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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the role of microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) in the pathogenesis of pediatric nephrotic syndrome (NS) and its effect on renal podocyte apoptosis via the activin A (ActA)/Smads pathway.@*METHODS@#An analysis was performed on 55 children with NS (NS group) who were admitted from March 2018 to March 2019. Fifty healthy children who underwent physical examination during the same period of time were enrolled as the control group. The mRNA expression of miR-17-5p in peripheral blood was measured and compared between the two groups. Human renal podocytes were transfected with antisense oligonucleotide recombinant plasmid containing miR-17-5p (inhibition group) or control vector containing nonsense random sequence (negative control group), and untreated human renal podocytes were used as the blank group. These groups were compared in terms of cell apoptosis and the mRNA and protein expression of miR-17-5p, ActA, and Smads after transfection.@*RESULTS@#The NS group had a significantly higher level of miR-17-5p in peripheral blood than the control group (P<0.001). Compared with the blank and negative control groups, the inhibition group had significantly lower apoptosis rate and relative mRNA expression of miR-17-5p and significantly higher relative mRNA and protein expression of ActA, Smad2, and Smad3 (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is an increase in the content of miR-17-5p in peripheral blood in children with NS. Low expression of miR-17-5p can inhibit the apoptosis of human renal podocytes, which may be associated with the upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of ActA, Smad2 and Smad3.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Child , Humans , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Nephrotic Syndrome , Genetics , Podocytes , Transfection
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(9): e9360, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132557

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been identified as the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in most developed countries. MicroRNA-770-5p depletion could repress high glucose (HG)-triggered apoptosis in podocytes, and downregulation of E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) could facilitate podocyte injury. Nevertheless, whether E2F3 is involved in miR-770-5p knockdown-mediated improvement of DN is still unclear. The expression levels of miR-770-5p and E2F3 were detected in HG-treated podocytes by RT-qPCR. The expression levels of E2F3, apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 related X protein (Bax), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bad, apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (APAF1), C-caspase3, C-caspase7, and C-caspase9 were detected by western blot assay. The effects of miR-770-5p and E2F3 on HG-treated podocytes proliferation and apoptosis were detected by CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays. The interaction between miR-770-5p and E2F3 was predicted by Targetscan, and then verified by the dual-luciferase reporter assay. MiR-770-5p was upregulated and E2F3 was downregulated in HG-treated podocytes. MiR-770-5p inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis and E2F3 promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in HG-treated podocytes. E2F3 is a target gene of miR-770-5p and it partially abolished the effect of miR-770-5p in HG-triggered proliferation and apoptosis of podocytes. MiR-770-5p deficiency blocked HG-induced APAF1/caspase9 pathway via targeting E2F3 in podocytes. We firstly confirmed that E2F3 was a target of miR-770-5p in podocytes. These findings suggested that miR-770-5p expedited podocyte injury by targeting E2F3, and the miR-770-5p/E2F3 axis might represent a pathological mechanism of DN progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , MicroRNAs , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Podocytes , Apoptosis , E2F3 Transcription Factor , Glucose
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785579

ABSTRACT

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) has long been a challenge for clinicians due to its poor responsiveness to immunosuppressants, and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease. Identifying a monogenic cause for SRNS may lead to a better understanding of podocyte structure and function in the glomerular filtration barrier. This review focuses on genes associated with slit diaphragm, actin cytoskeleton, transcription factors, nucleus, glomerular basement membrane, mitochondria, and other proteins that affect podocyte biology.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Biology , Diaphragm , Glomerular Basement Membrane , Glomerular Filtration Barrier , Immunosuppressive Agents , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Mitochondria , Nephrotic Syndrome , Podocytes , Proteinuria , Transcription Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776622

ABSTRACT

As a major active component extracted from traditional Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, triptolide exhibits multiple pharmacological effects. Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved intracellular catabolic process involved in cytoplasmic materials degradation. Autophagic dysfunction contributes to the pathologies of many human diseases, which makes it a promising therapeutic target. Recent studies have shown that triptolide exerts neuroprotection, anti-tumor activities, organ toxicity, and podocyte protection by modulating autophagy. This article highlights the current information on triptolide-modulated autophagy, analyzes the possible pathways involved, and describes the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis modulated by triptolide, in hope of providing implications for the roles of autophagy in pharmacological effects of triptolide and expanding its novel usage as an autophagy modulator.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Diterpenes , Pharmacology , Epoxy Compounds , Pharmacology , Humans , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Phenanthrenes , Pharmacology , Podocytes
5.
Immune Network ; : e36-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764024

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ameliorate the renal injury in Adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy, but the mechanisms underlying their efficacy remain incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrated that MSCs increased the survival, recovered body weight loss, and decreased proteinuria and serum creatinine levels in ADR-treated mice. MSCs also prevented podocyte damage and renal fibrosis by decreasing the expression of fibronectin, collagen 1α1, and α-smooth muscle actin. From a mechanistic perspective, MSCs inhibited renal inflammation by lowering the expression of CCL4, CCL7, CCL19, IFN-α/β, TGF-β, TNF-α, and chitinase 3-like 1. In summary, our data demonstrate that MSCs improve renal functions by inhibiting renal inflammation in ADR-induced nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Actins , Animals , Body Weight , Chitinases , Collagen , Creatinine , Doxorubicin , Fibronectins , Fibrosis , Inflammation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Podocytes , Proteinuria
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763269

ABSTRACT

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerular disorder in childhood, and a vast majority of cases are idiopathic. The precise cause of this common childhood disease is not fully elucidated despite significant advancements in our understanding of podocyte biology. Idiopathic NS has been considered “a disorder of T-cell function” mediated by a circulating factor that alters podocyte function resulting in massive proteinuria since the last four decades. Several circulatory factors released from T-cells are considered to be involved in pathophysiology of NS; however, a single presumptive factor has not been defined yet. Extended evidence obtained by advances in the pathobiology of podocytes has implicated podocytes as critical regulator of glomerular protein filtration and podocytopathy. The candidate molecules as pathological mediators of steroid-dependent NS are CD80 (also known as B7-1), hemopexin, and angiopoietin-like 4. The “two-hit” hypothesis proposes that the expression of CD80 on podocytes and ineffective inhibition of podocyte CD80 due to regulatory T-cell dysfunction or impaired autoregulation by podocytes results in NS. Recent studies suggest that not only T cells but also other immune cells and podocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of MCNS.


Subject(s)
Biology , Filtration , Hemopexin , Homeostasis , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Nephrotic Syndrome , Pathology , Podocytes , Proteinuria , T-Lymphocytes
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of interferon-α (INF-α) on the apoptosis of the mouse podocyte cell line MPC5 induced by hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein.@*METHODS@#MPC5 cells were transfected with the pEX plasmid carrying the HBx gene. RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of HBx at different time points. MPC5 cells were divided into 4 groups: control group (MPC5 cells cultured under normal conditions), INF-α group (MPC5 cells cultured with INF-α), HBx group (MPC5 cells induced by HBx), and HBx+INF-α group (MPC5 cells induced by HBx and cultured with INF-α). After 48 hours of intervention under different experimental conditions, flow cytometry was used to measure the apoptosis of MPC5 cells, and quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of slit diaphragm-related proteins (nephrin, CD2AP, and synaptopodin) and the cytoskeleton-related protein transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6).@*RESULTS@#MPC5 cells transfected by pEX-HBx had the highest expression of HBx mRNA at 48 hours after transfection (P<0.05). Compared with the control, INF-α and HBx+INF-α groups, the HBx group had a significant increase in the apoptosis rate of MPC5 cells (P<0.05). Compared with the control and INF-α groups, the HBx group had significant reductions in the mRNA and protein expression of nephrin, synaptopodin, and CD2AP and significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of TRPC6 (P<0.05). Compared with the HBx group, the HBx+INF-α group had significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of nephrin, synaptopodin, and CD2AP and significant reductions in the mRNA and protein expression of TRPC6 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#INF-α can inhibit the apoptosis of podocytes induced by HBx, possibly through improving the abnormal expression of slit diaphragm-related proteins (CD2AP, nephrin, and synaptopodin) and cytoskeleton-related protein (TRPC6) induced by HBx.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Hepatitis B virus , Interferon-alpha , Mice , Podocytes , Trans-Activators
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(4): 339-343, Out.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984578

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: preeclampsia can be associated with future renal disease. Objectives: To measure changes in renal function overtime in patients with preeclampsia. Methods: urine and serum samples from eleven patients with preeclampsia and eight patients with a normal pregnancy were obtained during pregnancy, postpartum, and 3 years after delivery. Urine podocalyxin, protein, and serum creatinine were measured. Results: after 3 years, there were no significant differences in urinary podocalyxin in patients with or without preeclampsia: 4.34 ng/mg [2.69, 8.99] vs. 7.66 ng/mg [2.35, 13], p = 0.77. The same applied to urinary protein excretion: 81.5 mg/g [60.6, 105.5] vs. 43.2 mg/g [20.9, 139.3] p = 0.23. Serum creatinine was 0.86 mg/dL [0.7, 0.9] vs. 0.8 mg/dL [0.68, 1] p = 0.74 in those with and without preeclampsia. In normal patients, urinary podocalyxin decreased from 54.4 ng/mg [34.2, 76.9] during pregnancy to 7.66 ng/mg [2.35, 13] three years after pregnancy, p = 0.01. Proteinuria decreased from 123.5 mg/g [65.9, 194.8] to 43.2 mg/g [20.9, 139.3], p = 0.12. In preeclampsia patients, urinary podocalyxin decreased from 97.5 ng/mg [64.9, 318.4] during pregnancy to 37.1 ng/mg within one week post-partum [21.3, 100.4] p = 0.05 and 4.34 ng/mg [2.69, 8.99] three years after, p = 0.003. Proteinuria was 757.2 mg/g [268.4, 5031.7] during pregnancy vs. 757.2 mg/g [288.2, 2917] postpartum, p = 0.09 vs. 81.5 mg/g [60.6, 105.5] three years later, p = 0.01. Two patients still had proteinuria after 3 years. Conclusions: in preeclampsia patients, postpartum urinary podocalyxin decreased before proteinuria. After three years, serum creatinine, urinary podocalyxin, and protein tended to normalize, although some patients still had proteinuria.


RESUMO Introdução: a pré-eclâmpsia pode estar associada à doença renal no futuro. Objetivos: medir mudanças na função renal ao longo do tempo em pacientes com pré-eclâmpsia. Métodos: amostras de urina e soro de onze pacientes com pré-eclâmpsia e oito pacientes com gravidez normal foram obtidas durante a gravidez, pós-parto e 3 anos após o parto. Medimos podocalixina na urina, proteína e creatinina sérica. Resultados: após 3 anos, não houve diferenças significativas na podocalixina urinária em pacientes com ou sem pré-eclâmpsia: 4,34 ng/mg [2,69, 8,99] versus 7,66 ng/mg [2,35, 13], p = 0,77. O mesmo se aplicou à excreção urinária de proteínas: 81,5 mg/g [60,6, 105,5] vs. 43,2 mg/g [20,9, 139,3] p = 0,23. A creatinina sérica foi de 0,86 mg/dL [0,7, 0,9] vs. 0,8 mg/dL [0,68, 1] p = 0,74 naqueles com e sem pré-eclâmpsia. Em pacientes normais, a podocalixina urinária diminuiu de 54,4 ng/mg [34,2, 76,9] durante a gestação para 7,66 ng/mg [2,35, 13] três anos após a gravidez, p = 0,01. A proteinúria diminuiu de 123,5 mg/g [65,9, 194,8] para 43,2 mg/g [20,9, 139,3], p = 0,12. Em pacientes com pré-eclâmpsia, a podocalixina urinária diminuiu de 97,5 ng/mg [64,9, 318,4] durante a gravidez para 37,1 ng/mg em uma semana de pós-parto [21,3, 100,4] p = 0,05 e 4,34 ng/mg [2,69, 8,99] três anos depois, p = 0,003. A proteinúria foi de 757,2 mg/g [268.4, 5031.7] durante a gravidez vs. 757,2 mg/g [288.2, 2917] pós-parto, p = 0.09 vs. 81.5 mg/g [60.6, 105.5] três anos depois, p = 0.01. Dois pacientes ainda apresentavam proteinúria após 3 anos. Conclusões: em pacientes com pré-eclâmpsia, a podocalixina urinária pós-parto diminuiu antes da proteinúria. Após três anos, a creatinina sérica, a podocalixina urinária e a proteína tenderam a se normalizar, embora alguns pacientes ainda tivessem proteinúria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Podocytes/pathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/pathology , Pre-Eclampsia/urine , Pre-Eclampsia/blood , Sialoglycoproteins/urine , Sialoglycoproteins/blood , Time Factors , Pregnancy , Biomarkers/urine , Biomarkers/blood , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies
9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(4): 388-402, Out.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984581

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT There are striking differences in chronic kidney disease between Caucasians and African descendants. It was widely accepted that this occurred due to socioeconomic factors, but recent studies show that apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) gene variants are strongly associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, HIV-associated nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and lupus nephritis in the African American population. These variants made their way to South America trough intercontinental slave traffic and conferred an evolutionary advantage to the carries by protecting against forms of trypanosomiasis, but at the expense of an increased risk of kidney disease. The effect of the variants does not seem to be related to their serum concentration, but rather to local action on the podocytes. Risk variants are also important in renal transplantation, since grafts from donors with risk variants present worse survival.


RESUMO Existem importantes diferenças na doença renal crônica entre caucasianos e afrodescendentes. Foi amplamente aceito que isso ocorreu devido a fatores socioeconômicos, mas estudos recentes mostraram que as variantes gênicas da apolipoproteína L-1 (APOL1) estão fortemente associadas à glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal, nefropatia associada ao HIV, nefroesclerose hipertensiva e nefrite lúpica na população afrodescendente. Essas variantes chegaram à América do Sul através do tráfico intercontinental de escravos, e proporcionaram uma vantagem evolutiva aos portadores, protegendo contra formas de tripanossomíase, mas à custa de um maior risco de doença renal. O efeito das variantes não parece estar relacionado à sua concentração sérica, mas sim à sua ação local sobre os podócitos. Variantes de risco também são importantes no transplante renal, já que enxertos de doadores com variantes de risco apresentam pior sobrevida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Variation , African Americans/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Podocytes , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Apolipoprotein L1/physiology
10.
Rev. nefrol. diál. traspl ; 38(3): 199-205, sept. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006901

ABSTRACT

El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad sistémica autoinmune que puede afectar a múltiples órganos. Aproximadamente el 50% de los pacientes con LES desarrollan enfermedad renal clínicamente evidente, la cual es una causa importante de morbimortalidad. El síndrome nefrótico (SN) es frecuente en los pacientes con nefritis lúpica (NL) y usualmente se asocia a depósitos de complejos inmunes en las paredes capilares, acompañados de proliferación endocapilar y necrosis. No obstante, existe un número creciente de casos reportados de pacientes con LES y SN cuyas biopsias se caracterizan por injuria podocitaria, consistente en fusión pedicelar en la microscopía electrónica y un patrón morfológico idéntico a la enfermedad por cambios mínimos (ECM), a la esclerosis focal y segmentaria primaria o a una glomerulonefritis proliferativa mesangial, en ausencia de depósitos inmunes en las paredes capilares. Este hallazgo podría deberse a la coexistencia de NL y ECM, sin embargo, la mayoría de las investigaciones consideran que esto no es una mera coincidencia. De allí surge una nueva entidad, la "podocitopatía lúpica", patología posiblemente mediada por la activación de células T y la presencia de un factor de permeación glomerular. Esto permite diferenciar al grupo de pacientes con LES y SN, que en la biopsia carecen de depósitos inmunes en las paredes capilares o de signos de actividad lúpica renal, se evidencia fusión pedicelar difusa en la ME y presentan además una alta sensibilidad al tratamiento con corticoides. El diagnóstico de esta nueva entidad, requiere de la interpretación de los hallazgos histopatológicos con la correcta integración de los datos de la inmunofluorescencia y la microscopía electrónica


Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease which may affect several organs. Approximately 50% of SLE patients develop clinically overt renal disease, an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is frequent in patients suffering from lupus nephritis (LN) and it is usually associated with immune complex deposition on capillary walls accompanied by endocapillary proliferation and necrosis. However, a growing number of reported cases of SLE and NS patients show biopsies which reveal podocyte injury, consisting of pedicel fusion upon electron microscopy and a morphological pattern identical to minimal change disease (MCD), primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, in absence of immune complex deposition on capillary walls. Although this finding could be explained by the coexistence of LN and MCD, most researchers consider that this fact is not pure coincidence. A new term, lupus podocytopathy, therefore appears to define a distinct entity characterized by T cell activation and the presence of a glomerular permeability factor. This allows to distinguish the group of SLE and NS patients whose biopsies do not show immune complex deposition on capillary walls or signs of renal lupus activity; electron microscopy reveals diffuse pedicel fusion and patients show high responsiveness to corticosteroid treatment. In order to diagnose this new entity, it is necessary to interpret histopathological findings together with data gathered from immunofluorescence and electron microscopy


Subject(s)
Humans , Lupus Nephritis/diagnosis , Lupus Nephritis/metabolism , Podocytes , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Nephrotic Syndrome , Biopsy
11.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 22(8): 743-748, dic.-mar. 2018. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026038

ABSTRACT

El síndrome urémico hemolítico (SUH) está definido por la tríada de anemia hemolítica microangiopática, trombocitopenia e insuficiencia renal aguda. En Argentina constituye la primera causa de insuficiencia renal aguda en pediatría. Aproximadamente, del 2% al 4% de los pacientes mueren durante la fase aguda de la enfermedad, y solo un tercio del 96% restante que sobrevive lo hace con secuelas renales, como la persistencia de la proteinuria. Un individuo adulto sano filtra alrededor de 5000 mg/día de proteínas, si bien la excreción en orina es escasa (150 mg/día). La escasa cantidad de proteínas excretadas indica la presencia de un mecanismo de reabsorción a nivel del túbulo proximal. Por lo tanto, la reabsorción tubular renal desempeña un papel muy importante ya que, ante una función glomerular normal, es el principal mecanismo encargado de evitar la depleción proteica corporal. Desde hace aproximadamente 30 años se sabe que la albúmina es reabsorbida en el túbulo proximal. La reabsorción proteica se produce por un mecanismo de endocitosis mediada por el receptor dependiente de clatrina y por endocitosis de fase líquida. Clásicamente se ha descrito que el mecanismo básico del daño renal en el SUH típico y en el atípico es una microangiopatía trombótica, pero de diferentes causas. Sin embargo, debe tenerse en cuenta que la fisiopatología de esta enfermedad es más compleja de lo que se creía, ya que la alteración tubular que surge va a evolucionar en fallas en el mecanismo de endocitosis de proteínas que se suman a las eliminadas por las alteraciones a nivel de la barrera de filtración glomerular.


Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the triad of hemolytic anemia microangiopathic, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. In Argentina it constitutes the first cause of acute renal failure in Pediatrics. Approximately 2-4% of patients die during the acute phase of the disease, and only a third of the remaining 96% survive with renal sequelae, such as the persistence of proteinuria. A healthy adult filters around 5000 mg/day of proteins, with an excretion in urine of 150 mg/day. The little quantity of proteins excreted indicates the presence of a reabsorption mechanism at the level of the proximal tubule. Therefore, the tubular reabsorption plays a very important role since it is the main mechanism responsible for preventing the depletion of protein. For approximately 30 years, it has been known that albumin is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Protein reabsorption occurs by a clathrin-dependent receptor mediated endocytosis mechanism and by fluid phase endocytosis. The basic mechanism of renal damage in typical and atypical HUS has been described as a thrombotic microangiopathy, but of different causes. However, the pathophysiology of this disease is more complex than what was believed since the emerging tubular alteration will ewvolve into failures of the protein endocytosis mechanism that are added to the alterations at the level of the glomerular filtration barrier.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proteinuria , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2 , Endocytosis , Podocytes , Renal Insufficiency , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713546

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, is characterized by the production of autoantibodies and end-organ damage. Lupus nephritis affects up to 70% of patients with SLE and is the most critical predictor of morbidity and mortality. The immunopathogenesis of SLE is complex and most clinical trials of biologics targeting immune cells or their mediators have failed to show efficacy in SLE patients. It has therefore become increasingly clear that additional, local factors give rise to the inflammation and organ damage. In this review, we describe recent advances in the role of renal resident cells, including podocytes, mesangial cells, and epithelial cells, in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases , Biological Products , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lupus Nephritis , Mesangial Cells , Mortality , Podocytes
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Weight reduction is a lifestyle intervention that has been introduced for prevention and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigate the additive anti-proteinuric effect of weight reduction on the usage of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and its potential mechanisms in hypertensive CKD patients. METHODS: This study is a subanalysis of data from an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Among the 235 participants, 227 were assigned to subgroups according to changes in body weight. RESULTS: Fifty-eight participants (25.6%) were assigned to group 1 (≥1.5% decrease in body weight after 16 weeks), 32 participants (14.1%) were assigned to group 2 (1.5–0.1% decrease in body weight), and 136 participants (59.9%) were assigned to group 3 (≥ 0.0% increase in body weight). Characteristics at enrollment were not different among the three groups, but mean differences in weight and percent changes in urinary sodium excretion over the period were statistically different (P < 0.001 and P = 0.017). Over the study period, unintentional weight loss independently increased the probability of reduced albuminuria (group 1, relative risk 6.234, 95% confidence interval 1.913–20.315, P = 0.002). Among urinary cytokines, only podocalyxin level decreased significantly in participants who lost weight (P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: We observed that weight loss had an additive effect on the anti-proteinuric effects of ARBs in nondiabetic hypertensive CKD patients, although it was minimal. An additive effect was shown in both obese and non-obese participants, and its possible mechanism is related to reduction of podocyte damage.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensins , Body Weight , Cytokines , Humans , Hypertension , Life Style , Podocytes , Proteinuria , Receptors, Angiotensin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sodium , Weight Loss
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) is a known podocytotoxin. PAN-induced nephrosis is a widely used animal model for studying human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Abnormal protein accumulation associated with podocyte-specific endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress damages cells structurally and functionally, which in turn induces apoptosis and severe proteinuria. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAN on ER stress and apoptosis in podocytes in vitro. METHODS: Mouse podocytes were cultured and treated with various concentrations of PAN. ER stress markers were then evaluated by western blotting, and apoptosis was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. RESULTS: PAN treatment increased ER stress markers such as activating transcription factor (ATF) 6α and caspase-12 in a dose-dependent manner at 12 and 24 hours, respectively. These markers were reduced by chemical chaperones, such as sodium 4-phenylbutyric acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid. PAN treatment also increased 78 kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP78)/binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) at the earlier stage of 12 hours. PAN significantly induced podocyte apoptosis in concentration- and time-dependent manners, as seen using FACS and TUNEL assays. This result was improved by Nox4 siRNA, ATF6 siRNA, and chemical chaperones. LY294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, significantly boosted ER stress and apoptosis. PAN-induced ER stress increased oxidative stress and subsequently induced apoptosis, and could be mitigated by inhibition of PI3-kinase signaling. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PAN induces ER stress in podocytes mainly through the GRP78/BiP, ATF6α, and caspase-12 pathways, which trigger apoptosis via induction of oxidative stress. This stress is mitigated by inhibiting PI3-kinase signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 12 , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunoglobulins , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Models, Animal , Nephrosis , Nephrotic Syndrome , Oxidative Stress , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Podocytes , Proteinuria , Puromycin Aminonucleoside , Puromycin , RNA, Small Interfering , Sodium , Transcription Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715298

ABSTRACT

The development of the glomerular injury in diabetic nephropathy involves interactions between podocytes, endothelium, and the mesangium. Loss of podocytes is an early and critical step in the development of diabetic nephropathy, and analysis of structural lesions within the mesangium such as mesangiolysis implicate the loss of podocytes as a key mediating event. The BTBR ob/ob mouse has proved a useful tool to demonstrate that restoration of podocyte density, once thought to be an absolute barrier to glomerular repair, can be achieved with replacement of the hormone leptin that is constitutively absent in these mice. Restoration of podocyte density is associated with reversal of the structural lesions of morphologically advanced diabetic glomerular injury in this model. This finding, in conjunction with the demonstration in human diabetic patients with morphologically advanced diabetic nephropathy and with long-standing functioning pancreatic transplants of ten years duration that their diabetic nephropathy can be reversed, suggests that restoration of podocyte number and density is an appropriate target for the development of new therapeutics for diabetic nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetic Nephropathies , Endothelium , Humans , Leptin , Mice , Negotiating , Pathology , Podocytes
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776411

ABSTRACT

To explore the effects and molecular mechanisms of triptolide(TP)on improving podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT)induced by high dose of D-glucose(HG), the immortalized podocytes of mice were divided into the normal group(N), the high dose of D-glucose group(HG), the low dose of TP group(L-TP), the high dose of TP group(H-TP)and the mannitol group(MNT), and treated by the different measures respectively. More specifically, the podocytes in each group were separately treated by D-glucose(DG, 5 mmol·L⁻¹)or HG(25 mmol·L⁻¹)or HG(25 mmol·L⁻¹)+ TP(3 μg·L⁻¹)or HG(25 mmol·L⁻¹)+ TP(10 μg·L⁻¹)or DG(5 mmol·L⁻¹)+ MNT(24.5 mmol·L⁻¹). After the intervention for 24, 48 and 72 hours, firstly, the activation of podocyte proliferation was investigated. Secondly, the protein expression levels of the epithelial markers in podocytes such as nephrin and podocin, the mesenchymal markers such as desmin and collagen Ⅰ and the EMT-related mediators such as snail were detected respectively. Finally, the protein expression levels of Wnt3α and β-catenin as the key signaling molecules in Wnt3α/β-catenin pathway were examined severally. The results indicated that, HG could cause the low protein expression levels of nephrin and podocin and the high protein expression levels of desmin, collagen Ⅰ and snail in podocytes, and inducing podocyte EMT. On the other hand, HG could cause the high protein expression levels of Wnt3α and β-catenin in podocytes, and activating Wnt3α/β-catenin signaling pathway. In addition, L-TP had no effect on the activation of podocyte proliferation, the co-treatment of L-TP and HG could significantly recover the protein expression levels of nephrin and podocin, inhibit the protein expression levels of desmin, collagen I and snail in podocytes, thus, further improving podocyte EMT. And that, the co-treatment of L-TP and HG could obviously decrease the high protein expression levels of Wnt3α and β-catenin induced by HG in podocytes, and inhibit Wnt3α/β-catenin signaling pathway activation. On the whole, HG can induce podocyte EMT by activating Wnt3α/β-catenin signaling pathway; L-TP can ameliorate podocyte EMT through inhibiting Wnt3α/β-catenin signaling pathway activation, which may be one of the effects and molecular mechanisms .


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Diterpenes , Pharmacology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Epoxy Compounds , Pharmacology , Glucose , Mice , Phenanthrenes , Pharmacology , Podocytes , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Wnt3A Protein , Metabolism , beta Catenin , Metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739186

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Podocytes are important architectures that maintain the crucial roles of glomerular filtration barrier functions. Despite this structural importance, however, the mechanisms of the changes in podocytes that can be an important pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) are not clear yet. The aim of this study was to investigate whether apoptosis is induced by interleukin (IL)-13 in cultured human podocytes. METHODS: Human podocytes were treated with different IL-13 doses and apoptotic cells were analyzed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). RESULTS: The IL-13 increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner at 6 and 18 hours (P<0.05 and P<0.05, respectively). The apoptosis rate was appeared to be increased slightly in the IL-13-stimulated podocytes (8.63%, 13.02%, and 14.46%; 3, 10 and 30 ng/mL, respectively) than in the control cells (7.66%) at 12 hours by FACS assay. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that IL-13 expression may increase podocyte apoptosis. Blocking the IL-13 signal pathway can potentially play an important role in regulating the apoptosis of podocytes.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Flow Cytometry , Glomerular Filtration Barrier , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Interleukins , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Podocytes , Signal Transduction
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2666-2675, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775036

ABSTRACT

Background@#Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a kidney disease that is commonly associated with proteinuria and the progressive loss of renal function, which is characterized by podocyte injury and the depletion and collapse of glomerular capillary segments. The pathogenesis of FSGS has not been completely elucidated; however, recent advances in molecular genetics have provided increasing evidence that podocyte structural and functional disruption is central to FSGS pathogenesis. Here, we identified a patient with FSGS and aimed to characterize the pathogenic gene and verify its mechanism.@*Methods@#Using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing, we screened the causative gene that was linked to FSGS in this study. The patient's total blood RNA was extracted to validate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of coenzyme Q monooxygenase 6 (COQ6) and validated it by immunohistochemistry. COQ6 knockdown in podocytes was performed in vitro with small interfering RNA, and then, F-actin was determined using immunofluorescence staining. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, the expression of active caspase-3 was determined by Western blot, and mitochondrial function was detected by MitoSOX.@*Results@#Using whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing, we screened a new causative gene, COQ6, NM_182480: exon1: c.G41A: p.W14X. The mRNA expression of COQ6 in the proband showed decreased. Moreover, the expression of COQ6, which was validated by immunohistochemistry, also had the same change in the proband. Finally, we focused on the COQ6 gene to clarify the mechanism of podocyte injury. Flow cytometry showed significantly increased in apoptotic podocytes, and Western blotting showed increases in active caspase-3 in si-COQ6 podocytes. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were increased and F-actin immunofluorescence was irregularly distributed in the si-COQ6 group.@*Conclusions@#This study reported a possible mechanism for FSGS and suggested that a new mutation in COQ6, which could cause respiratory chain defect, increase the generation of ROS, destroy the podocyte cytoskeleton, and induce apoptosis. It provides basic theoretical basis for the screening of FSGS in the future.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Apoptosis , Genetics , Physiology , Cell Line , Female , Flow Cytometry , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mutation , Genetics , Podocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Metabolism , Ubiquinone , Genetics , Metabolism
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2713-2725, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775031

ABSTRACT

Background@#The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome composed of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), and caspase-1 is engaged in the inflammatory response of many kidney diseases and can be activated by purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R). This study was conducted to explore whether P2X7R plays a pathogenic role in the podocyte damage of obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) and whether this role is mediated by the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.@*Methods@#A mouse model of ORG was established by high-fat diet feeding. The conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured with leptin or with leptin and P2X7R antagonist (KN-62 or A438079). The mRNA and protein expression of the P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome components including NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1, as well as the podocyte-associated molecules including nephrin, podocin, and desmin in mouse renal cortex or cultured mouse podocytes were tested by real-time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively.@*Results@#The significantly upregulated expression of P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome components and the NLRP3 inflammasome activation were observed in the renal cortex (in fact their location in podocytes was proved by confocal microscopy) of ORG mice in vivo, which were accompanied with the morphological changes of podocyte damage and the expression changes of podocyte-associated molecules. Similar changes in the expression of P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome components as well as in the expression of podocyte-associated molecules were also observed in the cultured podocyte studies treated by leptin in vitro, and all of the above changes were significantly attenuated by the P2X7R antagonist KN-62 or A438079.@*Conclusions@#P2X7R could trigger the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and the activated P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome in podocytes might be involved in the podocyte damage of ORG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Physiology , Inflammasomes , Metabolism , Kidney Glomerulus , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism , Obesity , Podocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7 , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297220

ABSTRACT

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a vitamin A derivative and plays an important role in the regulation of cell aggregation, differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, and inflammatory response. In recent years, some progress has been made in the role of ATRA in renal diseases, especially its protective effect on podocytes. This article reviews the research advances in podocyte injury, characteristics of ATRA, podocyte differentiation and regeneration induced by ATRA, and the protective effect of ATRA against proliferation, deposition of fibers, and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cytoprotection , Humans , Podocytes , Physiology , Tretinoin , Pharmacology
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