continuity of Patient Care , Health Behavior , Human Activities , Humans , Medical Records , Metabolic Equivalent , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Smartphone
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