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1.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 6: 1-7, 30-01-2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1554812

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La automedicación definida como la ingestión de medicamentos por iniciativa propia y sin receta médica es una práctica frecuente. Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de automedicación en adultos durante el brote de chikungunya que concurrieron a dos hospitales de referencia del departamento Central en el año 2023. Materiales y Métodos. Estudio observacional descriptivo transversal en adultos en donde se midieron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, automedicación y reacciones adversas por medio de un cuestionario. Resultados. Se incluyeron 109 personas, el 62,39% del sexo femenino, el 60.55% en el rango de edad de 18 a 37 años, el 60,55% con nivel escolar universitario, el 56,52% de ocupación oficinista El 74,31% manifestó haber padecido chikungunya, de los cuales el 56,79% se automedicó. El 43,89% fue por dolor intenso en las articulaciones asociado a hinchazón. El 76.08% se automedicó con AINES. El 30,43% indicó como motivo falta de tiempo para acudir al médico. Se encontró una combinación entre medicamentos convencionales y tradicionales en un 47,82%, 91% lo obtuvo sin receta y 89% lo ha conseguido en la farmacia. Un 50% se automedicó más de una vez al día. Conclusión. La frecuencia de la automedicación fue alta, predominando la ingesta de AINES relacionado al dolor de las articulaciones asociado a hinchazón siendo las farmacias el establecimiento de obtención de los medicamentos. Palabras clave: automedicación; preparaciones farmacéuticas; fiebre chikungunya


Introduction. Self-medication is defined as taking medication on one's own initiative and without a prescription.Objective. To determine the frequency of self-medication in adults during the chikungunya outbreak attending 2 referral hospitals in the Central Department in the year 2023. Materials and Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive observational study in adults during the chikungunya outbreak, using a questionnaire consisting of two parts, the first on sociodemographic variables, and the second on whether they suffered from chikungunya and variables related to the consumption of medicines without medical prescription, medicines consumed, characteristics of self-medication and adverse reactions. Results. Of the 109 subjects studied, 63,39% were female, the predominant age range was 18 to 37 years with 60,55%, 69,72% with a university education. 56,52% were office workers. A total of 74,31% reported having suffered from chikungunya, of which 56,79% had self-medicated. In 43,89% of these patients suffered from intense joint pain associated with swelling. 76,08% self-medicated with NSAIDs. The 30,43% indicated lack of time to go to the doctor as the reason. A combination of conventional and traditional drugs was found in 47,82%, 91% obtained it without prescription and 89% had obtained it at the pharmacy. Some 50% self-medicated more than once a day. Conclusion.The frequency of self-medication was high, predominantly the intake of NSAIDs related to joint pain associated with swelling, with pharmacies being the place where the drugs were obtained. Key words: self-medication; pharmaceutical preparations; chikungunyafever


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Self Medication , Chikungunya Fever , Pharmaceutical Preparations
2.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 29: e54679, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529193

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. A implementação da reforma psiquiátrica é tema de recorrentes discussões no campo da saúde mental. Essa implementação não é padrão para todas as localidades brasileiras, uma vez que depende dos recursos materiais, humanos e aspectos culturais de cada região. A esta singularidade retoma-se a noção de arranjo assistencial. Este trabalho se propôs a conhecer a implementação numa regional de saúde da região Sul. Foi realizado um mapeamento descritivo, seguindo método empírico-fenomenológico. Descrevem-se serviços que acolhem todos os públicos, mas que encontram dificuldades no trabalho com a população usuária de álcool e outras drogas. Foram elencados sete dispositivos assistenciais: acolhimento, grupos terapêuticos, oficinas, atendimentos individuais, uso da medicação, encaminhamentos e reuniões de equipe. Expõe-se a ideia de que a estrutura de um serviço de saúde mental não pode ser estanque. Os arranjos assistenciais estão relacionados às vivências e soluções criativas e humanas como também práticas irrefletidas e normatizadoras na atenção do sofrimento mental.


RESUMEN. La implementación de la reforma psiquiátrica no se encuentra estandarizada para todas las regiones brasileras, una vez que eso depende de recursos materiales, humanos y de aspectos culturales. Por cuenta de esta singularidad, se retoma la noción de arreglo asistencial. En este trabajo se propone conocer la implementación en una regional de salud de sur de Brasil. Se realizó un mapeo descriptivo, siguiendo el método empírico-fenomenológico. Se describen servicios que acogen a todos los públicos, pero que encuentran dificultades en el trabajo con usuarios de alcohol y drogas. Fueran enumerados siete dispositivos asistenciales: Acogimiento, grupos terapéuticos, talleres, atendimientos individuales, uso de medicación, encaminamientos y reuniones de equipo. Se expone la idea de que la estructura de un servicio de Salud Mental no puede ser hermética. Los arreglos asistenciales están relacionados con las vivencias y soluciones creativas y humanas como también prácticas irreflexivas y normalizadoras en la atención del sufrimiento mental.


ABSTRACT. The psychiatric reform is not standard in all Brazilian places, as it depends on different factors such as material, human and cultural aspects of each region. As for its singularity, it is seen as a care arrangement. This article aims to study the psychosocial care network on a regional health department in south Brazil. A descriptive mapping has been performed, following the empirical-phenomenological method. The services described welcome the entire community, people from all walks of life, but when it comes Drug and Alcohol addicted, the approach becomes more challenging. There have been seven care services listed: Hosting, Therapeutic Groups, Workshops, Individual Treatment, Medication usage, Referrals and Support Group Meetings. The approach for care arrangement is related to the creative experiences and human solutions as well as thoughtless and normative practices in the attention of mental suffering.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patient Care Team , Health Services , Mental Health Services , Psychiatry , Therapeutics/psychology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance Abuse Detection/psychology , User Embracement , Binge Drinking/complications , Prescription Drug Overuse
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 44: e258946, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1558745

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar as concepções de maternidade para mulheres inférteis de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos que estão em tratamento de reprodução assistida. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, descritivo, que utilizou como instrumento uma entrevista semiestruturada e contemplou temas como o significado de família, desejo/expectativas sobre filho e gestação e expectativas sobre a maternidade. Participaram da pesquisa 48 mulheres inférteis acima de 35 anos que usam tecnologias de reprodução assistida de alta complexidade em instituições privada e pública. Os dados foram tratados pela análise de conteúdo em que emergiram os temas: representações sociais da família; representações sociais da maternidade; expectativas com a gestação e os modelos maternos; e o filho imaginado. As participantes representaram a família de forma positiva, como um sistema de suporte, de fundação e origem de amor, configurando-a como um laço social. Por outro lado, as concepções de família com base na consanguinidade também estiveram presentes, representando a família pela perpetuação da espécie e pela importância do laço biológico. A maternidade foi marcada por significativa idealização, sendo vista como um papel gratificante e de realização da feminilidade. O peso da cobrança social para procriar também foi sentido como um dever a cumprir e que, na impossibilidade de se realizar, gera sentimentos de inferioridade, menos-valia, impotência e inadequação perante a sociedade, o que reforça o estigma da infertilidade. Tais resultados apontam a importância de reflexões sobre o papel da mulher na nossa cultura, visto que a maternidade é ainda utilizada como medida para o sucesso ou fracasso feminino. Faz-se necessário também refletir sobre a possibilidade da maior inserção do trabalho psicológico na reprodução assistida, visto a carga emocional e social envolvidas nesse processo.(AU)


This study aimed to analyze the conceptions of motherhood for infertile women from different socioeconomic levels who are undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. This is a qualitative and descriptive study that used a semi-structured interview as an instrument and included topics such as the meaning of family and desires/expectations about the child, pregnancy, and motherhood. A total of 48 infertile women over 35 years of ages using high-complexity assisted reproductive technologies in private and public institutions participated in this research. The data were treated by content analysis in which the following themes emerged: family social representations; social representations of motherhood; expectations with pregnancy and maternal models; and the imagined son. Participants represented the family in a positive way as a support system and the foundation and origin of love, embracing the family as a social bond. On the other hand, the family concepts based on inbreeding were also present, representing the family by perpetuation of the species and the importance of biological bonds. Motherhood was marked by significant idealization, being seen as a gratifying role and the fulfillment of femininity. The weight of the social demand to procreate was also felt as a duty to be fulfilled that, in the impossibility of carrying it out, generates feelings of inferiority, worthlessness, impotence, and inadequacy toward society, which reinforce the stigma of infertility. Results point to the necessary reflections on the role of women and our culture since Motherhood is still used as a measure of female success or failure. They also point to a reflection on the possibility of greater inclusion of psychological work in assisted reproduction given the emotional and social burden involved in this process.(AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las concepciones de maternidad de mujeres infértiles, de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos, que se encuentran en tratamiento de reproducción asistida. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, que utilizó como instrumento una entrevista semiestructurada e incluyó temas como el sentido de la familia, deseos/expectativas sobre el hijo y el embarazo y expectativas sobre la maternidad. Participaron en la investigación un total de 48 mujeres infértiles, mayores de 35 años, usuarias de tecnologías de reproducción asistida de alta complejidad en instituciones públicas y privadas. Los datos se sometieron a análisis de contenido del cual surgieron los temas: representaciones sociales familiares; representaciones sociales de la maternidad; expectativas con el embarazo y modelos maternos; hijo imaginado. Las participantes representaron a la familia de manera positiva, como sistema de apoyo, fundamento y origen del amor, configurándola como vínculo social. Por otro lado, también estuvieron presentes las concepciones familiares basadas en la consanguinidad, representando a la familia para la perpetuación de la especie y la importancia del vínculo biológico. La maternidad estuvo marcada por una importante idealización, vista como un rol gratificante y de realización de la feminidad. También se sintió el peso de la demanda social de procrear como un deber que cumplir y que, ante la imposibilidad de realizarlo, genera sentimientos de inferioridad, desvalorización, impotencia e inadecuación en la sociedad, lo que refuerza el estigma de la infertilidad. Por tanto, son necesarias reflexiones sobre el papel de la mujer en nuestra cultura, ya que la maternidad se sigue utilizando como medida del éxito o fracaso femenino. También se reflexiona sobre la posibilidad de una mayor inclusión del trabajo psicológico en la reproducción asistida dada la carga emocional y social que implica este proceso.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Reproduction , Family , Parenting , Social Representation , Infertility, Female , Anxiety , Ovulation Detection , Ovulation Induction , Ovum , Ovum Transport , Parent-Child Relations , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pregnancy Maintenance , Pregnancy, Multiple , Prejudice , Psychology , Quality of Life , Self Concept , Sex , Sexual Abstinence , Shame , Achievement , Social Identification , Sperm Transport , Spermatozoa , Taboo , Time , Tobacco Use Disorder , Urogenital System , Uterus , Population Characteristics , National Health Strategies , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adoption , Divorce , Marriage , Fertilization in Vitro , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Child Rearing , Family Characteristics , Risk Factors , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Reproductive Techniques , Gestational Age , Coitus , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Oocyte Donation , Consanguinity , Contraception , Sexuality , Couples Therapy , Affect , Abortion, Threatened , Pelvic Infection , Heredity , Inheritance Patterns , Ovulation Prediction , Depression , Reproductive Rights , Diagnosis , Dreams , Alcoholism , Embryo Transfer , Endometriosis , Conjugal Status , Job Market , Fallopian Tube Patency Tests , Family Conflict , Family Relations , Fantasy , Fear , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Masculinity , Sedentary Behavior , Binge Drinking , Hope , Social Norms , Delay Discounting , Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys , Psychological Trauma , Donor Conception , Healthy Lifestyle , Contraceptive Effectiveness , Long-Acting Reversible Contraception , Social Construction of Gender , Gender Expression , Gender-Specific Needs , Frustration , Embarrassment , Sadness , Emotional Regulation , Psychological Distress , Empowerment , Varicocele , Belonging , Family Support , Emotional Exhaustion , Guilt , Happiness , Imagination , Infertility, Male , Insemination, Artificial, Homologous , Laboratories , Life Style , Loneliness , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Medicine , Obesity
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23564, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533993

ABSTRACT

Abstract The quality, efficacy, and safety of medicines are usually verified by analytical results. Measurement uncertainty is a critical aspect for the reliability of these analytical results. The pharmacopeial compendia usually adopt a simple acceptance rule that does not consider information from measurement uncertainty. In this work, we compared decision-making using simple acceptance and decision rules with the use of guard-band for multiparameter evaluation of ofloxacin ophthalmic solution and acyclovir topical cream. Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution and acyclovir topical cream samples were subject to pharmacopeial tests and assays. Multivariate guard-band widths were calculated by multiplying the standard uncertainty (u) by an appropriate multivariate coverage factor (k'). The multivariate coverage factor (k') was obtained by the Monte Carlo method. According to the simple acceptance rule, all the results obtained for ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution and acyclovir topical cream are within the specification limits. However, the risk of false conformity decisions increases for ciprofloxacin tests. Decisions made using the simple acceptance rule and decision rules with the use of guard-band may differ. The simple acceptance rule may increase the risk of false conformity decisions when the measured value is close to the regulatory specification limits and/or when the measurement uncertainty value is inappropriately high. Nevertheless, the guard-band decision rule will always reduce the risk of false conformity decisions. Therefore, using information on measurement uncertainty in conformity assessment is highly recommended to ensure the proper efficacy, safety, and quality of medicines.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Assessment/trends , Uncertainty , Acyclovir/adverse effects , Ciprofloxacin/adverse effects
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23272, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533988

ABSTRACT

Abstract The last decade provided significant advances in the understanding of microbiota and its role in human health. Probiotics are live microorganisms with proven benefits for the host and were mostly studied in the context of gut health, but they can also confer significant benefits for oral health, mainly in the treatment of gingivitis. Postbiotics are cell-free extracts and metabolites of microorganisms which can provide additional preventive and therapeutic value for human health. This opens opportunities for new preventive or therapeutic formulations for oral administration. The microorganisms that colonize the oral cavity, their role in oral health and disease, as well as the probiotics and postbiotics which could have beneficial effects in this complex environment were discussed. The aim of this study was to review, analyse and discuss novel probiotic and postbiotic formulations intended for oral administration that could be of great preventive and therapeutic importance. A special attention has been put on the formulation of the pharmaceutical dosage forms that are expected to provide new benefits for the patients and technological advantages relevant for industry. An adequate dosage form could significantly enhance the efficiency of these products.


Subject(s)
Oral Health/classification , Probiotics/analysis , Microbiota/immunology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Ligilactobacillus salivarius/classification , Mouth/injuries
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23565, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Medicines must be subject to physical, chemical, and biological analysis to guarantee their quality, safety, and effectiveness. Despite the efforts to ensure the reliability of analytical results, some uncertainty will always be associated with the measured value, which can lead to false decisions regarding conformity/non-conformity assessment. This work aims to calculate the specific risk of false decisions regarding conformity/non-conformity of acetaminophen oral solution dosage form. The acetaminophen samples from five different manufacturers (A, B, C, D, and E) were subject to an active pharmaceutical ingredient assay, density test, and dose per drop test according to the official compendia. Based on measured values and their respective uncertainties, the risk values were calculated using the Monte Carlo method implemented in an MS Excel spreadsheet. The results for two acetaminophen oral solution samples (C and D) provided an increased total risk value of false acceptance (33.1% and 9.6% for C and D, respectively). On the other hand, the results for the other three acetaminophen samples (A, B, and E) provided a negligible risk of false acceptance (0.004%, 0.025%, and 0.045% for A, B, and E, respectively). This indicates that measurement uncertainty is very relevant when a conformity assessment is carried out, and information on the risks of false decisions is essential to ensure proper decisions.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Acetaminophen/agonists
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23618, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533985

ABSTRACT

Abstract Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. New AD treatments are essential, and drug repositioning is a promising approach. In this study, we combined ligand-based and structure-based approaches to identify potential candidates among FDA-approved drugs for AD treatment. We used the human acetylcholinesterase receptor structure (PDB ID: 4EY7) and applied Rapid Overlay of Chemical Structures and Swiss Similarity for ligand-based screening.Computational shape-based screening revealed 20 out of 760 FDA approved drugs with promising structural similarity to Donepezil, an AD treatment AChE inhibitor and query molecule. The screened hits were further analyzed using docking analysis with Autodock Vina and Schrodinger glide. Predicted binding affinities of hits to AChE receptor guided prioritization of potential drug candidates. Doxazosin, Oxypertine, Cyclopenthiazide, Mestranol, and Terazosin exhibited favorable properties in shape similarity, docking energy, and molecular dynamics stability.Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the stability of the complexes over 100 ns. Binding free energy analysis using MM-GBSA indicated favourable binding energies for the selected drugs. ADME, formulation studies offered insights into therapeutic applications and predicted toxicity.This comprehensive computational approach identified potential FDA-approved drugs (especially Doxazosin) as candidates for repurposing in AD treatment, warranting further investigation and clinical assessment.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Drug Repositioning/classification , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Neurodegenerative Diseases/classification , Donepezil/agonists
8.
Diagn. tratamento ; 28(4): 197-99, out-dez/2023. fig. 1
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1532351

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) é um método clínico de detecção de disfagia, entendida como dificuldade na deglutição. Em pesquisa realizada no Brasil, foi observado que 9,5% de indivíduos saudáveis assintomáticos têm resultados do teste compatível com disfagia. Objetivo: Avaliar os possíveis fatores que influenciam o resultado anormal do teste em indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Estudo transversal realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP-USP) em 358 voluntários sem doenças e sem sintomas, nos quais foi aplicado o teste EAT-10. Resultados: Em 316 o resultado nos 10 itens do teste foi zero, e em 42 os resultados da somatória dos 10 itens foi igual ou superior a 3, considerado indicativo de disfagia. O resultado ≥ 3 ocorreu em 10 homens entre 144 (7%) e 32 mulheres entre 214 (15%), (P = 0,01). A mediana (limites) de idades daqueles com resultado zero foi de 39 (20-84) anos, e com resultado ≥ 3 foi de 32 (20-83) anos (P = 0,04). O índice de massa corporal (IMC) não apresentou diferença entre pessoas com e sem indicação de disfagia. O máximo escore possível para o item 5 (dificuldade na ingestão de medicamentos) foi o que obteve o maior percentual (43,9%) de máximo escore possível, sendo o fator mais importante para o resultado anormal. Discussão: Em indivíduos saudáveis, a dificuldade em ingerir medicamentos foi o fator que mais influenciou a ocorrência de resultado do teste EAT-10 indicativo de disfagia. Conclusão: Dificuldade na ingestão de medicamentos sólidos deve ser considerada quando da interpretação do teste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Eating , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Critical Pathways , Drug Utilization
9.
Rev Enferm UFPI ; 12(1): e3944, 2023-12-12. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1523976

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a prática de descarte domiciliar de medicamentos entre estudantes de enfermagem de uma instituição de ensino superior pública. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório, quantitativo, realizado por meio de questionário online, com 84 estudantes de enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados pelo Google Forms e analisados no Statistical Package for the Social Sciences por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: A maioria (90,5%) refere que já descartou medicamentos, sobretudo analgésicos (71,4%), e o descarte incorreto, com o lixo domiciliar. Verificou-se desconhecimento acerca de local para coleta de medicamentos vencidos pela maioria dos estudantes, bem como ausência de instruções sobre descarte adequado. Observou-se que grande parte dos participantes da pesquisa destacou que retornaria medicamentos, vencidos ou sem utilidade, para as farmácias ou estabelecimentos de saúde e que é necessário descartar de forma diferenciada do lixo comum. Conclusão: A prática domiciliar de descarte de medicamentos entre estudantes de enfermagem de uma instituição de ensino superior pública é insegura. Descritores: Preparações Farmacêuticas; Estudantes de Enfermagem; Meio Ambiente; Saúde Ambiental.


Objective:To analyze the practice of home disposal of medications among nursing students of a public higher education institution. Methods:A descriptive-exploratory, quantitative study conducted through an online questionnaire with 84 nursing students. Data were collected by Google Forms and analyzed in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results:The majority (90.5%) reported that they have already discarded medications, especially analgesics (71.4%), and made the incorrect disposal of the medications together with household waste. There was a lack of knowledge about the place for collection of expired medications by most students, and lack of instructions on proper disposal. It was observed that most of the research participants highlighted that they would return medications, expired or useless, to pharmacies or health establishments and that it is necessary to disposal them differently from ordinary waste.Conclusion:the practice of home disposal of medications among nursing students at a public higher education institution is unsafe. Descriptors: Pharmaceutical Preparations; Nursing students; Environment; Environmental health.


Subject(s)
Students, Nursing , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Environmental Health , Environment
11.
Univ. salud ; 25(2): E9-E18, mayo-ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1510644

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los medicamentos de venta libre (OTC por su sigla en inglés Over The Counter), son ampliamente usados por la mayoría de las personas a nivel mundial, sin embargo, solamente son usados de forma responsable en países donde existe una farmacia comunitaria profesional legalizada. Objetivo: Describir los hábitos de consumo de medicamentos de venta libre por estudiantes universitarios del área de la salud. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, desarrollado en tres universidades de Cartagena. Se aplicó un instrumento tipo encuesta a 140 estudiantes acerca de hábitos de consumo y conocimiento sobre OTC, creencias, actitudes y prácticas. Resultados: El cuestionario presentó una consistencia interna alta con Alfa de Cronbach'sde 0,77. El 59% fueron mujeres, las en edades entre 16-30 años, el 91% estuvo de acuerdo que la automedicación es perjudicial. Sin embargo, 61% asegura automedicarse porque los padecimientos son menores y frecuentes. Los medicamentos de mayor consumo, fueron el acetaminofén 52,9% y los medicamentos antiinflamatorios no esteroides (AINES) con 16,48%, incluyeron en sus respuestas medicamentos de no venta libre. Conclusión: Los estudiantes son conscientes del riesgo de la automedicación, sin embargo, la practican de forma frecuente. Muchos reportaron consumo de medicamentos como amitriptilina, antibióticos, opiáceos, furosemida y corticoides.


Introduction: Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are widely used worldwide, however they are responsibly used only in countries with legalized professional community pharmacies. Objective:To describe over-the-counter medication use habits in university students from health programs. Materials and methods:Descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in three universities from Cartagena. A survey-type instrument was applied to 140 students, asking about their use habits and knowledge regarding OTC, beliefs, attitudes and practices. Results:The questionnaire showed a high internal inconsistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.77. 59% of participants were women aged between 16 to 30 years old and 91% agreed that self-medication is harmful. Nevertheless, 61% self-medicated because of minor and frequent conditions. OTC medications with the highest use were acetaminophen (52.9%) and NSAIDs (16.48%). Conclusions:Even though students are aware of the self-medication risks, they still practice it frequently. Many participants reported the use of medications such as amitriptyline, antibiotics, opioids, furosemide, and corticosteroids.


Introdução:Os medicamentos isentos de prescrição (OTCOver The Counter) são amplamente utilizados pela maioria das pessoas em todo o mundo, porém somente são usados de forma responsável em países onde existe uma farmácia comunitária profissional legalizada. Objetivo: Descrever os hábitos de consumo de medicamentos isentos de prescrição por universitários da área da saúde. Materiais e métodos: Estudo descritivo transversal, desenvolvido em três universidades de Cartagena. Foi aplicado um instrumento do tipo inquérito a 140 alunos sobre hábitos de consumo e conhecimentos sobre OTC, crenças, atitudes e práticas. Resultados: O questionário apresentou alta consistência interna com Alfa de Cronbach ́sde 0,77. 59% eram mulheres, com idades entre 16 e 30 anos, 91% concordaram que a automedicação é prejudicial. No entanto, 61% dizem que se automedicam porque os males são leves e frequentes. Os medicamentos de maior consumo foram o acetaminofeno 52,9% e os anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais com 16,48%, incluindo medicamentos isentos de prescrição em suas respostas. Conclusão: Os alunos estão cientes do risco da automedicação, porém isto é praticado com frequência. Muitos relataram consumo de medicamentos como amitriptilina, antibióticos, opioides, furosemida e corticosteroides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Self Medication , Nonprescription Drugs , Acetaminophen
12.
Femina ; 51(6): 350-360, 20230630. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512418

ABSTRACT

PONTOS-CHAVE O misoprostol é um análogo da prostaglandina E1 (PGE1) que consta na Lista de Medicamentos Essenciais da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) desde 2005 O Brasil possui uma das regulações mais restritivas do mundo relacionadas ao uso do misoprostol, estabelecendo que o misoprostol tem uso hospitalar exclusivo, com controle especial, e venda, compra e propaganda proibidas por lei Atualmente, o misoprostol é a droga de referência para tratamento medicamentoso nos casos de aborto induzido, tanto no primeiro trimestre gestacional quanto em idades gestacionais mais avançadas O misoprostol é uma medicação efetiva para o preparo cervical e indução do parto O misoprostol é um medicamento essencial para o manejo da hemorragia pós-parto


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Misoprostol/adverse effects , Misoprostol/pharmacokinetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Abortion, Legal , Carcinogenic Danger , Parturition/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Postpartum Hemorrhage/drug therapy
13.
Med. infant ; 30(1): 15-20, Marzo 2023. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427875

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Analizar el circuito de utilización de los medicamentos de alto costo (MAC) y los resultados clínicos obtenidos en un hospital de pediatría público de alta complejidad de Argentina y presentar una estrategia de selección replicable para otras instituciones de similares características de la región. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo, aleatorizado, conducido en el Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires en el período entre el 1 de setiembre de 2018 y el 31 de marzo de 2019. Se evaluaron dos unidades de estudio, la unidad paciente y la unidad MAC. Resultados: Los MAC consumen 7.921.200 dólares estadounidenses (USD) anuales y representan el 41% del costo de los medicamentos del hospital de alta complejidad. El 50% del costo de los MAC estuvo representado por la gammaglobulina (medicamento utilizado en diferentes enfermedades). Los pacientes proceden de toda la Argentina y otros países y un 44% tiene cobertura de salud. Los diagnósticos para los que se prescribieron MAC con mayor frecuencia fueron los relacionados con patología oncológica (leucemia linfoide aguda, leucemia mieloblástica aguda). El 54% de los pacientes presentó mejoría atribuible directamente a la administración de los MAC, 39% no presentó cambios y el 7% empeoró. Conclusiones: La efectividad en los resultados clínicos y el análisis de los circuitos de aprobación indican que, además de la aprobación por las entidades nacional e internacionales, la evaluación responsable por parte de las instituciones efectoras, mediante la discusión interdisciplinaria basada en la mejor evidencia, contribuye a optimizar la utilización de los MAC y la seguridad de los pacientes (AU)


Objectives. To analyze the utilization circuit of high-cost medications (HCM) and the clinical results obtained in a tertiarycare public pediatric hospital in Argentina and to present a selection strategy that may be disseminated to other institutions of similar characteristics in the region. Methods: A prospective, descriptive, randomized study was conducted at Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan in Buenos Aires between September 1, 2018 and March 31, 2019. Two study units were evaluated, the patient and the HCM. Results: HCMs account for 7,921,200 US dollars (USD) per year and represent 41% of the cost of drugs in this tertiary-care hospital. Gamma globulin (a drug used for different diseases) accounted for 50% of the cost of HCMs. Patients came from Argentina and other countries and 44% had a health insurance. Cancer (acute lymphoid leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia) was the diagnosis for which HCMs were most frequently prescribed. Fifty-four percent of patients showed improvement directly attributable to the administration of HCMs, 39% showed no change, and 7% worsened. Conclusions: The effectiveness in clinical outcomes and the analysis of approval circuits show that, in addition to approval by national and international entities, responsible evaluation by the effector institutions through interdisciplinary discussion based on the best evidence contributes to optimizing the use of HCMs and patient safety (AU)


Subject(s)
Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee , Pharmaceutical Preparations/economics , Ethics Committees , Drug Costs/statistics & numerical data , Drug Utilization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Hospitals, Public , Prospective Studies , Patient Safety , Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
15.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(1): 19-25, mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553756

ABSTRACT

Se describe una visión multidisciplinaria del problema de confundibilidad de las marcas en los productos farmacéuticos y su repercusión en la salud de la población. Expresan sus opiniones expertos de distintos países, que fueron convocados por la Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO) en un conversatorio realizado en octubre de 2022. Se tratan diversos aspectos: a) el riesgo de confusión en la identificación del producto farmacéutico, b) el registro de marcas farmacéuticas en Brasil y a nivel europeo, c) los medicamentos LASA y los riesgos de similitudes de fonética y grafía, d) el examen de patentes de invención y el estudio de marcas de productos farmacéuticos. Todo ello en el marco de su relación con la seguridad del paciente. (AU)


A multidisciplinary vision of the problem of confusion of brands in pharmaceutical products and its impact on the health of the population is described. Experts from different countries who were convened by the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO) expressed their opinions in a discussion held in October 2022. Various aspects were discussed: a) the risk of confusion in the identification of the pharmaceutical product, b) the registration of pharmaceutical trademarks in Brazil and at a European level, c) LASA drugs and the risks of phonetic and spelling similarities, d) the examination of invention patents and the study of trademarks of pharmaceutical products. All this within the framework of its relationship with patient safety. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drug and Narcotic Control , Drug Labeling , Medication Errors , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Patient Safety , Terminology as Topic
16.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 42-59, mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427726

ABSTRACT

La leche materna donada es un recurso de alto valor que puede ser utilizado para la alimentación de neonatos hospitalizados y a término, por tanto, garantizar su inocuidad es imperativo. Esta revisión de literatura reúne los principales peligros de naturaleza física, química y microbiológica identificados en leche materna, con la intención de proveer una referencia que los consolide de tal forma que la información pueda ser utilizada por bancos de leche humana, gobiernos y agencias regulatorias para establecer mecanismos para su prevención y control. Se realizó una revisión de literatura entre agosto del 2021 y octubre del 2022, utilizando buscadores y descriptores específicos para peligros de transmisión alimentaria en leche materna. Se incluyeron estudios publicados en español o en inglés. Se identificaron 31 agentes biológicos patógenos incluyendo bacterias, virus y parásitos. Como peligros químicos se reportaron medicamentos, drogas, cafeína, infusiones herbales, micotoxinas, alérgenos, especias, suplementos nutricionales, contaminantes ambientales y desinfectantes. Se alerta sobre la presencia potencial de plástico y vidrio de tamaño menor a 7 mm proveniente del ambiente de extracción y recipientes. La presencia de peligros microbiológicos y químicos en leche materna puede darse por transmisión vertical, temperaturas inadecuadas durante el almacenamiento y contaminación en el proceso. La presencia de peligros físicos se relaciona con la manipulación de los implementos en etapas posteriores a la extracción. Se requiere prestar atención a los hábitos de la madre para prevenir peligros químicos, así como más investigación relacionada con micotoxinas en leche materna(AU)


Donated breast milk is a highvalue resource which can be used to feed hospitalized neonates and full-term infants, therefore, ensuring its safety is imperative. This literature review presents the main hazards of physical, chemical and microbiological nature identified in human milk, with the intention of providing a reference that consolidates the reported hazards reported, so the information can be used by human milk banks, governments and regulatory agencies to establish prevention and control mechanisms. A literature review was carried out between August 2021 and October 2022, using search engines and specific descriptors for foodborne hazards in breast milk. Studies published in Spanish and English were considered. 31 pathogenic biological agents including bacteria, viruses and parasites were identified. Medications, drugs, caffeine, herbal infusions, mycotoxins, allergens, spices, nutritional supplements, contaminants of environmental origin and disinfectants were reported as chemical hazards. No physical hazards were identified, however the potential presence of plastic and glass smaller than 7 mm from the extraction environment or containers is alerted. Presence of microbiological and chemical hazards can be due to vertical transmission, inadequate temperature of storing, contamination during extraction, packaging, and infant feeding. Whereas presence of physical hazards is related to implements handling after extraction. Attention to hygiene and habits of the mother to prevent chemical hazards and further research related to mycotoxins in human milk is required(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Biological Factors , Hygiene , Environmental Pollutants , Milk, Human , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Milk Banks , Dietary Supplements , Food Safety
17.
Med. U.P.B ; 42(1): 96-99, ene.-jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1416211

ABSTRACT

La pancreatitis en pediatría se consideraba anteriormente una enfermedad poco fre­cuente; en la actualidad se reportan 13.2 casos por 100 000 niños/año. La causa más importante de pancreatitis en la población pediátrica, después de la etiología biliar, son los medicamentos (13% de los casos). Uno de los principales medicamentos como causa de pancreatitis en pediatría es el ácido valproico (AV); el cual puede inducir una pancreatitis aguda. Aquí se presentará el primer caso de pancreatitis por AV en población pediátrica reportado en Colombia. Se trata de un paciente de cuatro años, con trastorno en el neurodesarrollo por un síndrome de TORCH, quien tomaba AV a largo plazo por un trastorno de la conducta. Ingresó a una institución de alta complejidad donde se diagnostica pancreatitis aguda con signos de necrosis en tejido pancreático secundario a uso de AV. Se suspendió el medicamento con resolución de su cuadro clínico y alta médica hacia el día 15


Pediatric pancreatitis was previously considered a rare disease. Currently, 13.2 cases are reported per 100,000 children/year. The most important cause of pancreatitis in the pediatric population, after biliary etiology, are medications (13% of cases). One of the main medications as a cause of pediatric pancreatitis is valproic acid (VA), which can lead to acute pancreatitis. Here we will present the first case of VA pancreatitis in the pediatric population reported in Colombia. This is a four-year-old patient, with a neurodevelopmental disorder due to TORCH syndrome, who was taking VA long-term for a conduct disorder. He was admitted to a highly complex institution where acute pancreatitis was diagnosed with signs of necrosis in pancreatic tissue secondary to the use of VA. The medication was discontinued with resolution of his set of symptoms and medical discharge around day 15.


A pancreatite pediátrica era anteriormente considerada uma doença rara; atualmente, 13,2 casos por 100 000 crianças/ano são relatados. A causa mais importante de pancreatite na população pediátrica, depois da etiologia biliar, são os medicamentos (13% dos casos). Uma das principais medicações como causa de pancrea-tite em pediatria é o ácido valpróico (VA); que podem induzir pancreatite aguda. Aqui apresentaremos o primeiro caso de pancreatite AV na população pediátrica relatado na Colômbia. Trata-se de uma paciente de quatro anos de idade, com transtorno do neuro-desenvolvimento devido à síndrome TORCH, que fazia uso de AV de longa duração para um transtorno de conduta. Ele foi internado em uma instituição de alta complexidade onde foi diagnosticado pancreatite aguda com sinais de necrose no tecido pancreático secundário ao uso de AV. A medicação foi suspensa com resolução do quadro clínico e alta médica por volta do 15º dia


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pancreatitis , Pediatrics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Valproic Acid
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202102550, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1412904

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En las unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos, se utiliza gran cantidad de medicamentos, muchos prescritos fuera de las condiciones establecidas en su ficha técnica (prescripciones off-label y unlicensed). El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el uso de medicamentos y estimar la prevalencia de fármacos off-label y unlicensed en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos de un hospital de tercer nivel español. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal, observacional, de una cohorte de niños ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El estudio se llevó a cabo en 2017. Se revisó cada fármaco prescrito, sus condiciones de uso y administración. Además, se analizaron las fichas técnicas de los fármacos implicados con la finalidad de identificar si el uso de los medicamentos se realizaba según sus condiciones de autorización, o bien se hacía fuera de prospecto (off-label) o como unlicensed. Resultados. La muestra fue de 97 pacientes. El 74,2 % (n = 72) de los pacientes recibieron algún fármaco off-label o unlicensed. El 23,8 % (n = 243) de las prescripciones fueron off-label y el 8,7 % (n = 89), unlicensed. El subanálisis realizado por grupos de edad mostró que el grupo de edad que recibió mayor número de prescripciones totales (n = 611) y el mayor porcentaje de fármacos prescritos en condiciones off-label y/o unlicensed (38,4 %) fue el de menores de 2 años. Conclusiones. La prescripción de fármacos off-label y/o unlicensed es una práctica habitual en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Este estudio permite documentar la complejidad de la terapéutica en niños.


Introduction. In pediatric intensive care units, a large number of drugs are used, many of which are prescribed for condition beyond those established in their summary of product characteristics (off-label and unlicensed drug prescriptions). The objective of this study was to describe drug use and estimate the prevalence of off-label and unlicensed drugs in a pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care Spanish hospital. Population and methods. Cross-sectional, observational study with a single cohort of children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. The study was conducted in 2017. Each drug prescription, its conditions of use and administration were reviewed. In addition, the summary of product characteristics of drugs used were analyzed in order to identify whether they were used according to their conditions of authorization, or whether they were used in an off-label or unlicensed manner. Results. The sample included 97 patients. At least one off-label or unlicensed drug was administered to 74.2% (n = 72) of patients; 23.8% (n = 243) corresponded to off-label prescriptions and 8.7% (n = 89), unlicensed prescriptions. A sub-analysis by age group showed that the age group that received a higher number of total prescriptions (n = 611) and a higher percentage of off-label and/or unlicensed drug prescriptions (38.4%) was under 2 years of age. Conclusions. Off-label and/or unlicensed drug prescription is a common practice in the pediatric intensive care unit. This study allowed us to document the complexity of therapeutics in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Off-Label Use , Tertiary Healthcare , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Hospitals
19.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 22(supl.1): e20236637, 03 fev 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1438156

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Mapear as evidências disponíveis sobre os tratamentos tópicos utilizados na prevenção da radiodermatite no paciente oncológico. MÉTODO: Protocolo de revisão de escopo seguindo a metodologia do Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). A estratégia de busca subdivide-se em três etapas utilizando os bancos de dados MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, Web of Science (WoS) e literatura cinzenta (teses, dissertações, guidelines, opiniões de especialistas e material de divulgação de empresas detentoras de produtos), sem restrição de idioma ou temporal. A seleção dos artigos será realizada por dois revisores independentes e a extração de dados se dará através de um formulário construído para esse propósito. Os dados extraídos serão apresentados em diagramas ou tabelas, alinhados com o objetivo dessa revisão de escopo, concluindo com um resumo narrativo.


OBJECTIVE: To map the available evidence on topical treatments used to prevent radiodermatitis in cancer patients. METHOD: Scoping review protocol developed following the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology. The search strategy is subdivided into three steps using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, Web of Science (WoS), and grey literature databases (theses, dissertations, guidelines, expert opinions, and promotional material from companies that own specific products), with no language or time restriction. Two independent reviewers will select articles, and data extraction will take place through a form built for this purpose. The extracted data will be presented in diagrams or tables, aligned with the objective of this scoping review, closing with a narrative synthesis.


Subject(s)
Radiodermatitis/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Administration, Topical , Medical Oncology
20.
Mental (Barbacena, Impr.) ; 15(27): 1-16, 20230121.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516537

ABSTRACT

Este artigo buscadiscorrer, por meio de uma revisão narrativa dos descritivos de seus temas centrais, o escopo da já bastante pesquisada medicalização e brevemente contrapô-lo ao da farmaceuticalização, conceito mais recente com o qual guarda alguma justaposição, porém não absoluta. A farmaceuticalização se define como a escolha por um tratamento farmacológico, em detrimento de outros, o que incide diretamente sobre o número de prescrições e vendas farmacológicas e psicofarmacológicas no campo da saúde mental, sobre o qual nos deteremos. A venda psicofarmacológica neste setor vem expressando um aumento exponencial, conforme pesquisas. A farmaceuticalização passou a ser estudada sobretudo por pesquisadores do Ocidente (Estados Unidos e Europa), porém ainda com insuficiente publicação na América Latina e no Brasil


This article seeks to discuss, through a narrative review of its central descriptive-terms, the scope of the already well researched medicalisation, and briefly contrast it with that of pharmaceuticalization, a more recent concept with which it has some juxtaposition, although not absolute. Pharmaceuticalization is defined as the choice of a pharmacological treatment instead of other non-pharmacological ones, what affects the number of pharmacological and psychopharmacological prescriptions and sales in the field of mental health, on which we will focus. Psychopharmacological sales in this sector have been expressing an exponential increase, according to research. Pharmaceuticalization has been studied mainly by western researchers (mostly at the United States and Europe), but with little publication in Latin America and Brazil.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations
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