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1.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 15-33, 2022. Tabs, ilus, Grafs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370944

ABSTRACT

Durante el embarazo se generan múltiples cambios fisiológicos a nivel hormonal para llevar a cabo de manera satisfactoria la gestación. Uno de los ejes hormonales con cambios más importantes que repercuten de manera directa en el desarrollo fetal y bienestar materno es el tiroideo, el cual presenta modificaciones para lograr suplir las necesidades de hormona tiroidea tanto materna como fetal, principalmente en las primeras etapas del embarazo. Entre estas, se describen cambios en la cantidad de proteínas transportadoras de hormonas, aumento en el estímulo y producción de hormonas tiroideas, incremento del aclaramiento renal de yodo y alteración en la actividad de las desyodinasas. Estos mecanismos ofrecen suficiente hormona tiroidea al feto, el cual es dependiente del aporte materno. Un desajuste en cualquiera de estos mecanismos, puede conducir al desarrollo de hipotiroidismo con múltiples complicaciones, como la pérdida del embarazo e hipertensión gestacional, entre otras. Una tamización oportuna y un tratamiento temprano pueden evitar estos desenlaces adversos. De ahí la necesidad fundamental de conocer y comprender el comportamiento del eje tiroideo en la gestación


During pregnancy, multiple physiological changes are generated at the hormonal level to successfully carry out pregnancy. One of the hormonal axes with the most important changes that have a direct impact on fetal development and maternal well-being is the thyroid axis, which presents multiple modifications to reach the needs of thyroid hormone for both the mother and the fetus, primarily in the early stages of pregnancy. Changes in the amount of hormone transport proteins, increased stimulation and production of thyroid hormones, increased renal clearance of iodine, and alteration in deiodinase activity are included within these modifications. These mechanisms offer enough thyroid hormone to the fetus, which is dependent on the maternal supply. An imbalance in any of these can lead to the development of hypothyroidism with multiple complications, such as pregnancy loss and gestational hypertension, among others. Timely screening and early treatment can avoid these adverse outcomes, hence the importance of knowing and understanding the regulation of the thyroid axis in pregnancy


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Gland , Physiology , Pregnancy , Hypothyroidism
2.
Rev. colomb. enferm ; 20(3): 1-4, Diciembre 31, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379962

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el ejercicio de la enfermería requiere conocimiento integral del funcionamiento del cuerpo humano, por lo cual es imprescindible el aprendizaje de fisiología humana dentro del proceso formativo de grado. El proceso enfermero, herramienta para la práctica profesional sistemática, dinámica y oportuna basado en el método científico, constituye el eje organizador del currículo de la Licenciatura en Enfermería en la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (Corrientes, Argentina). Objetivo:Identificar la percepción que estudiantes y docentes de asignaturas troncales de Enfermería tenían sobre la aplicación o no de conocimientos fisiológicos desarrollados en los trabajos prácticos de la asignatura Fisiología en las distintas etapas del proceso enfermero. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal, cuestionario anónimo distribuido al azar a estudiantes y docentes, consistente en una tabla de doble entrada que describe los contenidos de cada trabajo práctico, por un lado, y las fases del proceso enfermero, por el otro. Resultados: respondieron 24 docentes (39 %) y 38 estudiantes (61 %). Las fases en que más reconocieron aplicar conocimientos de fisiología en el proceso enfermero fueron, en ambos grupos, valoración y diagnóstico; en cada trabajo práctico fue percibido diferente por docentes y estudiantes, siendo mayor el reconocimiento del uso de fisiología en el proceso enfermero por parte de docentes. Conclusiones: vertebrar la actividad práctica de fisiología alrededor del proceso enfermero parece constituir una estrategia didáctica válida, dado que docentes y estudiantes perciben, en mayor o menor medida, que aplican conocimientos trabajados en la asignatura en las distintas etapas del proceso enfermero, particularmente en la valoración y el diagnóstico. La percepción fue mayor en herramienta para la práctica profesional sistemática, dinámica y oportuna basado en el método científico, constituye el eje organizador del currículo de la Licenciatura en Enfermería en la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (Corrientes, Argentina). Objetivo: I d e n t i f i c a r l a percepción que estudiantes y docentes de asignaturas troncales de Enfermería tenían sobre la aplicación o no de conocimientos fisiológicos desarrollados en los trabajos prácticos de la asignatura Fisiología en lasdistintas etapas del proceso enfermero. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal, cuestionario anónimo distribuido al azar a estudiantes y docentes, consistente en una tabla de doble entrada que describe los contenidos de cada trabajo práctico, por un lado, y las fases del proceso enfermero, por el otro. Resultados: respondieron 24 docentes (39 %) y 38 estudiantes (61 %). Las fases en que más reconocieron aplicar conocimientos de fisiología en el proceso enfermero fueron, en ambos grupos, valoración y diagnóstico; en cada trabajo práctico fue percibido diferente por docentes y estudiantes, siendo mayor el reconocimiento del uso de fisiología en el proceso enfermero por parte de docentes. Conclusiones: vertebrar la actividad práctica de fisiología alrededor del proceso enfermero parece constituir una estrategia didáctica válida, dado que docentes y estudiantes perciben, en mayor o menor medida, que aplican conocimientos trabajados en la asignatura en las distintas etapas del proceso enfermero, particularmente en la valoración y el diagnóstico. La percepción fue mayor en docentes, lo cual evidencia mejor manejo del proceso enfermero, por tener mayor nivel de conocimientos y práctica profesional.


Introdução: a prática da enfermagem requer conhecimento abrangente do funcionamento do corpo humano, razão pela qual é essencial o aprendizado da fisiologia humana na graduação. O processo de enfermagem, ferramenta para a prática profissional sistemática, dinâmica e oportuna baseada no método científico, é o eixo organizador do currículo da Licenciatura em Enfermagem da Universidade Nacional do Nordeste (Corrientes, Argentina). Objetivo: Identificar a percepção que alunos e professores das disciplinas nucleares de Enfermagem têm sobre a aplicação ou não dos conhecimentos fisiológicos desenvolvidos nos trabalhos práticos da disciplina de Fisiologia nas diferentes etapas do processo de enfermagem. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal, com questionário anônimo distribuído aleatoriamente aos alunos e professores, constituído por uma tabela de dupla entrada que descreve o conteúdo de cada trabalho prático, por um lado, e as fases do processo de enfermagem, de outro. Resultados: Responderam 24 professores (39%) e 38 alunos (61%). As fases em que mais reconheceram a aplicação dos conhecimentos da fisiologia no processo de enfermagem foram, nos dois grupos, avaliação e diagnóstico; em cada trabalho prático foi percebido de forma diferente por professores e alunos, havendo maior reconhecimento da utilização da fisiologia no processo de enfermagem pelos professores. Conclusões: estruturar a atividade prática da fisiologia em torno do processo de enfermagem parece constituir uma estratégia didática válida, uma vez que professores y alunos percebem, em maior ou menor grau, que aplicam os conhecimentos trabalhados na disciplina nas diferentes etapas do processo de enfermagem, particularmente no processo de enfermagem avaliação e diagnóstico. A percepção foi maior nos professores, o que evidencia melhor gerenciamento do processo de enfermagem, por possuírem maior nível de conhecimento e prática profissional.


Introduction: Nursing practice requires comprehensive knowledge of the human body's functioning, so learning human physiology is essential during the undergraduate educational process. The nursing process, a tool for systematic, dynamic, and timely professional practice, based on the scientific method, constitutes the organizing axis of the curriculum of the bachelor's degree in nursing at the Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (Corrientes, Argentina). Objective: To identify the perception that students and teachers of core nursing courses had about applying or not physiological knowledge gained during practical work in the Physiology class, in different stages of the nursing process. Method: A d e s c r i p t i ve , observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. An anonymous questionnaire was randomly administered to students and teachers, which consisted of a double-entry table describing the contents of each practical work, on the one hand, and the phases of the nursing process, on the other. Results: T h e questionnaire was answered by 24 teachers (39%) and 38 students (61%). The phases in which they most admitted applying physiology knowledge in the nursing process were assessment and diagnosis in both groups. In each practical work, the application of physiological knowledge was perceived differently by teachers and students, and teachers recognized more the use of physiology in the nursing process. Conclusions: Structuring practical physiology activities around the nursing process seems to be a valid didactic strategy, considering that teachers and students perceive, to a greater or lesser extent, that they apply the knowledge gained during the course in the different stages of the nursing process, particularly in the assessment and diagnosis stages. The perception was higher in teachers, which evidences a better management of the nursing process due to a higher level of knowledge and professional practice.


Subject(s)
Physiology , Nurse's Role , Education , Nursing Process , Nursing
3.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(282): 6582-6586, nov. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1370976

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Categorizar os pontos estratégicos da fisiologia de voo que possam interferir no transporte aeromédico.Método: Trata-se de um estudo de revisão integrativa de literatura, realizada com base no modelo PRISMA - Preferred Reporting ltems for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. A busca dos artigos foi realizada nos meses de agosto e setembro de 2021 . Resultado: Foram utilizados 1 O trabalhos, elencadas seis categorias: (i) Altitude; (ii) Áreas comuns que precisam de atenção; (iii) Forças de Aceleração; (iv) Hipóxia, (v) Preparação para o voo do paciente; (vi) Umidade, Temperatura e Gravidade. Conclusão: O transporte em aeronaves de asa fixa necessita de um conhecimento de fisiologia de voo, potenciais alterações na altitude, recomendações específicas, equipe de saúde e tripulação capacitadas para reconhecer e intervir. Assim como, possuam práticas avançadas, compartilhem as informações, maximizem os processos de segurança e qualidade no ambiente hipobárico. (AU)


Objective: To categorize the strategic points of flight physiology that may interfere with aeromedical transport.Method: This is an integrative literature review study, based on the PRISMA model - Preferred Reporting ltems for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The search for articles was carried out in August and September 2021. Result: 1 O works were used, listed in six categories: (i) Altitude; (ii) Common areas that need attention; (iii) Acceleration Forces; (iv) Hypoxia, (v) Preparation for the patient's flight; (vi) Humidity, Temperature and Gravity. Conclusion: Transportation in fixed-wing aircraft requires knowledge of flight physiology, potential changes in altitude, specific recommendations, health care team and crew trained to recognize and intervene. As well as having advanced practices, share information, maximize safety and quality processes in the hypobaric environment.(AU)


Objetivo: Categorizar los puntos estratégicos de la fisiología dei vuelo que pueden interferir con el transporteaeromédico. Método: Este es un estudio de revisión de literatura integradora, basado en el modelo PRISMA - ftems de reporte preferidos para revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis. La búsqueda de artículos se realizá en los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2021. Resultado: se utilizaron 1 O obras, clasificadas en seis categorías: (i) Altitud; (ii) Áreas comunes que necesitan atención; (iii) Fuerzas de Aceleración; (iv) Hipoxia, (v) Preparación para el vuelo dei paciente; (vi) Humedad, temperatura y gravedad. Conclusión: EI transporte en aeronaves requiere conocimientos de fisiología de vuelo, posibles cambias de altitud, recomendaciones específicas, equipo de atención médica y tripulación capacitados para reconocer e intervenir. Además de contar con prácticas avanzadas, compartir información, maximizar los procesos de seguridad y calidad en el ambiente hipobárico(AU)


Subject(s)
Physiology , Air Ambulances , Knowledge Management , Mentoring , Nurses, Male
5.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(2): 199-204, Apr.-Jun. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131031

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Physiology Department has played an important role in the development of physiology in Mexico since its beginnings. It was founded by Dr. Arturo Rosenblueth in 1947. Many of the original researchers participated in the formation of the Mexican Society of Physiological Sciences. Researchers belonging to this department have given origin to an important national research center (CINVESTAV) and to numerous groups and departments within the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología such as the Valves department in the basement of the main building of the institute, the department of molecular biology situated in the Anexo de Investigación, and a laboratory in the translational medicine unit. The physiology department has importantly contributed to the development of research in the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología.


Resumen El Departamento de Fisiología ha desempeñado un papel importante en el desarrollo de la fisiología en México desde sus inicios. Fue fundado por el Dr. Arturo Rosenblueth en 1947. Muchos de sus investigadores originales participaron en el nacimiento de la Sociedad Mexicana de Ciencias Fisiológicas. Fue el origen de un importante centro de investigación a nivel nacional (CINVESTAV) y ha dado lugar a numerosos grupos y departamentos dentro del Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, como el Departamento de Válvulas en el basamento del edificio principal, el Departamento de Biología Molecular ubicado en el Anexo de Investigación y un laboratorio en la Unidad de Medicina Traslacional. El Departamento de Fisiología ha contribuido de manera importante al desarrollo de la investigación en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Physiology/history , Cardiology/history , Research/history , Academies and Institutes/history , Anniversaries and Special Events , Mexico
6.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 28(2): 39-58, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128208

ABSTRACT

A busca pela saúde e longevidade atrai cada vez mais olhares da comunidade científica. Há diversas formas de se conseguir alterações fisiológicas que previnam doenças ou colaborem para modificar estados patológicos já existentes no organismo humano. Atividades diferenciadas, como é o caso da dança, têm sido um recurso utilizado na busca da prevenção de doenças e de agravos, devido à proporção terapêutica e à ação sistêmica que aquela exerce, aliada ao seu baixo custo, em com paração com outros recursos de tratamento multidisciplinar. Este artigo trata-se de uma Pesquisa Bibliográfica na modalidade revisão integrativa da literatura, tendo como objetivo, conhecer e demonstrar o que vem sendo publicado na comunidade científica sobre o impacto do exercício da dança na fisiologia humana. Como método, utilizou-se as bases de dados: PUBMED, SCIELO, LILACS, com os seguintes descritores associados: "dança, lterações fisiológicas e terapia através da dança", "dança e terapia através da dança", "dança e alterações fisiológicas", "alterações fisiológicas e terapia através da dança", tendo como critérios de inclusão do material utilizado: artigos originais, disponíveis na íntegra, publicados nas línguas portuguesa, inglesa e espanhola, entre os anos de 2013 a 2018, e que estejam relacionados com as modificações fisiológicas através da dança. Como resultados da busca englobando estas combinações, foram encontrados 2.643 artigos, e destes, foram selecionados para estudo 47 artigos. Conclui-se pelos estudos revisados e organizados no quadro sinóptico, que na relação entre a fisiologia e a dança, há diversas alterações positivas no organismo humano obtidas através da dança, seja como coadjuvante em tratamento, ou seja como fator de prevenção...(AU)


The search for health and longevity attracts more and more views from the scientific community. There are several ways to achieve physiological changes that prevent diseases or collabo rate to modify pathologicalstates already existing in the human body. Differentiated activities as in the case of dance have been a resource used in the search for prevention oficial deseases and aggravation, due to t he therapeutic proportion and systemic action, as well as the low cost compaired to other multidiscip linary treatment resources. This article is about a bibliographical research in the integrative literature review modality, with the aiming to know and demonstrate what has been published in the scientific comm unity about the impact of dance exercise on human physiology. As a method, the following databases were used: PUBMED, SCIELO, LILACS, with the following associated descriptors: "dance, physiological chan ges and therapy through dance", "dance and therapy through dance" and "dance and physiological ch anges" , "Physiological changes and therapy through dance", with the following inclusion criteria: original articles, available in full mode, published in Portuguese, English and Spanish languages, between the years 2013 to 2018, and that have been related to the physiological changes through the dance. As search results encompassing these combinations were found 2.643 articles, and seleções for study 4 7 articles. It was conclude from the reviewed studies that were organized in the synoptic table, that the relationship between physiology and dance, there are several positive changes in the human organism obtained through dance, either as an adjunct in treatment, or as a prevention factor...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physiology , Therapeutics , Exercise , Health , Dance Therapy , Dancing , PubMed , LILACS , Literature , Longevity , Pathology , Disease
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 731-742, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146749

ABSTRACT

The production of grafted passion fruit is an alternative for plant adaptation to saline environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salt stress on physiology, biometry and fruit quality of P. edulis grafted on Passiflora spp. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to three species of Passiflora (P. edulis, P. gibertii and P. cincinnata) with P. edulis scion and two levels of irrigation water salinity (0.5 - control and 4.5 dS m-1), with four repetitions. Water salinity compromises gas exchanges (CO2 assimilation raste and transpiration) and physiological variables (total chlorophyll and total water consumption) in grafted P. edulis. The interaction between the factors (water salinity x species) compromised only the growth in plant height and number of leaves. In relation to the species, auto-grafted P. edulis stood out from the other species, with higher internal CO2 concentration, number of leaves, stem dry mass, peel thickness, total soluble solids (TSS) of the pulp and TSS/TA ratio (titratable acidity). Auto-grafted P. edulis under saline conditions develops vital mechanisms (TSS and TSS/TA), which attenuates the effects of salt stress on the physico-chemical quality of the fruits.


A produção de maracujazeiro enxertado é uma alternativa para adaptação das plantas a ambientes salinos. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do estresse salino na fisiologia, biometria e qualidade de frutos de P. edulis enxertado em espécies de Passiflora spp. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três espécies de Passiflora (P. edulis, P. gibertii e P. cincinnata) tendo como copa P. edulis e dois níveis de salinidade de água de irrigação (0,5 ­ testemunha e 4,5 dS m-1), com quatro repetições. A salinidade da água compromete as trocas gasosas (taxa de assimilação de CO2 e transpiração) e variáveis fisiológicas (clorofila total e consumo hídrico total) em P. edulis enxertado. A interação entre os fatores (salinidade da água x espécie) compromete apenas o crescimento em altura de plantas e número de folhas. Em relação às espécies, o P. edulis auto enxertado se destaca em relação as demais espécies apresentando maior concentração interna de CO2, número de folhas, massa seca de caule, espessura da casca do fruto, sólidos solúveis totais (SST) da polpa e razão sólidos solúveis totais por acidez titulável (SST/AT). O P. edulis auto enxertado sob condições de salinidade, desenvolve mecanismos vitais (SST e SST/AT), que atenuam os efeitos do estresse salino na qualidade físico-química dos frutos.


Subject(s)
Passiflora , Salt Stress , Physiology , Saltpetre Soils , Biometry , Total Quality Management , Salinity , Agricultural Irrigation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828977

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and peripheral blood CD14 CD16 monocytes in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD), and to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis in CHD by analyzing the correlation between infection, inflammation, and CHD, to provide a basis for the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of the disease.@*Methods@#In total, 192 patients with CHD were divided into three groups: latent CHD, angina pectoris, and myocardial infarction. HCMV-IgM and -IgG antibodies were assessed using ELISA; CD14 CD16 monocytes were counted using a five-type automated hematology analyzer; mononuclear cells were assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting; and an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols, lipoprotein, hs-CRp and Hcy.@*Results@#The positive rates of HCMV-IgM and -IgG were significantly higher in the CHD groups than in the control group. HCMV infection affects lipid metabolism to promote immune and inflammatory responses.@*Conclusion@#HCMV infection has a specific correlation with the occurrence and development of CHD. The expression of CD14 CD16 mononuclear cells in the CHD group was increased accordingly and correlated with acute HCMV infection. Thus, HCMV antibody as well as peripheral blood CD14 CD16 mononuclear cells can be used to monitor the occurrence and development of CHD.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Epidemiology , Virology , China , Epidemiology , Coronary Disease , Epidemiology , Virology , Cytomegalovirus , Physiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation , Epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Monocytes , Metabolism , Myocardial Infarction , Epidemiology , Virology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828973

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the differences in clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory features between the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and influenza A in children. Data of 23 hospitalized children with COVID-19 (9 boys, 5.7 ± 3.8 years old) were compared with age- and sex-matched 69 hospitalized and 69 outpatient children with influenza A from a hospital in China. The participants' epidemiological history, family cluster, clinical manifestations, and blood test results were assessed. Compared with either inpatients or outpatients with influenza A, children with COVID-19 showed significantly more frequent family infections and higher ratio of low fever ( 39 °C), nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, vomiting, myalgia or arthralgia, and febrile seizures. They also showed higher counts of lymphocytes, T lymphocyte CD8, and platelets and levels of cholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid, but lower serum amyloid, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and shorter prothrombin time. The level of alanine aminotransferase in children with COVID-19 is lower than that in inpatients but higher than that in outpatients with influenza A. Pediatric COVID-19 is associated with more frequent family infection, milder symptoms, and milder immune responses relative to pediatric influenza A.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Coronavirus Infections , Blood , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human , Blood , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Blood , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828961

ABSTRACT

Homoeostasis depends on the close connection and intimate molecular exchange between extracellular, intracellular and intercellular networks. Intercellular communication is largely mediated by gap junctions (GJs), a type of specialized membrane contact composed of variable number of channels that enable direct communication between cells by allowing small molecules to pass directly into the cytoplasm of neighbouring cells. Although considerable evidence indicates that gap junctions contribute to the functions of many organs, such as the bone, intestine, kidney, heart, brain and nerve, less is known about their role in oral development and disease. In this review, the current progress in understanding the background of connexins and the functions of gap junctions in oral development and diseases is discussed. The homoeostasis of tooth and periodontal tissues, normal tooth and maxillofacial development, saliva secretion and the integrity of the oral mucosa depend on the proper function of gap junctions. Knowledge of this pattern of cell-cell communication is required for a better understanding of oral diseases. With the ever-increasing understanding of connexins in oral diseases, therapeutic strategies could be developed to target these membrane channels in various oral diseases and maxillofacial dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Cell Communication , Connexins , Metabolism , Physiology , Gap Junctions , Metabolism , Pathology , Homeostasis , Physiology , Humans , Mouth Diseases , Phosphorylation
12.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828750

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Research, Biomedical
13.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828747

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
14.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828586

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Research, Biomedical
15.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828583

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828561

ABSTRACT

The three known human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are composed of non-structural proteins, structural proteins and accessory proteins. Viral particles recognize host receptors via spike glycoprotein (S protein), enter host cells by membrane fusion, replicate in host cells through large replication-transcription complexes, and promote proliferation by interfering with and suppressing the host's immune response. Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are hosted by humans and vertebrates. Viral particles are transmitted through droplets, contact and aerosols or likely through digestive tract, urine, eyes and other routes. This review discusses the mechanisms of proliferation and transmission of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses based on the results of existing research, providing basis for future study on interrupting the transmission and pathogenicity of human highly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , SARS Virus , Physiology , Virus Replication , Physiology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828540

ABSTRACT

The intrinsic regrowth ability of injured neurons is essential for axon regeneration and functional recovery. Recently, numerous intrinsic pathways that regulate axon regeneration have been discovered, among which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway are arguably the best characterized examples. MAPK signaling pathway is involved in multiple processes including sensing injury signals, initiating and promoting axonal regrowth through regulating cytoskeleton dynamics and protein synthesis. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway regulates axon regeneration mainly through gene transcription and translation. Combinatory manipulation of multiple regeneration-promoting signals can further improve the extend of axonal regrowth. This paper summarizes current progresses on axon regeneration studies in various organisms and discuss their potentials in promoting functional recovery .


Subject(s)
Axons , Physiology , Nerve Regeneration , Neurons , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Regeneration , Signal Transduction
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828532

ABSTRACT

Recently, ferroptosis, an iron-dependent novel type of cell death, has been characterized as an excessive accumulation of lipid peroxides and reactive oxygen species. Emerging studies demonstrate that ferroptosis not only plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic diseases, but also functions differently in the different disease context. Notably, it is shown that activation of ferroptosis could potently inhibit tumor growth and increase sensitivity to chemotherapy and immunotherapy in various cancer settings. As a result, the development of more efficacious ferroptosis agonists remains the mainstay of ferroptosis-targeting strategy for cancer therapeutics. By contrast, in non-cancerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular & cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases, ferroptosis functions as a risk factor to promote these diseases progression through triggering or accelerating tissue injury. As a matter of fact, blocking ferroptosis has been demonstrated to effectively prevent ischemia-reperfusion heart disease in preclinical animal models. Therefore, it is a promising field to develope potent ferroptosis inhibitors for preventing and treating cardiovascular & cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we summarize the most recent progress on ferroptosis in chronic diseases, and draw attention to the possible clinical impact of this recently emerged ferroptosis modalities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chronic Disease , Ferroptosis , Physiology , Iron , Metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828526

ABSTRACT

Hippo signaling pathway is highly conservative in evolution. MST1/2, LATS1/2, and the effector protein YAP/TAZ are the core members of this signaling pathway in mammalian cells. There have been many studies on YAP/TAZ and its downstream, however, the upstream regulatory factors of the Hippo signaling pathway remain unclear, and become one of the hot research directions of this pathway at present. In addition, Hippo signaling pathway can cross-talk with other signaling pathways such as Wnt and Notch signaling pathways, and plays an important role in controlling organ size, maintaining tissue homeostasis, and promoting tissue repair and regeneration. Abnormal Hippo signaling pathway may lead to the occurrence of a variety of tumors, especially gastrointestinal cancers such as liver cancer, colorectal cancer and gastric cancer. The abnormal expression of its members in gastrointestinal cancers is related to cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration. Hippo signaling pathway is vital for liver repair and regeneration. Its inactivation will lead to the occurrence of primary liver cancer. The mechanism of YAP in liver cancer mainly depends on TEAD-mediated gene transcription. Hippo signaling pathway is also important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis, and its imbalance can lead to the occurrence and recurrence of colorectal cancer. In primary and metastatic gastric cancer, the expression of YAP/TAZ is significantly up-regulated, but the specific molecular mechanism is unclear. This article summarizes the recent progress on Hippo signaling pathway and its upstream regulatory factors, its roles in the development of gastrointestinal cancers and related molecular mechanisms; and also discusses the future research directions of Hippo signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Physiology , Cell Proliferation , Physiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Humans , Signal Transduction
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) on electrophysiological epileptic activities of mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the extracellular acidotic condition.@*METHODS@#We investigated effects of extracellular acidosis on epileptic activities induced by elevated extracellular K concentration or the application of an antagonist of GABA receptors in perfusate of mouse hippocampal slices under field potential recordings. We also tested the effects of extracellular acidosis on neuronal excitability under field potential recording and evaluated the changes in epileptic activities of the neurons in response to pharmacological inhibition of ASICs using a specific inhibitor of ASICs.@*RESULTS@#Extracellular acidosis significantly suppressed epileptic activities of the hippocampal neurons by converting ictal-like epileptic activities to non-ictal-like epileptic activities in both high [K ]o and disinhibition models, and also suppressed the intrinsic excitability of the neurons. ASICs inhibitor did not antagonize the inhibitory effect of extracellular acidosis on ictal epileptic activities and intrinsic neuronal excitability, but exacerbated non-ictal epileptic activities of the neurons in extracellular acidotic condition in both high [K]o and disinhibition models.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ASICs can differentially modulate ictal-like and non-ictallike epileptic activities via its direct actions on excitatory neurons.


Subject(s)
Acid Sensing Ion Channels , Metabolism , Acidosis , Animals , Epilepsy , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mice , Pyramidal Cells , Pathology , Physiology
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