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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 31: e68807, jan. -dez. 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1434215

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: proporcionar reflexões sobre o cuidado de enfermagem com abordagem à sexualidade para a saúde do homem penectomizado por câncer de pênis. Conteúdo: corresponde a estudo reflexivo construído a partir de leituras em produções científicas sobre o cuidado de Enfermagem e a sexualidade para o paciente oncológico penectomizado, à luz dos pensamentos e pressupostos ontológicos e teóricos de Martin Heidegger. Considerações finais: as novas condições impostas pelo adoecimento por câncer de pênis e o tratamento mutilador, a penectomia, exigem uma Enfermagem que aborde a sexualidade, considerando o indivíduo em sua totalidade e com ênfase no cuidado com perspectiva na profundidade e subjetividade existenciais humanas(AU)


Objective: to provide reflections on nursing care with an approach to sexuality for the health of men undergoing penectomy for penile cancer. Content: reflective study developed from readings in scientific productions on Nursing care and sexuality for the penectomized cancer patient, in the light of Martin Heidegger's ontological and theoretical thoughts and assumptions. Final considerations: the new conditions imposed by illness from penile cancer and the mutilating treatment, penectomy, require Nursing that addresses sexuality, considering the individual in its entirety and with an emphasis on care with a perspective on human existential depth and subjectivity(AU)


Objetivo: proporcionar reflexiones sobre el cuidado de Enfermería con abordaje a la sexualidad para la salud del hombre que sufrió penectomía por cáncer de pene. Contenido: corresponde a estudio reflexivo construido a partir de lecturas en producciones científicas sobre el cuidado de Enfermería y la sexualidad para el paciente oncológico que sufrió penectomía, a la luz de los pensamientos y presupuestos ontológicos y teóricos de Martin Heidegger. Consideraciones finales: las nuevas condiciones impuestas por la enfermedad por cáncer de pene y el tratamiento mutilador, la penectomía, exigen una Enfermería que aborde la sexualidad, considerando al individuo en su totalidad y con énfasis en el cuidado con perspectiva en la profundidad y subjetividad existenciales humanas(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/nursing , Penis/surgery , Sexuality , Masculinity , Amputation, Surgical , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Men's Health
2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 303-313, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine independent predictors of inguinal lymph node (ILN) metastasis in patients with penile cancer. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed all patients with penile cancer who underwent surgery at our medical center in the last ten years (n=157). Using univariate and multivariate logistic-regression models, we assessed associations with age, medical-history, phimosis, onset-time, number and maximum diameter of involved ILNs measured by imaging, pathological T stage, degree of tumor differentiation and/or cornification, lymphatic vascular infiltration (LVI), nerve infiltration, and ILN metastases. Interaction and stratified analyses were used to assess age, phimosis, onset time, number of ILNs, cornification, and nerve infiltration. Results: A total of 110 patients were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were significantly correlated with ILN metastasis: maximum diameter of enlarged ILNs, T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI. Among patients with a maximum ILN diameter ≥1.5cm, 50% had lymph node metastasis whereas 30.6% patients with a maximum ILN diameter <1.5cm showed LNM. Among 44 patients with stage Ta/T1, 10 showed ILN metastases, while 47.0% patients with stage T2 showed ILN metastases. Among 40 patients with highly differentiated penile-cancer, eight showed ILN metastasis, while 47.1% patients with low-to-middle differentiation showed ILN metastases. The rate of LNM was 33.3% in the LVI-free group and 64.3% in the LVI group. Conclusion: Our single-center results suggested that maximum ILN diameter, pathological T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI were independent risk factors for ILN metastases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Penile Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
4.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(1): 32-40, 15/03/2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1368855

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de pene tiene una incidencia de 1.11 por 100.000 habitantes en Colombia, representado en el 95% por carcinoma de células escamosas el cual representa una alta morbilidad y mortalidad, La Sociedad Colombiana de Urología realizo la adaptación de la guía de cáncer de pene para el año 2021 con revisión de la literatura, esta guía permite realizar una evaluación y tratamiento del cáncer de pene, enmuchas ocasiones con el objetivo de preservación de órgano utilizando la ecografía como determinante para evaluar el compromiso de la lesión a las estructuras del pene, los estudios de extensión dependerán de hallazgos al examen físico como ganglios o compromiso local de la enfermedad, de acuerdo al tipo de lesión y su estadificación puede recibir terapia con agentes tópicos, radioterapia, cirugía láser, cirugía preservadora de órgano o penectomía total; La linfadenectomía inguinal permitirá mejorar la supervivencia en tumores de riesgo intermedio y alto (>pT1G2), posteriormente la quimioterapia adyuvante esta en el grupo de pacientes en el cual la intención sea curativa, aunque en terapia paliativa de segunda línea se encuentran los platinos y texanos como alternativa pero con pobre respuesta (<30%); los esquemas de seguimiento se realiza de acuerdo al estadio y el compromiso ganglionar. Al final se presentan los resultados de actividad sexual después de cirugía preservadora de órgano; Esta guía abarca la literatura actualizada del cáncer de pene, el cual es útil para el manejo por parte de los profesionales de salud del país.


Penile cancer has an incidence of 1.11 per 100,000 inhabitants in Colombia, 95% represented by squamous cell carcinoma which represents a high morbidity and mortality, The Colombian Society of Urology adapted the penile cancer guide to The year 2021 with a review of the literature, this guide allows an evaluation and treatment of penile cancer, in many cases with the objective of organ preservation, using ultrasound as a determinant to evaluate the commitment of the injury to the structures of the penis, Extension studies will depend on findings on physical examination such as lymph nodes or local involvement of the disease, according to the type of lesion and its staging, it can receive therapy with topical agents, radiotherapy, laser surgery, organ-sparing surgery or total penectomy; Inguinal lymphadenectomy will improve survival in intermediate and high risk tumors (> pT1G2), subsequently adjuvant chemotherapy is in the group of patients in which the intention is curative, although platinum and Texans are found in second-line palliative therapy as an alternative but with a poor response (<30%); the follow-up schemes are carried out according to the stage and lymph node involvement. At the end, the results of sexual activity after organ-sparing surgery are presented; This guide covers the updated literature on penile cancer, which is useful for the management of health professionals in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Organ Preservation , Penile Neoplasms , Penis , Palliative Care , Sexual Behavior , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Aftercare , Laser Therapy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasms
5.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE03212, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364202

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar os significados das masculinidades durante a vivência do câncer peniano e seus tratamentos. Métodos Abordagem qualitativa de pesquisa amparada em referencial teórico da antropologia médica e das masculinidades, com o emprego do método narrativo. Foram entrevistados em profundidade 18 homens com neoplasia peniana em um hospital referência em uro-oncologia do estado de São Paulo. Cada participante foi entrevistado com roteiro de investigação, em média três vezes, sendo as entrevistas audiogravadas, transcritas e analisadas conforme a análise temática indutiva. Resultados Seis participantes realizaram a penectomia parcial e 12 total. Em relação ao estado civil, participaram dois viúvos, dois solteiros, três divorciados e 11 casados, com média de idade de 54 anos. A extirpação do pênis promoveu mudanças significativas na forma como os homens performavam suas masculinidades, sobretudo a hegemônica. Portanto, essa experiência lhes permitiu reinterpretar suas condições de saúde na tentativa de identificar outros elementos hegemônicos que sustentassem suas imagens masculinas. Para alguns foi possível representar um homem inteiro, porém outros se consideram agora meio-homens. Conclusão O adoecimento rompeu com o fluxo biográfico dos participantes, pois antes do câncer peniano a hegemonia os representava como masculinos, entretanto, após a penectomia, eles perdem um órgão que socialmente traz atributos como força, poder, trabalho e virilidade, situação que lhes trouxe a necessidade de reinterpretar o ser masculino em suas culturas. A enfermagem, para promover o cuidado integral ao homem, deve considerar que as masculinidades interferem no processo saúde e doença.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar los significados de las masculinidades durante la vivencia del cáncer de pene y sus tratamientos. Métodos Enfoque cualitativo de investigación respaldado en el marco referencial teórico de la antropología médica y de las masculinidades, con el uso del método narrativo. Fueron entrevistados en profundidad 18 hombres con neoplasia de pene en un hospital de referencia en urología oncológica del estado de São Paulo. Cada participante fue entrevistado con guion de investigación, tres veces en promedio. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcriptas y analizadas de acuerdo con el análisis temático inductivo. Resultados Seis participantes realizaron penectomía parcial y 12 total. Respecto al estado civil, participaron dos viudos, dos solteros, tres divorciados y 11 casados, con un promedio de edad de 54 años. La extirpación del pene generó cambios significativos en la forma como los hombres practicaban su masculinidad, sobre todo la hegemónica. Por lo tanto, esta experiencia les permitió interpretar sus condiciones de salud en el intento de identificar otros elementos hegemónicos que sostengan su imagen masculina. Para algunos fue posible representar un hombre entero, pero otros ahora se consideran medio hombres. Conclusión La enfermedad rompió con el flujo biográfico de los participantes, ya que antes del cáncer de pene, la hegemonía los representaba como masculinos; sin embargo, después de la penectomía, perdieron un órgano que socialmente trae atributos como fuerza, poder, trabajo y virilidad, situación que les produjo la necesidad de reinterpretar el ser masculino en su cultura. Para promover el cuidado integral del hombre, la enfermería debe considerar que las masculinidades interfieren en el proceso salud y enfermedad.


Abstract Objective To analyze masculinity meanings during penile cancer experience and its treatments. Methods Qualitative approach supported in the theoretical framework of medical anthropology and masculinities, with the use of the narrative method. We interviewed in-depth 18 men with penile cancer in a referential Urologic Oncology hospital from the state of São Paulo. Each participant was interviewed on average three times, with a structured script, being the interviews audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to the inductive thematic analysis. Results Six patients were submitted to the partial penectomy and 12 to the total penectomy. Regarding the marital status, six were widowers, two single, three divorced, and 11 married, with an average age of 54 years old. The penis extirpation fostered significant change in the way men performed their masculinities, even the hegemonic. Thus, this experience allowed them to reinterpret their health conditions to identify other hegemonic elements that sustained their masculine images. For a few, it was possible to represent a full man however, others considered themselves half-men. Conclusion The illness broke the participant's biographic flow because, before penile cancer, the hegemony represented them as masculines, however, after the penectomy, they have lost an organ that is socially related to attributes such as strength, power, work, and virility, situation that brought them the necessity to reinterpret being masculine in their culture. To promote integrality of care to man the nursing must consider that masculinities interfere in the process of health and disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Health-Disease Process , Masculinity , Anthropology, Medical , Amputation, Surgical , Oncology Nursing , Interviews as Topic , Comprehensive Health Care , Evaluation Studies as Topic
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 145 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1413668

ABSTRACT

O microbioma humano compreende material genético da microbiota de um local do corpo e tem influência direta ou indireta na manutenção da homeostase. O distúrbio da microbiota pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento de doenças. A população fúngica ainda é muito pouco estudada no contexto do microbioma. No presente estudo, foi desenvolvida uma metodologia para identificação de fungos por metabarcoding. A metodologia desenvolvida foi aplicada em mostras de pacientes portadores de adenocarcinoma gástrico ou carcinoma epidermoide de pênis. De modo geral, em ambos os tumores foi verificada a redução de diversidade fúngica conforme a evolução do estadiamento patológico. Também foram verificados resultados não concordantes ao analisar espécies diferencialmente abundantes em dados de sequenciamento da região ITS2 e de WGS nas amostras de lavado gástrico. Este trabalho reforça a importância em se estudar os fungos e sua associação com doenças como o câncer e incentiva próximos estudos através do desenvolvimento de uma metodologia específica para o micobioma.


The human microbiome comprises genetic material from the microbiota of a body site and has a direct or indirect influence on the maintenance of homeostasis. The disturbance of the microbiota may be related to the development of diseases. The fungal population is still very little studied in the context of the microbiome. In this study, a methodology was developed to identify fungi by metabarcoding. The methodology developed was applied to samples from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. In general, in both tumors, a reduction in fungal diversity was observed according to the evolution of the pathological staging. Discordant results were also found when analyzing differentially abundant species in sequencing data from the ITS2 region and WGS in gastric lavage samples. This work reinforces the importance of studying fungi and their association with diseases such as cancer and encourages further studies through the development of a specific methodology for the mycobiome


Subject(s)
Penile Neoplasms , Stomach Neoplasms , Mycobiome , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Adenocarcinoma
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 55 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | Inca, LILACS | ID: biblio-1362687

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O carcinoma escamoso do pênis é uma neoplasia rara, mas sua incidência e mortalidade específica vêm aumentando. No Brasil, o câncer de pênis constitui 2,1% das neoplasias em homens. O acometimento dos linfonodos inguinais é o fator prognóstico mais importante. Comparados aos pacientes com linfonodos positivos, aqueles com linfonodos histologicamente negativos (pN0) têm o melhor prognóstico; entretanto, a ausência de metástases linfonodais não garante a cura, haja vista que uma proporção destes apresenta recorrência locorregional ou progressão tumoral após o tratamento. Poucos estudos examinaram populações de pacientes com pN0 ou clinicamente negativos (cN0). Objetivos: Avaliar o impacto da expressão imuno-histoquímica da E-caderina e da vimentina como fatores prognósticos para sobrevida global, sobrevida câncer específica e sobrevida livre de doença em pacientes com carcinoma escamoso do pênis clinicamente ou histologicamente negativos para metástase linfonodal. Material e Métodos: Coorte retrospectiva de 116 pacientes cN0 e pN0 com carcinoma escamoso do pênis consecutivamente tratados no A.C.Camargo Cancer Center entre 1953-2017. As variáveis registradas incluíram idade, estadiamento TNM, subtipo histológico, grau de diferenciação tumoral, invasão vascular microscópica, invasão perineural, padrão microscópico da fronte de invasão tumoral (expansivo/infiltrativo) e expressão imuno-histoquímica das proteínas E-caderina e vimentina. As amostras de tumor foram analisadas no centro do tumor e na fronte de invasão tumoral. As análises de sobrevida foram realizadas usando curvas de Kaplan-Meier e testes de log-rank. O modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox foi usado para determinar quais variáveis influenciaram as taxas de sobrevida global, câncer específica e livre de doença. Resultados: O tempo de seguimento médio foi de 176 meses. A presença de invasão perineural foi associada à alta expressão de vimentina no centro tumoral (p = 0,013), à perda da expressão de Ecaderina no centro do tumor (p = 0,026) e na fronte de invasão tumoral (p = 0,02). A perda da expressão imuno-histoquímica da E-caderina na fronte de invasão e a presença de invasão perineural foram independentemente associadas à sobrevida livre de doença. Conclusões: A perda da expressão imuno-histoquímica da E-caderina na fronte de invasão tumoral e a presença de invasão perineural no tumor primário foram associadas a uma menor sobrevida livre de doença. Alta expressão de vimentina no centro do tumor, perda da expressão da Ecaderina no centro do tumor e na fronte de invasão do tumor foram associadas à presença de invasão perineural no tumor primário.


Introduction: Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, but its incidence and specific mortality have been increasing. In Brazil, penile squamous cell carcinoma constitutes 2.1% of neoplasms in men. The involvement of inguinal lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor. Compared to patients with positive lymph nodes, histologically negative patients (pN0) have the best prognosis; however, the absence of lymph node metastases does not guarantee a cure. Some pN0 patients exhibit locoregional recurrence or tumor progression after treatment. Few studies have examined patient populations with histologically negative (pN0) or clinically negative (cN0) lymph nodes. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of E-cadherin and vimentin expression as prognostic factors for overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and disease-free survival in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma who were clinically or histologically negative for lymph node metastasis. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort of 116 patients (cN0 and pN0) treated at A. C. Camargo Cancer Center from 1953 to 2017. Recorded variables included age, TNM staging, histological subtype, degree of tumor differentiation, microscopic vascular invasion, perineural invasion, microscopic pattern of the tumor invasion front (pushing/infiltrating) and vimentin and E-cadherin immunohistochemical expression. Tumor samples were analyzed at the tumor center and at the tumor invasion front. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank testing. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to determine which variables influenced overall survival, disease-free survival, or cancer specific survival. Results: The median follow-up time was 176 months. Perineural invasion was associated with high vimentin expression at tumor center (p = 0.013), loss of E-cadherin expression in the tumor center (p = 0.026) and at the front invasion (p = 0.02). Loss of immunohistochemical E-cadherin expression at the front invasion and the presence of perineural were independently associated with disease-free survival. Conclusions: Lower disease-free survival was associated with loss of immunohistochemical E-cadherin expression at the tumor invasion front, and the presence of perineural invasion. High vimentin expression in the tumor center, loss of E-cadherin expression in the tumor center and in the tumor invasion front were associated with the presence of perineural invasion in the primary tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Penile Neoplasms , Vimentin , Cadherins , Prognosis , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Survival Analysis , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Metastasis
8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 180-185, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928549

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has shown promising results in patients with locally advanced penile cancer. However, no consensus exists on its applications for locally advanced penile cancer. Thus, it is unclear which kind of chemotherapy regimen is the best choice. Consequently, a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE was performed in March 2021 to assess the efficacy and safety of NAC for the treatment of patients with locally advanced penile cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the risk of bias in each study. This study synthesized 14 published studies. The study revealed that patients who achieved an objective response to NAC obtained a better survival outcome compared with those who did not achieve an objective response. In addition, the objective response rates (ORRs) and pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 0.57 and 0.11, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥3 toxicity was 0.36. Subgroup analysis found that the ORR and pCR of the taxane-platinum (TP) regimen group performed better than those of the nontaxane-platinum (NTP) regimen group (0.57 vs 0.54 and 0.14 vs 0.07, respectively). Moreover, the TP regimen group had more frequent toxicity than the NTP regimen group (0.41 vs 0.26). However, further studies were warranted to confirm the findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Penile Neoplasms/drug therapy , Platinum , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 702-708, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935447

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aim to evaluate the morbidity and mortality of cancer attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in China in 2016. Methods: Based on the cancer incidence and mortality rates, national population data, and population attributable fraction (PAF) in China, we calculated the number of incidence and death cases attributed to HPV infection in different areas, age groups, and gender in China in 2016. The standardized incidence and mortality rates for cancer attributed to HPV infection were calculated by using Segi's population. Results: In 2016, a total of 124 772 new cancer cases (6.32 per 100 000) were attributed to HPV infection in China, including 117 118 cases in women and 7 654 cases in men. Of these cancers, cervical cancer was the most common one, followed by anal cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, penile cancer, vaginal cancer, laryngeal cancer, oral cancer, and vulvar cancer. A total of 41 282 (2.03 per 100 000) deaths were attributed to HPV infection, of which 37 417 occurred in women and 3 865 in men. Most deaths were caused by cervical cancer, followed by anal cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, penile cancer, laryngeal cancer, vaginal cancer, oral cancer, and vulvar cancer. The incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer increased rapidly with age, peaked in age group 50-54 years, then decreased obviously. The morbidity and mortality rates of non-cervical cancer increased with age. The cancer case and death numbers in rural areas (57 089 cases and 19 485 deaths) were lower than those in urban areas (67 683 cases and 21 797 deaths). However, the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of cervical cancer were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. There were no significant differences in ASIR and ASMR of non-cervical cancers between urban areas and rural areas. Conclusions: The incidence of cancers attributed to HPV infection in China was lower than the global average, but the number of incidences accounted largely, furthermore there is an increasing trend of morbidity and mortality. The preventions and controls of cervical cancer and male anal cancer are essential to contain the increases in cancer cases and deaths attributed to HPV infection.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Mouth Neoplasms , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Penile Neoplasms/epidemiology , Registries , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Vaginal Neoplasms , Vulvar Neoplasms
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1162-1175, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340020

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate surgical complications and oncological outcomes of patients submitted to primary radical inguinal surgical debulking (PRISD) and myocutaneous pediculate flap reconstruction (MPFR) for locally advanced penile cancer (PC). Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with ulcerated and/or fixed bulky inguinal masses underwent unilateral or bilateral PRISD with MPFR. Tensor fascia lata flap (TFL) was the standard of care for all patients. Additional use of the gracilis flap (GF) was carried out when necessary. Contra-lateral radical inguinal lymphadenectomy (RIL) was conduced when PRISD was performed unilaterally. Surgical complications were analyzed and stratified into minor and major according to the Bevan-Thomas classification. Adjunctive treatments were assessed and oncological outcomes analyzed. Results: Of the 42 patients evaluated, 10 (23.8%) underwent bilateral PRISD and 32 (76.2%) unilateral PRISD with contra-lateral RIL, totaling 84 lymphadenectomies. A total of 62 MPFRs were performed, 52 with TFL and 10 with GF. A total of 53 complications were identified, 49 related to PRISD with MPFR and 4 to RIL. Adjuvant chemotherapy was carried out in 16 patients. Median follow-up was 10.8 months with a median overall survival (OS) of 14.0 months against 6.0 months (p=0.006) for patients submitted to PRISD with adjuvant chemotherapy in relation to surgery alone. Conclusions: PRISD alone for advanced loco-regional PC is unlikely to promote long-term survival, although it can lead to temporary local control of the disease. Despite the feasibility of the procedure, it is related to high incidence of complications. Surgical treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved OS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Myocutaneous Flap , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Lymph Node Excision
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1108-1119, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Reviewing surgical procedures using fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flaps for inguinal reconstruction after lymphadenectomy in metastatic penile cancer. Material and Methods: We reviewed the current literature of the Pubmed database according to PRISMA guidelines. The search terms used were "advanced penile cancer", "groin reconstruction", and "inguinal reconstruction", both alone and in combination. The bibliographic references used in the selected articles were also analyzed to include recent articles into our research. Results: A total of 54 studies were included in this review. About one third of penile cancers are diagnosed with locally advanced disease, often presenting with large lymph node involvement. Defects in the inguinal region resulting from the treatment of metastatic penile cancer are challenging for the surgeon and cause high patient morbidity, rendering primary closure unfeasible. Several fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flaps of the abdomen and thigh can be used for the reconstruction of the inguinal region, transferring tissue to the affected area, and enabling tensionless closure. Conclusions: The reconstruction of defects in the inguinal region with the aid of flaps allows for faster postoperative recovery and reduces the risk of complications. Thus, the patient will be able to undergo potential necessary adjuvant treatments sooner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Penis/surgery , Surgical Flaps , Inguinal Canal/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(5): 943-956, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286797

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis is a rare disease in developed countries but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A crucial prognostic factor is the presence of inguinal lymph node metastases (ILNM) at the time of diagnosis. At least 25% of cases have micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, we performed a literature review of studies evaluating factors, both clinical and pathological, predictive of lymph node metastases in penile SCC. Materials and methods: Studies were identified using PubMed and search terms included the following: penile cancer, penile tumor, penile neoplasm, penile squamous cell carcinoma, inguinal lymph node metastasis, lymph node metastases, nodal metastasis, inguinal node metastasis, inguinal lymph node involvement, predictors, and predictive factor. The number of patients and predictive factors were identified for each study based on OR, HR, or RR in multivariate analyses, as well as their respective significance values. These were compiled to generate a single body of evidence supportive of factors predictive of ILNM in penile SCC. Results: We identified 31 studies, both original articles and meta-analyses, which identified factors predictive of metastases in penile SCC. The following clinical factors were predictive of ILNM in penile SCC: lymphovascular invasion (LVI), increased grade, increased stage (both clinical and pathological), infiltrative and reticular invasion, increased depth of invasion, perineural invasion, and younger patient age at diagnosis. Biochemically, overexpression of p53, SOD2, Ki-67, and ID1 were associated with spread of SCC to inguinal lymph nodes. Diffuse PD-L1 expression, increased SCC-Ag expression, increased NLR, and CRP >20 were also associated with increased ILNM. Conclusions: A multitude of factors are associated with metastasis of SCC of the penis to inguinal lymph nodes, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The above factors, most strongly LVI, grade, and node positivity, may be considered when constructing a nomogram to risk-stratify patients and determine eligibility for prophylactic inguinal lymphadenectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis
16.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1150, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1357319

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Entre las lesiones malignas que se describen, se encuentra el cáncer de pene. Esta entidad constituye del 2 al 5 por ciento de los tumores urogenitales masculinos; la lesión metastásica es muy poco frecuente. Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas y evolución tórpida de un paciente con metástasis en el pene, de una neoplasia del colon. Caso clínico: Paciente de 54 años, antecedentes personales de salud, fumador, historia de hiperplasia prostática benigna y prostatitis crónica. Ingresa con dolor en hemiabdomen inferior y tumoración abdominal. Se diagnostica plastrón intraabdominal. Es intervenido quirúrgicamente; la biopsia de la lesión informa adenocarcinoma de colon. A los 7 días de evolución aparecen lesiones en el glande, que resultaron metástasis del adenocarcinoma de colon. Fallece por complicaciones de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Las metástasis de las neoplasias del colon, en el pene, son infrecuentes; indican un estadio avanzado de la enfermedad, con un pronóstico desfavorable(AU)


Introduction: Among the malignant lesions described is penile cancer. This entity constitutes 2 percent to 5 percent of male urogenital tumors, and metastatic lesion is very rare. Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and torpid evolution of a patient with metastases in the penis from colon neoplasia. Clinical case: 54-year-old patient, personal health history. Smoker, history of benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis, which begins with pain in the lower abdomen and abdominal tumor, intra-abdominal plastron is diagnosed and is surgically intervened with a biopsy of the lesion that reports colon adenocarcinoma. At 7 days of evolution, lesions appeared on the glans that resulted in metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma. He dies from complications of the disease within six months. Conclusions: Colonic neoplasm metastases in the penis are infrequent, they indicate an advanced stage of the disease, with an unfavorable prognosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Penile Neoplasms , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis
17.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(3): 189-193, 15/09/2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369425

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Objective The management of penile carcinoma is very disabling and mutilating, bur early treatment can be curative. Our group systematically performs oncological management with immediate penile reconstruction and preservation of the organ (partial penectomy, resurfacing, or glansectomy) when feasible. Due to the low incidence of penile carcinoma, it is difficult to achieve experience in penile reconstruction using free grafts in a standardized and reproducible way. Therefore, we herein present the results of the use of an inanimate model to identify the most efficient geometric way to procure and apply a free skin graft to reconstruct the penis. Methods A preclinical inanimate model of the penis was developed to simulate the surgical reconstruction using a free skin graft. Six different geometric skin-graft models were created and tested. For each of them, we measured graft's surface area as well as the discarded surface after placing the graft on the penis for reconstruction. We also measured the amount of suture lines required for reconstruction. All of these measurements in the six different models were compared. Results Based on the six models, we identified that the longitude of the graft must measure the same as the maximum perimeter of the glans in order to have a square that enables the complete coverage of the penile defect. The total graft area for the first 4 models was of 40 cm2; for models 5 and 6, it was of 60 cm2. The average discarded area of the graft was of 18.135 cm2 (range: 12 cm2 to 30 cm2). Models 4 years 6 were the ones with the least discarded tissue: 12 cm2. The average amount of suture lines to secure the different model grafts was 7.3 (range: 5 to 12). The models that required the least amount of suture lines were number 1 and 4, with a total of 5 suture lines. Conclusions The double trapezoid is the most efficient model to reconstruct the glans after organ-sparing oncological management. Our results contribute to establish a more standardized and predictable technique to reconstruct the penis.


Introducción y Objetivo El manejo del cáncer de pene es muy mutilante y discapacitante. Pero el manejo quirúrgico oportuno puede ser curativo. Nuestro grupo realiza de manera sistemática el manejo oncológico con reconstrucción inmediata del pene y preservación del órgano (penectomía parcial, desepitelización, o gladectomía) cuando sea viable. Como la incidencia de cancer de pene es baja, lograr obtener la experiencia en reconstrucción de pene con el uso de injertos libres de manera estandarizada y reproducible resulta difícil. Por lo tanto, presentamos en este artículo los resultados de un modelo inanimado para identificar la forma geométrica mas eficiente de obtener y aplicar un injerto de piel libre para reconstruir el pene. Materiales y Métodos Se desarrolló un modelo preclínico y inanimado del pene para que se simulara su reconstrucción quirúrgica con el uso de un ijerto de piel libre. Desarrollamos y evaluamos seis modelos geométricos de injerto de piel distintos. Para cada uno, medimos el area total del injerto y la del tejido desechado tras ponerlo en el pene para la recosntrucción. También medimos la cantidad de líneas de sutura necesarias para la recosntrucción. Comparamos todas las medidas entre los seis modelos distintos. Resultados De los 6 modelos diferentes, encontramos que la longitud del injerto debe tener la misma medida que el perímetro máximo del glande para que se tenga un cuadrado que nos permita cubrir todo el defecto del pene. El area total de los 4 modelos iniciales fue de 40 cm2, y el area de los modelos 5 y 6 fue de 60 cm2. El area promedio del tejido desechado en los injertos fue de 18,135 cm2 (rango: 12 cm2 a 30 cm2). Los modelos 4 y 6 fueron los que tuvieron la menor cantidad de tejido desechado: 12 cm2. El promedio de la cantidad de líneas de sutura para atar los distintos modelos de injerto fue de 7,3 (rango: 5 a 12). Los modelos con la menor cantidad de líneas de sutura fueron el 1 y el 4, con un total de 5 líneas. Conclusiones El modelo de doble trapezoide es el más eficiente para reconstruir el glande tras el majejo oncológico en que se preserva el órgano. Nuestros resultados contribuyen para establecer una técnica de reconstrucción del pene más estandarizada y previsible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms , Sutures , Skin Transplantation , Tissues , Carcinoma , Incidence
18.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e602, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radical penectomy (RP) is infrequently performed as it is reserved for specific cases of penile cancer, hence the paucity of reports regarding surgical and anesthetic considerations. Acute postoperative pain, chronic post-surgical pain, concomitant mood disorders as well as a profound impact on the patient's quality of life have been documented. This case is of a patient with diabetes and coronary heart disease, who presented with advanced, over infected penile cancer, depressive disorder and a history of pain of neuropathic characteristics. The patient underwent radical penectomy using a combined spinal-epidural technique for anesthesia. Preoperatively, the patient was treated with pregabalin and magnesium sulphate, and later received a blood transfusion due to intraoperative blood loss. Adequate intra and postoperative analgesia was achieved with L-bupivacaine given through a peridural catheter during one week. Recovery was good, pain was stabilized to preoperative levels and the patient received pharmacological support and follow-up by psychiatry and the pain team.


Resumen La penectomía radical (PR) es una cirugía infrecuente, reservada para casos específicos de cáncer de pene, por lo que hay escasos informes sobre sus consideraciones quirúrgicas y anestésicas. Se ha documentado dolor agudo postoperatorio, dolor crónico posquirúrgico y alteraciones del estado de ánimo concomitantes, así como un profundo impacto en la calidad de vida posterior del paciente. Se presenta el caso de un paciente diabético y cardiópata coronario con cáncer de pene avanzado y sobreinfectado, trastorno depresivo y dolor previo de características neuropáticas, que recibe técnica combinada espinal-peridural para cirugía de penectomía radical. Se le trata también con pregabalina preoperatoria, sulfato de magnesio y transfusión por sangrado quirúrgico. Se otorgó una adecuada analgesia intra y postoperatoria, mediante catéter peridural con L-bupivacaína hasta por una semana. El paciente tuvo una buena recuperación, estabilización del dolor a niveles preoperatorios, controles y apoyo farmacológico por psiquiatría de enlace y equipo del dolor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Penile Neoplasms , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Catheters , Anesthetics , Pain, Postoperative , Psychiatry , Quality of Life , Blood Transfusion , Bupivacaine , Coronary Disease , Depressive Disorder , Pain Management , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Magnesium Sulfate
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 515-522, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154487

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the erectile function in patients who underwent partial penectomy and identify factors associated with penile functional status. Materials and Methods: We identified patients who underwent partial penectomy due to penile cancer between 2009 and 2014. Clinical and pathological characteristics included patient age at the time of diagnosis, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, metabolic syndrome, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, penile shaft length, tumor size, primary tumor stage (pT), clinical nodal status, and local recurrence. Erectile function was assessed prospectively with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) at least 3 months after partial penectomy. Results: A total of 81 patients met analysis criteria. At the diagnosis, the median age was 62 years (range from 30 to 88). Median follow-up was 17 months (IQR 7-36). Of total patients, 37 (45%) had T2 or higher disease. Clinically positive nodes were present in 16 (20%) patients and seven (8.6%) developed local recurrence. Fifty patients (62%) had erectile dysfunction (ED) after partial penectomy, 30% had moderate or severe erectile dysfunction scores. Patients with ED versus without ED were similar in baseline characteristics except for age, penile shaft length, and presence of inguinal adenopathy (p <0.05). Multivariate analysis using logistic regression confirmed that older patients, shorter penile shaft length, and clinically positive lymph node were significantly associated with ED. Conclusion: Partial penectomy due to penile cancer provides adequate local control of the disease, however, proper counselling is important especially in relation to ED consequences. Preservation of penile length yields to more optimal erectile recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Penis/surgery , Penile Erection , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
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