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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212755, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254632

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate restorative decisions made by dentists and to examine what demographic characteristics are associated with the decisions for managing approximal and occlusal lesions. Methods: A questionnaire was randomly sent to 900 Palestinian dentists. It noted the demographic details of the dentists and the years of experience. The questionnaire evaluated the respondents for their treatment decisions regarding approximal and occlusal carious lesions. The data was analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistics for windows. The associations between gender and years of experience of the respondents and their restorative decisions were assessed. Results: The response rate was 58.2%. For occlusal carious lesions, 93.9% of the respondents would postpone operative treatment until the lesion was in dentine (grade 3 to 5). For approximal lesions, intervention was deemed appropriate by 92.6% of the respondents when there was radiographic evidence of a carious lesion reaching the DEJ or deeper. Around 53% preferred to prepare approximal lesions according to the traditional principles of cavity preparation. For both approximal and occlusal lesions, the participants opted for resin composites. Statistically, there was a significant association between the restorative decisions with the years since graduation and gender. Conclusion: The study showed variations between the treatment decisions of Palestinian dentists. The subjects chose conservative treatment plans but still adhered to traditional learned practices especially when cavity preparation for approximal lesions was concerned. The years since graduation and gender played a significant role in the choice of treatment opted for. Resin composites seemed to be a popular choice for treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Population Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Composite Resins , Practice Patterns, Dentists' , Dental Caries , Dental Cavity Preparation
2.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 366-372, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339788

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is an important marker within the aging process, as it reflects the level of independence to perform in the real world. However, there is a scarcity of studies that investigate the different performance profiles among older adults. Objective: To investigate the heterogeneity present in the community of elderly people, grouping them based on characteristics and patterns observed through an objective performance-based assessment. Methods: Participants were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: fluency in Portuguese, 360 years, regular participation in a social program offered by the government of Rio de Janeiro, and absence of a caregiver. The evaluation of IADLs was determined by the total and brief version of the University of California, San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) and the Lawton and Brody IADL scale. The Brief Cognitive Screening Battery and the Mini-Mental State Examination were used to characterize the sample, in addition to the Geriatric Depression Scale. A total of 61 elderly people with an average age of 72.5 years, predominantly females (85.2%), and average education of 11.2 were evaluated and grouped according to their performance at UPSA through clustering analysis. Results: The analysis revealed three grouping patterns, subdividing the sample into subgroups that differed significantly in terms of age, education, global cognition, and all instrumental activities assessed by UPSA — planning, finance, communication, transportation, and household chores. Conclusions: This study was able to identify the heterogeneity present between the elderly people in the different factors that compose the IADLs through a performance-based assessment.


RESUMO A capacidade para realização das atividades instrumentais da vida diária (AIVDs) é um importante marcador no envelhecimento, uma vez que reflete o grau de independência para atuação no mundo real. No entanto, há uma escassez de estudos que se proponham a investigar os diferentes perfis de desempenho entre idosos. Objetivo: Investigar a heterogeneidade presente em idosos da comunidade, agrupando-os a partir de características e padrões observados através de uma avaliação objetiva baseada em desempenho. Métodos: Participantes foram selecionados conforme critérios de inclusão: ter fluência no Português; ter 60 ou mais anos; participar de forma regular no programa de casas de convivência do Rio de Janeiro e não possuir cuidador. A avaliação das AIVDs foi determinada pela versão total e breve do The University of California, San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) e pela escala AIVD de Lawton e Brody. A Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo e o Miniexame do Estado Mental foram utilizados para caracterização da amostra, além da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica. Um total de 61 idosos com idade média de 72,5 anos, predominantemente do sexo feminino (85,2%) e escolaridade média de 11,2 foram avaliados e agrupados de acordo com o seu desempenho no UPSA por meio de uma análise de cluster. Resultados: A análise revelou três padrões de agrupamento, subdividindo a amostra em subgrupos que se diferenciaram significativamente em termos de idade, escolaridade, cognição global e todas as atividades instrumentais avaliadas pelo UPSA — planejamento, finanças, comunicação, transporte e habilidades domésticas. Conclusões: O presente estudo foi capaz de identificar a heterogeneidade presente na população idosa entre os diferentes fatores que compõe as AIVDs por meio de uma avaliação baseada em desempenho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Population Characteristics , Aged , Physical Functional Performance , Cluster Analysis
3.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 38: e0168, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347236

ABSTRACT

Esse artigo analisa o impacto de política fiscal e de seguridade social em presença de bônus demográfico num modelo de equilíbrio geral dinâmico com agentes se comportando de acordo com a hipótese do ciclo da vida. Permitindo uma estrutura demográfica não estacionária, sob a hipótese do ciclo da vida, o modelo teórico captura o impacto da política fiscal e de seguridade social sobre a distribuição de renda durante a fase de bônus demográfico. O método de análise se baseia em técnicas de economia computacional para simular choques demográficos a partir do equilíbrio estacionário do modelo. O crescimento provisório da parcela da população correspondente aos trabalhadores causa aumento da poupança e redução da taxa de juros. Já o estoque de capital segue uma trajetória em forma de U invertido, tal como sugerido na literatura. A políticas que elevam o grau de contribuição da seguridade social são ferramentas de estímulo ao consumo e à redistribuição da renda em favor dos aposentados. A principal contribuição do artigo é fornecer uma análise das implicações macroeconômicas do bônus demográfico a partir de um modelo teórico com fundamentos microeconômicos para as decisões de consumo e acumulação de ativos.


This paper analyzes the impact of fiscal and social security policies in the presence of demographic bonuses in a dynamic general equilibrium model with life cycle hypothesis. Based on the theoretical framework proposed by Gertler (1999), but allowing a non-stationary demographic structure, the context of the demographic bonus was captured to infer the impact of tax and social security policy on income distribution during the demographic bonus phase. The results of the simulations indicate that the temporary increase in the share of workers in the population generates an increase in savings and a reduction in interest rates, while the behavior of the capital stock in the economy showed that the trajectory is an inverted U shape, as already suggested in the literature. In addition, it was seen that policies increasing the degree of social security contribution are tools to stimulate consumption and income redistribution in favor of retirees. The contribution of the paper is the analysis of macroeconomics implications of a demographic dividend with investment and fully microfounded consumption decisions.


Este artículo analiza el impacto de la política fiscal y previsional ante la presencia de bonos demográficos en un modelo dinámico de equilibrio general con agentes comportándose según la hipótesis del ciclo de vida. Con base en el marco teórico propuesto por Gertler (1999), pero permitiendo una estructura demográfica no estacionaria, se capturó el contexto del bono demográfico para inferir sobre el impacto de la política fiscal y previsional sobre la distribución del ingreso durante la fase del bono demográfico. Los resultados de las simulaciones indican que el aumento temporal de la participación de los trabajadores en la población genera un aumento del ahorro y una reducción de las tasas de interés, mientras que el comportamiento del stock de capital en la economía mostró que la trayectoria es en forma de U invertida, como ya se ha sugerido en la literatura. Además, se observó que las políticas que aumentan el grado de cotización a la seguridad social son herramientas para estimular el consumo y la redistribución del ingreso a favor de los jubilados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Welfare , Population Characteristics , Demography , Life Cycle Stages , Economics , Fiscal Policy , Sustainable Development , Economic Factors
4.
Arq. odontol ; 57: 218-228, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348093

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre alfabetismo funcional e o reconhecimento da palavra "bruxismo" entre adolescentes. Métodos: Foi um estudo transversal realizado em uma cidade de porte médio no Brasil. A amostra consistiu em 375 escolares de 12 anos e 368 de 15 a 19 anos selecionados aleatoriamente. Dois examinadores calibrados (Kappa > 0,80) aplicaram o instrumento de alfabetismo em saúde bucal validado para adolescentes o Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry ­ BREALD-30 e o reconhecimento da palavra "bruxismo" foi utilizado como variável dependente, além de um questionário sobre o alfabetismo funcional (Índice de Alfabetismo Funcional ­INAF). Os pais/cuidadores responderam um questionário sociodemográfico. Foi realizada análise não-ajustada e regressão logística para amostras complexas(p < 0,05). Resultados: No modelo final, os adolescentes de 12 anos que tiveram mais chances de não reconhecer a palavra "bruxismo" foram os de escola pública (OR = 2,83; 95% IC: 1,79-4,46; p = 0,001), sem plano de saúde (OR = 2,02; 95% IC: 1,21-3,37; p = 0,007) e com menor nível de alfabetismo funcional (OR = 2,66; 95% IC: 1,66-4,26; p < 0,001). Adolescentes de 15 a 19 anos que tiveram maior chance de não reconhecer a palavra "bruxismo" foram os com menor nível de alfabetismo funcional (OR = 3,29; 95% IC: 1,93-5,60; p < 0,001), que residiam com mais pessoas em casa (OR = 2,04; 95% IC: 1,02-4,11; p = 0,040), que tinham pais/responsáveis com baixo nível de escolaridade (OR = 1,97; 95% IC: 1,15-3,36; p = 0,013) e que nunca foram ao dentista (OR = 3,08;95% IC: 1,26-7,52; p = 0,03). Conclusão:O reconhecimento do termo "bruxismo" entre os adolescentes de 12 anos foi influenciado pela presença deplano de saúde e por um maior nível de alfabetismo funcional. Na faixa etária maior, o maior nível de alfabetismo funcional, o menor número de pessoas em casa, a maior escolaridade do responsável e a ida ao dentista influenciaram no reconhecimento do termo.


Aim: To evaluate the association between functional literacy and the recognition of the word "bruxism" among adolescentes.Method: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a mid-sized city in Brazil. The sample consisted of 375 schoolchildren, age 12, and 368, aged 15 to 19 years, selected at random. Two calibrated examiners (Kappa > 0.80) applied the oral health literacy instrument, validated for adolescents, the "Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry" (BREALD-30) and the recognition of the word "bruxism" was used as a dependent variable, in addition to a questionnaire on functional literacy (Functional Literacy Index ­ INAF). Parents/caregivers answered a sociodemographic questionnaire. Unadjusted analysis and logistic regression were performed for complex samples (p < 0.05). Results: In the final model, the 12-year-old adolescents who were most likely not to recognize the word "bruxism" were those from public schools (OR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.79-4.46; p = 0.001), without health insurance (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21-3.37; p = 0.007), and with a lower level of functional literacy (OR = 2.66; 95% CI: 1, 66-4.26; p < 0.001). Adolescents, aged 15 to 19, who had a greater chance of not recognizing the word "bruxism" were those with the lowest level of functional literacy (OR = 3.29; 95% CI: 1.93-5.60; p < 0.001), who lived with more people at home (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.02-4.11; p = 0.040), who had parents/guardians with a low level of education (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.15-3.36; p = 0.013). and who had never been to the dentist (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.26-7.52; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The recognition of the term "bruxism" among 12-year-olds was influenced by the presence of a health plan and a higher level of functional literacy. In the older age group, the higher level of functional literacy, the smaller number of people at home, the higher level of education of the person in charge, and the individual's visit to the dentist influenced the recognition of the term.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Socioeconomic Factors , Population Characteristics , Bruxism , Oral Health , Adolescent , Literacy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 138-147, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150021

ABSTRACT

Resumen. Introducción: El parto pretérmino es uno de los principales problemas de la salud infantil. Es la principal causa de mortalidad infantil en los países en vía de desarrollo. Los últimos 20 años ha venido en aumento en el mundo por diferentes causas. Conocer su tendencia y características poblacionales es un elemento útil para su atención. Objetivo: Describir las características poblacionales asociados al parto pretérmino en Colombia desde los datos del Registro del Nacido Vivo en la década 2008 - 2017. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo ecológico a partir de fuentes segundarias: microdatos de Estadísticas Vitales del DANE; información almacenada en el programa Excel de Microsoft Office®. Análisis de las variables tiempo/lugar/persona en el programa estadístico SPSS™ mediante estadística descriptiva, análisis de asociación utilizando el estadístico Ji-cuadrado y el coeficiente de correlación Phi para la asociación estadística entre variables. Resultados. Fueron analizados 6.705.385 registros de nacidos vivos, 1.277.839 correspondientes a parto hasta las 37 semanas de gestación. Prevalencia del 19% de todos los años. Departamentos con mayor tasa de prematuros: Atlántico, Bogotá, Antioquía y Santander. No se encontró una asociación fuerte con los datos del registro del nacido vivo. Conclusiones: Existe déficit de información acerca del parto pretérmino en aspectos de datos completos y accesibles a los investigadores. La información no es homogénea ni sigue parámetros específicos. El registro de nacido vivo, sin embargo, es un excelente instrumento de recolección de datos poblacionales y base de aproximación al evento.


Abstract Background: Preterm birth is one of the main problems in infant health and it is the leading cause of infant mortality in developing countries. During the last 20 years this particularity has been increasing in the world for different reasons. Knowing its trend and population characteristics is a useful element for its attention. Objectives: To describe the population characteristics associated with preterm birth in Colombia from the data of the Live Birth Registry in the decade 2008 - 2017. Methods: Descriptive ecological study using secondary sources such us Vital Statistics microdata from DANE; information stored in the Microsoft Office® Excel program. Also, the analysis of the time/place/person variables in the SPSS ™ statistical program through descriptive statistics, and association analysis using the Chi-square statistic and the Phi correlation coefficient for the statistical association between variables was implemented. Results: 6,705,385 records from live-born registry were analyzed. 1,277,839 corresponded to preterm birth up to 37 weeks of gestation with 19% of prevalence all years. The departments with the highest rate of premature infants were Atlántico, Bogotá, Antioquia, and Santander. No strong association was found with live birth registry data. Conclusions: There is lack of complete and accessible information to researchers related to preterm birth. The data is not homogeneous and does not follow specific parameters. However, the live-born registry is an excellent instrument for collecting population data and a useful basis for approaching this event.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Vital Statistics , Parturition , Premature Birth , Live Birth , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Population Characteristics , Registries , Infant Mortality , Colombia , Reference Parameters
6.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 217, ago. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103536

ABSTRACT

Los primeros mil días de vida son parte del Curso de Vida, al tomar en consideración la Epigenética, término postulado por Waddington en 1942: modifica la expresión genética SIN cambiar la secuencia de las bases de ADN. El proyecto internacional llamado DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) u ODSE (Orígenes del Desarrollo de la Salud y Enfermedad), está inserto dentro de la Transición Alimentaria y Nutricional (TAN), que, en países en desarrollo­ocurre en forma muy rápida ­produce tanto la malnutrición por déficit como por exceso; es decir la doble carga nutricional. La TAN es producto en nuestro país, de una urbanización acelerada y anárquica, y de cambios socioculturales, como la incorporación de la mujer al mercado de trabajo con menos tiempo para cocinar; está acompañada de una transición epidemiológica con la emergencia y prevalencia de la obesidad y de las enfermedades crónicas como morbiletalidad. Esta doble carga nutricional se modificó, por la situación país, y prevalece más el déficit que el exceso. Se presenta el PROYECTO FUNDACIÓN BENGOA ­ SVPP ­ SOGV ­ CANIA, cuya meta es: Elaborar una agenda preventiva común contra la malnutrición tanto por déficit como por exceso y sus comorbilidades, bajo el enfoque de los primeros mil días de vida y su efecto sobre todo el curso de vida. Se realizó el diseño y aplicación de tres cuestionarios digitales, que se utilizaran para la elaboración de esta meta. Se consolidó un CONSENSO NACIONAL formado por profesionales de la salud involucrados en los primeros mil días de vida(AU)


The first 1000 days of life is the new paradigm that determines health and nutrition during the life course, based on epidemiological models that incorporate the concept of Epigenetics, term introduced by Waddington, that refers to changes that affect the genetic expression without changing the DNA sequence, within the international program DOHaD/ODSE as well as the Food and Nutrition Transition(FNT). This FNT, product of an accelerated and anarchic urbanization that led to sedentary activities, plus the incorporation of women to the work media, with less time for cooking, with the substitution of the traditional diet for one much more practical and efficient in time and effort. It is accompanied by demographic and epidemiologic changes and transitions. The Double Burden of Nutrition in VENEZUELA has changed due to the effect of the recent crisis with a rise in malnutrition and a fall in obesity/overweight. The current project: Fundación Bengoa- Pediatric Society Venezuela (SVPP) ­ CANIA - Obstetric Society of Venezuela (SOGV) is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in Venezuela (DOHaD Venezuela): and by means of a national consensus of medical societies and institutions, its goal is "To elaborate a Preventive Agenda both for Malnutrition and for Overweight and Obesity and its comorbidities, considering the First 1000 Days of life and its effect over the life course"


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Population Characteristics , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Maternal Mortality , Epigenomics , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , Malnutrition , Nutritional Transition
7.
Psico USF ; 25(1): 139-154, jan.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135708

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se analisar o efeito de dados sociodemográficos sobre o nível de resiliência de uma parcela da população brasileira. Para tanto, contou-se com uma amostra nacional não probabilística composta por 2.038 participantes, que responderam à Escala de Resiliência desenvolvida por Wagnild e Young. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e bivarida com auxílio do software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). Entre os resultados, verificou-se uma média geral baixa nos índices de resiliência (M = 124,60; DP = 22,69). Constatou-se também indicativos de que pessoas com determinadas características sociodemográficas têm maior tendência à resiliência: pessoas com religião, com maior nível de escolaridade, divorciados/casados, aposentados, sem piercing, não fumante, sem histórico de desistência ou repetição em anos escolares. Conclui-se que tais características podem estar relacionadas à capacidade da pessoa ser resiliente, mas não ser determinante, no nível de resiliência. Essas informações são primordiais para compreender os fatores que predispõem à resiliência da população. (AU)


The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of sociodemographic data on the level of resilience of a portion of the Brazilian population. For this purpose, a non-probabilistic national sample composed of 2,038 participants answered the Resilience Scale developed by Wagnild and Young. Data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics with the help of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software. Among the results, there was a low overall mean in resilience indices (M = 124.60, SD = 22.69). There were also indications that people with certain sociodemographic characteristics tend to be more resilient: people who are religious, with a higher education level, divorced / married, retired, without piercing, non- smoker, without a history of dropout or repetition in school years. It can be concluded that such characteristics may be related to a person's ability to be resilient, but not determinant, in the level of resilience. This information is essential to understand the factors that predispose the population to resilience. (AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el efecto de datos sociodemográficos sobre el nivel de resiliencia de una parte de la población brasileña. Para ello, se contó con una muestra nacional no probabilística compuesta por 2.038 participantes, que respondieron la Escala de Resiliencia desarrollada por Wagnild y Young. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de estadística descriptiva y bivariada con ayuda del software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). Entre los resultados, se constató un promedio general bajo en los índices de resiliencia (M = 124,60, DP = 22,69). Se verificaron también indicativos de que personas con determinadas características sociodemográficas tienen mayor tendencia a resiliencia: personas con religión, con mayor nivel de escolaridad, divorciados / casados, jubilados, sin piercing, no fumadores, sin histórico de desistencia o repetición de años escolares. Se concluye que tales características pueden estar relacionadas con la capacidad de la persona de ser resistente, pero no ser determinante, a nivel de resiliencia. Estas informaciones son primordiales para comprender los factores que predisponen la resiliencia de la población. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Quality of Life/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Population Characteristics , Resilience, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 30: e-30102, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118156

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O curso de Medicina da Universidade Estadual de Londrina no ano de 2013 completou 15 anos da implantaçao do ensino por problemática, uma metodologia de ensino ativa. A cada ano, 80 estudantes ingressam no curso, por meio do vestibular, sistema de seleçao que tem sofrido alteraçoes em seu formato como a implementaçao e ampliaçao da política de cotas raciais e sociais. Objetivo: analisar o perfil socioeconômico e educacional dos estudantes ingressantes no curso de Medicina da UEL entre os anos de 2004 e 2013. Metodologia: Pesquisa descritiva do tipo documental, com abordagem quantitativa, pela análise das informaçoes do questionário respondido pelos estudantes ingressantes no curso de medicina. Resultados e discussoes: Verificou-se taxas crescentes do ingresso de estudantes do sexo feminino, em especial no ano de 2006 com predomínio de 59,3% de mulheres, confirmando o fenômeno da "feminilizaçao da profissao médica". A renda familiar até 2012, na média, girava em torno de 7 a 10 salários mínimos, situaçao que se modificou em 2013, ano do acréscimo na porcentagem das cotas para estudantes de escola pública e racial, apresentando a renda de 1 a 3 salários mínimos. O acesso à internet pelos ingressantes é um instrumento de comunicaçao corriqueiro, o que vem potencializar o método de ensino preconizado. Conclusao: Reconhecer o perfil do estudante ingressante pode contribuir na formaçao qualificada, por meio de estratégias, que visem ao melhor aproveitamento e adaptaçao do discente durante o curso de graduaçao e consequentemente no alcance do profissional delineado e necessário ao mundo da saúde da atualidade. (AU)


Introduction: The medical school at the State University of Londrina in 2013 completed 15 years of the implementation of education for problem (PBL), an active teaching methodology. Every year 80 students enter the course through the college entrance examination, selection system that has undergone changes in its format as the implementation and expansion of the policy of racial and social quotas. Objective: To analyze the socio-economic and educational profile of freshmen in medical school UEL between the years 2004 and 2013. Methodology: The data collected from information derived from the questionnaire responses answered by the students in income in the course of medicine. Results and discussion: There was increasing rates of admission of female students, especially in 2006 with a prevalence of 59.3% of women confirms the phenomenon of "feminization of the medical profession" Family income by 2012 on. average was around 7 to 10 minimum wages, a situation that changed in 2013, the increase in the percentage of shares to public and racial school students, with income from 1 to 3 minimum wages. internet access is a everyday communication tool, which comes enhance the recommended teaching method. Conclusion: Recognizing the newcomer student profile can contribute to skills training, through strategies that aim to better use and adaptation of the student during the undergraduate course and consequently the scope of the outlined professional and necessary in the world of today's health. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Medical , Socioeconomic Analysis , Schools, Medical , Population Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Biociencias ; 15(1): 79-89, jun.2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1122960

ABSTRACT

La varicela es una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa, producida por el virus varicela-zoster (VVZ); es un virus alfaherpes que se relaciona más estrechamente con el virus del herpes simple, se presenta cuando el virus entra en contacto con la mucosa del tracto respiratorio superior o la conjuntiva de una persona susceptible, la transmisión de persona a persona se puede presentar por contacto directo con lesiones de VZV o por propagación en el aire. La reinfección con VZV es rara. El período de incubación es de 10 a 21 días; los síntomas que generalmente se presentan son fiebre, malestar general, anorexia, dolor de cabeza y posteriormente vesículas claras, pruriginosas en las primeras etapas, llenas de líquido que evolucionan a costras. La complicación más común de la varicela es la sobreinfección bacteriana de las lesiones cutáneas causadas con mayor frecuencia por Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus del grupo A, pero también es posible encontrar linfadenitis y abscesos subcutáneos. Cuando la varicela se presenta durante los últimos días de gestación (<5 días) o 2 días después del parto, existe un riesgo aproximado de 20% de presentar varicela neonatal.


The Varicela is an infectious-contagious disease, caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV); It is an alphaherpes virus that is more closely related to the herpes simplex virus, it occurs when the virus comes into contact with the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract or the conjunctiva of a suscep-tible person, transmission from person to person can occur by contact Direct with VZV or airborne injuries. Reinfection with VZV is rare. The incubation period is from 10 to 21 days; The symptoms that generally appear are fever, general malaise, anorexia, headache and later clear, itchy vesicles in the early stages, filled with fluid that evolve to crusts. The most common complication of varicela is bacterial superinfection of the cutaneous lesions most frequently caused by group A Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus, but it is also possible to find lymphadenitis and subcutaneous abscesses. When chickenpox occurs during the last days of gestation (<5 days) or 2 days after delivery, there is an approximate 20% risk of developing neonatal varicela


Subject(s)
Humans , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Population Characteristics , Chickenpox , Herpes Zoster
10.
Biociencias ; 15(2)2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247683

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: la inseguridad alimentaria es una de las problemáticas a las que induce la actual pandemia COVID 19, ya sea por razones económicas o debido a la modificación en la rutina de los individuos, especialmente en los jóvenes, acostumbrados a la dinámica escolar y social activa. Materiales y métodos:estudio de tipo descriptivo-transversal en el cual se indagó sobre el estado nutricional de escolares de la ciudad de Puerto Colombia (Atlántico), a través de la aplicación del cuestionario Krece Plus, describiendo los aspectos sociodemográficos, el estado nutricional general y la caracterización de los hábitos alimentarios. Esto se aplicó a una muestra de 145 escolares en edad de 13 y 14 años. Resultados: los estudiantes indagados se encontraban cursando educación secundaria y, el 68% se encontró en nivel socioeconómico bajo. Se evidenció una prevalencia del estado nutricional muy bajo (73,1%), lo que indica la prevalencia de riesgo o tendencia a la inseguridad alimentaria, que se asocia con la falta de desayuno, bajo consumo de frutas, verduras, lácteos, legumbres. Asimismo, se aprecia un alto consumo de comidas rápidas y dulces. Discusión y conclusión:los resultados discrepan de las recomendaciones dadas por las organizaciones mundiales, especialmente en materia del consumo de frutas y verduras y el consumo de alimentos 3 veces al día. Por lo anterior, es preciso que se induzca a los estudiantes a llevar estilos de vida saludable en tiempos de pandemia COVID 19, que impliquen la sana alimentación y la práctica de actividad física que induzca hacia una salud integral


Background: food insecurity is one of the problems that the current pandemic COVID 19 induces, either for economic reasons or due to the modification in the routine of individuals, especially young people, accustomed to active school and social dynamics. Materials and methods:descriptive-cross-sectional study in which the nutritional status of schoolchildren in the city of Puerto Colombia (Atlántico) was investigated, through the application of the Krece Plus questionnaire, describing the sociodemographic aspects, the general nutritional status and the characterization of eating habits. This was applied to a sample of 145 schoolchildren aged 13 and 14 years. Results: the investigated students were in secondary education and 68% were in low socioeconomic level. A very low prevalence of nutritional status (73.1%) was evidenced, indicating the prevalence of risk or tendency to food insecurity, which is associated with the lack of breakfast, low consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and legumes. Also, a high consumption of fast and sweet foods is appreciated. Discussion and conclusion:the results disagree with the recommendations given by world organizations, especially regarding the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the consumption of food 3 times a day. Therefore, students must be encouraged to lead healthy lifestyles in times of the COVID 19 pandemic, involving healthy eating and physical activity that induces towards comprehensive health.


Subject(s)
Respiratory System , Population Characteristics , Delivery of Health Care
11.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268317

ABSTRACT

Senior High School (SHS) students fall within the age group (15-24 years) hardest hit by HIV/AIDS. Since about 90% of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is through heterosexual intercourse, it is assumed that these students engage in risky sexual behaviours. Hohoe municipality has one of the highest HIV prevalence in Ghana (3.4%). The current study investigated the demographic determinants of risky sexual behaviours among senior high school students in the Hohoe municipality, Ghana.Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional design was employed in the study. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a multistage sample of 270 SHS students who consented to participate in January 2019. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using Stata version 14.0 software program at the 0.05 level of significance.Results: of 270 respondents, 112 (41.5%) were engaged in risky sexual behaviours. Single students were 82% less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours than their married counterparts (p=0.032) and muslims were 89% less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours than christians (p=0.032).Conclusion: religion and marital status were the two socio-demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour. Health promotion interventions to curb risky sexual behaviours among the SHS students should target the christian and married students


Subject(s)
Ghana , HIV Infections/transmission , Population Characteristics , Risk Factors , Sexual Behavior , Students
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has remained controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of NACT versus primary debulking surgery (PDS) in patients with EOC.METHODS: PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Library were queried to assess the therapeutic value of NACT versus PDS in EOC. Electronic databases were queried by using the keywords “ovarian cancer/neoplasms”, “primary debulking surgery”, and “neoadjuvant chemotherapy”.RESULTS: The available trials were pooled, and hazard ratios (HRs), relative risk ratios (RRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined. Sixteen trials involving 57,450 participants with EOC (NACT, 9,475; PDS, 47,975) were evaluated. We found that NACT resulted in markedly decreased overall survival than PDS in patients with EOC (HR=1.30; 95% CI=1.13–1.49; heterogeneity: p<0.001, ²=82.7%). Furthermore, our results demonstrated that the NACT group displayed increased completeness of debulking removal (RR=1.69, 95% CI=1.32–2.17; heterogeneity: p<0.001, ²=81.9%), and reduced risk of postsurgical death (RR=0.18, 95% CI=0.06–0.51; heterogeneity: p=0.698, ²=0%) and major infection (RR=0.29, 95% CI=0.17–0.51; heterogeneity: p=0.777, ²=0%) compared with patients administered PDS.CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicated that NACT results in increased completeness of debulking removal, and reduced risk of postsurgical death and major infection compared with PDS, while PDS is associated with improved survival in comparison with NACT in EOC patients.TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42019120625


Subject(s)
Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Drug Therapy , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Odds Ratio , Ovarian Neoplasms , Population Characteristics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811195

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Aberrant glycosylation of the histo-blood group antigens (including the angina bullosa haemorrhagica [ABH]) is often observed during malignant transformation in most types of carcinomas. Data concerning their ethnic distributions are diverse which explains why their biological characteristics have to be studied in different populations. Our aim was to analyze the expression of the histo-blood group (specifically the ABH) antigens in breast carcinoma.METHODS: The expression of the histo-blood group (specifically the ABH) antigens was studied in 109 patients with breast carcinoma using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using χ² and Fisher analyses.RESULTS: The loss of expression of histo-blood group (ABH) antigens in breast carcinoma was observed in 81.13% of patients with blood group O, 37.93% with blood group A, and 96.30% with blood group B. One key finding of this study was that the loss of expression of the ABH antigen was also observed in normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. The loss of expression was associated with higher tumor grade (p < 0.05). Expression of H antigen was observed in 50% of cases with loss of expression of B antigen and was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression (p < 0.05). The loss of H antigen in patients with blood group O was associated with estrogen receptor expression (p < 0.001). Incompatible A antigen in tumor was expressed in 20.75% of patients with blood group O.CONCLUSION: Loss of the ABH antigens correlated with the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. H antigen was associated with HER2 overexpression in breast cancer. However, further studies are needed to determine the role of incompatible A antigen in mammary carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogenesis , Estrogens , Glycosylation , Histocompatibility , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors
19.
Immune Network ; : 5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811177

ABSTRACT

The γδ T cells are unconventional lymphocytes that function in both innate and adaptive immune responses against various intracellular and infectious stresses. The γδ T cells can be exploited as cancer-killing effector cells since γδ TCRs recognize MHC-like molecules and growth factor receptors that are upregulated in cancer cells, and γδ T cells can differentiate into cytotoxic effector cells. However, γδ T cells may also promote tumor progression by secreting IL-17 or other cytokines. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the differentiation and homeostasis of γδ T cells are regulated and whether distinct γδ T cell subsets have different functions. Human γδ T cells are classified into Vδ2 and non-Vδ2 γδ T cells. The majority of Vδ2 γδ T cells are Vγ9δ2 T cells that recognize pyrophosphorylated isoprenoids generated by the dysregulated mevalonate pathway. In contrast, Vδ1 T cells expand from initially diverse TCR repertoire in patients with infectious diseases and cancers. The ligands of Vδ1 T cells are diverse and include the growth factor receptors such as endothelial protein C receptor. Both Vδ1 and Vδ2 γδ T cells are implicated to have immunotherapeutic potentials for cancers, but the detailed elucidation of the distinct characteristics of 2 populations will be required to enhance the immunotherapeutic potential of γδ T cells. Here, we summarize recent progress regarding cancer immunology of human γδ T cells, including their development, heterogeneity, and plasticity, the putative mechanisms underlying ligand recognition and activation, and their dual effects on tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Communicable Diseases , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Ligands , Lymphocytes , Mevalonic Acid , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Protein C , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Receptors, Growth Factor , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Terpenes , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 101-108, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Melasma is a chronic acquired focal hypermelanosis which pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Classical pathophysiologic studies have analysed the affected and perilesional areas, but little is known about the status of sun-protected skin, which is subjected to the same endogenous and genetic factors.OBJECTIVE: To assess the histological characteristics of melasma compared to adjacent and retroauricular skin.METHODS: Skin samples were collected from 10 female from: melasma, perilesional area and retroauricular. The samples were stained (haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Fontana-Masson, picrosirius red, toluidine blue and Verhoeff), immunolabelled for CD34 and Wnt1. The data from the skin sites were analysed simultaneously by a multivariate model.RESULTS: Melasma skin exhibited noteworthy stratum corneum compaction, greater collagen heterogeneity, solar elastosis, higher number of mast cells, basement membrane zone (BMZ) damage, Wnt1 expression, pendulum melanocytes, higher cellularity and vascular proliferation at the superficial dermis. Stratum corneum compaction, collagen heterogeneity and BMZ abnormalities were variables associated to melasma that not follow a continuum through retroauricular to adjacent skin. Mast cell count was the variable that disclosed correlation with the most other abnormalities as well as had the greater contribution in the multivariate model.CONCLUSION: In addition to melanocyte hyperactivity, melasma skin exhibits alterations in the epidermal barrier, upper dermis and BMZ, which differ from the adjacent sun-exposed skin and retroauricular skin, indicating a distinct phenotype, rather than a mere extension of photoageing or intrinsic ageing. Mast cells appear to play a central role in the physiopathology of melasma.


Subject(s)
Basement Membrane , Collagen , Dermis , Epidermis , Female , Humans , Hyperpigmentation , Mast Cells , Melanocytes , Melanosis , Phenotype , Population Characteristics , Skin , Tolonium Chloride , Wnt Signaling Pathway
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