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Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 507-515, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385604


SUMMARY: The complete petrosphenoidal foramen, or canal, is an eventual and atavistic bony formation at the boundary between the posterior and middle cranial fossa, by occurrence of ossification of the superior petrosphenoidal ligament. This ligament ossification, which has important clinical and surgical significance, can be complete or incomplete, in variable degrees, and is associated with the passageway of neurovascular structures, such as the abducens nerve and the inferior petrosal sinus. This study, conducted with 175 dry skulls that belong to the University of São Paulo's collection (USP), São Paulo, Brazil, established criteria for a morphological classification of the incomplete petrosphenoid foramen in nine types. In addition, anatomical parameters were established for the morphometric determination of two diameters: the Oblique Diameter (ObDi) and the Maximum Transverse Diameter (MTD). Thus, of the 175 skulls, 146 (83.42 %) presented some of the incomplete forms of the petrosphenoid foramen, and 43 skulls (29.45 %), due to their conservation characteristics, were habilitated to the morphological study, in the classification and in the morphometry (the types I and II of our classification). The type II (incomplete foramen with bony projections of the petrosal tubercle, of the margin of the dorsum of the hypophyseal fossa or of the posterior clinoid process with a distance between them greater than 1mm) and type V (incomplete foramen with a bony projection only in one of the referential structures - posterior clinoid process) were the most common in this study (50 % of the 86 hemiskulls). Morphometry was attributed only to the types: I selar (incomplete foramen with bony projections from the petrosal tubercle and the margin of the dorsum of the hypophyseal fossa with a distance between them less than or equal to 1mm) and to the type II of this classification. The type I selar (9.3 % of the 43 skulls) resulted in an average of 3.25 mm of MTD and 4.63 mm, on average, of ObDi. The type II (25.58 % of the 43 skulls) showed, on average, 4.93 mm of MTD and 7.01 mm of ObDi.

RESUMEN: El foramen o canal petroesfenoidal completo es una formación ósea eventual y atávica en el límite entre las fosas craneal posterior y media, por osificación del ligamento petroesfenoidal superior. Esta osificación del ligamento, que tiene un importante significado clínico y quirúrgico, puede ser completa o incompleta, en grados variables, y está asociada al paso de estructuras neurovasculares, como el nervio abducente y el seno petroso inferior. Este estudio se realizó en 175 cráneos secos pertenecientes a la colección de la Universidad de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brasil. Se establecieron criterios para una clasificación morfológica del foramen petrosfenoidal incompleto en nueve tipos. Además, se establecieron parámetros anatómicos para la determinación morfométrica de dos diámetros: el Diámetro Oblicuo (ObDi) y el Diámetro Transversal Máximo (MTD). Así, de los 175 cráneos, 146 (83,42 %) presentaron alguna de las formas incompletas del foramen petrosfenoidal, y 43 cráneos (29,45 %), por sus características de conservación, fueron habilitados para el estudio morfológico, en la clasificación y en la morfometría (los tipos I y II de nuestra clasificación). El Tipo II (foramen incompleto con proyecciones óseas del tubérculo petroso, del margen del dorso de la fosa hipofisaria o del proceso clinoides posterior con una distancia entre ellos mayor de 1 mm) y el Tipo V (foramen incompleto con proyección ósea solamente en una de las estructuras referenciales - proceso clinoides posterior) fueron los más comunes en este estudio (50 % de los 86 hemiscráneos). La morfometría se atribuyó únicamente al Tipo I selar (foramen incompleto con proyecciones óseas desde el tubérculo petroso y el margen del dorso de la fosa hipofisaria con una distancia entre ellos menor o igual a 1mm) y al Tipo II de esta clasificación. El Tipo I selar (9,3 % de los 43 cráneos) resultó en un promedio de 3,25 mm de MTD y 4,63 mm, en promedio, de ObDi. El Tipo II (25,58 % de los 43 cráneos) mostró, en promedio, 4,93 mm de MTD y 7,01 mm de ObDi.

Humans , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Classification
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(4): 387-393, 26/11/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362117


Introduction Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a slow-growing, low-grade, locallyinfiltrative tumor arising from the endolymphatic sac/duct, which is located in the posterior part of the petrous temporal bone. It may be sporadic in origin, or may be associated with Von-Hippel Lindau (VHL) syndrome. Case description A 40-year-old female patient with an ELST without VHL syndrome who was treated successfully by microsurgical extirpation of the tumor. Discussion We discuss the radiological features and the histopathology of this rare tumor and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The case herein reported adds to the previously-reported cases of this rare tumor.

Humans , Female , Adult , Paraganglioma/surgery , Petrous Bone/surgery , Skull Neoplasms/surgery , Endolymphatic Sac/surgery , Paraganglioma/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications , Skull Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Endolymphatic Sac/pathology , Endolymphatic Sac/diagnostic imaging , Craniotomy/methods , von Hippel-Lindau Disease/pathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942453


Objective: By summarizing the technical points and therapeutic outcomes of combing infratemporal fossa approach (IFA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) reconstruction for the colossal skull base tumor invading ICA in petrous bone, the clinical application value was discussed. Methods: Five patients (2 males, 3 females,aging from 27 to 55 years old) who received surgeries between July 2015 and May 2017 for lateral skull base pathology involved petrous ICA using technique combined IFA and pre-reconstruction, were reviewed. Results: Among the five patients, three were paraganglioma of head and neck, one was carotid aneurysms, and one was recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). The median tumor size in the largest cross-section was 60 mm × 51 mm (range, 28 mm × 22 mm-72 mm × 58 mm). Complete excision was achieved with IFA and ICA reconstruction. The median blood loss volume was 1 000 ml (range, 600-2 500 ml). Four cases showed no new long-term neurologic sequelae, while one showed hemiplegia due to graft vessel occlusion. Except for the one with ACC having facial nerve cut, others achieved good facial nerve function of HB grade Ⅰ to Ⅱ during 3 to 12 months, follow-up. No tumor recurrence was observed over the median duration of follow-up for above 36 months (range, 36-58 months). Conclusion: For lesions involved superior part of ICA, which is unable to separate from ICA, IFA and ICA reconstruction can achieve complete excision.

Adult , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Female , Humans , Infratemporal Fossa , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Petrous Bone/surgery , Skull Base/surgery , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1026-1031, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124892


The carotid canal is located in the petrous part of the temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery along with the venous and sympathetic nerve plexus. The shape, location and dimensions of the carotid canal are clinically very important especially in cases of skull base surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and morphometric parameters of the external aperture of the carotid canal in Serbian population. The study included 24 dry adult skulls and 36 dry adult temporal bones. Diameters and distances of the external aperture of the carotid canal from various important landmarks of the skull base were measured. The shape of the external carotid canal aperture was also noted. Digital data were processed in the ImageJ software. The average length of the external aperture of the carotid canal in all investigated specimens (skulls and temporal bones) on the right and left sides was 7.31±1.01 mm and 7.71±1.06 mm, respectively. The average width of the external aperture of the carotid canal on the right side was 5.82±0.78 mm while on the left side was 6.20±1.04 mm. The frequency of different shapes of the external aperture of the carotid canal was as follows: round in 45 (53.57 %), oval in 25 (29.76 %), and the rarest was almond shape noted in 13 (15.47 %) cases. There were no statistically significant differences in all measured parameters between genders and body sides. The only statistical significance was found in females between right and left side in relation with length (AP diameter) of the external aperture of the carotid canal. The results of this study will be useful for neurosurgeons to improve different surgical approaches to the petrous part of the internal carotid artery and prevent its complications.

El conducto carotídeo se encuentra en la parte petrosa del hueso temporal y da paso a la arteria carótida interna junto con el plexo nervioso venoso y simpático. La forma, ubicación y dimensiones del canal carotídeo son clínicamente muy importantes, especialmente en casos de cirugía de la base del cráneo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos de la apertura externa del canal carotídeo en la población serbia. El estudio incluyó 24 cráneos adultoss y 36 huesos temporales adultos secos. Se midieron los diámetros y distancias de la apertura externa desde varios puntos de referencia de la base del cráneo. También se observó la forma de la apertura del canal carotídeo externo. Los datos digitales se procesaron con Software ImageJ. La longitud promedio de la apertura en todos los especímenes investigados (cráneos y huesos temporales) en los lados derecho e izquierdo fue de 7,31 ± 1,01 mm y 7,71 ± 1,06 mm, respectivamente. El ancho promedio de la apertura en el lado derecho fue de 5,82 ± 0,78 mm mientras que en el lado izquierdo fue de 6,20 ± 1,04 mm. La frecuencia de las diferentes formas de la abertura externa fue la siguiente: redonda en 45 (53,57 %), ovalada en 25 (29,76 %), y la más rara fue la forma de almendra observada en 13 (15,47 %) casos. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en todos los parámetros medidos entre sexos y lados del cuerpo. La única estadística significativa se encontró en las mujeres entre el lado derecho e izquierdo en relación con la longitud (diámetro AP) de la apertura externa del conducto carotídeo. Los resultados de este estudio serán útiles para un mejor enfoque quirúrgico de los neurocirujanos en la parte petrosa de la arteria carótida interna, y advertir posibles complicaciones.

Humans , Male , Female , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Serbia
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(2): 287-290, apr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015993


A síndrome de Eagle é uma condição rara e com etiologia ainda não bem estabelecida, a qual se deve ter bastante suspeição para seu correto tratamento. Seu tratamento deve ser definido em conjunto com o paciente, seja ele conservador ou cirúrgico, sempre levando em consideração as expectativas do paciente, além da maior expertise do profissional na modalidade escolhida para o tratamento. Neste artigo, apresentamos uma paciente de 35 anos atendida no Hospital Felício Rocho, discutindo os diversos aspectos da doença, inclusive a modalidade de tratamento escolhida para o caso.

Eagle syndrome is a rare condition, and its etiology has not yet been well established and its correct treatment is uncertain. Its treatment must be defined together with the patient, be it conservative or surgical, always taking into consideration the patient's expectations, in addition to a solid professional expertise in the modality chosen for the treatment. In this article, we present the case of a 35-year-old patient who was admitted to the Felício Rocho Hospital and discuss the various aspects of the disease, including the treatment modality chosen for the case.

Humans , Female , Adult , Petrous Bone/surgery , Petrous Bone/injuries , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Facial Pain/surgery , Facial Neuralgia/surgery , Mastoid/anatomy & histology , Mastoid/physiopathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765373


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the surgical results of the intradural transpetrosectomy for petrous apex meningiomas (PAMs). In addition, we describe the methods and techniques used to expose and manage superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective study of 16 patients with PAMs operated by the senior author via the intradural transpetrosectomy between February 2012 to May 2017. We reviewed patient data regarding the general characteristics, surgical technique and surgery-related outcomes and adopted a combined follow-up strategy of clinic and telephone contacts to evaluate postoperative complications. RESULTS: Simpson grade I and II resection was performed in 10 out of 16 cases (62.5%), and grade III resection were reported in the remaining six cases (37.5%) with no resultant mortality. The mean Karnofsky Performance Status score was 85.6 preoperatively and improved to 91.9 postoperatively, with a mean follow-up period of 34.4 months (range, 6–66 months). Tumor recurrence was found in two patients and they underwent the second surgical operation. CONCLUSION: PAMs could be completely resected by the intradural transpetrosectomy with an improved survival rate and postoperative life quality. Superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve should be managed properly in avoidance of postoperative complications. Finally, most meningioma inside cavernous sinus or adhered to brainstem could be totally removed without postoperative complications.

Brain Stem , Cavernous Sinus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Karnofsky Performance Status , Meningioma , Mortality , Neurosurgical Procedures , Petrous Bone , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Telephone , Veins
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788800


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the surgical results of the intradural transpetrosectomy for petrous apex meningiomas (PAMs). In addition, we describe the methods and techniques used to expose and manage superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve.METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective study of 16 patients with PAMs operated by the senior author via the intradural transpetrosectomy between February 2012 to May 2017. We reviewed patient data regarding the general characteristics, surgical technique and surgery-related outcomes and adopted a combined follow-up strategy of clinic and telephone contacts to evaluate postoperative complications.RESULTS: Simpson grade I and II resection was performed in 10 out of 16 cases (62.5%), and grade III resection were reported in the remaining six cases (37.5%) with no resultant mortality. The mean Karnofsky Performance Status score was 85.6 preoperatively and improved to 91.9 postoperatively, with a mean follow-up period of 34.4 months (range, 6–66 months). Tumor recurrence was found in two patients and they underwent the second surgical operation.CONCLUSION: PAMs could be completely resected by the intradural transpetrosectomy with an improved survival rate and postoperative life quality. Superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve should be managed properly in avoidance of postoperative complications. Finally, most meningioma inside cavernous sinus or adhered to brainstem could be totally removed without postoperative complications.

Brain Stem , Cavernous Sinus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Karnofsky Performance Status , Meningioma , Mortality , Neurosurgical Procedures , Petrous Bone , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Telephone , Veins
Rev. chil. neurocir ; 43(1): 53-58, July 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869779


A pesar del desarrollo de las técnicas quirúrgicas de base de cráneo, los meningiomas petroclivales constituyen un reto para el neurocirujano debido a su localización y relación con estructuras neurológicas y vasculares críticas. Se reportan 2 pacientes con diagnóstico de meningioma petroclival que recibieron tratamiento por etapas incluyendo derivación ventrículo peritoneal asistida por endoscopia para la hidrocefalia, abordaje endonasal endoscópico (AEE) extendido al ápex petroso, keyhole subtemporal y retromastoideo con remoción de la lesión. La evolución fue satisfactoria. Se concluyó que los abordajes endoscópicos y por etapas constituyen una excelente opción en el tratamiento de los meningiomas petroclivales.

In spite of the development of the skull base surgery techniques, petroclival meningiomas are a challenge for neurosurgeon due to their localization and relationship with neurovascular structures. Those are two patient with diagnostic of petroclival meningioma whom received treatment step by step included ventricle peritoneal shunt with endoscopic guide for hydrocephalus, extended endonasal approach to petrous apex, subtemporal and retrosigmoid keyhole. The endoscopic approach is an excellent option in the treatment of petroclival meningioma.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Endoscopy/methods , Petrous Bone/pathology , Meningioma/surgery , Meningioma/diagnostic imaging , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt , Brain Neoplasms , Skull Base/surgery , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure , Hypertension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Osteotomy/methods , Paresis , Radiosurgery/methods , Tomography, Spiral Computed/methods
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 233-235, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840960


Dorello´s canal is an eponym term referring to a small fibro osseous landmark, by way of arc, located at the apex of the petrous temporal region and for which the nerve abducens passes before reaching the cavernous sinus. This landmark is not referenced in Terminologia Anatomica, even as a variable structure. We selected 74 adult dry skulls and six heads fixed in formalin 10 % without classifying them by ethnicity or gender. As inclusion criteria, we selected those where the middle cranial fossa and the apex of the petrous temporal region were in good condition. Fifty seven (57) skulls (83, 82 %) showed the presence of canal bilaterally; 4 (5.89 %) showed it unilaterally to the right; 4 (5,89 %) were unilaterally at the left and 3 (4,41 %) had no canal. The results of this study indicate that this bone landmark is present in most of the skulls, even bilaterally. Since it is not referenced in the Terminologia Anatomica, we propose the term canal abducens nerve to avoid using the eponymous term Dorello´s canal.

El "canal de Dorello" es un epónimo que hace referencia a un pequeño relieve osteofibroso, a manera de arco, ubicado a nivel del ápex de la región petrosa del temporal y por el cual pasa recostado el nervio abducente antes de llegar al seno cavernoso. Dicho relieve no se encuentra referenciado en Terminologia Anatomica, ni siquiera como estructura inconstante. Se seleccionaron 74 cráneos secos y completos de adultos y seis cabezas fijadas con formalina al 10 %, sin clasificarlos por grupos étnicos ni por sexo. Como criterio de inclusión, se escogieron aquellos que tuvieran en buen estado la fosa craneal media y el ápex de la región petrosa del temporal. 57 cráneos (83,82 %) mostraron presencia del canal en forma bilateral; 4 (5,89 %) lo mostraron unilateralmente a la derecha; 4 (5,89 %) lo tenían unilateralmente a la izquierda y 3 (4,41 %) no presentaban el canal. Los resultados de este estudio señalan que este relieve óseo se presenta en la mayoría de los cráneos, incluso en forma bilateral. Puesto que no aparece referenciado en Terminologia Anatomica, proponemos el término "canal para el nervio abducente", con el fin de evitar el uso del término epónimo "canal de Dorello".

Humans , Adult , Abducens Nerve/anatomy & histology , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Terminology as Topic
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47060


Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is located most frequently in the cerebral hemispheres. Glioblastoma presenting as an extraaxial mass of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is very rare in adults. We report a rare case of GBM arising in the CPA. The patient was a 71-year-old female, who complained of progressive gait disturbance and poor memory. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 1.4×1.3 cm mass in the left CPA, with broad base to the petrous bone, showing homogenous enhancement. Follow-up MRI showed a rapid increase in size of mass (2.7×2.2 cm) with a necrotic portion. A stereotactic biopsy was done under the guidance of navigation system, and the histopathologic diagnosis was GBM, World Heath Organization grade IV. Further surgical resection was not performed considering her general condition, and the patient underwent concurrent chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Although rare, the possibility of glioblastoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical CPA tumor.

Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Cerebellopontine Angle , Cerebrum , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gait , Glioblastoma , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Memory , Petrous Bone
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 35(3): 257-269, 20/09/2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-910740


Objective The objective of this study is to introduce and describe a surgical technique called Osteoplastic Orbitozygomatic-Mastoid-Transattical Craniotomy (Osteoplastic OZ-MT) and to show the possibility of accomplishing osteoplastic craniotomies for other classical lateral transcranial approaches. Technique The Osteoplastic OZ-MT combines many lateral transcranial approaches. The surgical approach involves structures of lateral and basal portions of the skull, from the frontal bone, superolateral-inferolateral-posterolateral walls of the orbit, zygoma, zygomatic process, sphenoid greater and lesser wings, temporal fossa, mandibular fossa, zygomatic process of the temporal bone, petrous pyramid, mastoid, up to the parietal and occipital regions. The temporal muscle is totally preserved and attached to the one-piece-only bone flap. Results We have developed and used routinely the technique, including its variants and combinations, for about twenty years in children and adults to treat and/or remove mainly mesial, basal, intra, and/or extra-cranium lesions, from the anterior fossa, passing through the middle fossa and going up to the regions of the clivus, basilar artery, and cerebellumpontine angle, with greater surgical degree of freedom and consequent reduction of morbidity and mortality. So far, we have not had any complications nor important sequels, and the aesthetic and functional results are quite favorable. Conclusion The Osteoplastic OZ-MT is a very systematic, anatomical, feasible, and safe craniotomy. The synthesis is easy to do and can be reopened quickly if necessary. Variants and combinations allow us to opt for a more appropriate approach according to each case.

Objetivo Apresentar e descrever uma técnica cirúrgica denominada de Craniotomia Orbitozigomática- Mastóideo-Transatical Osteoplástica (OZ-MT Osteoplástica) e mostrar a possibilidade de realizar craniotomias osteoplásticas para os outros acessos transcranianos laterais clássicos. Técnica A OZ-MT Osteoplástica combina vários acessos transcranianos laterais. O acesso cirúrgico envolve estruturas das porções lateral e basal do crânio, do osso frontal, paredes súperolateral-ínferolateral-pósterolateral da órbita, zigoma, processo zigomático, asas maior e menor do esfenoide, fossa temporal, fossa mandibular, processo zigomático do osso temporal, pirâmide petrosa, mastoide, até as regiões parietal e occipital. O músculo temporal é totalmente preservado e aderido ao retalho ósseo de uma-peça-só. Resultado Temos desenvolvido e usado de rotina a técnica, incluindo suas variantes e combinações, por cerca de vinte anos, em crianças e adultos, para tratar e/ou remover principalmente aquelas lesões mesial, basal, intra e/ou extracranianas, desde a fossa anterior, passando pela fossa média e indo até às regiões do clivus, artéria basilar e ângulo ponto-cerebelar, com maior grau de liberdade cirúrgica e consequente redução da morbidade e mortalidade. Até agora, não tivemos nenhuma complicação e nem sequelas importantes e os resultados estético e funcional são bastantes favoráveis. Conclusões A OZ-MT Osteoplástica é uma craniotomia bastante sistematizada, anatômica, factível e segura. A síntese é fácil de ser feita e que pode ser reaberta rapidamente se necessário. Variantes e combinações nos permitem optar por um acesso mais apropriado conforme cada caso.

Craniotomy , Craniotomy/methods , Petrous Bone , Sphenoid Bone , Skull Base , Mastoid
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 30(1): 7-12, mar. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-835749


Objetivo: Presentar un caso de meningioma petroclival con extensión al cavum de Meckel, tratado quirúrgicamente a través de un abordaje petroso combinado con extensión translaberíntica. Introducción: Se define como meningioma petroclival, al que se origina en los dos tercios superiores de la fisura petroclival, y medial al nervio trigémino. Existen numerosos abordajes para estos tumores, y cada caso requiere un análisis individualizado. Descripción del caso: Paciente de 25 años que refiere cefalea de 6 meses de evolución, progresiva e invalidante, e hipoacusia derecha. Al examen físico presenta hipoestesia en territorio trigeminal derecho y desviación velopalatina a derecha. En la imagen de resonancia magnética (IRM) se evidencia voluminosa lesión expansiva petroclival derecha con extensión al cavum de Meckel. La cirugía fue programada en dos tiempos: en el primero se realizó el abordaje y en el segundo la exéresis tumoral total. En el post operatorio evolucionó con una hemiparesia izquierda transitoria y parálisis completa del tercer par derecho en recuperación. Discusión: Existen múltiples modalidades terapéuticas para los meningiomas de base de cráneo. En este caso considerando la ubicación, el tamaño, su extensión clival, al cavum de Meckel y su relación con la arteria basilar, se decidió realizar un abordaje petroso combinado, con extensión translaberíntica debido a la hipoacusia. Conclusiones: Los abordajes de base de cráneo acortan la distancia de trabajo al tumor y mejoran los ángulos de exposición, facilitando su exéresis. Su principal desventaja, que es el tiempo de realización, puede sortearse dividiendo la cirugía en 2 tiempos.

Objective: To present a patient with a right petroclival meningioma with extension into Meckel´s cave, surgically treated by combining a petrosal approach with translabyrinthine extension.Introduction: Petroclival meningiomas are tumors that arise from the upper two thirds of the petroclival fissure, medial to the trigeminal nerve. There are several treatment options, with every case warranting an individualized approach.Case description: Our patient was a 25-year-old male/female with a 6-month history of progressive, disabling headaches and right hearing loss. The physical exam revealed right trigeminal hypoesthesia and rightward deviation of the soft palate. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a huge right petroclival tumor with extension into Meckel´s cave. Two-stage surgery was planned, the first procedure to create an approach, and the second to attempt total tumor resection, which was achieved. Postoperatively, the patient had transient left hemiparesis and a complete third nerve palsy that recovered partially. Discussion: Many different surgical approaches exist for treating petroclival meningiomas. In this case, considering the tumor’s location and volume, its clival and Meckel´s cave extension and basilar artery involvement, we elected to combine a petrosal approach with translabyrinthine extension, due to the patient’s previous hearing loss. Conclusion: Skull-base approaches shorten the working distance to the tumor, improving the angle of approach and rendering total resection possible. One of the procedure’s main disadvantages is the time required; but this can be overcome by performing the procedure in two stages.

Humans , Meningioma , Petrous Bone
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 37(1): 38-43, Jan. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742275


Objective. To identify the intangible elements that characterize the successful effort to fight Chagas disease in the Americas, determine how they contributed to the overall success of the partnership, and learn lessons from the experience that could be applied to other programs. Methods. This study was based on the Partnership Assessment Tool (PAT) developed by the Nuffield Institute for Health ("the Institute") at the University of Leeds (London). The PAT draws heavily on scientific literature and the extensive experience of sociologists and health experts working for the Institute. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) modified the tool slightly to adapt it to its needs and provide a general structure for the study. The six key principles of the PAT framework were applied in the design of the research questionnaires. Results. The findings show that a successful collaboration requires a clear objective; a good-quality pool of data; and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the problem, its dimensions, and its impact. The collaboration was elaborated from a common idea and a shared, quantified plan based on data gathered by independent scientists plus a strategy with explicit milestones. The clarity of purpose allowed for an improved synergy of efforts and made it possible to resolve differences in opinions and approaches. Conclusions. PAHO's experience with effective collaborations such as the joint initiative to fight Chagas disease provides a rich knowledge base for analysis of the advantages, limitations, and paradigms of community involvement, collaborative practices, and partnerships.

Objetivo. Establecer los elementos intangibles que caracterizan la exitosa iniciativa para combatir la enfermedad de Chagas en la Región de las Américas, determinar cómo contribuyeron al éxito general de la alianza y extraer enseñanzas de la experiencia que podrían ser aplicadas a otros programas. Métodos. Este estudio se basó en la Herramienta de Evaluación de Alianzas (PAT, por sus siglas en inglés: Partnership Assessment Tool) creada por el Nuffield Institute for Health ("el Instituto") de la Universidad de Leeds (Londres). La PAT utiliza en gran medida la bibliografía científica y la vasta experiencia de los sociólogos y expertos en salud que trabajan para el Instituto. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) modificó ligeramente la herramienta para adaptarla a sus necesidades y proporcionar una estructura general para el estudio. En el diseño de los cuestionarios de investigación, se aplicaron los seis principios clave del marco de la PAT. Resultados. Los resultados indican que una colaboración exitosa requiere un objetivo claro; una base de datos de buena calidad; y un conocimiento exhaustivo cualitativo y cuantitativo del problema, sus dimensiones y su repercusión. La colaboración se elaboró a partir de una idea común y un plan compartido y cuantificado basado en datos recopilados por científicos independientes, junto a una estrategia con hitos explícitos. La claridad de los objetivos permitió una mejor sinergia de las iniciativas e hizo posible la resolución de las diferencias de opiniones y enfoques. Conclusiones. La experiencia de la OPS en materia de colaboraciones eficaces, como la iniciativa conjunta para combatir la enfermedad de Chagas, proporciona una rica base de conocimientos para analizar las ventajas, las limitaciones y los paradigmas de la participación comunitaria, las prácticas colaborativas y las alianzas.

Humans , Ear Neoplasms/diagnosis , Ear, Inner/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Petrous Bone/pathology , Petrous Bone , Skull Base Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Ear, Inner
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 37(1): 52-58, Jan. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742277


Objetivo. Realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre la eficacia del consumo de arroz fortificado en el incremento de los niveles de hierro y otros micronutrientes en niños de 6 a 59 meses de edad, con la finalidad de evaluar su utilidad como intervención de salud pública. Métodos. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library y LILACS. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA) que evaluaron el consumo de arroz fortificado comparado con placebo u otras formas de intervención sobre la mejora de los niveles de hierro y otros micronutrientes. Para evaluar la calidad metodológica, se utilizó la lista de verificación CONSORT®. El riesgo de sesgo de los estudios se evaluó según la metodología de la Colaboración Cochrane®. Resultados. Se incluyeron siete ECA en la revisión. Todos los estudios mostraron mejoras significativas en indicadores del estado nutricional de hierro en los grupos intervenidos, sin reportar efectos adversos. No se evidenció mejoría en los niveles de vitamina A, ni en los indicadores antropométricos de peso y talla como resultado secundario de la intervención. Los estudios incluidos mostraron calidad metodológica moderada. Conclusiones. La fortificación del arroz representó una estrategia de intervención eficaz para corregir la deficiencia de hierro en la población infantil menor de cinco años. Su implementación como medida de salud pública requiere estudios locales que evalúen su efectividad en intervenciones a largo plazo y en mayor escala.

Objective. To carry out a systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of fortified rice consumption in terms of increasing levels of iron and other micro­nutrients in children aged 6-59 months, with a view to evaluating its usefulness as a public health intervention. Methods. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and LILACS databases. The review included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that assessed the consumption of fortified rice, compared with a placebo or other forms of intervention, in terms of enhanced levels of iron and other micronutrients. The CONSORT® checklist was used to assess methodological quality. The risk of bias in the studies was assessed using the Cochrane® Collaboration methodology. Results. Seven RCTs were included in the review. All the studies showed significant improvements in indicators of nutritional iron status in the intervention groups, without reporting adverse effects. There was no evidence of improvement in vitamin A levels or in anthropometric indicators of weight and height as a secondary result of the intervention. The included studies showed moderate methodological quality. Conclusions. Rice fortification was an effective intervention strategy to correct iron deficiency in children under age 5. For implementation as a public health measure, local studies are needed to assess its effectiveness in long-term and large-scale interventions.

Humans , Labyrinth Diseases/diagnosis , Osteitis/diagnosis , Petrous Bone/abnormalities , Petrous Bone/injuries , Skull Fractures/diagnosis , Skull Neoplasms/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Petrous Bone/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 37(1): 59-68, Jan. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742278


En el Plan de acción mundial sobre vacunas, aprobado por la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud en el 2012, se hizo un llamamiento en pro del acceso mundial a las nuevas vacunas en un plazo de 5 años desde que se otorga la licencia. Sin embargo, los métodos actuales han resultado insuficientes para lograr fijar precios sostenibles para las vacunas en dicho plazo. En paralelo con la estrategia exitosa de la competencia de los genéricos para reducir el precio de los medicamentos, está surgiendo un consenso claro sobre el hecho de que la entrada en el mercado de múltiples proveedores es un factor fundamental para reducir rápidamente el precio de las nuevas vacunas. En este contexto, los principales objetivos para mejorar el acceso a las nuevas vacunas incluyen superar los obstáculos de la propiedad intelectual, simplificar las vías de reglamentación de las vacunas biosimilares y reducir los plazos de entrada en el mercado de los fabricantes de vacunas de los países en desarrollo mediante la transferencia de tecnología y conocimientos prácticos. En este artículo propongo crear un banco de propiedad intelectual, tecnología y conocimientos prácticos como un nuevo enfoque a fin de facilitar el acceso generalizado a las nuevas vacunas en los países de ingresos medianos y bajos mediante la transferencia eficaz de las técnicas de producción de vacunas patentadas a múltiples fabricantes de vacunas en los países en desarrollo.

The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers.

Humans , Ear, Inner/anatomy & histology , Ear, Inner , Models, Anatomic , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Petrous Bone , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300534


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the feasibility and related aspects on endoscopic endonasal management of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Retrospective data analysis was performed on 3 cases in which the endoscopic endonasal approach was used to manage this lesion between 2011 and 2014. Case information including radiological data, surgical technique, symptoms, and complications was reviewed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The main clinical manifestations in these 3 patients were tinnitus, hearing loss at the hearing threshold of 40-50 dBHL. After operation, all 3 patients showed disappearance of their tinnitus and improvement of the hearing threshold of 10-30 dBHL (follow-up 6-45 months). Permanent drainage route was performed in 1 case which communicated with sphenoid sinus. While the other 2 cases which drained to pharyngeal recess resulted in drainage route blocking within the 3-6 months after surgery, but without obvious symptoms.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This procedure for the drainage of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma showed to be effective, safe and minimally invasive. Although there is no recurrence in short-term, however, long-term surveillance and large case series are necessary, especially to the maitainence of permanent drainage.</p>

Cholesterol , Drainage , Endoscopy , Methods , Granuloma, Foreign-Body , General Surgery , Hearing Loss , Humans , Nose , Petrous Bone , Pathology , General Surgery , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sphenoid Sinus , Tinnitus
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87810


OBJECTIVES: Aim of the present study was to define the relationship between petrous apex pneumatization and the nearby major anatomical landmarks using temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images. METHODS: This retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study analyzed CT images of 84 patients that showed normal findings bilaterally. Pneumatization of the petrous apex was classified using two methods. Eight parameters were as follows: angle between the posterior cranial fossa and internal auditory canal, Morimitsu classification of anterior epitympanic space, distance between the carotid canal and jugular bulb, distance between the cochlear modiolus and carotid canal, distance between the tympanic segment and jugular bulb, high jugular bulb, distance between the vertical segment and jugular bulb, and distance between the lateral semicircular canals and middle cranial fossa. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in Morimitsu classification of the anterior epitympanic space between the two classification methods. Poorly pneumatic upper petrous apices were distributed uniformly in three types of Morimitsu classification, but more pneumatic upper petrous apices were found more often in anterior type. Lower petrous apex was well pneumatized regardless of the types of anterior epitympanic space, but the largest amount of pneumatization was found more frequently in the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space. CONCLUSION: This study showed that there was no reliable anatomic marker to estimate petrous apex pneumatization and suggests that the pneumatization of the petrous apex may be an independent process from other part of the temporal bone, and may not be influenced by the nearby major anatomical structures in the temporal bone. In this study, the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space was found to be closely related to more well-pneumatized petrous apices, which implies that the anterior saccule of the saccus medius may be the main factor influencing pneumatization of the petrous apex.

Classification , Cranial Fossa, Middle , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Growth and Development , Humans , Petrous Bone , Retrospective Studies , Saccule and Utricle , Semicircular Canals , Temporal Bone
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-748768


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis method and treatment of petrous apex cholesteatoma.@*METHOD@#A retrospective analysis was taken with respects to the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and surgical management of 38 patients who underwent surgery for petrous apex cholesteatoma in our department.@*RESULT@#(1)31 patients had unilateral hearing loss and facial paralysis of different degree, 27 patients were firstly characterized with hearing loss, and followed by facial paralysis. 6 cases had facial paralysis as the main performance. (2)17 patients had syndrome of tinnitus, and 15 patients had syndrome of vertigo and 4 cases of severe pain of ear. (3)All patients had petrous bone destroy with high resolution CT scan, while MRI suggests the presence of pathological changes in petrous apex. (4)All patients were taken surgeries to remove the lesion, and translabyrinth approach was chosen for 23 patients, middle cranial fossa approach is 12, while 3 case has choose endoscopic approach. 8 cases were operated with facial nerve decompression. 7 cases was taken end to end anastomosis. 3 cases of great auricular nerve transplantation. There is no recurrence in follow-up of 1 years to 2 years.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical manifestations of petrous apex cholesteatoma lack specificity, and high resolution CT and MRI has important value in the diagnosis of petrous apex cholesteatoma. The strategy of surgical operation should be taken according to the classification, location of petrous apex cholesteatoma as well as hearing level and facial nerve function with patients.

Cholesteatoma , Pathology , General Surgery , Cranial Fossa, Middle , Decompression, Surgical , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Unilateral , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Petrous Bone , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42153


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to inspect the clinical characteristics, surgical approaches, functional preservation, and complications of petrous bone cholesteatoma and to propose appropriate surgical approaches based on long-term follow-up cases and previous reports in the literature. METHODS: The medical records of 31 patients who underwent surgery for petrous bone cholesteatoma between 1990 and 2011 at two tertiary referral hospitals were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the classification, type of surgical approach, preservation of facial and auditory function, and recurrence. RESULTS: Of 31 cases, 16 were supralabyrinthine (class I), 1 was infralabyrinthine-apical (class III), 13 were massive (class IV), and 1 was apical (class V). Facial nerve palsy was found in 35.5% of the cases (11 cases). Hearing was preserved in 11 of 22 patients who had better than a 50-dB hearing level of bone conduction pure tone average preoperatively. Preoperative hearing was preserved in only four of the patients in class I (supralabyrinthine). Facial function was preserved or improved in 29 patients (93.5%). CONCLUSION: Complete removal of cholesteatoma of petrous bone can be achieved by choosing the appropriate approach based on location and extent. Facial function was preserved postoperatively in most reviewed cases. Auditory function could not be preserved postoperatively in some cases, but preserving residual hearing levels can be accomplished mostly in supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas with the appropriate surgical approach.

Bone Conduction , Cholesteatoma , Classification , Facial Nerve , Follow-Up Studies , Hearing , Humans , Medical Records , Paralysis , Petrous Bone , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50487


Petrous apicitis is a rare but fatal complication of otitis media. An infection within the middle ear can extend within the temporal bone into the air cells of the petrous apex. With only the thin dura mater separating the trigeminal ganglion and the 6th cranial nerve from the bony petrous apex, they are vulnerable to inflammatory processes, resulting in deep facial pain, lateral rectus muscle paralysis, and diplopia. In 1904, Gradenigo described a triad of symptoms related to petrous apicitis, including acute suppurative otitis media, deep facial pain resulting from trigeminal involvement, and abducens nerve palsy. It has traditionally been treated with surgery, but recent advances in imaging, with improved antibiotic treatment, allow conservative management. In this case report, we describe a clinical and neuroradiological evolution of a child with a petrous apicitis after acute otitis media, which was managed medically with a positive outcome.

Abducens Nerve Diseases , Abducens Nerve , Child , Cranial Nerves , Diplopia , Dura Mater , Ear, Middle , Facial Pain , Humans , Muscles , Otitis Media , Otitis Media, Suppurative , Otitis , Paralysis , Petrositis , Petrous Bone , Temporal Bone , Trigeminal Ganglion