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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 510-519, fev 11, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359304

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a oxidação em sistemas biológicos está relacionada ao desenvolvimento de patologias em humanos. A ingestão de alimentos ricos em compostos químicos que exercem atividade antioxidante contribui para a prevenção e redução dos efeitos deletérios dos radicais livres formados no organismo. Peptídeos derivados das caseínas têm mostrado um elevado potencial como agentes antioxidantes. Objetivos: neste sentido, o presente estudo avaliou a atividade antioxidante de hidrolisados derivados de caseínas de leites das espécies bubalina, bovina e caprina, obtidos pela ação de diferentes proteases. Metodologia: inicialmente, as caseínas foram isoladas dos demais componentes do leite, depois foram submetidas ao processo de proteólise pelas enzimas bromelina, papaína, tripsina e neutrase, individualmente. A atividade antioxidante dos hidrolisados foi avaliada, através da capacidade de eliminação dos radicais: hidroxila (OH­Ë™), superóxido (O2­Ë™), 2,2 difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH˙), 2,2'azinobis-(3-ácido etilbenzotiazolino-6-sulfônico (ABTS˙), e quelante dos íons metálicos cobre (Cu2+) e ferro (Fe2+). Resultados: os resultados mostraram que a caseína bovina apresentou o menor (35,54%) grau de hidrólise e a caseína bubalina apresentou o maior (85,64%) grau de hidrólise pela ação da neutrase e bromelina após 480 minutos, respectivamente. O potencial para o sequestro dos radicais hidroxila variou entre 0 e 100%, superóxido superior a 80%, ABTS superior a 85%, DPPH entre 20 e 95% habilidade de quelar ferro entre 10 e 100% e cobre entre 14 e 80%. Conclusão: assim, a hidrólise das caseínas do leite bubalino, bovino e caprino foram capazes de produzir hidrolisados com elevado potencial antioxidante e que, mediante novos estudos, poderá vir ser incorporado em produtos alimentícios para o consumo humano.


Introduction: oxidation in biological systems is related to the development of pathologies in humans. The ingestion of foods rich in chemical compounds that exert antioxidant activity contributes to the prevention and reduction of the deleterious effects of free radicals formed in the body. Peptides derived from caseins have shown high potential as antioxidant agents. Objectives: the present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of casein hydrolysates derived from bubaline, bovine, and caprine milk obtained by the action of different proteases. Methodology: initially, the caseins were isolated from the other milk components, and then subjected to the proteolysis process by the enzymes bromelain, papain, trypsin and neutrase, individually. The antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates was evaluated, through the capacity of elimination of the radicals: hydroxyl (OH-˙), superoxide (O2-˙), 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙), 2,2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolino-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS˙), and chelating of the metal ions copper (Cu2+) and iron (Fe2+). Results: the results showed that bovine casein showed the lowest (35.54%) degree of hydrolysis and bubaline casein showed the highest (85.64%) degree of hydrolysis by the action of neutrase and bromelin after 480 minutes, respectively. The potential for hydroxyl radical sequestration varied between 0 and 100%, superoxide higher than 80%, ABTS higher than 85%, DPPH between 20 and 95% and the ability to chelate iron between 10 and 100% and copper between 14 and 80%. Conclusion: thus, the hydrolysis of caseins from bubaline, bovine and goat milk were able to produce hydrolysates with high antioxidant potential and that, upon further studies, may be incorporated into food products for human consumption.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Peptides , Buffaloes , Cattle , Goats , Dietary Supplements
2.
Infectio ; 25(4): 241-249, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286717

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infection through the Hepatitis C virus does not have a vaccine and treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin can fail; which is why it may cause chronic infection and, consequently, could develop liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been described that virus-cell recognition occurs between the E2 viral envelope protein and diverse cell receptors, with this interaction being critical in viral infection. which is why the study sought to identify inhibitory peptides of the interaction between viral E2 protein and the CD81 and CD209 receptors. Methodology: Through the RCSB protein database, crystals from the CD81 and CD209 receptors were selected, CD81/E2-HCV, CD209/E2-HCV complexes were carried out by SWISS-MODEL to generate inhibitory peptides of protein interaction through the Rosetta web server, this interaction was validated through ClusPro and finally, determined the theoretical physicochemical and cytotoxic properties of these peptides. Results: two peptides were obtained, without predicted toxicity, with a theoretical capacity of blocking the protein interaction between the E2 protein of the virus and CD81 and CD209.


Resumen La infección por el virus de la hepatitis C, no cuenta con vacuna y el tratamiento con interferón pegilado y ribavirina puede fallar; por lo que puede causar infec ción crónica y como consecuencia podría desarrollarse falla hepática o carcinoma hepatocelular. Se ha descrito que el reconocimiento virus-célula, se da entre la proteína de envoltura viral E2 y diversos receptores celulares, siendo esta interacción crítica en la infección viral. Razón por la cual este estudio buscó identificar péptidos inhibidores de la interacción entre la proteína E2 viral y los receptores CD81 y CD209. Metodología: A través de la base de datos de proteínas RCSB, se seleccionaron cristales de los receptores CD81 y CD209, se realizaron complejos CD81/E2-HCV, CD209/E2-HCV para generar péptidos inhibidores de interacción proteica a través del servidor web Rosetta, esta interacción fue validada a través de ClusPro y finalmente se evaluaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas y citotóxicas teóricas para estos péptidos. Resultados: se obtuvo dos péptidos, sin toxicidad predicha, con capacidad teórica de bloquear la interacción proteica entre la proteína E2 del virus y CD81 y CD209.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis Viruses , Peptides , Vaccines , Proteins , Hepatitis C , Liver Failure , Hepacivirus , Infections
3.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-14, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363261

ABSTRACT

Background: Milk-derived biopeptides have reported in vitro dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition, suggesting a glycemic-regulatory effect in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Nonetheless, the therapeutic application of these nutraceuticals is limited by the scarcity of knowledge regarding their pharmacokinetic profile. Objective: This study aimed to characterize and assess the pharmacokinetics of milk-derived biopeptides. Through an in silico comparative analysis with gliptins, we expected to identify enhanced properties in food-hydrolysates and suitable DPP-IV inhibiting peptides as candidates for T2DM therapy. Methods: A comparison between gliptins and biopeptides was conducted based on in silico evaluation of drug-likeness, physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, and synthetic accessibility. Suitable target proteins for gastrointestinal-absorbable biopeptides were determined as well. Data collection was performed on SwissADME, ADMETlab, DrugBank, SwissTargetPrediction, ChemDes, and BIOPEP-UWM platforms. Statistical analysis was carried out using a one-way ANOVA test. Results: Drug-likeness compliance showed no significant difference between gliptins and biopeptides (p>0.05) in three out of nine assessed rules, though gastrointestinal-absorbable biopeptides exhibited no significant difference with gliptins in five drug-likeness guidelines. The physicochemical evaluation revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between both groups, with peptides exhibiting enhanced solubility, flexibility, and polarity. Nine out of thirty-six assessed biopeptides reported being likely gastrointestinal-absorbable molecules, from which six displayed ≥30% predicted bioavailability, two reported CYP450 interactions, and all were determined to be blood confined. Biopeptides showed a slightly lower clearance than gliptins yet counteracted by a significantly lower half-life. Moreover, synthetic accessibility scores indicated higher synthetic ease for biopeptides. In addition, absorbable bioactive peptides reported a considerable binding affinity to DPP-IV and Calpain-I. Conclusions: Compared to gliptins, gastrointestinal-absorbable biopeptides exhibit superior physicochemical properties (higher solubility, flexibility, and polarity), lesser CYP450 interactions, higher synthetic ease, and some reported an important affinity for DPP-IV and Calpain-I. Only a small fraction of milk-derived biopeptides are suitable drug-like compounds and feasible candidates for T2DM therapy; yet, testing their therapeutic potency remains subject to further studies


Antecedentes: Los biopéptidos derivados de la leche han mostrado inhibir la dipeptidil-peptidasa IV (DPP-IV) en ensayos in vitro, lo que sugiere una regulación de la glicemia en la Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 (DM2). Sin embargo, su uso terapéutico está limitado por el escaso conocimiento de sus propiedades farmacológicas. Objetivo: Caracterizar y evaluar el perfil farmacocinético de los biopéptidos derivados de la leche. Por medio de un análisis comparativo in silico, se buscó identificar propiedades de carácter superior a las gliptinas en los biopéptidos inhibidores de DPP-IV, así como posibles candidatos a agentes terapéuticos en la DMT2. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo una comparación entre las Gliptinas y los biopéptidos basada en la evaluación in silicode las características "d r ug - li ke", propiedades fisicoquímicas, farmacocinética y accesibilidad sintética. Adicionalmente, se determinaron posibles proteínas diana para los biopéptidos de alta probabilidad de absorción gastrointestinal. Los datos se obtuvieron en SwissADME, ADMETlab, DrugBank, SwissTargetPrediction, ChemDes y BIOPEP-UWM. El análisis estadístico se basó en un análisis de varianza (one-way ANOVA test). Resultados: El cumplimiento de las reglas de "drug-likeness" no mostró diferencias significativas entre las gliptinas y los biopéptidos (p>0.05) en tres de las nueve normas evaluadas, empero, los biopéptidos absorbibles no mostraron diferencias significativas con las gliptinas en cinco de estas. La evaluación fisicoquímica reveló una diferencia significativa (p>0.05) entre ambos grupos y una mayor solubilidad, flexibilidad y polaridad para los biopéptidos. Nueve de los treinta y seis biopéptidos estudiados reportaron alta probabilidad de absorción gastrointestinal, de los cuales seis presentaron una biodisponibilidad predicha ≥30%, dos reportaron interacciones con el CYP450, y todos mostraron permanecer confinados en sangre. Los biopéptidos mostraron una tasa de aclaramiento inferior a las gliptinas, sin embargo, contrarrestado por una vida-media significativamente menor. Los valores de accesibilidad sintética indicaron una mayor facilidad de síntesis para los biopéptidos. Por último, los biopéptidos absorbibles mostraron una considerable afinidad por la DPP-IV y la Calpaína-I. Conclusiones: Frente a las gliptinas, los biopéptidos absorbibles presentan: propiedades fisicoquímicas superiores (mayor solubilidad, flexibilidad y polaridad), menores interacciones con el CYP450, mayor facilidad de síntesis y algunos una importante afinidad por la DPP-IV y la Calpaína-I. Una mínima fracción de biopéptidos derivados de la leche son candidatos viables para la terapia de DM2; sin embargo, la determinación de su efectividad terapéutica permanece sujeta a futuros estudios


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacokinetics , Peptides , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 52-58, July. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis attacks approximately 10% of the population worldwide. Sika Deer (Cervus nippon), one of China's precious traditional medicinal animals, has been widely recorded in ancient Chinese medical books and claimed for centuries to have numerous medical benefits including bone strengthening. This study aimed to find the use of Sika Deer bone in treating osteoporosis according to traditional records and to investigate the protective effect of Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract on glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) in rats. RESULTS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract could increase serum Ca2+ and BGP, decrease serum P3+, ALP, PTH, and CT, but had no effect on serum NO in rats with GIOP. The immunohistochemical iNOS results of the rats' distal femur were negative in each group. Besides the model group, the eNOS color reaction in osteoblasts was strongly positive in the other three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract can improve pathological changes in the microstructure and stimulate the expression of eNOS in osteoblasts. The protective effect on bone might be mediated by eNOS-dependent NO generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Peptides/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Deer , Osteoblasts , Dexamethasone , Rats, Wistar , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 113-120, mayo 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285453

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La mayoría de las personas con enfermedad de Chagas desarrolla anticuerpos específicos contra Trypanosoma cruzi. En la infección temprana se producen anticuerpos IgM contra T. cruzi que son reemplazados por IgG durante el curso de la enfermedad. Los primeros síntomas de la enfermedad suelen ser muy leves y atípicos, por lo que a menudo no se detecta en la fase aguda. Objetivos. Evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad clínica y analítica, la precisión y la eficacia del UMELISA CHAGAS® con la incorporación de nuevos péptidos sintéticos en la fase sólida representativos de la proteína SAPA (Shed Acute Phase Antigen) y del antígeno TSA (Trypomastigote Surface Antigen). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó un panel de desempeño de título mixto anti-I cruzi y uno de seroconversión de Chagas, así como muestras de suero positivas y negativas provenientes de zonas endémicas de la enfermedad y muestras positivas de otras enfermedades que podían interferir con la prueba. Las pruebas Bioelisa CHAGAS, Chagatest ELISA recombinante v. 4.0, Chagatest HAI y SD BIOLINE CHAGAS Ab Rapid, se emplearon como referencia. Resultados. Los porcentajes de sensibilidad y especificidad clínica fueron de 97,73 % (IC95% 96,23-99,24) y 99,33 % (IC95% 98,88-99,78), respectivamente. Se obtuvo un 98,96 % de eficacia y una buena precisión. Conclusiones. Los resultados demuestran que la nueva fase sólida del UMELISA CHAGAS® puede utilizarse para el inmunodiagnóstico, la certificación de sangre y la vigilancia epidemiológica en países endémicos y no endémicos con población de alto riesgo.


Abstract | Introduction: Most people with Chagas disease develop specific antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. In early infection, IgM antibodies against T. cruzi are produced and later replaced for IgG antibodies during the course of the disease. The first symptoms of the infection may be very mild and atypical, which is why the disease is often not detected in the acute phase. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and analytical sensitivity, and specificity, accuracy, and efficacy of UMELISA CHAGAS™ with the addition of new synthetic peptides in the solid phase representative of the shed acute phase antigen protein (SAPA) and the trypomastigote surface antigen (TSA). Materials and methods: We evaluated a mixed anti-T. cruzi titer performance panel and a Chagas seroconversion one, as well as positive and negative serum samples from endemic areas of the disease and positive samples for other diseases that may interfere with the assay. The Bioelisa CHAGAS assay, Chaga test recombinant ELISA v.4.0, Chagatest HAI, and SD BIOLINE CHAGAS Ab Rapid were used as reference tests. Results: The sensitivity of the assay was 97.73% (95% CI: 96,23-99,24) and the clinical specificity, 99.33% (95% CI: 98,88-99,78) while the efficacy and the accuracy were 98.96%. Conclusions: Our results show that the new solid phase of UMELISA CHAGAS® can be used for immunodiagnostic, blood certification, and epidemiological surveillance in endemic and non-endemic countries with high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Peptides , Trypanosoma cruzi , Antibodies
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 16-22, Mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cecropin P1, acting as an antimicrobial, has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity with some antiviral and antifungal properties. It is a promising natural alternative to antibiotics which is originally isolated from the pig intestinal parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Many studies have shown that Cecropin P1 is helpful for the prevention or treatment of clinical diseases. Therefore, it is very necessary to establish a safe, nontoxic, and efficient expression method of Cecropin P1. RESULTS: The results indicated that the recombinant protein was about 5.5 kDa showed by Tricine­SDS­ PAGE and Western blot. And Cecropin P1 was efficiently secreted and expressed after 12 h of induction, with an increasing yield over the course of the induction. Its maximum concentration was 7.83 mg/L after concentration and purification. In addition, in vitro experiments demonstrated that Cecropin P1 not only exerted a strong inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Pasteurella sp., but also displayed an antiviral activity against PRRSV NADC30-Like strain. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the strategy of expressing Cecropin P1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is harmless, efficient, and safe for cells. In addition, the expressed Cecropin P1 has antiviral and antibacterial properties concurrently.


Subject(s)
Peptides/pharmacology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Recombinant Proteins , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Blotting, Western
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19061, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350245

ABSTRACT

Proteins and peptides are the most diverse biomolecules found in nature and make our interest due to their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in controlling blood pressure. The inhibition of ACE with peptides is a main target in the regulation of hypertension. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of soy bean. This was accomplished by isolation of ACE inhibitory peptides using response surface methodology (RSM) and characterization of these bioactive peptides by mass spectrometry. 31 hydrolyzed fractions were isolated and evaluated for their ACE inhibition potential. Hydrolyzed fraction having highest ACE inhibitory activity was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique. RSM results showed maximum ACE inhibition potential (64%) by hydrolyzate was obtained at 45 ºC temperature, pH 8.0, E/S 0.2 in 2 hours hydrolysis time. Results of LC-MS analysis revealed Ser-Gly, Ser-Pro, Met-Ala, His-Ala, Lys-Pro, Phe-Thr, Met-Leu, Pro-Arg, Ala-Pro-Val, Pro-Ala-Leu, Val-Met-Gly, Pro-Leu-Val, Pro-Pro-Gln, His-Arg-Gly, Ser-Phe-Val-Leu, Ala-Val-His-Try, Arg-Thr-Val-Arg, His-His-Tyr-Leu-Val, Asp-Gly-Ala-Cys-Ser-Ala-Asn and MetVal-Thr-Gly-Pro-Gly-Cys-His bioactive peptides in hydrolyzed fraction of soy bean. Our data provide evidence that response surface methodology is a good approach for isolation of antihypertensive bioactive peptides with more potent activity as nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals. Therefore soy bean can be use for industrial production of pharmaceutical grade natural medicines for handling high blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Peptides/pharmacology , Proteins/pharmacology , Soybean Proteins/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Protein Hydrolysates/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Process Optimization/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/analysis
8.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(2): e1585, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345003

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: CD133 and AXL have been described as cancer stem cell markers, and c-MYC as a key regulatory cellular mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC). Aim: Evaluate the prognostic role of the biomarkers CD133, AXL and c-MYC and their association with clinicopathologic characteristics in colorectal adenocarcinomas and adenomas. Methods: A total of 156 patients with UICC stage I-IV adenocarcinomas (n=122) and adenomas (n=34) were analyzed. Tissue microarrays (TMA) from primary tumors and polyps for CD133, c-MYC and AXL expression were performed and analyzed for their significance with clinicopathologic characteristics. Results: Poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas and disease progression were independent risk factors for poor overall survival. The median overall survival time was 30 months. Positive CD133 expression (35.9% of all cases), particularly of right-sided CRCs (44.8% of the CD133+ cases), was negatively correlated with death in the univariate analysis, which did not reach significance in the multivariate analysis. c-MYC (15.4% of all cases) was predominantly expressed in advanced-stage patients with distant (non-pulmonary/non-hepatic) metastasis. AXL expression was found only occasionally, and predominantly dominated in adenomas, with less penetrance in high-grade dysplasia. Conclusions: CD133 expression was not associated with inferior overall survival in CRC. While AXL showed inconclusive results, c-MYC expression in primary CRCs was associated with distant metastasis.


RESUMO Racional: CD133 e AXL são descritos na literatura como marcadores de células-tronco tumorais, e c-MYC cumpre papel chave como mecanismo de regulação celular no câncer colorretal (CCR). Objetivo: Avaliar o papel prognóstico dos biomarcadores CD133, AXL e c-MYC e sua associação com características clinicopatológicas de adenocarcinomas e adenomas colorretais. Métodos: Um total de 156 pacientes com adenocarcinomas de estádio UICC I-IV (n=122) e adenomas (n=34) colorretais foram avaliados. Microarranjos teciduais (TMA) dos tumores primários e adenomas foram realizados em busca de expressão de CD133, c-MYC e AXL, com posterior análise de relação significativa com características clinicopatológicas. Resultados: Adenocarcinomas pobremente diferenciados e progressão de doença foram fatores de risco independentes para má sobrevida global. A taxa mediana de sobrevida global foi de 30 meses. Expressão positiva de CD133 (35,9% dos casos), particularmente em cânceres de cólon direito (44,8% dos casos CD133+), correlacionou-se negativamente com óbito na análise univariada, sem significância estatística na análise multivariada. c-MYC (15,4% dos casos) teve predomínio de expressão em pacientes com estádio avançado com metástases distantes (não-pulmonares/não-hepáticas). Expressão de AXL foi pouco encontrada, com predomínio em adenomas, com menor penetrância em displasia de alto grau. Conclusão: Expressão de CD133 não se associou com sobrevida global inferior em CCR. Enquanto AXL demonstrou resultados inconclusivos, expressão de c-MYC em tumores primários se associou-se à metástases à distância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms , Biomarkers, Tumor , Peptides , Prognosis , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Glycoproteins , Antigens, CD , AC133 Antigen
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10423, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285668

ABSTRACT

About 3000 tons of beans are not used in human food due to hardening. Several studies on bean-derived bioactive peptides have shown potential to treat some diseases, including those relying on oxidative dysfunctions. We assessed the effects of peptides extracted from hardened bean Phaseolus vulgaris (PV) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects in endothelial cells, and oxidonitrergic-dependent vasodilating effects. Extract was composed by peptide fraction <3 kDa (PV3) from hardened common bean residue. PV3 sequences were obtained and analyzed with bioinformatics. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with 10, 20, 30, and 250 µg/mL PV3. Oxidative stress was provoked by 3% H2O2. Cytotoxicity and cytoprotective effects were evaluated by MTT assay, whereas, ROS and NO were quantified using DHE and DAF-FM fluorescent probes by confocal microscopy. NO- and endothelium-dependent vasodilating effects of PV3 were assessed in isolated aortic rings. We found 35 peptides with an average mass of 1.14 kDa. There were no cell deaths with 10 and 20 μg/mL PV3. PV3 at 30 μg/mL increased cell viability, while cytotoxicity was observed only with 250 μg/mL PV3. PV3 at 10 μg/mL was able to protect cells from oxidative stress. PV3 also increased NO release without causing cell death. It also reduced relative ROS production induced by H2O2. PV3 vasodilating effects relied on endothelium-dependent NO release. PV3 obtained from low-commercial-value bean displays little cytotoxicity and exerts antioxidant effects, whereas it increases endothelial NO release.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phaseolus , Peptides/pharmacology , Endothelium , Hydrogen Peroxide , Molecular Weight , Antioxidants/pharmacology
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10717, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180740

ABSTRACT

Scorpion venom is a Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP), a peptide isolated from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch, has an anti-epileptic effect by reducing seizure behavior according to a modified Racine scale. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of SVHRP on temporal lobe epilepsy. The hippocampus and hippocampal neurons from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats were treated with SVHRP at different doses and duration. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), stromal interaction molecule (STIM), and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (ORAI1). In the hippocampal tissues and primary hippocampal neuron cultures, SVHRP treatment resulted in increased mRNA and protein levels of BDNF and NPY under the epileptic condition. The upregulation of BDNF and NPY expression was positively correlated with the dose level and treatment duration of SVHRP in hippocampal tissues from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats. On the other hand, no significant changes in the levels of CREB, STIM, or ORAI1 were observed. SVHRP may exhibit an anti-epileptic effect by upregulating the expression of BDNF and NPY in the epileptic hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Scorpion Venoms/toxicity , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Peptides , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hippocampus/metabolism , Kainic Acid/toxicity , Neurons
11.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210001, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351017

ABSTRACT

Phα1ß is a neurotoxin purified from spider venom that acts as a high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channel blocker. This spider peptide has shown a high selectivity for N-type HVA calcium channels (NVACC) and an analgesic effect in several animal models of pain. Its activity was associated with a reduction in calcium transients, glutamate release, and reactive oxygen species production from the spinal cord tissue and dorsal ganglia root (DRG) in rats and mice. It has been reported that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of Phα1ß to treat chronic pain reverted opioid tolerance with a safer profile than ω-conotoxin MVIIA, a highly selective NVACC blocker. Following a recent development of recombinant Phα1ß (CTK 01512-2), a new molecular target, TRPA1, the structural arrangement of disulphide bridges, and an effect on glial plasticity have been identified. CTK 01512-2 reproduced the antinociceptive effects of the native toxin not only after the intrathecal but also after the intravenous administration. Herein, we review the Phα1ß antinociceptive activity in the most relevant pain models and its mechanisms of action, highlighting the impact of CTK 01512-2 synthesis and its potential for multimodal analgesia.


Subject(s)
Pain , Peptides/isolation & purification , Reactive Oxygen Species , Analgesics/adverse effects , Neurotoxins/isolation & purification
12.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200171, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279405

ABSTRACT

Background Solitary wasp venoms may be a rich source of neuroactive substances, since their venoms are used for paralyzing preys. We have been exploring bioactive constituents of solitary wasp venoms and, in this study, the component profile of the venom from a solitary scoliid wasp, Scolia decorata ventralis, was investigated through a comprehensive analysis using LC-MS. Two peptides were synthesized, and their neuroprotective properties were evaluated. Methods A reverse-phase HPLC connected to ESI-MS was used for LC-MS analyses. Online mass fingerprinting was performed from TIC, and data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry gave the MS/MS spectra. The sequences of two major peptide components were determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis, confirmed by solid phase synthesis. Using the synthetic peptides, biological activities were assessed. Cell integrity tests and neuroprotection analyzes using H2O2 as an oxidative stress inducer were performed for both peptides. Results Online mass fingerprinting revealed that the venom contains 123 components, and the MS/MS analysis resulted in 33 full sequences of peptide components. The two main peptides, α-scoliidine (DYVTVKGFSPLR) and β-scoliidine (DYVTVKGFSPLRKA), present homology with the bradykinin C-terminal. Despite this, both peptides did not behave as substrates or inhibitors of ACE, indicating that they do not interact with this metallopeptidase. In further studies, β-scoliidine, but not α -scoliidine, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells through integrity and metabolism cell assays. Interestingly, β-scoliidine has the extension of the KA dipeptide at the C-terminal in comparison with α-scoliidine. Conclusion Comprehensive LC-MS and MS/MS analyses from the Scolia decorata ventralis venom displayed the component profile of this venom. β-scoliidine showed an effective cytoprotective effect, probably due to the observed increase in the number of cells. This is the first report of solitary wasp venom peptides showing neuroprotective activity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides/classification , Wasp Venoms , Wasps/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Oxidative Stress , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
13.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200105, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1180822

ABSTRACT

Amphibians inhabit the terrestrial environment, a conquest achieved after several evolutionary steps, which were still insufficient to make them completely independent of the aquatic environment. These processes gave rise to many morphological and physiological changes, making their skin (and cutaneous secretion) rich in bioactive molecules. Among the tree frogs, the secretion is composed mainly of peptides; but alkaloids, proteins and steroids can also be found depending on the species. The most known class of biologically active molecules is the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that act against bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Although these molecules are well-studied among the hylids, AMPs ontogeny remains unknown. Therefore, we performed peptidomic and proteomic analyses of Pithecopus nordestinus (formerly Phyllomedusa nordestina) in order to evaluate the peptide content in post-metamorphosed juveniles and adult individuals. Methods: Cutaneous secretion of both life stages of individuals was obtained and analyzed by LC-MS/MS after reduction and alkylation of disulfide bonds or reduction, alkylation and hydrolysis by trypsin. Results: Differences in the TIC profile of juveniles and adults in both treatments were observed. Moreover, the proteomic data revealed known proteins and peptides, with slight differences in the composition, according to the life stage and the treatment. AMPs were identified, and bradykinin-potentiating peptides were observed in trypsin-treated samples, which suggests a protein source of such peptide (cryptide). Conclusion: In general, skin secretion contents were similar between juveniles and adults, varying in quantity, indicating that the different stages of life are reflected in the number of molecules and not on their diversity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Peptides , Trypsin , Proteomics , Amphibians , Bodily Secretions , Hydrolysis
14.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200066, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1154773

ABSTRACT

In Central and South America, snakebite envenomation is mainly caused by Bothrops spp. snakes, whose venoms feature significant biochemical richness, including serine proteases. The available bothropic antivenoms are efficient in avoiding fatalities, but do not completely neutralize venom serine proteases, which are co-responsible for some disorders observed during envenomation. Methods: In order to search for tools to improve the antivenom's, 6-mer peptides were designed based on a specific substrate for Bothrops jararaca venom serine proteases, and then synthesized, with the intention to selectively inhibit these enzymes. Results: Using batroxobin as a snake venom serine protease model, two structurally similar inhibitor peptides were identified. When tested on B. jararaca venom, one of the new inhibitors displayed a good potential to inhibit the activity of the venom serine proteases. These inhibitors do not affect human serine proteases as human factor Xa and thrombin, due to their selectivity. Conclusion: Our study identified two small peptides able to inhibit bothropic serine proteases, but not human ones, can be used as tools to enhance knowledge of the venom composition and function. Moreover, one promising peptide (pepC) was identified that can be explored in the search for improving Bothrops spp. envenomation treatment.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snake Venoms , Antivenins , Bothrops , Serine Proteases , Peptides
15.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200098, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1154770

ABSTRACT

Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a hematophagous insect and the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). In the present study, the authors investigated whether a serine protease activity from the saliva of T. infestans has a role in vasomotor modulation, and in the insect-blood feeding by cleaving and activating protease-activated receptors (PARs). Methods T. infestans saliva was chromatographed as previously reported for purification of triapsin, a serine protease. The cleavage activity of triapsin on PAR peptides was investigated based on FRET technology. Mass spectrometry was used to analyze the sites of PAR-2 peptide cleaved by triapsin. NO measurements were performed using the DAN assay (2,3-diaminonapthalene). The vasorelaxant activity of triapsin was measured in vessels with or without functional endothelium pre-contracted with phenylephrine (3 µM). Intravital microscopy was used to assess the effect of triapsin on mouse skin microcirculation. Results Triapsin was able to induce hydrolysis of PAR peptides and showed a higher preference for cleavage of the PAR-2 peptide. Analysis by mass spectrometry confirmed a single cleavage site, which corresponds to the activation site of the PAR-2 receptor. Triapsin induced dose-dependent NO release in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), reaching a maximum effect at 17.58 nM. Triapsin purified by gel-filtration chromatography (10-16 to 10-9 M) was applied cumulatively to mouse mesenteric artery rings and showed a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect (EC30 = 10-12 M). Nitric oxide seems to be partially responsible for this vasodilator effect because L-NAME (L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester 300 µM), a nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor, did not abrogate the vasodilation activated by triapsin. Anti-PAR-2 antibody completely inhibited vasodilation observed in the presence of triapsin activity. Triapsin activity also induced an increase in the mouse ear venular diameter. Conclusion Data from this study suggest a plausible association between triapsin activity mediated PAR-2 activation and vasodilation caused by T. infestans saliva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Vasodilation , Chromatography , Receptor, PAR-2 , Nitric Oxide
16.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200127, 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1154767

ABSTRACT

Insects can be found in numerous diverse environments, being exposed to pathogenic organisms like fungi and bacteria. Once these pathogens cross insect physical barriers, the innate immune system operates through cellular and humoral responses. Antimicrobial peptides are small molecules produced by immune signaling cascades that develop an important and generalist role in insect defenses against a variety of microorganisms. In the present work, a cecropin B-like peptide (AgCecropB) sequence was identified in the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis and cloned in a bacterial plasmid vector for further heterologous expression and antimicrobial tests. Methods AgCecropB sequence (without the signal peptide) was cloned in the plasmid vector pET-M30-MBP and expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expression host. Expression was induced with IPTG and a recombinant peptide was purified using two affinity chromatography steps with Histrap column. The purified peptide was submitted to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and structural analyses. Antimicrobial tests were performed using gram-positive (Bacillus thuringiensis) and gram-negative (Burkholderia kururiensis and E. coli) bacteria. Results AgCecropB was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) at 28°C with IPTG 0.5 mM. The recombinant peptide was purified and enriched after purification steps. HRMS confirmed AgCrecropB molecular mass (4.6 kDa) and circular dichroism assay showed α-helix structure in the presence of SDS. AgCrecropB inhibited almost 50% of gram-positive B. thuringiensis bacteria growth. Conclusions The first cecropin B-like peptide was described in A. gemmatalis and a recombinant peptide was expressed using a bacterial platform. Data confirmed tertiary structure as predicted for the cecropin peptide family. AgCecropB was capable to inhibit B. thuringiensis growth in vitro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides , Soybeans/microbiology , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins/classification , Cecropins/administration & dosage , Immune System
17.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200196, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1346436

ABSTRACT

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of toxic proteins or peptides encoded by various gene families that function synergistically to incapacitate prey. In the present study, in order to unravel the proteomic repertoire of Deinagkistrodon acutus venom, some trace abundance components were analyzed. Methods Shotgun proteomic approach combined with shotgun nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS were employed to characterize the medically important D. acutus venom, after collected samples were enriched with the combinatorial peptide ligand library (CPLL). Results This avenue helped us find some trace components, undetected before, in D. acutus venom. The results indicated that D. acutus venom comprised 84 distinct proteins from 10 toxin families and 12 other proteins. These results are more than twice the number of venom components obtained from previous studies, which were only 29 distinct proteins obtained through RP-HPLC for the venom of the same species. The present results indicated that in D. acutus venom, the most abundant components (66.9%) included metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, and C-type lectin proteins; the medium abundant components (13%) comprised phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and 5'-nucleotidases and nucleases; whereas least abundant components (6%) were aminopeptidases, L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO), neurotoxins and disintegrins; and the trace components. The last were undetected before the use of conventional shotgun proteomics combined with shotgun nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS, such as cysteine-rich secretory proteins Da-CRPa, phospholipases B-like 1, phospholipases B (PLB), nerve growth factors (NGF), glutaminyl-peptide cyclortransferases (QC), and vascular non-inflammatory molecules 2 (VNN2). Conclusion These findings demonstrated that the CPLL enrichment method worked well in finding the trace toxin proteins in D. acutus venom, in contrast with the previous venomic characterization of D. acutus by conventional LC-MS/MS. In conclusion, this approach combined with the CPLL enrichment was effective for allowing us to explore the hidden D. acutus venomic profile and extended the list of potential venom toxins.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxidoreductases , Peptides , Viper Venoms , Proteome , Neurotoxins
18.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200152, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1346435

ABSTRACT

Peptides obtained from different animal species have gained importance recently due to research that aims to develop biopharmaceuticals with therapeutic potential. In this sense, arthropod venoms have drawn attention, not only because of their toxicity but mainly for the search for molecules with various bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of the present study is to gather data available in the literature on new peptides derived from arthropod species with anti-inflammatory potential. This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies on peptides from arthropods that display anti-inflammatory activity were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The bibliographic research started in 2020 and searched papers without a limit on the publication date. The articles were analyzed using a search string containing the following terms: "Peptides" and "Anti-inflammatory", in combinations such as "Ant", "Bee", "Wasp", "Crab", "Shrimp", "Scorpion", "Spider", "Tick" and "Centipedes". Besides, a search was carried out in the databases with the terms: "Peptides", "Antitumor", or "Anticancer", and "Arthropods". Articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria totalized 171, and these served for data extraction. Additionally, the present review included anti-inflammatory peptides with anticancer properties. Peptides with confirmed anti-inflammatory activity were from insects (ants, bees, and wasps), crustaceans (shrimp and crabs), arachnids (scorpions, spiders, and ticks), and centipedes. These arthropod peptides act mainly by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines as analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Some showed significant antineoplastic activity, working in essential cellular pathways against malignant neoplasms.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides , Arthropod Venoms , Arthropods , Biological Products , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Cytokines , Literature
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2915-2923, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887853

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial peptides are the most promising alternatives to antibiotics. However, the strategy of producing antimicrobial peptides by recombinant technology is complicated and expensive, which is not conducive to the large-scale production. Oxysterlin 1 is a novel type of cecropin antimicrobial peptide mainly targeting on Gram-negative bacteria and is of low cytotoxicity. In this study, a simple and cost-effective method was developed to produce Oxysterlin 1 in Escherichia coli. The Oxysterlin 1 gene was cloned into a plasmid containing elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) and protein splicing elements (intein) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pET-ELP-I-Oxysterlin 1). The recombinant protein was mainly expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and then the target peptide can be purified with a simple salting out method followed by pH changing. The final yield of Oxysterlin 1 was about 1.2 mg/L, and the subsequent antimicrobial experiment showed the expected antimicrobial activity. This study holds promise for large-scale production of antimicrobial peptides and the in-depth study of its antimicrobial mechanism.


Subject(s)
Elastin , Escherichia coli/genetics , Inteins , Peptides/pharmacology , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2334-2341, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887800

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the important protein phosphorylations in eukaryotes responsible for a variety of biological processes including cell signaling transduction, cell migration, and apoptosis. In the study of phosphoproteomics, due to the low stoichiometry of tyrosine phosphorylation (pTyr) proteins and sometimes limited initial sample, traditional phosphoproteomics enrichment technology is inefficient for the enrichment of pTyr peptides. Here, we review the substantial progress in tyrosine phosphoproteomics by preparation of limited amount sample and the newly introduced SH2 superbinder.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement , Peptides , Phosphorylation , Technology , Tyrosine/metabolism
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