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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939535

ABSTRACT

Acupuncture regulating gastrointestinal motility has the characteristics of bidirectional benign regulation, acupoint specificity and immediacy. And its regulation is mainly achieved through the "neuro-endocrine-immune" network system. Acupuncture at Neiguan (PC 6) and Hegu (LI 4) to inhibit intestinal peristalsis may have good application value in colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Colonoscopy , Gastrointestinal Motility , Peristalsis
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 209-215, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131658

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The high-resolution manometry has been a significant advance in esophageal diagnostics. There are different types of catheter and systems devices to capture esophageal pressures that generate variable data related to Chicago Classification (CC) and consequently influence normal values results. There are not normative data for the 24-channel water-perfused high-resolution manometry system most used in Brazil with healthy volunteers in supine posture. OBJECTIVE: To determine manometric esophageal normative values for a 24-channel water-perfused high-resolution manometry catheter in supine posture using healthy volunteers according to CC 3.0 parameters. METHODS: A total of 92 volunteers with no gastrointestinal symptoms or medications affecting GI motility underwent esophageal high-resolution manometry by standard protocol. Age, gender and manometry parameters analyzed using Alacer software were collected. The median, range, and 5th and 95th percentiles (where applicable) were obtained for all high-resolution manometry metrics. Normal value percentiles were defined as 95th integrated relaxation pressure, 5th-100th distal contractile integral, and 5th distal latency. RESULTS: The mean age was 40.5±13.2 years. Our normative metrics were integrated relaxation pressure <16 mmHg and distal contractile integral (708-4111 mmHg.cm.s) distal latency was <6 s and peristaltic break size (>4 cm). For EGJ-CI the range 5th-95th was 21.7-86.9 mmHg.cm.s. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of normative data for the 24-channel water-perfused system in supine posture. It revealed higher integrated relaxation pressure and distal latency duration which suggest the need to change CC 3.0 cutoffs for this system. It is observed that there is a tendency that DCI >7000 mmHg.cm.s may represent the lower limit of hypercontractility, and when <700 mmHg.cm.s (<5% percentile) interpreted as ineffective esophageal motility or failcontraction. Also compared to Chicago 3.0, higher integrated relaxation pressure and duration of distal latency were found. We emphasize that these data must be confirmed by future studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A manometria de alta resolução tem sido um avanço significativo nos diagnósticos esofágicos. Existem diferentes tipos de cateteres e sistemas dispositivos para capturar pressões esofágicas que geram dados variáveis relacionados à Classificação de Chicago (CC) e, consequentemente, podem influenciar os resultados de valores da normalidade. Não há dados normativos com voluntários saudáveis na postura supina, para o sistema manométrico sob perfusão em água de 24 canais, o mais utilizado no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Determinar os valores normativos manométricos do esôfago para um cateter sob perfusão de alta resolução de 24 canais na postura supina utilizando-se voluntários saudáveis assintomáticos de acordo com os parâmetros CC. MÉTODOS: Um total de 92 voluntários sem sintomas gastrointestinais ou medicamentos que afetassem a motilidade gastrointestinal foram submetidos à manometria de alta resolução do esôfago por protocolo padrão (Sistema Alacer Multiplex). Foram coletados parâmetros de idade, sexo e os da manometria analisados pelo software Alacer versão 6.2. A mediana, os limites, e 5% e 95% percentis (quando aplicável) foram obtidos para todas as métricas de alta resolução. Os valores normais foram definidos como percentis de 95% da integral da pressão de relaxamento (IRP), 5%-100% da integral contrátil distal (DCI), e 5% latência distal. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 40,5±13,2 anos. As métricas normativas foram definidas como IRP <16 mmHg) e DCI (708-4111 mmHg.cm.s). Para a latência distal foi de 5,8-9,9 s (faixa: 5,3-10,7s). O comprimento total de quebra na contração esofágica foi de 4,0 cm (faixa: 0,1-6,8 cm). Para a EGJ-CI a faixa 5%-95% percentis foi de 21,7-86,9 mmHg.cm.s. CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro relatório de dados normativos para o sistema de 24 canais perfundido por água na postura supina. A partir dos dados encontrados observa-se a possibilidade de alterar os cortes CC 3.0 para este sistema. Observa-se que há uma tendência que DCI >7000 mmHg.cm.s possa representar o limite inferior da hipercontratilidade e quando <700 mmHg.cm.s (<5% percentil) interpretada como motilidade esofágica ineficaz ou contração falha. Também em comparação com Chicago 3.0, foi encontrada maior pressão de relaxamento integrado e duração da latência distal. Ressaltamos que esses dados devem ser confirmados por estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophagus , Manometry/standards , Peristalsis , Reference Values , Brazil , Middle Aged
3.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1557, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152629

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: High-resolution manometry is more costly but clinically superior to conventional manometry. Water-perfused systems may decrease costs, but it is unclear if they are as reliable as solid-state systems, and reference values are interchangeable. Aim: To validate normal values for a new water-perfusion high-resolution manometry system. Methods: Normative values for a 24-sensors water perfused high-resolution manometry system were validated by studying 225 individuals who underwent high resolution manometry for clinical complaints. Patients were divided in four groups: group 1 - gastroesophageal reflux disease; group 2 - achalasia; group 3 - systemic diseases with possible esophageal manifestation; and group 4 - dysphagia. Results: In group 1, a hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter was found in 49% of individuals with positive 24 h pH monitoring, and in 28% in pH-negative individuals. In groups 2 and 3, aperistalsis was found in all individuals. In group 4, only one patient (14%) had normal high-resolution manometry. Conclusions: The normal values determined for this low-cost water-perfused HRM system with unique peristaltic pump and helicoidal sensor distribution are discriminatory of most abnormalities of esophageal motility seen in clinical practice.


RESUMO Racional: A manometria de alta resolução é mais custosa, porém clinicamente superior à manometria convencional. Sistemas por perfusão de água podem ter custo diminuído, mas não é certo se são tão eficazes quanto aos sistemas de estado sólido e se os valores de referência são intercambiáveis. Objetivo: Este estudo visa validar valores de normalidade para um novo sistema por perfusão de água. Método: Valores de normalidade para um sistema de manometria de alta resolução de 24 sensores por perfusão de água foram validados estudando 225 indivíduos submetidos à manometria de alta resolução por queixas clínicas. Pacientes foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupo 1 - doença do refluxo gastroesofágico; grupo 2 - acalasia; grupo 3 - doenças sistêmicas com possível doenças sistêmicas com comprometimento esofágico; e grupo 4 - pacientes com disfagia. Resultado: No grupo 1, esfíncter esofagiano inferior hipotônico foi encontrado em 49% dos indivíduos com pHmetria positiva e 28% daqueles com pHmetria negativa. Nos grupos 2 e 3, aperistalse foi encontrada em todos indivíduos. No grupo 4, somente um paciente (14%) tinha manometria normal. Conclusão: Os valores de normalidade definidos para este sistema de manometria de alta resolução por perfusão de água são discriminatórios da maioria das anormalidades da motilidade esofágica vistas na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagus/physiology , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Manometry/methods , Peristalsis , Reference Values , Water , Esophageal Achalasia , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Reproducibility of Results , Manometry/instrumentation
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811136

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal imaging of murine pancreas is technically challenging due to the mechanical softness of the tissue influenced by peristalsis. Here, we report a novel pancreatic imaging window for long-term stabilized cellular-level observation of the islets in the pancreas in vivo. By spatially separating the pancreas from the bowel movement and physiologic respiration with a metal plate integrated in the imaging window, we successfully tracked the pancreatic islets up to three weeks and visualized the dumbbell-shape transformation from the single islet. This window can be a useful tool for long-term cellular-level visualization of the microstructure in the pancreas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Intravital Microscopy , Islets of Langerhans , Mice , Pancreas , Peristalsis , Respiration
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765975

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disease, and the prevalence in the general population has recently increased. GERD is a chronic relapsing disease associated with motility disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Several factors are implicated in GERD, including hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, frequent transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, esophageal hypersensitivity, reduced resistance of the esophageal mucosa against the refluxed contents, ineffective esophageal motility, abnormal bolus transport, deficits initiating secondary peristalsis, abnormal response to multiple rapid swallowing, and hiatal hernia. One or more of these mechanisms result in the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus, delayed clearance of the refluxate, and the development of symptoms and/or complications. New techniques, such as 24-hour pH and multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring, multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry, high-resolution manometry, 3-dimensional high-resolution manometry, enoscopic functional luminal imaging probe, and 24-hour dynamic esophageal manometry, provide more information on esophageal motility and have clarified the pathophysiology of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors remain the preferred pharmaceutical option to treat GERD. The ideal target of GERD treatment is to restore esophageal motility and reconstruct the anti-reflux mechanism. This review focuses on current advances in esophageal motor dysfunction in patients with GERD and the influence of these developments on GERD treatment.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Electric Impedance , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Contents , Hernia, Hiatal , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypersensitivity , Manometry , Mucous Membrane , Peristalsis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phenobarbital , Prevalence , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Relaxation , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761534

ABSTRACT

The Chicago classification (CC) defines an esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO) as the presence of several instances of intact or weak peristalsis, elevated median integrated relaxation pressure above 15 mmHg, and a discrepancy from the criteria of achalasia. The revised CC addresses the potential etiology of EGJOO, including the early forms of achalasia, mechanical obstruction, esophageal wall stiffness, or manifestation of hiatal hernia. A 58-year-old woman visited the Presbyterian Medical Center with swallowing difficulty. The patient underwent a high resolution manometry (HRM) examination and was diagnosed with EGJOO. Chest CT was performed to exclude a mechanical obstruction as a cause, and CT revealed a subepithelial tumor (SET) at the upper part of the esophagogastric junction. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery was performed and eccentric muscular hypertrophy of the distal esophagus was observed. Longitudinal myotomy and Dor fundoplication were also performed. The histology findings of the surgical specimens were consistent with achalasia. This paper reports a case of early achalasia that was finally diagnosed by the histology findings, but was initially diagnosed as EGJOO using HRM and misdiagnosed as SET in the image study.


Subject(s)
Classification , Deglutition , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Female , Fundoplication , Hernia, Hiatal , Humans , Hypertrophy , Laparoscopy , Manometry , Middle Aged , Peristalsis , Protestantism , Relaxation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761501

ABSTRACT

Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by absence of peristalsis and failure of relaxation of lower esophagus sphincter. The introduction of high resolution manometry (HRM) and per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has made a new chapter in diagnosis and treatment of achalasia. HRM allows classify according to the subtype of achalasia, and help predict prognosis and therapeutic response. POEM is a minimally invasive, effective option for treating achalasia. The management of achalasia required tailored application of various therapies such as botox injection, pneumatic balloon dilatation, POEM, or Heller's myotomy. In this review, we state the important aspects of diagnosis as well as management of achalasia.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Diagnosis , Dilatation , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophagus , Manometry , Peristalsis , Prognosis , Relaxation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787182

ABSTRACT

The Chicago classification (CC) defines an esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO) as the presence of several instances of intact or weak peristalsis, elevated median integrated relaxation pressure above 15 mmHg, and a discrepancy from the criteria of achalasia. The revised CC addresses the potential etiology of EGJOO, including the early forms of achalasia, mechanical obstruction, esophageal wall stiffness, or manifestation of hiatal hernia. A 58-year-old woman visited the Presbyterian Medical Center with swallowing difficulty. The patient underwent a high resolution manometry (HRM) examination and was diagnosed with EGJOO. Chest CT was performed to exclude a mechanical obstruction as a cause, and CT revealed a subepithelial tumor (SET) at the upper part of the esophagogastric junction. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery was performed and eccentric muscular hypertrophy of the distal esophagus was observed. Longitudinal myotomy and Dor fundoplication were also performed. The histology findings of the surgical specimens were consistent with achalasia. This paper reports a case of early achalasia that was finally diagnosed by the histology findings, but was initially diagnosed as EGJOO using HRM and misdiagnosed as SET in the image study.


Subject(s)
Classification , Deglutition , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Female , Fundoplication , Hernia, Hiatal , Humans , Hypertrophy , Laparoscopy , Manometry , Middle Aged , Peristalsis , Protestantism , Relaxation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787149

ABSTRACT

Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by absence of peristalsis and failure of relaxation of lower esophagus sphincter. The introduction of high resolution manometry (HRM) and per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has made a new chapter in diagnosis and treatment of achalasia. HRM allows classify according to the subtype of achalasia, and help predict prognosis and therapeutic response. POEM is a minimally invasive, effective option for treating achalasia. The management of achalasia required tailored application of various therapies such as botox injection, pneumatic balloon dilatation, POEM, or Heller's myotomy. In this review, we state the important aspects of diagnosis as well as management of achalasia.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Diagnosis , Dilatation , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophagus , Manometry , Peristalsis , Prognosis , Relaxation
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766517

ABSTRACT

Antispasmodics are effective in reducing abdominal pain and controlling spasm. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients have characteristic key factors such as intestinal motility disorder and visceral hypersensitivity. So antispasmodics have been used in the treatment of IBS for decades. Mebeverine blocks intestinal peristalsis but are not significantly better than placebo. Alverine citrate combined with simethicone is effective treatment option in IBS. Otilonium and pinaverium bromide are poorly absorbed agents, so they have mostly local effect with minimal systemic adverse events. Phloroglucinol controls acute exacerbation of abdominal pain effectively. Tiropramide reduce abdominal discomfort without serious adverse events. Fenoverine control spasm in spastic colon but does not affect normal contraction. Trimebutine have dual actions that it inhibits hyperactive colon and activates hypomotile colon. Each drug has advantages and disadvantages. Antispasmodics are considered as the first treatment option of pain-dominant IBS.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Citric Acid , Colon , Gastrointestinal Motility , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Muscle Spasticity , Parasympatholytics , Peristalsis , Phloroglucinol , Simethicone , Spasm , Trimebutine
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Efficient transport through the esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) requires synchronized circular and longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus including relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). However, there is a scarcity of technology for measuring esophagus movements in the longitudinal (axial) direction. The aim of this study is to develop new analytical tools for dynamic evaluation of the length change and axial movement of the human LES based on the functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) technology and to present normal signatures for the selected parameters. METHODS: Six healthy volunteers without hiatal hernia were included. Data were analyzed from stepwise LES distensions at 20, 30, and 40 mL bag volumes. The bag pressure and the diameter change were used for motion analysis in the LES. The cyclic bag pressure frequency was used to distinguish dynamic changes of the LES induced by respiration and secondary peristalsis. RESULTS: Cyclic fluctuations of the LES were evoked by respiration and isovolumetric distension, with phasic changes of bag pressure, diameter, length, and axial movement of the LES narrow zone. Compared to the respiration-induced LES fluctuations, peristaltic contractions increased the contraction pressure amplitude (P < 0.001), shortening (P < 0.001), axial movement (P < 0.001), and diameter change (P < 0.01) of the narrow zone. The length of the narrow zone shortened as function of the pressure increase. CONCLUSIONS: FLIP can be used for evaluation of dynamic length changes and axial movement of the human LES. The method may shed light on abnormal longitudinal muscle activity in esophageal disorders.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagus , Healthy Volunteers , Hernia, Hiatal , Humans , Methods , Muscle Contraction , Peristalsis , Phenobarbital , Relaxation , Respiration
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Minor disorders of peristalsis are esophageal motility disorders categorized by the Chicago Classification (CC), version 3.0, which was announced in 2014. This study evaluated the efficacy of anti-reflux therapy in patients with minor peristaltic disorders. METHODS: Patients with minor peristaltic disorders in accordance with CC v3.0 were included. We reviewed the medical records of patients with esophageal high-resolution manometry findings, and investigated the demographic and clinical information as well as the medical therapy. Thereafter, the response to treatment was assessed after at least 4 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients were identified as having minor disorders of peristalsis from January 2010 to December 2015. The mean follow-up period was 497 days, and there were 17 patients (70.8%) patients with ineffective esophageal motility. In terms of anti-reflux therapy, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with prokinetic agents and PPIs alone were prescribed in 19 patients (79.2%) and 5 patients (20.8%), respectively. When the rate of response to the treatment was assessed, the responders rate (complete+satisfactory [≥50%] responses) was 54.2% and the non-responders rate (partial [<50%]+refractory responses) was 45.8%. Patients in the responder group were younger than those in the non-responder group (p=0.020). Among them, 13 patients underwent 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH, and 10 patients (76.9%) were pathologic gastroesophageal reflux. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of esophageal minor peristaltic disorders were accompanied by gastroesophageal reflux, and therefore, they might respond to acid inhibitor. Further well-designed, prospective studies are necessary to confirm the effect of anti-reflux therapy in these patients.


Subject(s)
Classification , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Follow-Up Studies , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Humans , Manometry , Medical Records , Peristalsis , Prospective Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Therapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14801

ABSTRACT

Current parameters of the Chicago classification include assessment of the esophageal body (contraction vigour and peristalsis), lower esophageal sphincter relaxation pressure, and intra-bolus pressure pattern. Esophageal disorders include achalasia, esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction, major disorders of peristalsis, and minor disorders of peristalsis. Sub-classification of achalasia in types I, II, and III seems to be useful to predict outcomes and choose the optimal treatment approach. The real clinical significance of other new parameters and disorders is still under investigation.


Subject(s)
Classification , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagogastric Junction , Humans , Peristalsis , Relaxation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bile acid is an important luminal factor that affects gastrointestinal motility and secretion. We investigated the effect of bile acid on secretion in the proximal and distal rat colon and coordination of bowel movements in the guinea pig colon. METHODS: The short-circuit current from the mucosal strip of the proximal and distal rat colon was compared under control conditions after induction of secretion with deoxycholic acid (DCA) as well as after inhibition of secretion with indomethacin, 1,2-bis (o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetra-acetic acid (an intracellular calcium chelator; BAPTA), and tetrodotoxin (TTX) using an Ussing chamber. Colonic pressure patterns were also evaluated in the extracted guinea pig colon during resting, DCA stimulation, and inhibition by TTX using a newly developed pressure-sensing artificial stool. RESULTS: The secretory response in the distal colon was proportionate to the concentration of DCA. Also, indomethacin, BAPTA, and TTX inhibited chloride secretion in response to DCA significantly (P < 0.05). However, these changes were not detected in the proximal colon. When we evaluated motility, we found that DCA induced an increase in luminal pressure at the proximal, middle, and distal sensors of an artificial stool simultaneously during the non-peristaltic period (P < 0.05). In contrast, during peristalsis, DCA induced an increase in luminal pressure at the proximal sensor and a decrease in pressure at the middle and distal sensors of the artificial stool (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: DCA induced a clear segmental difference in electrogenic secretion. Also, DCA induced a more powerful peristaltic contraction only during the peristaltic period.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile , Calcium , Colon , Deoxycholic Acid , Gastrointestinal Motility , Guinea Pigs , Guinea , Indomethacin , Intestine, Large , Peristalsis , Phenobarbital , Rats , Tetrodotoxin
15.
Ultrasonography ; : 204-221, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731169

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography (US) is widely used to evaluate most body parts in pediatric patients because it is simple, noninvasive, easy to use, and applicable in a wide variety of clinical situations. US is the modality of choice for the initial evaluation of acute abdominal pain in pediatric patients because of their small body habitus and the presence of less fat tissue in the abdominal wall and peritoneal cavity. The most important factor in performing pediatric emergency US is the graded compression technique and selection of the proper transducer. The careful evaluation of bowel wall thickening combined with ancillary findings such as fluid collection, increased echogenicity of the mesenteric fat tissue, enlarged lymph nodes, hyperemic bowel changes, and abnormal bowel peristalsis can increase the diagnostic capability of US.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Abdominal Wall , Child , Emergencies , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Tract , Human Body , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Pediatrics , Peristalsis , Peritoneal Cavity , Transducers , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158121

ABSTRACT

Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) is common in laryngologic practice. In Korea, up to 1 out of every 5 patients who visit otorhinolaryngology clinic is supposed to have LPRD with symptoms and physical findings. Major symptoms of LPRD include hoarseness, cough, reflux symptom and mild dysphagia. Even though LPRD is common, its diagnosis may be difficult, because its symptoms are nonspecific and the laryngeal findings are not always associated with symptom severity. In Recent study, 66.4% of Patient who has LPRD also associated with esophageal motility disorders. Esophageal achalasia is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by an absence of peristalsis in the body of esophagus and nonrelaxing hypertension of the lower esophageal sphincter. Common cause is loss of ganglion cells in Auerbachs plexus. The classic triad of symptoms in achalasia includes dysphagia, regurgitation and weight loss. LPRD and esophageal achalasia have similar symptoms but have different treatment of choice. The Differentiation diagnosis of theses disease is important and should be established by history, radiologic examination and endoscopic examination. We recently assessed a 59-year-old female patient who complained of an epigastric pain, dysphagia and chronic cough. LPRD was initially diagnosed on Laryngoscopic examination and Reflux Symptom Index, but patient was not relieved of any symptoms after treatment of Proton Pump Inhibitor for 3 months. After high resolution manometry, esophageal achalasia was finally diagnosed. We report this case regarding the diagnosis and treatment with review of literatures because we have to think about esophageal motility disorders as a differential diagnosis in laryngology.


Subject(s)
Cough , Deglutition Disorders , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagus , Female , Ganglion Cysts , Hoarseness , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux , Manometry , Middle Aged , Myenteric Plexus , Otolaryngology , Peristalsis , Proton Pumps , Weight Loss
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study aimed to determine pre- and post-fundoplication esophagogastric junction (EGJ) pressure and esophageal peristalsis by high-resolution manometry (HRM) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: Pre-operative and post-operative HRM data from 25 patients with GERD were analyzed using ManoView version 2.0.1. with updated software for Chicago classification and pressure topography. The study involved swallowing water boluses of 10 mL in the upright position. RESULTS: Significant increase of mean basal EGJ pressure and minimal basal EGJ pressure was found in post-operative as compared with preoperative patients (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). Integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) reached higher values in post-operative patients than in pre-operative patients (P < 0.001). Intra-bolus pressure (IBP) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) and contractile front velocity (CFV) was slower (P < 0.01) in post-operative patients than in pre-operative patients. Moreover significant increase of distal contractile integral (DCI) was found in post-operative patients (P < 0.05). Hiatal hernia was detected by HRM in 11 pre-operative patients. Fifteen out of 25 post-operative patients complained of dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS: Fundoplication restores the antireflux barrier by reinforcing EGJ basal pressures, repairing hiatal hernias, and enhances peristaltic function of the esophagus by increasing DCI. However slight IRP elevation found in post-fundoplication patients may result in bolus pressurization and motility disorders.


Subject(s)
Classification , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Fundoplication , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Hernia, Hiatal , Humans , Manometry , Peristalsis , Relaxation , Water
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84980

ABSTRACT

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally defined as a functional disorder since it lacks demonstrable pathological abnormalities. However, in recent years, low grade inflammatory infiltration, often rich in mast cells, in both the small and large bowel, has been observed in some patients with IBS. The close association of mast cells with major intestinal functions, such as epithelial secretion and permeability, neuroimmune interactions, visceral sensation, and peristalsis, makes researchers and gastroenterologists to focus attention on the key roles of mast cells in the pathogenesis of IBS. Numerous studies have been carried out to identify the mechanisms in the development, infiltration, activation, and degranulation of intestinal mast cells, as well as the actions of mast cells in the processes of mucosal barrier disruption, mucosal immune dysregulation, visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, and local and central stress in IBS. Moreover, therapies targeting mast cells, such as mast cell stabilizers (cromoglycate and ketotifen) and antagonists of histamine and serotonin receptors, have been tried in IBS patients, and have partially exhibited considerable efficacy. This review focuses on recent advances in the role of mast cells in IBS, with particular emphasis on bridging experimental data with clinical therapeutics for IBS patients.


Subject(s)
Histamine , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunity, Innate , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Mast Cells , Peristalsis , Permeability , Receptors, Serotonin , Sensation , Visceral Pain
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic therapy for esophageal varices may lead to esophageal dysmotility. High-resolution manometry is probably the more adequate tool to measure esophageal motility in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate esophageal motility using high resolution manometry following eradication of esophageal varices by endoscopic sclerotherapy. METHODS: We studied 21 patients (11 women, age 52 [45-59] years). All patients underwent eradication of esophageal varices with endoscopic sclerotherapy and subsequent high resolution manometry. RESULTS: A significant percentage of defective lower esophageal sphincter (basal pressure 14.3 [8.0-20.0] mmHg; 43% hypertonic) and hypocontractility (distal esophageal amplitude 50 [31-64] mmHg; proximal esophageal amplitude 40 [31-61] mmHg; distal contractile integral 617 [403-920] mmHg · sec · cm; 48% ineffective) was noticed. Lower sphincter basal pressure and esophageal amplitude correlated inversely with the number of sessions (P < 0.001). No manometric parameter correlated with symptoms or interval between last endoscopy and manometry. CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal motility after endoscopic sclerotherapy is characterized by: (1) defective lower sphincter and (2) defective and hypotensive peristalsis. Esophageal dysmotility is associated to an increased number of endoscopic sessions, but manometric parameters do not predict symptoms.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Manometry , Peristalsis , Sclerotherapy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neurotensin is a gut-brain peptide with both inhibitory and excitatory actions on the colonic musculature; our objective was to understand the implications of this for motor patterns occurring in the intact colon of the rat. METHODS: The effects of neurotensin with concentrations ranging from 0.1-100 nM were studied in the intact rat colon in vitro, by investigating spatio-temporal maps created from video recordings of colonic motility before and after neurotensin. RESULTS: Low concentration of neurotensin (0.1-1 nM) inhibited propagating long distance contractions and rhythmic propagating motor complexes; in its place a slow propagating rhythmic segmental motor pattern developed. The neurotensin receptor 1 antagonist SR-48692 prevented the development of the segmental motor pattern. Higher concentrations of neurotensin (10 nM and 100 nM) were capable of restoring long distance contraction activity and inhibiting the segmental activity. The slow propagating segmental contraction showed a rhythmic contraction—relaxation cycle at the slow wave frequency originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus pacemaker. High concentrations given without prior additions of low concentrations did not evoke the segmental motor pattern. These actions occurred when neurotensin was given in the bath solution or intraluminally. The segmental motor pattern evoked by neurotensin was inhibited by the neural conduction blocker lidocaine. CONCLUSIONS: Neurotensin (0.1-1 nM) inhibits the dominant propulsive motor patterns of the colon and a distinct motor pattern of rhythmic slow propagating segmental contractions develops. This motor pattern has the hallmarks of haustral boundary contractions.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Animals , Baths , Colon , In Vitro Techniques , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Lidocaine , Myenteric Plexus , Neural Conduction , Neurotensin , Peristalsis , Rats , Receptors, Neurotensin , Video Recording
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