Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 93
Filter
1.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018351, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092150

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) mutations in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) from the Newborn Screening Service in Mato Grosso, Midwest Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 19 PKU patients diagnosed by newborn screening. Molecular analysis: DNA extraction using the "salting-out" method. Detection of IVS10nt-11G>A, V388M, R261Q, R261X, R252W, and R408W mutations by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Results: Two mutant alleles were identified in four patients (21.1%), one allele in five patients (26.2%), and none in the remaining ten patients (52.6%). A total of 13/38 alleles were detected, corresponding to 34.2% of the PAH alleles present. The most prevalent variant was V388M (13.2% of the alleles), followed by R261Q (10.1%) and IVS10nt-11G>A (7.9%). Three variants (R261X, R252W, and R408W) were not found. The most frequent mutation types were: missense mutation in eight alleles (18.4%) and splicing in four alleles (10.5%). The model proposed by Guldberg to determine a genotype/phenotype correlation was applied to four classical PKU patients with two identified mutations. In three of them, the predicted moderate/moderate or moderate PKU phenotype did not coincide with the actual diagnosis. The prediction coincided with the diagnosis of one classic PKU patient. The estimated incidence of PKU for Mato Grosso, Brazil, was 1:33,342 live births from 2003 to 2015. Conclusion: The only mutations found in the analyzed samples were the IVS10nt-11G>A, V388M, and R261Q. The genotype/phenotype correlation only occurred in four (5.3%) patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar mutações da fenilalanina hidroxilase (PAH) em pacientes com PKU (fenilcetonúria) do Serviço de Triagem Neonatal em Mato Grosso. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal. Amostra composta de 19 pacientes com PKU através do exame de triagem neonatal biológica. Análise molecular: a) extração de DNA pela metodologia "salting out". B) detecção de mutações IVS10nt-11G>A, V388M, R261Q, R261X, R252W e R408W pela técnica de polimorfismo de comprimento de fragmento de restrição (RFLP). Resultados: Dois alelos foram identificados em quatro pacientes (21,1%), um alelo em cinco pacientes (26,2%) e nenhum nos dez pacientes restantes (52,6%). Um total de 13/38 alelos foram identificados, correspondendo a 34,2% dos alelos PAH presentes. A variante mais prevalente foi a V388M (13,2% dos alelos), seguida de R261Q (10,1%) e IVS10nt-11G>A (7,9%). Três variantes (R261X, R252W e R408W) não foram encontradas. Os tipos de mutações mais frequentes foram: troca de sentido em oito alelos (18,4%) e emenda em quatro alelos (10,5%). O modelo proposto por Guldberg para determinar uma correlação genótipo/fenótipo foi aplicado para quatro pacientes clássicos de PKU, com duas mutações identificadas. Em três, o fenótipo previsto de PKU moderada/moderada ou moderada não coincidiu com o diagnóstico real. A predição coincidiu com o diagnóstico de um paciente PKU clássico. A incidência de PKU estimada para Mato Grosso, Brasil foi de 1:33.342 nascidos vivos para o período de 2003 a 2015. Conclusões: Foram encontradas apenas as mutações IVS10nt-11G>A, V388M, R261Q nas amostras analisadas. A correlação genótipo/fenótipo ocorreu em quatro (5,3%) pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/genetics , Phenylketonurias/genetics , Alternative Splicing , Mutation, Missense , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil , DNA Mutational Analysis/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neonatal Screening , Alleles , Genotype
2.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018201, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092136

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the occurrence of overweight in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria and to identify possible causal factors. Data sources: A systematic review was performed in the SciELO, PubMed and VHL databases using the descriptors "Phenylketonurias", "Overweight", "Child" and "Adolescent". Original articles conducted with children and adolescents, published between 2008 and 2018 in Portuguese, English or Spanish languages were included. Data synthesis: A total of 16 articles were identified and, after screening procedures, 6 studies were selected for the review. Overweight in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria was a frequent occurence in the studies included in this review, ranging from 7.8 to 32.6%. The female sex was the most affected by the nutritional disorder. Furthermore, a high caloric intake combined with a lack of stimuli to practice physical activities were main factors associated with the excessive weight in the population of interest. Conclusions: Excess weight can be considered a common outcome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria. It is mainly caused by inadequate food consumption and sedentary lifestyle. The importance of early identification of nutritional disturbances in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria should be emphasized, in order to prevent associated chronic diseases and to promote health by encouraging continued healthy eating habits and the regular practice of physical exercises.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a ocorrência de excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes com fenilcetonúria e identificar possíveis fatores causais. Fontes de dados: Revisão sistemática realizada nas bases de dados Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Publisher Medline (PubMed) e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) com os descritores "Phenylketonurias", "Overweight", "Child" e "Adolescent". Foram incluídos artigos originais sobre crianças e adolescentes, publicados entre 2008 e 2018 nos idiomas português, inglês ou espanhol. Síntese dos dados: Foram identificados 16 artigos e, após aplicação dos procedimentos de seleção, 6 estudos foram selecionados para compor a revisão. O excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes com fenilcetonúria foi evento frequente nos estudos incluídos na presente revisão, variando de 7,8 a 32,6%. Aponta-se o sexo feminino como o grupo mais acometido pelo distúrbio nutricional. O principal fator associado ao excesso de peso na população de interesse na população de interesse foi o consumo calórico elevado aliado à falta de estímulos para a prática de atividades físicas. Conclusões: O excesso de peso pode ser considerado um desfecho comum em crianças e adolescentes com fenilcetonúria, sendo ocasionado principalmente pelo consumo alimentar inadequado e pelo sedentarismo. Salienta-se a importância da identificação precoce de agravos nutricionais em crianças e adolescentes fenilcetonúricos, a fim de prevenir doenças crônicas associadas e promover a saúde, com incentivo à manutenção de hábitos alimentares saudáveis e à prática regular de exercícios físicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Phenylketonurias/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Energy Intake , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Overweight/etiology , Feeding Behavior , Sedentary Behavior , Pediatric Obesity/etiology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776747

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To delineate the variants spectrum of phenytalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene among 78 unrelated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) from Jiangxi province.@*METHODS@#The 13 exons and flanking intronic regions of the PAH gene were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing.@*RESULTS@#A total of 143 variants were detected among the 156 alleles, which included 54 types of variants, which yielded a detection rate of 91.7%. Common variants have included R243Q (26/143, 18.2%), R408Q (10/143, 7.0%), EX6-96A to G(8/143, 5.6%), IVS4-1G to A(7/143, 4.9%), R241C(7/143, 4.9%) and V399V(7/143, 4.9%). In addition, 6 novel variants were detected, which included IVS4-3T to G, Q172H, C284Y, V291L, V329del, and L430R. The variants consisted of missense, splicing, nonsense and deletion variants, which have mainly located in exons 7 (45, 31.5%), 12(17, 11.9%), 11(16, 11.2%) and 6(14, 9.8%).@*CONCLUSION@#Variants of the PAH gene identified in Jiangxi province mainly involve exons 7, 12, 11 and 6, with the most common variants being R243Q and R408Q. Six novel variants were identified.


Subject(s)
China , Exons , Humans , Introns , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the spectrum of genetic variants among patients with hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) from Quanzhou area of Fujian province.@*METHODS@#For 63 children affected with HPA, next generation sequencing was used to identify potential variants in PAH, PTS, PCBD1, QDPR, SPR and GCH1 genes.@*RESULTS@#Fifty two variants underlying phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (PAHD) and 13 variants underlying 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency (PTPSD) were identified. Two patients carried variants of both PAH and PTS genes. The most common variants of the PAH gene were R53H (21.69%), R241C(18.07%), R243Q(12.05%) and EX6-96A to G (7.23%), which were mainly located in exons 7 (32.53%), 2 (21.69%), 6 (9.64%) and 12 (9.64%). The L227M variant of the PAH gene was unreported previously. N52S (35.00%), P87S (25.00%), IVS1-291A to G (10.00%) and T67M (10.00%) variants were the most common variants for the PTS gene and were mainly located in exons 2 (35.00%) and 5 (35.00%).@*CONCLUSION@#The variant spectrum underlying HPA in Quanzhou area showed a geographical specificity. A novel variant of the PAH gene (L227M) has been detected.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Exons , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics , Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases , Genetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 102-113, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771396

ABSTRACT

The biogenic monoamine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an ancient intracellular signaling molecule widely distributed in all animals with nervous systems, and has been implicated in principal behaviors. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TRH) induces a highly specific catalytic reaction that converts L-tryptophan (tryptophan) to 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) that is subsequently used as a substrate by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) to form 5-HT. Five-HT is an ancient intracellular signaling molecule that is widely distributed in the animal kingdom and has been implicated in regulating the behaviors of animals with nervous systems. However, the role of TRH in Lepidoptera is not well understood. In this study, we cloned 1 667 bp cDNAs of Bombyx mori TRH (BmTRH), which contains a 1 632 bp open reading frame (ORF). Homology analysis revealed that BmTRH shared high amino acid identity with Homo sapiens TPH and Drosophila TRH (DmTRH). The high homology (70%) of BmTRH with DmTRH suggested that BmTRH could have a function similar to DmTRH. Gene expression analysis revealed that BmTRH was mainly expressed in head and central nervous (CNS). Moreover, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analyses showed that BmTRH was detected only in larval nervous tissues. Taken together, our results indicate that BmTRH could likely function in the regulation of neural activities in B. mori. The transcripts of B. mori decarboxylase (BmDDC) and B. mori phenylalanine hydroxylase (BmPAH) whose proteins had TRH activity, were also expressed in the CNS tissues, indicating that unlike in Drosophila, two distinct mechanisms likely regulate 5-HT synthesis in silkworm.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Bombyx , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Insect Proteins , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Tryptophan Hydroxylase
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics of PAH gene variants among 113 phenylketonuria patients from Henan Province.@*METHODS@#The 13 exons of the PAH gene were subjected to PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Large fragment deletion and duplication of the PAH gene were detected with a multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay.@*RESULTS@#In total 195 point variants and 3 large fragment deletions were detected among the 226 alleles, with the detection rates being 86.28% and 1.33%, respectively. Variants of p.Arg243Gln (18.14%), p.Arg111X (6.19%), p.Arg53His (5.31%), EX6-96A>G (5.31%), p.Tyr356X (4.87%) and p.Val399Val (4.42%) were relatively common. Most of the variants were located in exons 7, 11, 3 and 6. Missense variations were most common. Four novel variations were detected, which included c.1016C>A (p.Ser339Tyr), c.1000T>C (p.Cys334Arg), c.1110G>T (p.Glu370Asp), and IVS6+1G>T.@*CONCLUSION@#The PAH gene variations in Henan Province have featured extensive allelic heterogeneity and variety.


Subject(s)
China , Exons , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics , Point Mutation , Sequence Deletion
7.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 22(6): 518-524, ago.-sept. 2017. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1048997

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La fenilcetonuria es el error congénito del metabolismo más frecuente y es la primera enfermedad del metabolismo con un tratamiento exitoso que evita la discapacidad intelectual. Tanto en el mundo como en la Argentina la fenilcetonuria inauguró la lista de enfermedades del tamizaje neonatal. La prueba de pesquisa neonatal tiene una relación entre el costo y la eficacia altamente favorable cuando la prueba de pesquisa da un resultado correcto; en caso contrario, esta prueba dejaría de ser eficaz. La fenilcetonuria clásica está causada por la deficiencia de la enzima fenilalanina hidroxilasa, responsable de la conversión de fenilalanina a tirosina. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar pacientes con fenilcetonuria que no han sido diagnosticados por medio de la pesquisa neonatal; también, describir la presentación clínica de la enfermedad y analizar las causas de la falta de diagnóstico y de las potenciales repercusiones para los programas de pesquisa en la Argentina. Antecedentes históricos y de normativas: Se describen brevemente los antecedentes históricos de la fenilcetonuria y de la prueba de tamizaje neonatal. A partir de 1986, por medio de la Ley 23413, se establece la obligatoriedad de realizar la pesquisa neonatal de fenilcetonuria en la República Argentina. Materiales y métodos: Analizamos los pacientes con diagnóstico de fenilcetonuria que se encuentran en seguimiento en el Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan desde 2000 hasta 2015. Hallamos una serie de casos con diagnóstico de fenilcetonuria que no han sido diagnosticados por la prueba de pesquisa neonatal, y los comparamos. Estudiamos las políticas de Salud Pública que reglamentan las pruebas de pesquisa en la Argentina. Resultado y conclusiones: Se identificaron tres pacientes con fenilcetonuria clásica de diagnóstico tardío con discapacidad intelectual. Los tres casos son sujetos oriundos de Neuquén, Argentina, con la prueba de pesquisa informada como "negativa"; en los tres, la muestra fue tomada tempranamente. Para que los programas de pesquisa sean efectivos, en primer lugar deben existir políticas sanitarias unificadas para todas las provincias argentinas, con un sistema de coordinación, formación, educación, evaluación y estadística eficiente. Es fundamental conocer el impacto que causa no detectar a estos pacientes ya que esta revisión demuestra que, ante el fracaso de la prueba de pesquisa neonatal, es posible evitar el resultado de tres personas con discapacidad intelectual, dos de ellas totalmente dependientes de sus familias y del sistema sanitario.


Introduction: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most prevalent disorder caused by an inborn error in aminoacid metabolism and it is the first disease that has a successful treatment that prevents intellectual disabilities. It is the first disorder included in neonatal screening programmes in the world, as it also happens in our country. Furthermore, newborn screening is a highly favorable cost-effective test when the screening test is well done, otherwise the cost effectiveness would be unfavorable. Classical PKU is caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase that catalyses the conversion of the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine to L-tyrosine. Objective: To identify patients with PKU who have not been diagnosed by means of newborn screening tests. Description of the clinical presentation of the disease. Analysis of the causes and potential implications for newborn screening programs. Historical antecedents and regulations: The historical background of PKU and of the disease neonatal screening tests are briefly described Since 1986 the National Law #23413 establishes the obligation of performing the Neonatal Screening of phenylketonuria in Argentina. Materials and methods: We analized patients with PKU admitted and followed up in the Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan from 2000 to 2015 We found a case series of patients with phenylketonuria that have not been diagnosed by means of the newborn screening test and we compared them. Analysis of Public Health Care policies and the laws that regulate the screening tests in Argentina. Results and conclusion: Three patients were identified and diagnosed with classic PKU of late diagnosis and presented mental disability. The three cases were from Neuquén province, Argentina. The neonatal screening tests had reported as "negative" and the three samples had been taken early. If the screening programs are to be effective what is needed, in the first place, it is to have uniform health care policies with national coverage with an efficient system of coordination, training, education, evaluation and statistics. It is essential to know the impact that implies not to identify these patients. In this review, we have noticed that the failure of the newborn screening tests resulted in three patients with intellectual disabilities, two of them totally dependent on their families and the health care system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Phenylketonurias , Public Health , Intellectual Disability , Metabolic Diseases , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335126

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the characteristics of (PAH) gene mutations among patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) from Linyi area of Shandong Province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>For 51 children affected with PKU and their parents, the 13 exons and their flanking intronic sequences of the PAH gene were directly sequenced with Sanger method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PAH gene mutations were detected in all of the 102 alleles of the patients, which included 31 types of mutations. Common mutations included R243Q (17/102, 16.67%), IVS4-1G to A (9/102, 8.82%), R241C (8/102, 7.84%), R111X (8/102, 7.84%), and V399V (8/102, 7.84%). In addition, two novel mutations, D101N, 345-347del, have been detected. The 31 types of mutations included missense, nonsense, deletion, and splicing mutations, which were mainly located in exons 7 (29, 28.43%), 11 (18, 17.65%), 3 (16, 15.69%) and 12 (13, 12.75%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Mutations of the PAH gene in Linyi region mainly distributed in exons 7, 11, and 3, and the most common mutation were R243Q. Two novel mutations, D101N and 345-347del, have been detected.</p>


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Exons , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(3): 390-396, jul.-set. 2016. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-828016

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La fenilcetonuria es un trastorno metabólico caracterizado por un compromiso neurológico grave y por alteraciones del comportamiento. Su diagnóstico temprano permite establecer un tratamiento efectivo que evita las secuelas y modifica el pronóstico. Objetivo. Caracterizar a una familia con fenilcetonuria en Colombia, a nivel clínico, bioquímico y molecular. Materiales y métodos. Se estudió una población de siete individuos de una familia consanguínea en la que cuatro hijos presentaban signos clínicos sugestivos de fenilcetonuria. Una vez firmado el consentimiento informado, se tomaron muestras de sangre y orina para las pruebas colorimétricas, la cromatografía de capa fina y la cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia. Se extrajo el ADN y se secuenciaron los 13 exones del gen PAH de todos los sujetos estudiados. Se diseñaron iniciadores para cada exón con el programa Primer 3; la secuenciación automática se hizo con el equipo Abiprism 3100 Avant y, el análisis de las secuencias, con el programa SeqScape v2.0. Resultados. Se describieron las características clínicas y moleculares de una familia colombiana con fenilcetonuria en la que se identificó la mutación c.398_401delATCA; se presentó una correlación fenotipo-genotipo con una interesante variabilidad clínica entre los afectados, a pesar de tener la misma mutación. Conclusiones. Es importante el reconocimiento temprano de esta enfermedad para evitar sus secuelas neurológicas y psicológicas, pues los pacientes llegan a edades avanzadas sin diagnóstico ni tratamiento adecuados.


Introduction: Phenylketonuria is a metabolic disorder characterized by severe neurological involvement and behavioral disorder, whose early diagnosis enables an effective treatment to avoid disease sequelae, thus changing the prognosis. Objective: To characterize a family with phenylketonuria in Colombia at clinical, biochemical and molecular levels. Materials and methods: The population consisted of seven individuals of a consanguineous family with four children with suggestive symptoms of phenylketonuria. After signing an informed consent, blood and urine samples were taken for colorimetric tests and high performance liquid and thin layer chromatographies. DNA extraction and sequencing of the 13 exons of the PAH gene were performed in all subjects. We designed primers for each exon with the Primer 3 software using automatic sequencing equipment Abiprism 3100 Avant. Sequences were analyzed using the SeqScape, v2.0, software. Results: We described the clinical and molecular characteristics of a Colombian family with phenylketonuria and confirmed the presence of the mutation c.398_401delATCA. We established a genotype-phenotype correlation, highlighting the interesting clinical variability found among the affected patients despite having the same mutation in all of them. Conclusions: Early recognition of this disease is very important to prevent its neurological and psychological sequelae, given that patients reach old age without diagnosis or proper management.


Subject(s)
Phenylketonurias , Diet , Early Diagnosis , Genetics , Intellectual Disability , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279895

ABSTRACT

This study reports a boy with psychomotor retardation and epilepsy due to maternal phenylketonuria (PKU). The boy was admitted at the age of 20 months because of psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. He had seizures from the age of 1 year. His development quotient was 43. He presented with microcephaly, normal skin and hair color. Brain MRI scan showed mild cerebral white matter demyelination, broadening bilateral lateral ventricle and foramen magnum stricture. Chromosome karyotype, urine organic acids, blood amino acids and acylcarnitines were normal. His mother had mental retardation from her childhood. She presented with learning difficulties and yellow hair. Her premarriage health examinations were normal. She married a healthy man at age of 26 years. When she visited us at 28 years old, PKU was found by markedly elevated blood phenylalanine (916.54 μmol/L vs normal range 20-120 μmol/L). On her phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, a homozygous mutations c.611A>G (p.Y204C) was identified, which confirmed the diagnosis of PAH-deficient PKU. Her child carries a heterozygous mutation c.611A>G with normal blood phenylalanine. Her husband had no any mutation on PAH. It is concluded that family investigation is very important for the etiological diagnosis of the children with mental retardation and epilepsy. Carefully clinical and metabolic survey should be performed for the parents with mental problems to identify parental diseases-associated child brain damage, such as maternal PKU.


Subject(s)
Adult , Epilepsy , Female , Humans , Infant , Intellectual Disability , Male , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonuria, Maternal , Pregnancy
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1243-1254, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310543

ABSTRACT

In proteins of thermophilic bacteria, Gly is tend to be replaced by Ala and Lys is tend to be replaced by Arg to adapt the high temperature. In order to improve the thermal stability of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) from Chromobacterium violaceum, all the Gly on PAH were mutated to Ala and Lys to Arg. Positive mutant enzymes with improved thermal stability were selected, followed by combined mutation and characterization. The results revealed that half-lives of K94R and G221A mutants at 50 °C were 26.2 min and 16.8 min, which were increased by 1.9-times and 0.9-times than the parent enzyme (9.0 min). The residual activity of K94R/G221A mutant was improved to 65.6% after keeping at 50 °C for 1 h, which was 6.6 time higher than the parent enzyme (8.6%). Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed that Tm values of the parent enzyme, K94R, G221A and K94R/G221A were 51.5 ℃, 53.8 ℃, 53.1 ℃ and 54.8 ℃, respectively. According to the protein structure simulation, the two mutations were located on flexible loop. In the K94R mutant, the mutated Arg94 on the surface of the enzyme formed an extra hydrogen bond with Ile95, which stabilized the located loop. In the G221A mutant, the mutated Ala221 formed hydrophobic interaction with Leu281, which could stabilize both the loop and flexible area of the C-terminus of G221A. The results not only provided a reference for protein modification on thermal stability, but also laid the foundation for application of phenylalanine hydroxylase in the field of functional foods.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Chromobacterium , Enzyme Stability , Hot Temperature , Kinetics , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Protein Engineering
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 518-526, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337445

ABSTRACT

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a member of aromatic amino acid hydroxylase (AAAHs) family, and catalyze phenylalanine (Phe) into tyrosine (Tyr). Using immunological and RT-PCR methods to prove the existence of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene in the brain of Neanthes japonica in protein and nucleic acid level. Using Western blotting to detect the pah immunogenicity of Neanthes japonica. Making paraffin sections and using immunohistochemical technique to identify the presence and distribution of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the brain of Neanthes japonica. Clone pah gene from the brain of Neanthes japonica by RT-PCR, constructing plasmid and transferring into E. coli to amplification, picking a single homogeneous colony, double digesting then making sequence and comparing homology. Western blotting results showed that the expression of the protein is present in Neanthes japonica brain, immunohistochemistry technique results showed that phenylalanine hydroxylase mainly expressed in abdominal of forebrain, dorsal and sides of midbrain. RT-PCR technique results showed that the phenylalanine hydroxylase exist in the brain of Neanthes japonica and has a high homology with others animals. PAH is present in the lower organisms Neanthes japonica, in protein and nucleic acid level. Which provide the foundation for further study the evolution of aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes in invertebrate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain , Escherichia coli , Metabolism , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Metabolism , Polychaeta , Genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247686

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To delineate the mutation spectrum of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene among patients affected with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (PAHD) in Henan Province of China, and to explore the correlation between the genotype and the phenotype.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 155 affected children were recruited. Potential mutation of the PAH gene were analyzed by direct sequencing. The genotype-phenotype correlation was analyzed by matching the expected and observed phenotypes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Over 72 mutations and 108 genotypes have been identified. There were 7 homozygous mutations, including 1 case with EX6-96A>G/EX6-96A>G, 1 with R241C/R241C, 1 with R413P/R413P, and 4 with R243Q/R243Q. Among these, 6 patients have presented classic PKU phenotypes, except for a R241C/R241C genotype which has led to mild PKU. In 104 patients carrying compound PAH mutations, 52 were classic, 34 were mild and 39 had mild HPA. Patients who were heterozygous for EX6-96A>G/R241C, R243Q/A434D, EX6-96A>G/R413P and EX6-96A>G/ R241C were found with both the classic PKU and mild PKU phenotypes. Common mutations associated with mild HPA have included R53H, R243Q, V399V and H107R. The common mutations associated with mild PKU included R243Q, R241C, EX6-96A>G, and IVS4-1G>A. The prevalent mutations in classic PKU were R243Q, EX6-96A>G and V399V. The consistency between prediction of the biochemical genotype and observed phenotype was 77.78%, especially in classic PKU, the consistency was up to 82.14%. Significant correlations were disclosed between pretreatment levels of phenylalanine and AV sum (r=-0.6729, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The mutation spectrum of PAH gene in Henan seems to differ from that of other regions. Independent assortment of mutant alleles may result in a complex genotype-phenotype correlation, but the genotypes of PAHD patients have correlated with the phenotype.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Mutation , Phenotype , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics
15.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(3): 214-218, jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-760117

ABSTRACT

Las hiperfenilalaninemias se definen por un nivel sanguíneo de fenilalanina sobre 2 mg/dl. La principal causa es una mutación en el gen que codifica la fenilalanina hidroxilasa que cataliza la reacción que transforma la fenilalanina en tirosina. Las hiperfenilalaninemias se clasifican en benignas o leves, y las fenilcetonurias en leves, moderadas y clásicas. Debido a que su detección más allá del periodo neonatal causa retardo mental severo, desde 1992 en Chile su detección, junto con la del hipotirodismo congénito, es parte del Programa Nacional de Pesquisa Neonatal. Este artículo pretende responder las preguntas más comunes que se puede hacer el pediatra cuando enfrenta a un paciente con hiperfenilalaninemias.


Hyperphenylalaninaemias are defined by a blood phenylalanine over 2 mg/dl. The main cause is due to a mutation in the gene that codes the phenylalanine hydroxylase that catalyses the reaction that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine. The hyperphenylalaninaemias are classified into benign or mild hyperphenylalaninaemias, or mild, moderate or classic phenylketonurias. Due to its delayed detection outside the neonatal period it causes severe mental retardation. Its detection along with congenital hypothyroidism has been part of the National Neonatal Screening Program since 1992 in Chile. This article aims to answer the most common questions asked by the paediatrician when faced with a patient with hyperphenylalaninaemias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Phenylalanine/blood , Phenylketonurias/diagnosis , Neonatal Screening/methods , Pediatrics , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/genetics , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/metabolism , Phenylalanine/metabolism , Phenylketonurias/complications , Phenylketonurias/genetics , Tyrosine/metabolism , Chile , Delayed Diagnosis , Mutation
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279937

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the mutation characteristics of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene in children with phenylketonuria (PKU) from the Qinghai area of China, in order to provide basic information for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Mutations of the PAH gene were detected in the promoter and exons 1-13 and their flanking intronic sequences of PAH gene by PCR and DNA sequencing in 49 children with PKU and their parents from the Qinghai area of China.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 30 different mutations were detected in 80 out of 98 mutant alleles (82%), including 19 missense (63%), 5 nonsense (17%), 3 splice-site (10%) and 3 deletions (10%). Most mutations were detected in exons 3, 6, 7, 11 and intron 4 of PAH gene. The most frequent mutations were p.R243Q (19%), IVS4-1G>A (9%), p.Y356X (7%) and p.EX6-96A>G(5%). Two novel mutations p.N93fsX5 (c.279-282delCATC) and p.G171E (c.512G>A) were found. p.H64fsX9(c.190delC) was documented for the second time in Chinese PAH gene. The mutation spectrum of the gene PAH in the Qinghai population was similar to that in other populations in North China while significantly different from that in the populations from some provinces in southern China, Japan and Europe.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The mutations of PAH gene in the Qinghai area of China demonstrate a unique diversity, complexity and specificity.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239516

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the mutations of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene in 20 phenylketonuria (PKU) patients from Yunnan.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The 13 exons and the splicing regions of 12 introns of the PAH gene were sequenced to detect mutations in 20 unrelated PKU patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PAH gene sequencing has revealed 15 types of mutations, in which the most frequently mutation was p.R243Q (30.0%), followed by p.Y356X(10.0%), p.R111X (7.5%), IVS4+2T>A (7.5%) and p.V399V (7.5%). Exons 7, 11, 3 and introns 4, 11 were most frequently involved. Six novel mutations, including c.59A>C, c.60G>C, c.690_691insG, c.1119_1120insT, c.441+2T>A, c.842+4A>T and c.1200+1T>G were detected.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PAH gene mutations identified in Yunnan are more similar to those of northern China, with R243R being the most common, though there are still certain characteristics for the type and frequency of mutations.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Asians , Genetics , Base Sequence , Child , China , Female , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics , Young Adult
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239515

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the characteristics of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) mutations in patients with PAH deficiency in Fujian population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Peripheral blood samples of 36 patients and their parents with classical type phenylketouria (PKU) were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted. Following PCR amplification, DNA sequencing was carried out to identify the origins of mutations.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Twenty types mutations were identified in 63 of the 72 alleles. The most common mutations were R241C, R408Q and Ex6-96A>G, which respectively accounted for 15.9%, 12.7% and 11.1% of all mutant alleles. The c.189_190dupTGAC mutation was first reported. R241C was associated with 28% of mild hyperphenylalaninemia and R408Q is associated with 25% of classical PKU.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>There is a specific spectrum of PAH gene mutation in Fujian region. R241C, R408Q and Ex6-96A>G are the most common mutations.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alleles , Asians , Genetics , Base Sequence , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics
19.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 32(1): 87-98, Abril 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005628

ABSTRACT

La fenilcetonuria (PKU) es una enfermedad congénita de herencia autosómica recesiva, en la que existe el déficit de la enzima fenilalanina hidroxilasa, que produce lesión del sistema nervioso central (SNC). La incidencia mundial es de 1:20.000 recién nacidos vivos. (1,2) El tratamiento es a base de dieta con restricción de fenilalanina que debe mantenerse para toda la vida para prevenir el deterioro intelectual. (3,4) OBJETIVO: Identificar manifestaciones neurológicas de pacientes pediátricos con PKU. METODOLOGIA: Revisión bibliográfica de la literatura acerca de las manifestaciones neurológicas para PKU mediante la búsqueda electrónica en varias bases de datos (MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, LILACS, PubMed) con límites en inglés y español de enero de 1970 a 2012. RESULTADOS: Se identifica un estudio transversal, un caso clínico, tres revisiones narrativas en poblaciones pediátricas y un caso clínico combinado niños y adultos. La discapacidad intelectual es la principal manifestación neurológica, el criterio diagnóstico primordial fue el valor sérico de fenilalanina. Existen 29 clasificaciones distintas sobre el punto de corte para hiperfenilalaninemia y 23 para fenilcetonuria.


Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a congenital autosomal recessive disease in which there is a shortage of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which produces an injury to the central nervous system (CNS). The global incidence is about 1:20,000 live newborns. (1.2) The treatment is based on phenylalanine restricted diet which should be maintained for lifelong to prevent intellectual impairment. OBJECTIVE: To identify neurological manifestations of pediatric patients with PKU. METHODOLOGY: A review of the literature on the neurological manifestations for PKU by searching several electronic databases (MEDLINE , EMBASE, Cochrane , LILACS , PubMed) with English and Spanish limits from January 1970-2012. RESULTS: One cross-sectional study, one clinical case, three narrative reviews in pediatric populations and one clinical case combine children and adults. Intellectual disability is the main neurological manifestation; the primary diagnostic criterion was the serum level of phenylalanine. There are 29 different classifications on the cutoff to hyperphenylalaninemia and 23 for phenylketonuria


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Phenylketonurias , Neurologic Manifestations , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Databases, Bibliographic
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254520

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the type and frequency of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) mutations in ethnic Hui patients from Ningxia with phenylketonuria (PKU).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>For 35 PKU children patients and 50 healthy individuals, all exons and promoters of the PAH gene were analyzed with PCR and direct sequencing.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Twenty mutations, including 8 missense mutations (40%), 5 nonsense mutations (25%), 4 splice site mutations (20%) and 3 deletion mutants (15%) were discovered. The overall detection rate was 68.57% (48/70). Common mutations have included R243Q (12.86%), R241C (11.43%), EX6-96A to G (5.71%), Y356X (5.71%), R413P(4.29%) and Q232X(4.29%), whilst rarer ones have included S16fsX10 (2.86%), R111X (2.86%) and L430P (2.86%). Among these, S16fsX10, L430P, D222G and IVS11+ 1G to A have not been reported previously. Y414X and S303fsX38 have not been reported in Hui ethnic group. No mutation was detected in the 50 normal controls.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The types and distribution of PAH gene mutations in ethnic Hui from Ningxia have been different from other areas of China. The mutations also showed a rich diversity.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asians , Genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL