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1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 287-290, ago. 2015. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764087

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La telorragia es un síntoma poco frecuente en pacientes pediátricos, la causa más frecuente en esta población es la ectasia ductal mamaria (EDM), que es una afección benigna y autolimitada, caracterizada por la dilatación del conducto mamario, fibrosis e inflamación periductal. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de EDM, para facilitar el rápido reconocimiento por parte de los médicos, y evitar estudios y tratamientos agresivos. Caso clínico: Lactante de sexo masculino de 6 meses de edad, sano, alimentado por lactancia materna exclusiva; consultó por un nódulo retroareolar derecho y telorragia unilateral. Se realizó una ecografía Doppler que mostró una lesión multiquística, sugerente de una EDM. Se planteó tratamiento expectante y acudió a control a los 6 meses con excelente evolución. Conclusiones: La EDM es la principal causa de telorragia en niños, corresponde a una afección benigna, y la resolución generalmente es espontánea, antes de los 9 meses. Por lo que su conocimiento es de gran relevancia para el adecuado diagnóstico y manejo de estos pacientes.


Introduction: Bloody nipple discharge is an infrequent symptom during childhood. The most common cause in this population is mammary duct ectasia (MDE), which is a benign and self-limiting condition, that is characterized by dilatation of the mammary ducts, fibrosis and periductal inflammation. Objective: Report of a case of MDE in order to improve physicians’ diagnosis accuracy and avoid aggressive studies and treatments. Case report: Six-months old male healthy infant, exclusively breastfeeded, that visited our clinic with a lump beneath his right nipple and bloody discharge from the same nipple. An ultrasound was performed which showed a multicystic lesion suggestive of MDE. Watchful waiting was decided as treatment, with good evolution after six months of follow up. Conclusions: The MDE is the leading cause of bloody discharge in pediatric population, being a benign condition that resolves spontaneously before nine months. The knowledge of this condition is essential so as to accurately diagnose and treat it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cations/chemistry , Indicators and Reagents/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Polyenes/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/genetics , HeLa Cells , Liposomes/chemistry , Luciferases/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Transfection/methods
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88112

ABSTRACT

The application of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) is considered essential when evaluating focal liver lesions (FLLs) using ultrasonography (US). Microbubble UCAs are easy to use and robust; their use poses no risk of nephrotoxicity and requires no ionizing radiation. The unique features of contrast enhanced US (CEUS) are not only noninvasiveness but also real-time assessing of liver perfusion throughout the vascular phases. The later feature has led to dramatic improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of US for detection and characterization of FLLs as well as the guidance to therapeutic procedures and evaluation of response to treatment. This article describes the current consensus and guidelines for the use of UCAs for the FLLs that are commonly encountered in US. After a brief description of the bases of different CEUS techniques, contrast-enhancement patterns of different types of benign and malignant FLLs and other clinical applications are described and discussed on the basis of our experience and the literature data.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media/chemistry , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Phospholipids/chemistry , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sulfur Hexafluoride/chemistry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(9): 844-853, Sept. 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-524316

ABSTRACT

Multiple cell membrane alterations have been reported to be the cause of various forms of hypertension. The present study focuses on the lipid portion of the membranes, characterizing the microviscosity of membranes reconstituted with lipids extracted from the aorta and mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive control rat strains (WKY and NWR). Membrane-incorporated phospholipid spin labels were used to monitor the bilayer structure at different depths. The packing of lipids extracted from both aorta and mesenteric arteries of normotensive and hypertensive rats was similar. Lipid extract analysis showed similar phospholipid composition for all membranes. However, cholesterol content was lower in SHR arteries than in normotensive animal arteries. These findings contrast with the fact that the SHR aorta is hyporeactive while the SHR mesenteric artery is hyperreactive to vasopressor agents when compared to the vessels of normotensive animal strains. Hence, factors other than microviscosity of bulk lipids contribute to the vascular smooth muscle reactivity and hypertension of SHR. The excess cholesterol in the arteries of normotensive animal strains apparently is not dissolved in bulk lipids and is not directly related to vascular reactivity since it is present in both the aorta and mesenteric arteries. The lower cholesterol concentrations in SHR arteries may in fact result from metabolic differences due to the hypertensive state or to genes that co-segregate with those that determine hypertension during the process of strain selection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/chemistry , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cholesterol/analysis , Hypertension/metabolism , Mesenteric Arteries/chemistry , Phospholipids/analysis , Cholesterol/chemistry , Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hypertension/etiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/chemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Phospholipids/chemistry , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(1): 18-25, Jan. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-469978

ABSTRACT

Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp), from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa) and larval Lp (585 kDa), with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56 percent lipids and 9 and 7 percent carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I) and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II). The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine) or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hydrocarbons/analysis , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipoproteins/chemistry , Oocytes/growth & development , Phospholipids/chemistry , Weevils/chemistry , Apolipoproteins/chemistry , Apolipoproteins/isolation & purification , Apolipoproteins/metabolism , Biological Transport , Endocytosis/physiology , Lipoproteins/isolation & purification , Lipoproteins/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Oogenesis/physiology , Phospholipids/isolation & purification , Phospholipids/metabolism , Weevils/metabolism
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Feb; 45(2): 133-59
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61048

ABSTRACT

Role of self assembled structures as a vehicle is significant over the years. Their applications have been found for all routes of drug delivery. These micro and nano structures are containers loaded with drugs, ideal for targeted and sustained release of the drug. Drug efficacy depends on the drug loaded into the vehicle, temperature, drug solubility, pH, release characteristics, additives and most significantly, the vehicle morphology. This in turn suggests that the same vehicle cannot be used with high efficiency for all types of drugs and locations where the drug delivery has to take place. The status of various self assembled structures and their applications in drug delivery is reviewed in this communication.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Liposomes/chemistry , Micelles , Nanostructures/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 201-206, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113990

ABSTRACT

Procoagulant or impaired fibrinolytic states as well as inflammatory reactions mediated by cytokines are likely involved in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke. We examined the potential relationship between interleukin 6 (IL-6) and hemostatic markers. The procoagulant and fibrinolytic states were assessed in 46 patients with acute stroke by measuring plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), and plasminogen-antiplasmin complex (PAP). Circulating IL-6 levels were measured using ELISA (Quantikine, R and D systems, MN, USA). Circulating IL-6 (mean, 26.5 pg/mL) and PAI-1 (mean, 19.9 ng/mL) levels were higher in patients with acute stroke than in healthy subjects (mean, 3.0 pg/mL, 10.4 ng/mL, respectively). TAT levels were statistically different according to the etiologic subtypes of stroke (atherogenic, 2.5 ng/mL; lacunar 3.2 ng/mL; cardiogenic 9.9 ng/mL, p = 0.021). Neither procoagulant levels nor fibrinolytic markers significantly correlated with circulating IL-6 levels. Our findings suggest that elevated proinflammatory cytokines during the initial hours of ischemic stroke may be an independent pathogenic factor or a consequence of the thrombotic event with no relationship to the procoagulant or fibrinolytic states.


Subject(s)
Thrombosis , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombin/chemistry , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/blood , Phospholipids/chemistry , Models, Statistical , Middle Aged , Male , Ischemia/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Humans , Hemostasis , Fibrinolysis , Female , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cytokines/metabolism , Coagulants/metabolism , Stroke/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , Antithrombins/chemistry , Aged , Acute Disease
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 61(1): 41-8, 2001. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-286377

ABSTRACT

Los ácidos grasos polinsaturados (AGP) derivados de los ácidos grasos esenciales (AGE) tienen importantes roles en la formación y mantenimiento de estructuras de membrana, jugando un papel trascendente en la síntesis de lípidos estructurales y en el desarrollo neural. Se han señalado anormalidades en las funciones neurológicas de lactantes alimentados con fórmulas con respecto a lactantes alimentados con leche materna y se conoce el efecto de la desnutrición calórico-proteica sobre la composición en AGP de algunos tejidos. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes fórmulas comerciales sobre la composición en ácidos grasos de los fosfolípidos de plasma y eritrocitos. Se seleccionaron tres grupos de lactantes desnutridos por causa socioeconómicoculturales nacidos a término: dos recibieron fórmulas (una de ellas sólo aportó ácidos linoleicos y alfa- linolénicos y la otra contenía además agragados ácidos grasos polinsaturados de mayor longitud de cadenas derivados de ambas series: n-3 y n-6 y el tercer grupo, alimentado con leche materna, se consideró como control. Se determinó la composición de ácidos grasos de los fosfolipídos de plasma y eritrocitos por cromatografía gas-líquido. Los resultados mostraron, en lactantes alimentados con fórmulas, mayor proporción de ácidos saturados y monoetilénicos, y menor porcentaje en el total de ácidos polinsaturados con respecto a los alimentados con leche materna. Estas diferecias son más marcadas en los que recibieron fórmulas sin suplemento AGP. Seconcluye que en lactante desnutridos el uso de fórmulas enriquecidasen ácidos grasos polinsaturados logra restaurar en parte, el perfil de ácidos grasos en fosfolipídos de plasma y eritrocitos, que se asemeja al de los que reciben leche materna, y es diferente a los alimentados con fórmulas comunes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Breast Feeding , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Infant Food , Infant Nutrition Disorders/metabolism , Phospholipids/chemistry , Plasma/chemistry , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Phospholipids/blood , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/metabolism
8.
Rev. colomb. ciencias quim. farm ; (27): 31-4, sept. 1998. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-252580

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de la composición lipídica sobre el volumen atrapado de liposomas del tipo vesículas multilaminares grandes (MLV), almacenados durante 18 días bajo condiciones de refrigeración y en atmósfera libre de oxígeno ha sido examinada utilizando un nuevo método para la determinación del volumen de atrapamiento de solución acuosa de colorante amarillo FD&C No. 5 al 5 por ciento p/v, el método incluye centrifugación y espectrometría. Las MLVs fueron preparadas por el método clásico de evaporación de solvente descrito originalmente por Bangham y col. en 1965. Los resultados experimentales muestran que las vesículas con composición variable de colesterol poseen un volumen de atrapamiento de 4.9 a 15.7 µL/mg de lecitina


Subject(s)
Liposomes/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry
9.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 48(3): 210-5, Sept. 1998. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-226065

ABSTRACT

Se investiga el contenido y la distribución de los ácidos grasos altamente poliinsaturados de cadena larga (APCL) en los fosfolípidos de eritrocitos materno-fetales en sagre materna venosa y de cordón umbilical obtenida al momento de partos de término o pretérmino en humanos. Se selecionaron madres del mismo nivel socioeconómico, sanas. Once madres dieron a luz niños sanos de término (40 semanas), y veintidós niños sanos de pretérmino (32-34 semanas). Se obtuvo sangre venosa materna y sangre umbilical al momento del parto. Se aislaron los fosfolípidos de los eritrocitos, los ácidos grasos de los fosfolípidos se analizaron por cromatografía gas-líquida. Los resultados informan que en los fetos de término el contenido de todos los APCL omega 6 y omega 3 particularmente 20:4w6 (ARA), y 22:6w3 (DHA), se encontraron signigicativamente más altos que en su madre, a la inversa todos los APCL fueron significativamente menores en el feto pretérmino en relación a su madre. Al comparar contenidos de ARA y DHA entre los fetos se observó que sólo el DHA se encontró significativamente disminuido en fetos pretérmino. Las mujeres que dieron a luz niños de pretérmino demostraron una alta relación ARA/DHA en su sangre en relación a las mujeres con parto de término. De este estudio y tomando en cuenta la literatura preexistente se puede sugerir que un alto contenido de ARA en eritrocitos materno y fetales podría ser una señal de riesgo de prematuridad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/blood , Fetus , Mothers , Phospholipids/blood , Arachidonic Acids/blood , Docosahexaenoic Acids/blood , Fetal Blood , Gestational Age , Infant, Premature , Phospholipids/chemistry
10.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 48(3): 216-20, Sept. 1998. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-226066

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo tuvo por objeto estudiar el origen de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPI-CL) necesarios para el desarrollo postnatal del cerebro. Ratas normales recién nacidas de 1,5,10 y 20 días de edad fueron decapitadas, inmediatamente después los hígados fueron procesados para obtener la fracción microsomal y determinar la compossición de ácidos grasos y la actividad de la enzima delta6 desaturasa. También se nalizaron: la composición de ácidos grasos en plasma, homogenizado de hemisferios cerebrales y en la leche tomada del estómago de las ratas recién nacidas. Nosotros encontramos que la actividad de la enzima delta6 desaturada en el hígado fue muy baja en comparación a la observada en ratas adultas. Durante el desarrollo postnatal se observaron cantidades apreciables de DHA y AA en la lehe, microsomas hepáticos, lípidos de plasma y hemisferios cerebrales. En conclusión proponemos que durante el desarrollo postnatal, la síntesis hepática contribuye poco en el aporte de DHA y AA para el crecimiento del cerebro, pero tiene la capacidad de concentrar estos ácidos grasos provenientes de la leche, en los microsomas hepáticos y secretarlos hacia el plasma para finalmente llegar al cerebro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Male , Female , Brain/growth & development , Fatty Acids, Essential/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Arachidonic Acids/analysis , Arachidonic Acids/metabolism , Docosahexaenoic Acids/analysis , Docosahexaenoic Acids/metabolism , Fatty Acid Desaturases/metabolism , Fatty Acids/analysis , Liver/enzymology , Liver/physiology , Microsomes, Liver/chemistry , Milk/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 55(1): 4-10, ene. 1998. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-232659

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Se aisló una sustancia tensioactiva pulmonar (STP) de porcino para su eventual uso en humanos. Se presenta el análisis químico, estudio in vitro de la actividad de superficie y la efectividad in vivo en un modelo animal. Material y métodos. Se obtuvo STP de lavados bronquiales de pulmón porcino mediante centrifugación y solubilidad diferencial. La actividad de superficie se midió con un surfactometro de burbuja pulsátil. Se evaluó in vivo con cobayos adultos deficientes de STP. Resultados. La concentración de proteínas fue menor a 1 mg/100 mg de fosfolípidos. Este extracto mostró: histéresis amplia, Ymin cercana a 0 mN/m, Ymax de 38 mN/m, índice de estabilidad de 1.98. En el cobayo aumentó la PaO2 a más del doble con disminución significativa de la hipercarbia. Conclusiones. El tensioactivo aislado mostró una magnífica actividad de superficie in vitro y mejoró significativamente la hipoxia e hipercarbia en animales sometidos a lavados pulmonares


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Centrifugation , Disease Models, Animal , Phospholipids/isolation & purification , Phospholipids/immunology , Phospholipids/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Pulmonary Alveoli/chemistry , Pulmonary Alveoli/immunology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/isolation & purification , Swine
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1996 Dec; 33(6): 431-47
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-29011

ABSTRACT

Understanding of microscopic behaviour of biological membrane is crucial for designing of molecules to control transport properties of the membranes. Phospholipid-water forms a good model system to study ligand induced structural and dynamical changes in membrane. The review has its main focus on molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of phospholipid bilayers. A brief summary of the current status of structure of phospholipid membranes based on different physico-chemical measurements is given. We discuss here mainly results of MD simulations in the recent years on hydrated phospholipid bilayers and their interaction with ligands. Simulation parameters as: choice of initial system, force fields, protocols for simulation are compared. Main results on: order parameter, head group and chain conformation, water penetration profile, chain tilts, pair-correlation function between atoms of lipid and water, diffusion of ions and ligands are discussed. The review gives application and limitation of MD method for studying lipid water system.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Diffusion , Ligands , Lipid Bilayers/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Phospholipids/chemistry , Water
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 29(7): 877-94, July 1996. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-181499

ABSTRACT

Local anesthesia is achieved by the binding of anesthetic molecules to the sodium channel, a membrane protein responsible for the transport of the extracellular sodium to the cytosol. Local anesthetics (LA) bind to the sodium channel inhibiting sodium transport and, as a consequence, the action potential responsible for the nervous impulse. Most LA are relatively hydrophobic ionizable amines that undergo partitioning into lipid. Both activity and toxicity correlate positively with LA hydrophobicity. Effects of LA on the structural and dynamical properties of the membranes lipid region may be responsible for some of the toxic effects caused by these molecules. The present review focuses on research done on the interaction between both the charged and uncharged forms of LA and lipid systems - bilayers and micelles. LA have been found to alter phospholipid gel to liquid crystal phase transition temperature (Tc), to affect bilayer permeability, to influence molecular packing, and to inhibit the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition. Anesthetics in micellized form disrupt bilayers giving rise to lipid-LA mixed micelle-like aggregates. The question of LA location in the bilayer is also addressed. Special emphasis is placed on work focusing on the quantitative analysis of drug binding, as well as on the effects of binding on physicochemical properties of the LA, such as extent of ionization (pK shifts) and rates of chemical reactions. The understanding of these phenomena has contributed to the development of less toxic liposomal formulations capable of prolonging the duration of anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics, Local/chemistry , Sodium Channels/chemistry , Membrane Lipids/chemistry , Nerve Block , Phospholipids/chemistry , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacokinetics , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Lipid Bilayers/chemistry , Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy , Hydrolysis , Kinetics , Membranes/chemistry , Membranes/drug effects , Membranes/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Solubility
14.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1995 Jun; 32(3): 166-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27486

ABSTRACT

The effect of calcium on the structural and functional aspects of phospholipids in Microsporum gypseum was examined. Cells grown in presence of calcium exhibited increased content of phospholipids and enhanced synthesis of phospholipids as monitored by the incorporation of [32P] orthophosphoric acid. The rise in the levels of phospholipids was found to be due to increased synthesis of fatty acids as observed from [14C] acetate incorporation studies. The rise in the levels of phospholipids were reflected in the subcellular fractions also. Change in the phospholipid composition increased the fluidity of the membrane as is evident from fluorescence polarization studies using 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The increased membrane fluidity was consistent with the enhanced uptake of [3H] proline in calcium grown cells.


Subject(s)
Calcium/pharmacology , Microsporum/drug effects , Phospholipids/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Subcellular Fractions/drug effects
15.
Rev. Inst. Nac. Enfermedades Respir ; 8(2): 150-8, abr.-jun. 1995. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-158954

ABSTRACT

La ausencia de surfactantes pulmonares trae como consecuencia el incremento de la tensión superficial a lo largo del epitelio alveolar, provocando un colapso alveolar y la lisis de las células epiteliales. Este proceso culmina con la aparición de un síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria, que es la causa principal de morbimortalidad en niños prematuros. Recientemente, la aplicación de mezclas de agentes surfactantes con fines terapéuticos ha constituido un gran apoyo para la terapia respiratoria, ya que permite una evolución más rápida de los niños que padecen este síndrome. Por todo esto, resulta de gran importancia el conocimiento más detallado de la función, el metabolismo y la regulación de la expresión genética de las proteíinas surfactantes, para el diseño de nuevas y mejores estrategias terapéuticas para combatir este síndrome


Subject(s)
1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/biosynthesis , 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/chemistry , Phospholipids/biosynthesis , Phospholipids/chemistry , Lectins/chemistry , Pulmonary Alveoli/drug effects , Pulmonary Alveoli/physiology , Pulmonary Surfactants/chemistry , Pulmonary Surfactants/genetics , Pulmonary Surfactants/ultrastructure
16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 23(1): 16-24, abr. 1995. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-194982

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó el efecto de la ingestión de aceites de maíz, oliva o pescado, y de un suplemento de vitaminas antioxidantes, sobre la composición relativa en ácidos grasos de fosfolípidos hepáticos. Ratas macho Sprague Dawley se alimentaron durante 20 días con dietas semipurificadas que contienen 15 por ciento de aceite, sin o con suplementación vitamínica (50 mg/100 g dl alfa-tocoferilacetato y 3 mg/100 g ß-caroteno) (n= 6 animales por grupo). Al cabo del tratamiento dietario, se analizó el perfil de ácidos grasos de fosfatidilcolina (FC), fosfatidilserina + fosfatidinositol (FS + FI) y fosfatidiletanolamina (FE), observándose diferencia significativa en la proporción relativa de algunos ácidos grasos entre los distintos grupos experimentales. En general, los fosfolípidos de ratas alimentadas con aceite de oliva exhibieron mayor proporción de ácido oleico; la ingestión de aceite de maíz incrementó los niveles de ácido linoleico, y el aceite de pescado disminuyó la proporción de ácidos araquidónico y docosatetraenoico, a la vez que aumentó el contenido de ácidos eicosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico en los fosfolípidos analizados. Con la ingestión de aceite de maíz con suplemento vitamínico aumentó el contenido de ácido oleico en FE, en tanto que con aceite de pescado con suplemento vitamínico aumentó la proporción de ácido oleico y disminuyó la de ácido araquidónico en FC. Los resultados demuestran que la composición relativa en ácidos grasos de fosfolípidos hepáticos es susceptible de ser modificada por el tipo de aceite ingerido en la dieta y, dentro de ciertos límites, por el consumo de suplementos de vitaminas antioxidantes


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Corn Oil/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/chemistry , Antioxidants/metabolism , Fish Oils/metabolism , Diet, Atherogenic , Dietary Vitamins/metabolism , Food, Fortified , Phospholipids/chemistry , Liver/metabolism
17.
Rev. méd. Hosp. Gen. Méx ; 57(1): 15-21, ene.-mar. 1994. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-143039

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se estudia la lipoperoxidación de las membranas del eritrocito de pacientes alcohólicos como un idicador de estrés oxidativo ocasionado por un exceso de radicales libres generadas durante la exposición crónica al consumo exagerado de etanol. Las membranas eritrocíticas de los pacientes alcohólicos presentan un incremento de la lipoperoxidación es más notable en los sujetos cuya última ingesta etílica ha sucedido dentro de las 24 h que anteceden al estudio. Al correlacionar con el tiempo de alcoholismo se observa que el aumento de la lipoperoxidación ocurre desde los primeros 10 años de consumo de etanol y guarda relación con la cantidad de alcohol en gramos consumida por día. Se concluye que la determinación de la lipoperoxidación en membranas de eritrocito es un indicador del daño membranal por la ingesta aguda o crónica del etanol


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Alcoholism/blood , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Blood Chemical Analysis/instrumentation , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Phospholipids/chemistry , Liver/anatomy & histology , Liver/chemistry , Erythrocyte Membrane , Erythrocyte Membrane/ultrastructure
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 27(2): 227-31, Feb. 1994. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-138289

ABSTRACT

A hydrophobic fraction isolated from trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi is being characterized using immunological and chemical techniques. The lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG) was identified in this fraction since it gave a positive reaction with anti-LPPG rabbit serum and had similar structural features such as the presence of ceramide as the lipid moiety, furanoic galactose, and a glycan moiety consistent with that obtained from an authentic sample of epimastigote LPPG, as judged by thin-layer chromatography. Furthermore, the hydrophobic fraction contained other glycolipids with different structural features. The lipid moiety of these compounds is alkylglycerol rather than a ceramide, the carbohydrate chain appears to be less complex than that in LPPG and no reactivity was observed towards an anti-LPPG serum


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Glycoconjugates/chemistry , Peptidoglycan/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , Trypanosoma cruzi/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Carbohydrate Sequence , Glycoproteins/immunology , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycoconjugates/immunology , Molecular Sequence Data , Peptidoglycan/immunology , Phospholipids/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 27(2): 239-42, Feb. 1994. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-140258

ABSTRACT

Two glycoinositol phospholipids (GIPL A and GIPL B) have been purified from epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi at the logarithmic phase of growth (2 days). The GIPLs differ mainly in the lipid moiety and are similar to the lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG) previously isolated from epimastigotes at the stationary phase (4-5 days). [3H]-palmitic acid was incorporated into 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-palmitoylglycerol in GIPL A and into a sphinganine ceramide with palmitic acid and lignoceric acid as the fatty acids in GIPL B. The lipids could be released by incubation with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) or glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) from rat serum. The oligosaccharides share the common core structure of the glycosylphosphatidilinositol (GPI) membrane anchors. Microheterogeneity was demonstrated, as well as substitution by galactose, which is mainly in the furanose configuration as was previously described for the LPPG. However, methylation analysis indicated that 20 percent of the galactose is present as terminal pyranose units. In infective trypomastigotes, [3H]-palmitic acid was incorporated into the anchor of the Tc-85 glycoprotein. The lipid cleaved by phospholipase C digestion was identified as 1-O-hexadecylglycerol and the main oligosaccharide has the structure of the conserved core of all GPI anchors. [3H]-palmitic acid-labelled Tc-85 released into the culture medium as membrane vesicles showed 80 percent resistance to the action of PI-PLC. However, after mild alkaline hydrolysis, part of the radioactivity was released by the enzyme


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Glycosphingolipids/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Trypanosoma cruzi/chemistry , Carbohydrate Sequence , Fatty Acids , Glycosphingolipids/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data , Oligosaccharides/analysis , Oligosaccharides/isolation & purification , Palmitic Acids , Peptidoglycan/chemistry , Peptidoglycan/isolation & purification , Phospholipids/chemistry , Phospholipids/isolation & purification , Type C Phospholipases
20.
Acta physiol. pharmacol. ther. latinoam ; 43(1/2): 28-34, 1993. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-141767

ABSTRACT

Se estudió la composición de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos de lípidos de cerebro y médula del pez de de agua dulce Prochilodus lineatus (sábalo). También hemos investigado la anisotropía de fluorescencia de fosfolípidos marcados con 1.6-difenil-1.3.5 hexatrieno. Se halló que la fosfatidilcolina era el fosfolípido más abundante, seguido por la fosfatidil etanolamina, fosfatidil-serina, fosfatidil-inositol y la esfingomielina. La composición de ácidos grasos de todos los fosfolípidos, exceptuando la esfingomielina, mostró la presencia de ácidos no saturados de la series n-3, n-6 y n-9. El ácido araquidónico evidenció la presencia de ácidos grasos polinosaturados de la serie n-6, y se lo encontró preferentemente en el fosfatidil-inositol. Los ácidos grasos n-3 fueron representados por los ícidos 20:5n-3, (araquidónico) y 3 en peces de agua dulce contrasta con la ausencia de los n-6 en el tejido nervioso de peces marinos. La fosfatidilcolina mostró la mayor fluidez de todos los fosfolípidos de cerebro y médula


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , Brain Chemistry , Spinal Cord/chemistry , Arachidonic Acid/chemistry , Fishes , Fluorescence Polarization , Phosphatidylcholines/chemistry
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