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1.
San Salvador; MINSAL; abr. 21, 2022. 4 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1366980

ABSTRACT

Informe que presenta la situación epidemiológica El Salvador al 18 de abril de 2022 (Datos preliminares) Principales causas de consulta, acumuladas desde el 11 de abril a la fecha, años 2021 ­ 2022 Total consultas, emergencias y referencias, Semana Santa El Salvador 2020 ­ 2021 Informe de COVID-19 I. Contexto mundial de COVID -19 II. Contexto Centroamérica y República Dominicana III. Situación Nacional, Programación semanal de tamizajes comunitarios, semana santa 2022 Recursos Humanos a disposición para este periodo del sistema integrado de salud


Report presenting the epidemiological situation of El Salvador as of April 18, 2022 (Preliminary data) Main causes of consultation, accumulated from April 11 to date, years 2021 - 2022 Total queries, emergencies and referrals, Easter El Salvador 2020 ­ 2021 COVID-19 Report I. Global Context of COVID -19 II. Context Central America and the Dominican Republic III. National Situation, Weekly programming of community screening, Holy Week 2022 Human resources available for this period of the integrated health system


Subject(s)
Health , Epidemiology , Electronic Publications , Holidays , Infections , Mass Screening , El Salvador , Preliminary Data
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 80-88, abril 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363652

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La evidencia actual indica que la gravedad de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) es menor en la población pediátrica, los datos locales aún son limitados. Objetivo: caracterizar los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la infección por COVID-19 en menores de 18 años en Argentina. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal, observacional y analítico de casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 0 y 18 años asistidos entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021 en 19 centros pediátricos de referencia de Argentina. Se realizó un análisis multivariado para identificar las variables predictoras de cuadros graves. Resultados. Se incluyeron 2690 casos de COVID-19: 77,7 % residentes del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires, 50,1 % de sexo masculino, mediana de edad de 5,6 años. El 90 % ocurrió entre las semanas epidemiológicas 20-47 del 2020; 60,4 % con antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19; y 96,6 % en el entorno familiar. El 51,4 % presentó síntomas respiratorios; 61,6 % síntomas generales; 18,8 % síntomas gastrointestinales; 17,1 % síntomas neurológicos; 7,2 % otros y 21,5 % fueron asintomáticos. El 59,4 % fue hospitalizado; 7,4 fueron graves o críticos. Se registraron 57 casos de síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico. El antecedente de asma, displasia broncopulmonar, cardiopatía congénita, desnutrición moderada a grave, obesidad, enfermedad neurológica crónica y/o edad menor de 6 meses resultaron predictores independientes de gravedad. Residir en barrios vulnerables resultó protector. Conclusiones. Más de la mitad de los casos refirieron antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19 en el entorno familiar. La hospitalización no respondió a criterios clínicos de gravedad. La gravedad se encuentra asociada a la existencia de ciertas comorbilidades.


Introduction. The current evidence indicates that the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lower in the pediatric population but local data are still limited. Objective: To characterize the clinical and epidemiological aspects of COVID-19 infection in patients younger than 18 years in Argentina. Population and methods. Cross-sectional, observational, and analytical study of confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 0-18 years seen between March 2020 and March 2021 at 19 referral children's hospitals of Argentina. A multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of severe cases. Results. A total of 2690 COVID-19 cases were included: 77.7% lived in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires; 50.1% were males; patients' median age was 5.6 years. Of them, 90% were seen during epidemiological weeks 20-47 of 2020; 60.4% had a history of contact with COVID-19 patients; and 96.6% in their family setting. Also, 51.4% had respiratory symptoms; 61.6%, general symptoms; 18.8%, gastrointestinal symptoms; 17.1%, neurological symptoms; 7.2%, other symptoms; and 21.5% were asymptomatic. In addition, 59.4% of patients were hospitalized and 7.4% had a severe or critical course. A total of 57 patients developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome. A history of asthma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, moderate to severe malnutrition, obesity, chronic neurological disease and/or age younger than 6 months were independent predictors of severity.Livinginavulnerableneighborhoodwas a protective factor. Conclusions. More than half of cases referred a history of contact with COVID-19 patients in the family setting. Hospitalization was not based on clinical criteria of severity. Severity was associated with the presence of certain comorbidities


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Pandemics , Preliminary Data
4.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287494

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association of oral health indicators and social variables on the frequency of visit to the dentist by persons with intellectual disability (ID). Material and Methods: The study comprised a sample consisting of 149 participants with ID, aged from 11 to 29 years, from non-governmental institutions. Semi-structured interviews were held to collect sociodemographic and psychosocial information with their parents/guardians, followed by oral health evaluations in accordance with World Health Organization criteria. Crude analyses and multiple analysis were conducted to test whether oral health indicators and social data were predictors of the visit to dental care services. Results: In the multiple logistic regression model, individuals with lower DMF-t (OR=3.13; 95% CI=1.40-6.97) and those with less crowded housing (OR=2.33; 95% CI=1.06-5.12) presented less frequency of visits to oral health services. Conclusion: DMFT and crowded housing are associated to the frequency of persons with intellectual disability to dental care as well as this outcome measure affects the oral health of persons with ID. Therefore, identifying limiting factors to dental care of persons with intellectual disability is needed so that this group can receive adequate attention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Oral Health/education , Health Status Indicators , Dental Care for Disabled , Persons with Mental Disabilities , Mental Health Services , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Demography , DMF Index , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Diagnosis, Oral , Observational Study , Preliminary Data
5.
Psico USF ; 26(spe): 45-58, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376033

ABSTRACT

The motivation to learn, as a socio-affective component, has been investigated as a facilitating phenomenon for the permanence of young people in formal education. The aim of this study was to seek evidence of content and the internal structure of the items that make up an instrument to identify the motivational quality for learning with the use of DICT (EMA - TDIC), with its scope being students in high school and higher education. Participants in this study were 822 students, who responded collectively to the scale. Descriptive and exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) analysis of the items were performed. The CFA results corroborated the structural model established in the EFA, that is, the three-dimensional structure was confirmed: Controlled Motivation, Autonomous Motivation and Demotivation. New studies are underway, aiming to expand the psychometric evidence of the instrument, increasing the possibilities of making this questionnaire useful in educational contexts (AU).


A motivação para aprender, como componente socioafetivo, tem sido investigada como um fenômeno facilitador para a permanência dos jovens na educação formal. O objetivo deste estudo foi buscar evidências de conteúdo e da estrutura interna dos itens integrantes de um instrumento para identificar a qualidade motivacional para aprender com o uso das TDIC (EMA - TDIC), sendo seu âmbito de aplicação os estudantes dos ensinos médio e superior. Participaram neste estudo 822 estudantes que responderam coletivamente à escala. Realizou-se análises descritivas e fatoriais exploratória (AFE) e confirmatória (AFC) dos itens. Os resultados da AFC corroboraram o modelo estrutural instituído na AFE, isto é, confirmou-se a estrutura de três dimensões: Motivação Controlada, Motivação Autônoma e Desmotivação. Novos estudos estão em andamento, visando ampliar as evidências psicométricas do instrumento, aumentando as possibilidades de rentabilização desse questionário nos contextos educativos (AU).


La motivación para aprender, como componente socio-afectivo, ha sido investigada como un fenómeno facilitador para la permanencia de los jóvenes en la educación formal. El objetivo de este estudio fue buscar evidencias de contenido y de estructura interna de los ítems que conforman un instrumento para identificar la calidad motivacional para aprender con el uso de las TICs (EMA - TDIC), para los estudiantes de secundaria y preparatoria. En este estudio participaron 822 estudiantes que respondieron colectivamente a la escala. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y exploratorios (AFE) y confirmatorios (AFC) de los ítems. Los resultados del AFC corroboraron el modelo estructural establecido en el AFE, es decir, se confirmó la estructura tridimensional: Motivación Controlada, Motivación Autónoma y Desmotivación. Se están realizando nuevos estudios, con el objetivo de ampliar la evidencia psicométrica del instrumento, aumentando las posibilidades de rentabilizar este cuestionario en contextos educativos (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Students/psychology , Education, Primary and Secondary , Information Technology , Learning , Motivation , Translating , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Preliminary Data
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1571-1575, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131505

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a caracterização genética de Staphylococcus spp. resistentes a meticilina isolados de suínos. Foram coletadas 30 amostras de swab nasal de suínos, abatidos em um frigorífico com Serviço de Inspeção Federal. Os isolados foram submetidos a análises macro e microscópicas que, em seguida, para detectar a resistência bacteriana, foram submetidos a ensaios fenotípicos da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Posteriormente, as amostras resistentes a oxacilina, foram submetidas à reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) para verificar a presença do gene mecA. Das 30 amostras analisadas, foram isolados 12 (40%) Staphylococcus spp. coagulase positiva, e 18 (60%) coagulase negativa, e, dentre os isolados, 26 (86,66%) foram resistentes a oxacilina sendo possível detectar o gene mecA em seis (23%) amostras. Este estudo evidencia a presença de genes de resistência em microrganismos comuns a microbiota de animais de produção que podem ser transmitidos ao homem. Além de chamar a atenção para a frequência e quantidade de antimicrobianos aos quais estes animais são expostos durante toda sua vida, podendo ser considerado um problema para a saúde única.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Refrigeration/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Preliminary Data
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8671, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011610

ABSTRACT

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a neural tube defect that often causes spinal cord injury at the thoracolumbar region, as well as sensory and motor paralysis in the lower limbs. This leads to continuous use of a wheelchair and, consequently, a sedentary lifestyle, predisposition to muscle weakness, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, obesity, and structural alterations in the spine. We assessed the respiratory function and shoulder strength of MMC participants who were wheelchair-users and had no respiratory complaints and compared them to healthy children and adolescents. MMC (n=10) and healthy (n=25) participants of both genders with a mean age of 12.45 years (SD=2.1) were assessed for weight, height, respiratory performance, and isometric peak for shoulder flexors, extensors, abductors, and adductors, using an isokinetic dynamometer. Medullary lesion, functional levels, and abnormal curvatures of the spine were assessed for MMC participants. The level of spinal cord injury for the majority of the MMC participants was high lumbar and they had scoliosis. MMC showed lower values for forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at the first second, forced expiratory flow (25-75%), maximal voluntary ventilation, and isometric peak for shoulder flexors and adductors compared to healthy participants. This indicated a decreased vital capacity, respiratory muscle endurance, and shoulder muscle strength.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Wheelchairs , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Meningomyelocele/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Preliminary Data
8.
Salud colect ; 15: e2256, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101891

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La presente investigación surge a partir de identificar la dificultad para incluir las experiencias y necesidades de los varones adolescentes en el diseño de los modelos clínicos dirigidos a esa franja etaria y etapa vital. Por tal motivo, se decidió indagar la dimensión subjetiva de género en las prácticas que el sector salud dirige a la prevención y atención de la salud de los varones adolescentes, con el objetivo de visibilizar si estas se convierten en barreras para el avance en este campo. Para ello, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 21 profesionales de distintas disciplinas integrantes de equipos de salud y a 14 varones adolescentes usuarios del sistema de salud de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; además se implementaron dispositivos grupales de indagación a adolescentes varones estudiantes de escuela secundaria, y se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a informantes claves. Se ha identificado que las propias dinámicas institucionales no responden de modo adecuado a los riesgos que enfrentan los varones adolescentes -dentro de los cuales las construcciones hegemónicas de género cumplen un importante papel- ya que están ancladas en paradigmas biopolíticos de exclusión.


ABSTRACT This study is based on our previous work, in which we found evidence of the difficulties in including the experiences and needs of adolescent males in the design of clinical models aimed at that age group. We identified a need to explore the subjective dimension of gender in the practices of the healthcare sector directed at adolescent males, in order to determine if they constituted barriers to advancement in this field. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 professionals from different disciplines who made up healthcare teams, as well as 14 adolescent males using healthcare services in the City of Buenos Aires. Additionally, group techniques were employed with adolescent male secondary school students, and in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. We were able to determine that institutional dynamics do not adequately respond to the risks faced by adolescent males - for whom hegemonic constructions of gender play an important role - given that they are based on exclusionary biopolitical paradigms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adolescent Health Services/organization & administration , Needs Assessment , Masculinity , Argentina , Risk-Taking , Attitude to Health , Sex Factors , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cities , Psychology, Adolescent , Substance-Related Disorders , Reproductive Health , Sexual Health , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Preliminary Data , Health Services Accessibility
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(7): e00223018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011703

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever os primeiros resultados de dois estudos avaliativos, um sobre a Rede Cegonha e outro sobre o projeto Parto Adequado, denominados, respectivamente, de avaliação da Rede Cegonha e Nascer Saudável, e identificar possíveis melhorias em comparação ao estudo Nascer no Brasil. Ambos os estudos têm desenho seccional, realizados em 2017. O estudo avaliação da Rede Cegonha incluiu todas as 606 maternidades públicas e mistas envolvidas na Rede Cegonha e um total de 10.675 puérperas. O estudo Nascer Saudável incluiu uma amostra de conveniência de 12 hospitais da rede privada e um total de 4.798 mulheres. Os indicadores de atenção ao parto e nascimento avaliados foram: presença de acompanhante, atendimento por enfermeira obstétrica, preenchimento de partograma, uso de métodos não farmacológicos, deambulação, alimentação, uso de cateter venoso periférico, analgesia, posição da mulher para o parto, episiotomia e manobra de Kristeler. Esses indicadores foram comparados aos encontrados no Nascer no Brasil, estudo de base nacional realizado em 2011-2012, antes do início dos dois programas de intervenção. Para as comparações utilizamos o teste do qui-quadrado para amostras independentes e nível de 95% de confiança. Houve um aumento significativo do número de mulheres com acesso à tecnologia apropriada ao parto entre os anos de 2011 e 2017 e redução de práticas consideradas prejudiciais. No setor privado, observou-se também redução nas taxas de cesariana e aumento da idade gestacional ao nascer. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que políticas públicas bem conduzidas podem mudar o cenário da atenção ao parto e nascimento, promovendo a redução de desfechos maternos e neonatais negativos.


Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo es describir los primeros resultados de dos estudios evaluativos, uno sobre la Red Cigüeña y otro sobre el proyecto Parto Adecuado, denominados respectivamente como evaluación de la Red Cigüeña y Nacer Sano, e identificar posibles mejorías en comparación con el estudio Nacer en Brasil. Ambos estudios tienen un diseño transversal, realizados en 2017. El estudio evaluación de la Red Cigüeña incluyó todas las maternidades públicas (606) y mixtas implicadas en la Red Cigüeña y a un total de 10.675 puérperas. El estudio Nacer Sano incluyó una muestra de conveniencia de 12 hospitales privados y a un total de 4.798 mujeres. Los indicadores de atención al parto y nacimiento evaluados fueron: presencia de acompañante, atención por enfermera obstetra, cumplimentación de partograma, uso de métodos no farmacológicos, deambulación, alimentación, uso de catéter venoso periférico, analgesia, posición de la mujer para el parto, episiotomía y maniobra de Kristeler. Estos indicadores se compararon con los encontrados en Nacer en Brasil, un estudio a nivel nacional, realizado en 2011-2012, antes del inicio de los dos programas de intervención. Para las comparaciones utilizamos el test del chi-cuadrado para muestras independientes y nivel de confianza de un 95%. Hubo un aumento significativo del número de mujeres con acceso a la tecnología apropiada para el parto entre los años de 2011 y 2017 y una reducción de las prácticas consideradas perjudiciales. En el sector privado, se observó también una reducción en las tasas de cesárea y aumento de la edad gestacional al nacer. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que las políticas públicas bien dirigidas pueden cambiar el escenario de la atención al parto y nacimiento, promoviendo la reducción de desenlaces maternos y neonatales negativos.


Abstract: This article aims to describe the preliminary results of two evaluations studies, one about the Stork Network program and the other about the Adequate Birth program, called Stork Network Assessment and Healthy Birth, and to identify possible improvements in comparison to the Birth in Brazil study. Both studies used a cross-sectional design and were conducted in 2017. The Stork Network Assessment study included all 606 public and mixed maternity hospitals from the Stork Network and a total of 10,675 postpartum women. The Healthy Birth study included a convenience sample of 12 private hospitals and 4,798 women. Indicators of labour and childbirth care were: presence of a companion person, care by obstetric nurse, use of partograph, use of non-pharmacological methods, walking during labor, eating, use of peripheral venous catheter, position for delivery, episiotomy, and Kristeller maneuver. The indicators were compared to those verified in Birth in Brazil, a nationwide population-based study in 2011-2012, before the start of the two intervention programs. Comparisons used the chi-square test for independent samples and 95% confidence interval. There was a significant increase in the number of women with access to appropriate technology for labour and childbirth from 2011 to 2017 and a reduction in harmful practices. The private sector also showed a decrease in cesarean rates and an increase in gestational age at birth. The study's results show that properly conducted public policies can change the scenario of care for labor and childbirth, helping to reduce in negative maternal and neonatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Support , Brazil , Labor, Obstetric , Cesarean Section/trends , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Gestational Age , Perinatal Care/trends , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/trends , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Maternal Health/trends , Preliminary Data , Hospitals, Maternity , Nurse Midwives/statistics & numerical data
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(6): 744-753, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974386

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Calcium is vital for the functioning of the inner ear hair cells as well as for the neurotransmitter release that triggers the generation of a nerve impulse. A reduction in calcium level could therefore impair the peripheric vestibular functioning. However, the outcome of balance assessment has rarely been explored in cases with osteopenia and osteoporosis, the medical conditions associated with reduction in calcium levels. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of osteopenia and osteoporosis on the outcomes of behavioural and objective vestibular assessment tests. Methods: The study included 12 individuals each in the healthy control group and osteopenia group, and 11 individuals were included in the osteoporosis group. The groups were divided based on the findings of bone mineral density. All the participants underwent behavioural tests (Fukuda stepping, tandem gait and subjective visual vertical) and objective assessment using cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Results: A significantly higher proportion of the individuals in the two clinical groups' demonstrated abnormal results on the behavioural balance assessment tests (p < 0.05) than the control group. However, there was no significant difference in latencies or amplitude of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential and oVEMP between the groups. The proportion of individuals with absence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential was significantly higher in the osteoporosis group than the other two groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study confirm the presence of balance-related deficits in individuals with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Hence the clinical evaluations should include balance assessment as a mandatory aspect of the overall audiological assessment of individuals with osteopenia and osteoporosis.


Resumo: Introdução: O cálcio é vital para o funcionamento das células ciliadas, assim como para a liberação dos neurotransmissores que desencadeiam um impulso nervoso. Uma redução nos níveis de cálcio poderia, portanto, prejudicar o funcionamento vestibular periférico. No entanto, a avaliação do equilíbrio tem sido raramente explorada em casos de osteopenia e osteoporose, condições médicas associadas à redução dos níveis de cálcio. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar o impacto da osteopenia e da osteoporose nos resultados dos testes de avaliação comportamental e vestibular objetiva. Método: O estudo incluiu 12 indivíduos nos grupos controle e grupo de osteopenia e 11 indivíduos no grupo da osteoporose. Os grupos foram divididos com base nos achados da densidade mineral óssea. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a testes comportamentais (Prova dos Passos de Fukuda, Marcha em tandem e Vertical Visual Subjetiva) e à avaliação objetiva com o uso de potenciais evocados miogênicos vestibulares cervical e ocular (cVEMP e oVEMP). Resultados: Uma proporção significativamente maior de indivíduos nos dois grupos com condições clínicas mostrou resultados anormais nos testes de avaliação comportamental e do equilíbrio (p < 0,05) do que o grupo controle. Embora não tenha havido diferença significativa nas latências ou na amplitude de cVEMP e oVEMP entre os grupos, a proporção de indivíduos com ausência de oVEMP foi significativamente maior no grupo da osteoporose do que nos outros dois grupos (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Os resultados do presente estudo demonstram a presença de déficits de equilíbrio em indivíduos com osteopenia e osteoporose. Assim, as avaliações clínicas gerais e audiológicas de indivíduos com osteopenia e osteoporose deveriam incluir a avaliação do equilíbrio como um aspecto obrigatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/physiopathology , Vestibule, Labyrinth/physiology , Osteoporosis/metabolism , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Postural Balance/physiology , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials/physiology , Preliminary Data , Gait/physiology , Hearing Tests , Hypocalcemia/metabolism
11.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(4): 285-291, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979439

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The recovery housing (RH) program was initiated in São Paulo with the objective of providing treatment for substance use disorders and addressing users' housing and employment problems. The purpose of this study was to describe the model based on its first 11 months of operation, it was launched in June 2016 in Brazil. Method: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the records of all subjects treated in the RH of the Restart Program (Programa Recomeço) since its creation, from June 2016 to May 2017. Results: Sixty-nine subjects were included. Thirty-five (51%) remained in the household until the end of treatment or were reinserted in society. Thirty-four (49%) presented recurrence during their stay, of which 16 (47%) volunteered for treatment in a therapeutic community or psychiatric hospital, 8 (23.5%) chose to continue with outpatient treatment only, 6 (17.7%) returned to their families and continued to receive outpatient treatment, and 4 (11.8%) discontinued the treatment. Of the 35 subjects who completed the RH program, 28 (80%) were in employment and 7 (20%) received governmental support for permanent disability on medical or psychiatric grounds. Conclusion: RH can be an important component of integrated care and is used in several countries. Although controversial, the use of urine tests to control relapse seems to have a positive impact on adherence to treatment and maintenance of abstinence. These preliminary findings corroborate, with clear limitations, the evidence available in the literature showing that RH programs are effective for the treatment of addictions.


Resumo Introdução: O Programa Moradia Monitorada (MM) foi iniciado em São Paulo com o objetivo de prover tratamento para transotrnos de uso de substâncias e problemas relacionados a moradia e emprego. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever o modelo com base nos primeiros 11 meses de operação (o programa foi lançado em junho de 2016 no Brasil). Métodos: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo utilizando os registros de todos os indivíduos tratados no MM do Programa Recomeço desde a sua criação. Resultados: Sessenta e nove indivíduos foram incluídos. Trinta e cinco (51%) permaneceram no tratamento até o fim ou foram reinseridos socialmente com sucesso. Trinta e quatro sujeitos (49%) apresentaram recidiva durante a permanência. Destes, 16 (47%) se voluntariaram para tratamento em comunidades terapêuticas ou hospitais psiquiátricos, 8 (23,5%) escolheram permanecer apenas no tratamento ambulatorial, 6 (17.7%) retornaram para suas famílias e continuaram o tratamento em uma unidade ambulatorial próxima ao domicílio, e 4 (11.8%) descontinuaram o tratamento. Dos 35 pacientes que completaram o tratamento, 28 (80%) estavam empregados em serviço regular e 7 (20%) recebiam aposentadoria por questões clínicas e/ou psiquiátricas. Conclusão: O modelo MM pode ser um componente importante na via de cuidados integrados e é utilizado em vários países. Apesar de controverso, o uso de análise de urina para vigilância da recidiva e da recorrência parece ter um impacto positivo na adesão ao tratamento e na manutenção da abstinência. Nossos achados preliminares corroboram, com claras limitações, os resultados reportados previamente na literatura, de que os programas de MM são efetivos no tratamento da dependência química.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Residential Facilities , Substance-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Recurrence , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Employment , Community Integration , Preliminary Data , Housing
12.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(4): 310-317, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979446

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This preliminary study aimed to identify and compare characteristics related to violent behavior in inpatients with schizophrenia at a general psychiatric hospital using the Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management 20 (HCR-20), the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), and sociodemographic data. Method: Violent and nonviolent participants were selected based on psychiatric admission reports. Participants with reports of aggressive behavior and HCR-20 total score ≥ 21 upon admission were assigned to the violent patient group. Participants without aggressive behavior and with HCR-20 total score < 21 upon admission were assigned to the nonviolent patient group. The MOAS was applied to characterize the degree of severity of the violent behavior. Results: HCR-20 and its subscales were effective in differentiating between the violent and nonviolent participant groups. Twelve of the 20 HCR-20 items were useful for distinguishing between the groups, although total HCR-20 scores were more reliable when applied to the nonviolent patient group. The MOAS did not show high degrees of severity for the types of aggression observed in the participants. Conclusion: HCR-20 was useful and reliable for distinguishing between violent and nonviolent patients with schizophrenia in this clinical psychiatric setting. Item analysis identified the most relevant characteristics in each group. The use of the HCR-20 in clinical psychiatric settings should be encouraged.


Resumo Objetivo: Este estudo preliminar tem por objetivo identificar e comparar características relacionadas ao comportamento violento em pacientes com esquizofrenia internados em um hospital psiquiátrico utilizando o Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management 20 (HCR-20), a Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), e dados sociodemográficos. Método: Foram selecionados participantes com e sem histórico de comportamento violento, referidos nos relatórios de internação hospitalar. Participantes violentos e com escore total do HCR-20 ≥ 21 na internação foram selecionados para o grupo violento. Participantes não violentos com escore total do HCR-20 < 21 na internação foram selecionados para o grupo não violento. A MOAS foi aplicada para caracterizar o grau de severidade do comportamento violento. Resultados: O HCR-20 e suas subescalas foram eficazes na diferenciação entre os participantes dos grupos. Doze dos 20 itens do HCR-20 foram úteis na diferenciação entre os grupos, apesar do escore total do HCR-20 ter sido mais confiável quando aplicado ao grupo não violento. A MOAS não apresentou graus de severidade elevados para os tipos de agressividade observados nos participantes. Conclusão: O HCR-20 foi útil e confiável na distinção entre pacientes esquizofrênicos violentos e não violentos em ambiente psiquiátrico clínico, já que a análise dos itens identificou as características mais relevantes em cada grupo. O uso do HCR-20 em ambientes psiquiátricos clínicos deveria ser encorajado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Violence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/therapy , Schizophrenic Psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Preliminary Data , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Inpatients/psychology , Middle Aged
13.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 40(3): 316-319, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039090

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a group therapy based on cognitive-behavioral techniques customized for intermittent explosive disorder (IED). The current report presents the preliminary results of a clinical trial comparing pre- and post-intervention scores in different anger dimensions. Methods: The studied sample consisted of 84 treatment-seeking subjects. The mean (standard deviation) age was 43.0 (11.9) years, and 78% were male. The therapeutic group program consisted of 15 weekly sessions plus three maintenance sessions. The sessions lasted approximately 90 minutes each. Results: No differences were found in demographic profile and pre-treatment status between subjects who completed treatment (n=59) and dropouts (n=25). Comparison of State-Trait Anger Expression Scale (STAXI) scores pre- and post-treatment showed statistically significant changes in all anger scales and subscales of the questionnaire. Conclusion: This preliminary report is a significant addition to currently scarce clinical data. Our findings provide further evidence that structured cognitive-behavioral group therapy, with a focus on anger management and cognitive coping, may be a promising approach to the treatment of IED.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Psychotherapy, Group/methods , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Aggression/physiology , Anger Management Therapy/methods , Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders/therapy , Anger/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Controlled Before-After Studies , Preliminary Data , Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders/psychology
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 145-147, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038263

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which affects peripheral nerves, skin and mucous membranes. The impairment of neural function as well as sensory or sensory-motor disabilities in leprosy continue to be a problem that requires careful attention in the management of patients with the aim to avoid or minimize their progression to prevent sequelae. One of the most common characteristics of these ulcers is the tendency to chronicity, with variable therapeutic response. In this article, we shall discuss the therapeutic management of thirteen trophic leprosy ulcers in eight patients using polyhexanide 0.2% products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biguanides/therapeutic use , Foot Ulcer/drug therapy , Disinfectants/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Foot Ulcer/complications , Preliminary Data , Leprosy/complications
15.
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences. 2017; 8 (1): 7-12
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187540

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pemphigus vulgaris [PV] is a chronic, serious autoimmune mucocutaneous bullous disease. Oral lesions in PV may be extremely painful. This pain may adversely affect the patients' oral intake and quality of life. This before-after clinical trial was designed to assess the pain relieving effects of single session of non-ablative, non-thermal CO2 laser therapy [NTCLT] in oral lesions of PV


Methods: Fifty painful oral lesions of fourteen patients with PV were illuminated by CO2 laser [power: 1 W, scanning the lesions with rapid circular motion of the handpiece] passing through a thick layer of transparent gel with high water content. The pain severity of the oral lesions was reported by the patients up to the fourth postoperative day. They were also asked to continue their existing systemic treatment during the course of this study as a precondition for the participation


Results: The severity of contact and non-stimulate [non-contact] pain declined immediately and significantly after NTCLT [P < 0.001]. The pain relieving effect was sustained during the four successive days of follow-up. The procedure was pain free and no kind of analgesics was required. Following NTCLT, there were no visible thermal complications such as destruction, ablation or irritation of the oral lesions


Conclusion: The results of the trial proposed that single session of NTCLT could immediately and significantly relieve pain in oral lesions of PV, without any visible thermal complications


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Lasers, Gas/therapeutic use , Preliminary Data , Pain Measurement , Pain Management/methods
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(2): 115-119, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792655

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Optimal surgical management for acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD) remains unclear. The in-hospital mortality rate is still high (15%), and the intraoperative bleeding is an independent risk factor for hospital mortality. Objective: The aim of our study was describe a new method for aortic anastomosis in the repair of AAAD and report the hospital mortality and bleeding complications. Methods: Between January 2008 and November 2014, 24 patients, 16 male, median age 62 years, underwent surgical treatment of AAAD. The surgical technique consisted of intussusception of a Dacron tube in the dissected aorta, which is anastomosed with a first line of 2-0 polyester everting mattress suture and a second line of 3-0 polypropylene running suture placed at the outermost side. Open distal anastomosis was performed with bilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion in 13 (54.1%) patients. Results: Cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping time ranged from 75 to 135 min (mean=85 min) and 60 to 100 min (mean=67 min), respectively. The systemic circulatory arrest ranged from 29 to 60 min (mean=44.5 min). One (4.1%) patient required reoperation for bleeding, due to the use of preoperative clopidogrel. The postoperative bleeding was 382-1270 ml (mean=654 ml). We used an average of 4.2 units of red blood cells/patient. There were two (8.3%) hospital deaths, one due to intraoperative bleeding and another due to mesenteric ischemia. The average length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital was 44 hours and 6.7 days, respectively. Conclusion: This new method for surgical correction of AAAD was reproducible and resulted in satisfactory clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Aneurysm/surgery , Postoperative Hemorrhage/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/statistics & numerical data , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aorta/transplantation , Aortic Aneurysm/mortality , Sweden , Brazil , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Polyethylene Terephthalates/therapeutic use , Postoperative Hemorrhage/mortality , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/mortality , Perioperative Period/statistics & numerical data , Preliminary Data , Aneurysm, Dissecting/mortality
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