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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e253009, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339373

ABSTRACT

Abstract Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Resumo Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Subject(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Ethanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Water , Biotransformation , Prospective Studies , Fermentation
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 332-335, oct. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1391165

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el índice de mortalidad pediátrica 3 (PIM 3) y la evaluación de falla orgánica secuencial pediátrica (pSOFA) para predicción de muerte. Métodos. Estudio observacional prospectivo; se incluyeron pacientes de 1 mes a 17,9 años. La precisión se evaluó con el área bajo la curva (AUC) y se estimó la tasa de mortalidad estandarizada. Resultados. Se estudiaron 244 ingresos; la mediana de edad fue 60 meses. Los diagnósticos principales fueron neoplasias sólidas o hematológicas (26,5 %). La mortalidad por ingresos fue del 18 % (44/244). Para PIM 3 el AUC fue de 0,77 y para pSOFA, de 0,81; ambas escalas mostraron adecuada calibración (p > 0,05). La tasa de mortalidad estandarizada fue de 1,91. Conclusiones. Identificamos que las escalas de evaluación de mortalidad PIM 3 y pSOFA muestran capacidad de discriminación aceptable. En pacientes con neoplasias sólidas o hematológicas, PIM 3 no mostró adecuada calibración.


Introduction. The study objective was to analyze the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 (PIM 3) and the pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (pSOFA) for the prediction of mortality. Methods. Observational, prospective study; patients aged 1 month to 17.9 years were included. Assessment of area under the curve (AUC) accuracy and estimation of standardized mortality rate. Results. A total of 244 admissions were studied: median age was 60 months. The main diagnoses were solid or hematologic neoplasms (26.5%). The mortality by admission was 18% (44/244). The AUC was 0.77 for PIM 3 and 0.81 for pSOFA; both scales showed an adequate calibration (p > 0.05). The standardized mortality rate was 1.91. Conclusions. We identified that the PIM 3 and pSOFA have an acceptable discrimination power. The calibration of the PIM 3 was not adequate in patients with solid or hematologic neoplasms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Prospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Mexico
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 523-529, July-Aug. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385264

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Air pollution and sex independently affect cardiac autonomic control, which can be assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). The research hypothesis is that individuals exposed to low concentrations of pollution have higher cardiac autonomic modulation compared to those exposed to high concentrations and that women have better cardiac autonomic control than men. Objective: To analyze the impact of exposure to air pollutants, specifically smoke, and sex on HRV in healthy young people exposed to different concentrations of pollution over an average period of 22 years. Methods: From April to September 2011, 36 participants of both sexes (20-30 years old) were selected, grouped by levels of air pollution exposure according to indices provided by the Environmental Company of São Paulo State. The R-R intervals (R-Ri) of the electrocardiogram were captured using a heart rate monitor during supine rest. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis and conditional entropy. The Queen's College step test was used to characterize functional capacity. A between-group comparison was performed using the two-way ANOVA statistical test (post hoc Tukey) and p<0.05. Results: Significant differences were found in mean R-Ri (p<0.01) and cardiac parasympathetic modulation between sexes in the same city (p=0.02) and between groups exposed to different air pollution concentrations (p<0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest that long-term exposure to air pollutants, specifically smoke, has an unfavorable impact on HRV, with reduced cardiac vagal autonomic modulation in healthy young adults, especially females.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Heart Rate , Autonomic Nervous System/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Air Pollutants
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 619-628, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The treatment of Colles fracture can deform the wrist. Some studies claim the resulting deformity rarely hinders daily activities, whereas others report the opposite; thus, anatomical reduction is desirable. Our objective was to analyze the anatomical and functional results of Colles fracture to find out the values of individual parameters corresponding to the best functional outcome. Methods The present prospective study included 70 elderly patients with Colles fracture. All patients were managed conservatively. The anatomical parameters were evaluated by measuring dorsal angulation, radial inclination, and radial height, and they were assessed as per Stewart et al. The functional result was assessed by the Mayo wrist score. The results were analyzed using the chi-squared test of association, and a p-value < 0.001 was considered statistically significant and to examine strengths of associations; we computed odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Excellent and good results were obtained in 68.5% of the cases anatomically and 78.5% functionally, which was statistically significant (p= 0.0009). Out of the three anatomical parameter dorsal angulation < 10° and loss of radial inclination < 9° showed statistically significant association with functional results (p= 0.0006), but loss of radial height < 6 mm did not (p= 0.0568), which became significant when loss of radial height was kept < 4 mm (p= 0.00062). Conclusion Fractures with anatomical reduction have better functional results. The acceptable borderline anatomical parameters for obtaining excellent or good functional results are dorsal angulation < 10°, loss of radial inclination < 9°, and loss of radial height < 4 mm.


Resumo Objetivo O tratamento da fratura de Colles pode deformar o pulso. Alguns estudos afirmam que essa deformidade raramente dificulta as atividades diárias, enquanto outros relatam o contrário; assim, a redução anatômica é desejável. Nosso objetivo foi analisar os resultados anatômicos e funcionais da fratura de Colles para descobrir os valores de parâmetros individuais correspondentes ao melhor desfecho funcional. Métodos Este estudo prospectivo incluiu 70 pacientes idosos com fratura de Colles. Todos os pacientes foram tratados de forma conservativa. Os parâmetros anatômicos foram a angulação dorsal, a inclinação radial e a altura radial, avaliados de acordo com Stewart et al. O resultado funcional foi avaliado segundo a tabela de pontuação de pulso Mayo. Os resultados foram analisados por meio do teste de associação do qui-quadrado, considerando o valor de p< 0,001 estatisticamente significativo. A força das associações foi analisada por razões de possibilidades com intervalos de confiança de 95%. Resultados Excelentes e bons resultados anatômicos e funcionais foram obtidos em 68,5% e 78,5% dos casos, respectivamente, com diferença estatística significativa (p= 0,0009). Dos três parâmetros anatômicos, a angulação dorsal inferior a 10° e a perda da inclinação radial inferior a 9° apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com os resultados funcionais (p= 0,0006), mas não a perda de altura radial inferior a 6 mm (p= 0,0568); no entanto, a perda da altura radial inferior a 4 mm foi associada de forma significativa aos desfechos funcionais (p= 0,00062). Conclusão As fraturas com redução anatômica apresentam melhores desfechos funcionais. Os parâmetros anatômicos limítrofes aceitáveis para a obtenção de resultados funcionais excelentes ou bons são angulação dorsal inferior a 10°, perda da inclinação radial inferior a 9° e perda da altura radial inferior a 4 mm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Congenital Abnormalities , Activities of Daily Living , Chi-Square Distribution , Prospective Studies , Fractures, Bone , Fracture Dislocation/surgery
5.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(3): 54-59, 18-jul-2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379493

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la satisfacción con la calidad en la atención de enfermería por parte del paciente es el resultado de la relación profesional entre la enfermera y el paciente. Objetivo: evaluar la satisfacción con la calidad en la atención de enfermería de los pacientes de hemodiálisis de un hospital de especialidades en Sonora. Metodología: estudio cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo, realizado mediante la aplicación del cuestionario SERVQHOS-E, que consta de 16 ítems y una encuesta de opinión y sirve para medir la satisfacción del paciente y la calidad percibida de la atención de enfermería. El análisis de datos se hizo con estadística descriptiva, frecuencias relativas y absolutas. Resultados: se estudiaron 146 pacientes. En cuanto a percepción de la calidad de la atención de enfermería, 99.3% estuvieron satisfechos y solo 0.7% estuvieron insatisfechos. En relación con la satisfacción global, el 100% se manifestaron satisfechos y 99.3% de los pacientes recomendaría el servicio. Conclusión: los pacientes con hemodiálisis de un hospital de especialidades en Sonora se encuentran satisfechos.


Introduction: Patient satisfaction with the quality of nursing care is the result of the professional relationship between nurse and patient. Objective: To assess patient satisfaction with hemodialysis as relates to the quality of nursing care in a specialty hospital in Sonora. Methodology: observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective study, which was carried out using the SERVQHOS-E questionnaire, which consists of 16 items and one survey and measures the patient satisfaction and the perceived quality about nursing care. Data analysis was completed through descriptive statistics, relative and absolute frequencies. Results: 146 patients were studied. Concerning the perceived quality of nursing care, 99.3% were satisfied and only 0.7% reported dissatisfaction. Regarding global satisfaction, 100% of patients expressed satisfaction with their stay and 99.3% would recommend the services received to others. Conclusion: Hemodialysis patients at a specialty hospital in Sonora are satisfied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/nursing , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Care/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
6.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(2): E56474, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396782

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A avaliação de alunos egressos pela CAPES é parte de um dos eixos de avaliação dos programas de pós-graduação. Investigar a formação e atuação dos egressos de um Programa de Pós-Graduação em Distúrbios da Comunicação e desenvolver uma forma contínua de acompanhá-los poderá contribuir para uma melhor avaliação dos Programas. Objetivos: investigar o perfil do egresso de um programa de pós-graduação em distúrbios da comunicação e analisar a associação entre as áreas de formação, atuação e publicações. Método: estudo prospectivo realizado a partir das respostas do questionário eletrônico enviado por e-mail aos alunos egressos que concluíram o Mestrado, Doutorado e/ou Pós-Doutorado, no período de 2009 a 2018, no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Distúrbios da Comunicação Humana da UNIFESP. Resultados: a maioria dos egressos é do sexo feminino (97,3%) e predominam os egressos de origem do Estado de São Paulo (72%). 87,3% publicaram pelo menos 1 artigo em revista científica. 45,4% atuam na área de ensino, e, considerando os egressos do doutorado e do pós-doutorado, a maioria atua nas áreas de ensino (70,3% e 80%) e 85,4% atuam na área clínica. Conclusão: Os egressos são em sua maioria mulheres, oriundas do estado de São Paulo e publicaram artigos em revistas científicas e atuam profissionalmente na clínica. Quanto aos titulados doutores e que realizaram pós-doutorado, a maioria está inserida na área de ensino e pesquisa.


Introduction: The evaluation of alumni by CAPES is part of one of the evaluation axes of post-graduate programs. Investigate the field of study and work of alumni of a Post-Graduation Program in Communication Disorders and developing a continuous way of accompanying them may contribute to a better evaluation of them. Objectives: investigate the profile of the alumni of a Post-Graduation Program in Communication Disorders and analyze the association between field of study, work and publications. Method: This is a prospective study based on the answers to an electronically sent questionnaire by individuals who had concluded their Master's, Doctorate and/or Post-Doctorate in Human Communication Disorders at UNIFESP Post-Graduation Program in the 2009-2018 period. Results: Most of the former students were women (97,3%) and most (72%) were from the State of São Paulo. 87,3% published at least one article in scientific journals. 45,4% teach and regarding those who concluded their doctorate and post-doctorate, most teach (70,3% and 80%) and 85,4% work as clinicians. Conclusion: The alumni most are young female adults from São Paulo state. Most had published articles in scientific journals. The alumni work as clinicians and most of the Doctorate and Post-Doctorate teach and do research.


Introducción: La evaluación de egresados por CAPES forma parte de uno de los ejes de evaluación de los programas de posgrado. Investigar el campo de estudio y trabajo de los egresados de un Programa de Posgrado en Transtornos de la Comunicación y desarrollar una forma continua de acompañarlos puede contribuir a una mejor evaluación de los mismos. Objetivos: Investigar el perfil de los egresados de un Programa de Posgrado en Transtornos de la Comunicación y analizar la asociación entre campo de estudio, trabajo y publicaciones. Método: Se trata de un estudio prospectivo basado en las respuestas a un cuestionario enviado electrónicamente por personas que habían finalizado su Maestría, Doctorado y / o Postdoctorado en Trastornos de la Comunicación Humana en el Programa de Posgrado de la UNIFESP en el período 2009-2018. Resultados: La mayoría de los egresados eran mujeres (97,3%) y la mayoría (72%) eran del Estado de São Paulo. El 87,3% publicó al menos un artículo en revistas científicas. El 45,4% enseña y de los que concluyeron su doctorado y posdoctorado, la mayoría enseña (70,3% y 80%) y el 85,4% trabaja como clínicos. Conclusión: La mayoría de los egresados son mujeres jóvenes del estado de São Paulo. La mayoría había publicado artículos en revistas científicas. Los egresados trabajan como clínicos y la mayoría de los doctores y posdoctorados enseñan e investigan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Students, Health Occupations , Education, Graduate , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/education , Professional Practice/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Postgraduate Programs , Faculty , Scholarly Communication/statistics & numerical data
7.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e203, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383640

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en Uruguay, la proporción de nacimientos con bajo peso al nacer (BPN) se mantiene cercana al 8%. En este grupo resulta un desafío conseguir un adecuado crecimiento y desarrollo enfocado a prevenir enfermedades a mediano y largo plazo. Objetivo: analizar la velocidad de crecimiento y los aspectos nutricionales de una cohorte de recién nacidos (RN) con BPN desde su egreso hospitalario y hasta los 12 meses de edad corregida (EC). Metodología: estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de los RN con BPN de la unidad neonatal de la Maternidad del Hospital de Clínicas Dr. Manuel Quintela, entre el 1 de enero y el 31 de diciembre de 2015. Se excluyeron los portadores de malformaciones congénitas y patología quirúrgica al nacer. Se evaluó peso, longitud y perímetro craneano al egreso, y a los 5, 9 y 12 meses de EC. La velocidad del crecimiento fue analizada mediante z-score y Δz-score ajustado a EC en curvas de la OMS. Se estimó aporte nutricional en cada control y se exploraron asociaciones entre cambios en la curva de crecimiento y el grado de adecuación de la ingesta calórica estimada. Resultados: ingresaron al estudio 31 recién nacidos: con peso al nacer <1.500 g hubo 7 neonatos y ≥1.500 g 24. Edad gestacional (EG) media 32,5 semanas (rango 25-39), un término y 30 prematuros: extremos 2, muy prematuros 9, y moderados 19. En relación al peso al nacer para la EG 21 fueron adecuados (AEG), 7 pequeños (PEG) y 3 grandes (GEG). Completaron los tres controles programados 26 niños. En el primer control mantuvieron el carril de crecimiento 15 niños, descendieron 8 y aceleraron 8; en el segundo mantuvieron 9, desaceleraron 8 y aceleraron 12; y en el tercero mantuvieron 9, desaceleraron 7 y aceleraron 10. El número de niños que al final del seguimiento mantenían el mismo carril de crecimiento que al nacer, descendió a expensas de un aumento de aquellos que aceleraron el crecimiento. Al llegar al tercer control se encontró que sólo 9 niños mantuvieron el carril de crecimiento al nacer y el resto (17) cambiaron de carril, lo cual resultó en una diferencia significativa. En los 10 pacientes que aceleraron su crecimiento durante el primer año de vida, no se encontraron asociaciones entre la velocidad de crecimiento y las características energéticas de la alimentación complementaria que recibían. Conclusiones: se observaron problemas en el crecimiento de los niños con BPN durante el primer año de vida. Una proporción significativa presentaron crecimiento acelerado lo cual es un factor de riesgo para obesidad y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Es necesario profundizar en las causas de estas alteraciones, en especial relacionadas con las prácticas de alimentación, para desarrollar estrategias que contribuyan a la prevención.


Introduction: in Uruguay, the proportion of low weight births (LBW) remains close to 8%. It is a challenge to achieve adequate growth and development focused on preventing diseases in the medium and long term for the case of this group. Objective: analyze the growth rate and nutritional aspects of a cohort of newborns (NB) with LBW since they were discharged from the hospital and until 12 months of corrected age (CA). Methodology: descriptive, prospective study of NBs with LBW of the neonatal ward of the Manuel Quintela Maternity Hospital, between January 1 and December 31, 2015. We excluded carriers of congenital malformations and surgical pathology at birth and assessed weight, length and cranial perimeter at discharge, and at 5, 9 and 12 months of CA. The growth rate was analyzed using z-score and Δz-score adjusted to CA in WHO curves. Nutritional contribution was estimated in each check-up and associations were explored between changes in the growth curve and the degree of adequacy of the estimated caloric intake. Results: 31 newborns participated in the test: 7 newborns had a birth weight of <1.500 g and ≥1.500 g: 24. Mean Gestational Age (GA) 32.5 weeks (range 25-39), one term and 30 preterm newborns: extreme 2, very premature 9, and moderate 19. Regarding birth weight according to gestational age, 21 were appropiate for gestational age (AGA), 7 small for gestational age (SGA) and 3 large for gestational age (LGA). The 26 children completed the 3 scheduled check-ups. In the 1st check-up, 15 children had been able to maintain the growth trend, in 8 of them it had decreased and in 8 it had accelerated; in the 2nd check-up 9 of them maintained their growth rate, 9 decreased it and 12 of the newborns increased it; and in the 3rd check-up, the trend remained steady for 9 of them , it decreased for 7 of them and it increased for 10 of them. The number of children who at the end of the follow-up maintained the same growth trend they had at birth decreased, despite the increase in the growth trend of those with a more accelerated growth. At the time of the 3rd check-up it was found that only 9 children maintained the growth trend they had at birth and the rest, (17), changed trends, which resulted in a significant gap. We did not find links life between the growth rate and the energy characteristics of the supplementary food they received in the 10 patients who had increased their growth rate in their first year of life. Conclusions: we observed problems regarding the growth rate of children with LBW during the first year of life. A significant proportion showed accelerated growth, which is a risk factor for obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases. It is necessary to research the causes of these alterations, especially regarding their feeding practices in order to develop strategies for their prevention.


Introdução: no Uruguai, a proporção de recém-nascidos com baixo peso ao nascer (LBW) permanece próxima de 8%. É um desafio alcançar um crescimento e desenvolvimento adequados focados na prevenção de doenças a médio e longo prazo nesse grupo de crianças. Objetivo: analisar a taxa de crescimento e aspectos nutricionais de uma coorte de recém-nascidos (RN) com LBW no momento da alta hospitalar e até 12 meses de idade corrigida (EC). Metodologia: estudo prospectivo de RNs com LBW da unidade neonatal da Maternidade do Hospital Dr. Manuel Quintela, entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2015. Foram excluídos portadores de malformações congênitas e patologia cirúrgica ao nascer. Peso, comprimento e perímetro craniano foram avaliados no momento da alta hospitalar e aos 5, 9 e 12 meses de EC. A velocidade de crescimento foi analisada utilizando-se pontuação z e pontuação Δz ajustada ao EC das curvas da OMS. A contribuição nutricional foi estimada em cada controle e as associações entre mudanças na curva de crescimento e o grau de adequação da ingestão calórica estimada foram exploradas. Resultados: 31 recém-nascidos entraram no estudo: com peso ao nascer <1500 g havia 7 recém-nascidos e ≥1500 g: 24. Idade Gestacional Média (EG) 32,5 semanas (faixa 25-39), um termo e 30 prematuros: extremos 2, muito prematuros 9 e moderados 19. Em relação ao peso ao nascer para EG, 21 foram adequados (AEG), 7 pequenos (PEG) e 3 grandes (GEG). As 26 crianças completaram os 3 controles programados. No 1º controle, 15 crianças mantiveram a faixa de crescimento, 8 desceram e 8 aceleraram; no 2º mantiveram 9, desaceleraram 8 e aceleraram 12; e no 3º mantiveram 9, desaceleraram 7 e aceleraram 10. O número de crianças que, ao final do seguimento, manteve a mesma faixa de crescimento do que ao nascer diminuiu mesmo que houve um aumento daqueles que aceleraram o crescimento. No 3º controle foi constatado que apenas 9 crianças mantiveram a faixa de crescimento que tinham ao nascer e o resto (17) mudou de faixa, resultando numa diferença significativa. Nos 10 pacientes que aceleraram seu crescimento durante o primeiro ano de vida, não foram encontradas associações entre a velocidade de crescimento e as características energéticas da alimentação complementar que receberam. Conclusões: foram observados problemas no crescimento de crianças com LBW durante o primeiro ano de vida. Uma proporção significativa delas mostrou crescimento acelerado, que é um fator de risco para obesidade e doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. É necessário aprofundar nas causas dessas alterações, especialmente aquelas relacionadas às práticas alimentares para poder desenvolver estratégias que contribuam para a prevenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Body Weight , Energy Intake , Infant, Low Birth Weight/growth & development , Socioeconomic Factors , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 384-389, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of stroke. Inflammation is the primary factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Use of immature granulocytes (IGs) has been recommended as a new indicator of systemic inflammation. However, data on the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat tissue thickness (EFT) and IGs in patients with AIS are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the presences of IGs, epicardial fat tissue and AIS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in a tertiary-care university hospital in Antalya, Turkey. METHODS: Our study included 53 AIS patients and 41 healthy controls with age and gender compatibility. Blood samples and transthoracic echocardiography of all participants were compared. RESULTS: IG levels were significantly higher in patients with AIS than in controls (0.62 ± 0.36 versus 0.28 ± 0.02, P < 0.001). The mean EFT was 3.74 ± 0.61 mm in the control group and 6.33 ± 1.47 mm in the AIS patient group. EFT was significantly greater in AIS patients than in controls (P < 0.001). For the optimum cut-off value for IG (0.95), the area under the curve (AUC) was determined to be 0.840; sensitivity was determined to be 81.1% and specificity, 92.5%. For the optimum cut-off value for EFT (4.95 mm), the AUC was determined to be 0.953; sensitivity was determined to be 90.6% and specificity, 90%. CONCLUSIONS: IG and echocardiographic EFT are clinical markers that can be used to predict AIS risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Echocardiography , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Granulocytes , Inflammation
9.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 390-397, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377390

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Reduced antioxidant defenses may reflect a poor protective response against oxidative stress and this may be implicated in progression of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia plays a major role in micro and macrovascular complications, which imply endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this study was to investigate the association between GDM and oxidative stress markers measured in plasma, with regard to revealing changes to total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) among mothers showing impairments in oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at a university hospital in Turkey. METHODS: The study group consisted of 50 mothers with GDM, and 59 healthy mothers served as controls. Umbilical cord blood samples were taken from all mothers during delivery and breast milk samples on the fifth day after delivery. TAC, TOS, thiol and disulfide levels were measured. RESULTS: No statistically significant relationship between the blood and milk samples could be found. An analysis on correlations between TAC, TOS and certain parameters revealed that there were negative correlations between TOS and total thiol (r = -0.386; P < 0.001) and between TOS and disulfide (r = -0.388; P < 0.001) in milk in the control group. However, these findings were not observed in the study group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that a compensatory mechanism of oxidative stress was expected to be present in gestational diabetes mellitus and that this might be ameliorated through good glycemic regulation and antioxidant supplementation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Prospective Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Milk/metabolism , Milk/chemistry , Disulfides/analysis , Fetal Blood/metabolism , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 454-462, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377387

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of head and neck cancers is highly challenging owing to the complexity of regional anatomy and wide range of lesions. The diagnostic evaluation includes detailed physical examination, biopsy and imaging modalities for disease extent and staging. Appropriate imaging is done to enable determination of precise tumor extent and involvement of lymph nodes, and detection of distant metastases and second primary tumors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial staging discrepancy between conventional contrasted computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on management plans for head and neck malignancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study in two tertiary-level hospitals. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with primary head and neck malignant tumors who underwent contrasted computed tomography and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments. The staging and treatment plans were compared with the incremental information obtained after 18F-FDG PET/CT. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET/CT was found to raise the stage in 33.3% of the cases and the treatment intent was altered in 43.3% of them, while there was no management change in the remaining 56.7%. 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity (96% versus 89.2%) and accuracy (93% versus 86.7%) than conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity and accuracy for detecting head and neck malignancy, in comparison with conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. 18F-FDG PET/CT improved the initial staging and substantially impacted the management strategy for head and neck malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
11.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 447-453, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377385

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, access to healthcare services may have become difficult, which may have led to an increase in chronic diseases and multimorbidity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of multimorbidity and its associated factors among adults living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study conducted in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: We included data from the two waves of the Prospective Study About Mental and Physical Health (PAMPA). Data were collected via online questionnaires between June and July 2020 (wave 1) and between December 2020 and January 2021 (wave 2). Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more diagnosed medical conditions. RESULTS: In total, 516 individuals were included, among whom 27.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 23.5-31.1) developed multimorbidity from wave 1 to 2. In adjusted regression models, female sex (hazard ratio, HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.19-3.24), middle-aged adults (31-59 years) (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.18-2.70) and older adults (60 or over) (HR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.25-4.61) showed higher risk of multimorbidity. Back pain (19.4%), high cholesterol (13.3%) and depression (12.2%) were the medical conditions with the highest proportions reported by the participants during wave 2. CONCLUSION: The incidence of multimorbidity during a six-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic was 27.1% in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Multimorbidity , Middle Aged
12.
Med. infant ; 29(2): 112-118, Junio 2022. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1381834

ABSTRACT

La bacteriemia representa una importante causa de morbimortalidad en pacientes oncológicos. Durante el episodio de neutropenia inducida por quimioterapia, un 15%­25% de los pacientes tendrá bacteriemia. Objetivo: identificar factores de riesgo asociados con bacteriemia en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos con neutropenia y fiebre. Material y métodos: estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con enfermedades hematooncológicas y neutropenia febril, internados en un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad entre julio de 2018 y mayo de 2019. Se excluyeron receptores de trasplante de médula ósea. Se compararon las características clínicas según se documentara bacteriemia (B) o no. Resultados: Se incluyeron 160 pacientes (p). Eran varones 93 (58%). La mediana de edad fue 81,5 meses (RIC 36-127,5). La enfermedad de base (EB) más frecuente fue: leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) 88 (55%). Se identificaron 20 (12,5%) pacientes con bacteriemia (B). En el análisis univariado hubo asociación entre B y LMA (p=0,003) y la internación en UCI (p=0,0001). En el modelo multivariado, ajustado por el resto de las variables, se identificaron la LMA (OR 8,24, IC95% 2,5-26,4; p<0,001) y la tiflitis (OR 5,86, IC95% 1,2-27,3; p=0,02) como factores relacionados con bacteriemia. Los principales microorganismos identificados fueron: estreptococos del grupo viridans 6 (30%), Escherichia coli 4 (20%) y estafilococos coagulasa negativos 3 (15%). Quince (75%) fueron bacteriemias secundarias a un foco clínico. El foco más frecuente fue el mucocutáneo (n=7, 35%). En esta cohorte de niños con cáncer y neutropenia febril, los factores asociados con bacteriemia fueron: la LMA, la tiflitis y la internación en UCI (AU)


Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in oncology patients. During an episode of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, 15%-25% of patients will develop bacteremia. Objective: to identify risk factors associated with bacteremia in pediatric oncology patients with neutropenia and fever. Material and methods: prospective cohort study. Patients with hematology-oncology diseases and febrile neutropenia, admitted to a tertiary-care pediatric hospital between July 2018 and May 2019 were included. Bone marrow transplant recipients were excluded. Clinical characteristics were compared according to whether or not bacteremia was recorded. Results: 160 patients were included of whom 93 (58%) were male. Median age was 81.5 months (IQR 36-127.5). The most common underlying disease was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in 88 patients (55%). Twenty (12.5%) patients with bacteremia were identified. In univariate analysis, an association was found between bacteremia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (p=0.003) and ICU admission (p=0.0001). In the multivariate model, adjusted for the remaining variables, AML (OR 8.24; 95%CI 2.5-26.4; p<0.001) and typhlitis (OR 5.86; 95%CI 1.2-27.3; p=0.02) were identified as factors related to bacteremia. The main microorganisms identified were viridans group streptococci in 6 (30%), Escherichia coli in 4 (20%), and coagulase negative staphylococci in 3 (15%). In 15 cases (75%), bacteremia was secondary to a clinical focus. The most frequent focus was mucocutaneous (n=7, 35%). In this cohort of children with cancer and febrile neutropenia, the factors associated with bacteremia were AML, typhlitis, and ICU admission (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Immunocompromised Host
13.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 37(1): 2-8, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396937

ABSTRACT

Introducción: C. albicans es reconocida como la especie más virulenta del género y representa la causa más frecuente de candidiasis en humanos. A nivel taxonómico, C.albicans se clasifica como un complejo de especies estrechamente relacionadas que incluye a C. albicans sensu stricto (s.s), C. dubliniensis y C. africana. Objetivo: identificar las especies del complejo C. albicans aisladas desde distintas muestras de pacientes de la quinta región de Valparaíso. Materiales y método: Se identificaron 103 cepas del complejo C. albicans, aisladas desde muestras superficiales y profundas durante el año 2020. La identificación se realizó en base a morfofisiología y la amplificación del gen HWP1. Resultados: Se identificaron 100 cepas como C. albicans s.s, 2 como C. dubliniensis y 1 como C. africana. Dentro de las cepas identificadas como C. albicans s.s se observaron cuatro patrones de tamaños de fragmentos genéticos. Conclusiones: C. albicans s.s fue la especie más frecuente y en base al genotipo de HPW1 se describen cuatro patrones ( H1 a H4). (AU)


Introduction: C. albicans is recognized as the most virulent species of the genus and represents the major cause of candidiasis in humans. At the taxonomic level, C. albicansis classified as a complex of closely related species that includes C. albicans sensu stricto (s.s), C. dubliniensis, and C. africana. Objective: to identify the species of the C. albicans complex isolated from different samples of patients from the fifth region of Valparaíso. Materials and method: 103 strains of the C. albicans complex were identified, isolated from superficial and deep samples during the year 2020. The identification was carried out based on morphophysiology and the amplification of the HWP1 gene. Results: 100 strains were identified as C. albicans s.s, 2 as C. dubliniensis and 1 as C. africana. Within the strains identified as C. albicans s.s, 4 patterns of fragment sizes were observed. Conclusions: C. albicans s.s was the most frequent species and based on the HPW1 genotype, four patterns are described (H1 to H4).(AU)


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/classification , Chile , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): 167-173, junio 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368141

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Describir el uso de la guía ecográfica en el cateterismo venoso central, comparando el número de intentos (1 versus 2 o más intentos), en relación con los catéteres insertados en vena yugular interna (VYI) versus vena femoral (VF). Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo de catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) colocados mediante punción ecoguiada en pacientes de 1 mes a 18 años. Se realizó un modelo de regresión multivariado considerando el punto final primario, éxito a la primera punción en relación con el sitio de inserción (VYI versus VF) y variables predictoras de éxito. Resultados. Se colocaron 257 CVC, VYI 118 (45,9 %), VF 139 (54,1 %); 161 (62,7 %) insertados en la primera punción y 96 (37,3 %) requirieron más de una punción. Las inserciones en VYI fueron exitosas en la primera punción en 86 pacientes (53,5 %) y en VF fueron 75 (46,5 %) (p 0,0018; OR: 0,43 [IC95%: 0,24-0,76]). Hubo 21 (8,1 %) complicaciones inmediatas, 3 (1,86 %) se relacionaron con la primera punción, 18 (18,75 %) lo hicieron con más de una punción (p 0,0001 [IC95%: 3,36-45,68]). Las complicaciones graves, como neumotórax, fueron 4. Conclusiones. El cateterismo venoso guiado por ultrasonido demostró ser significativamente exitoso en el primer intento cuando el vaso de elección fue la VYI comparado con VF, especialmente en menores de 6 meses. Las complicaciones inmediatas fueron más frecuentes en los pacientes que requirieron más de una punción


Objectives. Describe ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization use comparing the number of attempts (1 versus 2 or more attempts) in relation to catheters placed in the internal jugular vein (IJV) versus the femoral vein (FV). Material and methods. Descriptive, prospective study of central venous catheters (CVCs) inserted via ultrasound-guided puncture in patients aged 1 month to 18 years. A multivariate regression model was done considering the primary endpoint, first puncture success in relation to the insertion site (IJV versus FV), and predictors of success. Results. A total of 257 CVCs were inserted: IJV 118 (45.9%), FV 139 (54.1%); 161 (62.7%) were inserted in the first attempt and 96 (37.3%) required more than 1 attempt. IJV insertions were successful with the first puncture in 86 patients (53.5%) and FV insertions, in 75 (46.5%) (p 0.0018; OR: 0.43 [95% CI: 0.24-0.76]). There were 21 (8.1%) immediate complications: 3 (1.86%) were related to the first puncture, 18 (18.75%), to more than 1 puncture (p 0.0001 [95% CI: 3.36-45.68]). There were 4 cases of severe complications, including pneumothorax. Conclusions. Ultrasound-guided venous catheterization demonstrated to be significantly successful in the first attempt when using the IJV versus FV, especially in infants younger than 6 months. Immediate complications occurred more frequently in patients requiring more than 1 puncture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Intensive Care Units , Jugular Veins/diagnostic imaging
15.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 113-119, 20220000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372907

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones urinarias complicadas, dentro de las cuales se encuentran las asociadas a catéteres, son un hallazgo frecuente de la práctica clínica. Las complicaciones infecciosas después de los procedimientos urológicos son una fuente importante de morbimortalidad y consumen múltiples recursos sanitarios. La colonización bacteriana en el catéter ureteral juega un papel esencial en la patogénesis de la infección, y el uso de profilaxis antimicrobiana en urología es controvertido. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar la utilidad de la profilaxis antibiótica en la extracción del catéter doble J


Complicated urinary infections, among which are those associated with catheters, are a frequent finding in clinical practice. Infectious complications after urological procedures are an important source of morbidity and mortality and consume multiple healthcare resources. Bacterial colonization in the ureteral catheter plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of infection, and the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in urology is controversial. Te objective of our work was to evaluate the usefulness of antibiotic prophylaxis in the extraction of the double J catheter


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Chi-Square Distribution , Stents , Prospective Studies , Aftercare , Ureteroscopy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Cystoscopes , Nephrolithiasis/surgery , Urinary Catheters
16.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 120-125, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373050

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El manejo inmediato del dolor postoperatorio es esencial para una comodidad y rehabilitación temprana del paciente Este estudio busca evaluar el efecto analgésico postoperatorio inmediato en cirugías de columna lumbosacra por vía posterior, como los efectos adversos con la administración de analgesia intratecal, usando Clonidina contra Morfina. Material y métodos: Es un estudio analítico de intervención, cuasi experimental, prospectivo, longitudinal, comparativo, doble ciego. Para comparar la eficacia de la analgesia intratecal post operatoria inmediata en cirugías de columna lumbosacra primarias por vía posterior y los efectos adversos. Los pacientes se distribuyeron en dos grupos previamente designados, a un grupo se le administro Clonidina 0.5 microgramos/kg/peso y a otro grupo Morfina 5 microgramos/Kg/Peso. intratecal, intraoperatorio. Resultados: Existió diferencia estadísticamente significativa con mejor manejo del dolor postoperatorio en las primeras horas y menor presencia de vómitos en el grupo de pacientes que se utilizó Clonidina intratecal. No existió diferencia estadísticamente significativa de ambas medicaciones intratecales en la valoración de otros efectos adversos. Discusión: El uso de la analgesia intratecal ha ido ganando relevancia en el tiempo y se fueron sumando estudios para ver la eficacia de diferentes medicamentos, diferentes dosis, menor presencia de efectos adversos. El estudio analiza estas variables buscando una mejor opción terapéutica. Tenemos a favor una muestra representativa a pesar de no ser aleatoria, estricto seguimiento, y análisis estadístico adecuado. Conclusión: La Clonidina intratecal es más efectiva para manejo del dolor post operatorio inmediato de cirugías de columna lumbosacra por vía posterior y con menor presencia de efectos adversos


Introduction: Immediate postoperative pain management is essential for the patient's greater comfort and early rehabilitation. Te goal of this study is to evaluate the immediate analgesic postoperative effect in posterior lumbosacral spine surgery, as well as the adverse effects of the administration of intrathecal analgesia, using Clonidine versus Morphine. Material and methods: An analytical, quasi-experimental, prospective, longitudinal, comparative, double-blinded intervention study was conducted to compare the efficacy of immediate postoperative intrathecal analgesia in primary posterior lumbosacral spine surgery, and the adverse effects. Te patients were divided into two previously designated groups. One group received Clonidine 0.5 microgramos/kg and the other group received Morphine 5 microgramos/kg. Intrathecal, intraoperative. Results: Tere was a statistically significant difference with better postoperative pain management in the first hours and less vomiting in the group of patients who received intrathecal Clonidine. Tere was no statistically significant difference between both intrathecal medications in the evaluation of other adverse effects. Discussion: Te use of intrathecal analgesia, has been on the rise over time and more studies have been conducted to see the efficacy of different drugs, different doses, with fewer adverse effects. Tis study to analyze these variables with a view to finding a better therapeutic option. Te advantage is having a representative if not random sample, strict follow-up, and appropriate statistical analysis Conclusion: Intrathecal Clonidine proved to be more effective in immediate postoperative pain management after posterior lumbosacral spine surgery and with fewer adverse effects


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Pain Measurement , Analgesia, Epidural/methods , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Clonidine/administration & dosage , Aftercare , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Lumbosacral Region/surgery , Morphine/administration & dosage
17.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(1): 1-11, may. 11, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399818

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Journal clubs are a strategy that allows students to be exposed to critical appraisal of articles from the early stages of their training. Its long term impact on the formation of competencies is debated. Objetive: To evaluate if the sessions of a Journal Club increase the confidence that Dentistry students have in their abilities to critically appraise a clinical trial. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study that involved 21 students from the Faculty of Dentistry of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima, Peru) who participated in six Journal Club monthly sessions. The sessions involved the analysis and discussion of clinical trials. Confidence to critically appraise an article before and after was assessed using a self-administered scale. Final and baseline scores were analyzed using a Wilcoxon test. Results: Nineteen students finished all the sessions. Scores before the sessions were on average 2.09±1.17, while after the sixth session an average of 3.53±0.26 was obtained (p<0.05). Both males and females had improved scores after the sessions; however, there were no differences between them (p=0.08). The third- and fourth-year students presented significant changes in their scores (p<0.05). Conclusion: The constant participation in the sessions of a Journal Club improved the confidence that students have when critically evaluating a clinical trial article.


Introducción: Los clubes de revistas son una estrategia que permiten exponer a los estudiantes a la valoración crítica de artículos desde etapas tempranas de su formación. Su impacto a largo plazo en la formación de competencias es discutido. Objetivo: Evaluar si las sesiones de un Club de Revistas permiten aumentar la confianza que tienen los estudiantes de Odontología en las habilidades para valorar críticamente un ensayo clínico. Material y Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo que involucró 21 estudiantes de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima. Perú) que participaron de seis sesiones mensuales de un Club de Revistas. Las sesiones implicaron el análisis y discusión de ensayos clínicos. Se evaluó la confianza para valorar críticamente un artículo antes y después a través de una escala autoadministrada. Las puntuaciones finales y basales se analizaron a través de una prueba de Wilcoxon. Resultados: 19 estudiantes finalizaron la totalidad de las sesiones. Las puntuaciones antes de las sesiones eviden-ciaron una media de 2,09 ± 1,17, mientras que después de la sexta sesión se obtuvo una media de 3,53 ± 0,26 (p<0,05). Tanto varones como mujeres evidenciaron mejorar su puntuación media luego de las sesiones; sin embargo, no evidenciaron diferencias entre ellos (p=0,08). Los estudiantes de tercer y cuarto año presentaron cambios significativos de sus puntuaciones (p<0,05). Conclusión: La participación constante a las sesiones de un Club de Revistas permitió mejorar la confianza que tienen los estudiantes al momento de valorar críticamente un artículo del tipo ensayo clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Periodicals as Topic , Students, Dental , Evidence-Based Medicine , Education, Dental/methods , Peru , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust
18.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 25-30, maio 05,2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370544

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar a incidência, os fatores associados e o impacto das complicações pulmonares no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica. Metodologia: estudo de coorte, prospectivo, que incluiu lactentes e crianças submetidas à cirurgia cardíaca em um hospital pediátrico, no período de novembro de 2016 a julho de 2019. Foram coletados dados dos prontuários referentes ao sexo, idade, presença de outras malformações associadas, tipo de cardiopatia, ocorrência de complicações pulmonares, tempo de ventilação mecânica (VM) e de internamento na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) e óbito. Resultados: a amostra foi constituída por 111 lactentes e crianças, mediana da idade de 13 meses (7-32 meses), 54,1% do sexo feminino. Quanto ao tipo de cardiopatia, 80,2% foram cianogênicas. As complicações pulmonares ocorreram em 44,1% dos casos, sendo a mais frequente a atelectasia. A mediana do tempo de VM foi 8 horas (1-48h) e 45 (40,5%) permaneceram na VM por mais de 24h. A mediana do tempo de internamento na UTI foi de 7 dias (4-12dias). Evoluíram a óbito 7 (14,3%) pacientes. Conclusão: a amostra investigada apresentou incidência elevada de complicações pulmonares no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca


Objective: to determine the incidence, associated factors and impact of pulmonary complications in the postoperative period of pediatric cardiac surgery. Methodology: prospective cohort study, which included infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery in a pediatric hospital, from November 2016 to July 2019. Data were collected from medical records regarding sex, age, presence of other associated malformations, type of heart disease, occurrence of pulmonary complications, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and death. Results: the sample consisted of 111 infants and children, median age 13 months (7-32 months), 54.1% female. As for the type of heart disease, 80.2% were acyanotic. Pulmonary complications occurred in 44.1% of cases, with atelectasis being the most frequent. The median time on mechanical ventilation (MV) was 8 hours (1-48h) and 45 (40.5%) remained on MV for more than 24h. The median length of stay in the ICU was 7 days (4-12 days). 7 (14.3%) patients died. Conclusion: the investigated sample had a high incidence of pulmonary complications in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Thoracic Surgery , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Heart Defects, Congenital , Hospitals, Pediatric , Respiration, Artificial , Prospective Studies , Heart Diseases
19.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 164-170, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367405

ABSTRACT

Introducción: a pesar de que la técnica de papanicolaou es el método más eficaz para la prevención y detección del cáncer cervicouterino, la precisión de esta herramienta sigue siendo controversial; debido a esto, existen esfuerzos médicos y científicos para mejorar la calidad del procedimiento. Objetivo: comparar la calidad en la toma de muestra entre la técnica convencional y la modificada. Material y métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo y comparativo en 150 muestras de citología cervical (75 muestras técnica convencional y 75 en técnica modificada) en mujeres de 25 a 64 años. Se analizaron variables emográficas, características del cérvix y calidad de la muestra. Se realizó estadística descriptiva y medidas de asociación. Estudio con riesgo mayor que el mínimo. Todas las participantes firmaron consentimiento informado. Resultados: la calidad de la muestra fue satisfactoria en el 92% para la técnica convencional frente al 89.3% para la técnica modificada. La causa principal de muestras insatisfactorias fue la celularidad insuficiente, la cual se presentó en el 6.7% de las muestras con técnica convencional frente al 12% de la técnica modificada, sin diferencia significativa entre ambas técnicas p = 0.575 (1.37; 0.45-4.1), hallazgos que rechazan la hipótesis de trabajo. Conclusiones: no hubo diferencia significativa al utilizar ambas pruebas, las muestras con calidad satisfactoria fueron similares entre ambas técnicas.


Background: Despite the fact that the Papanicolaou technique is the most effective method of prevention and detection of cervical cancer, the precision of this tool remains controversial; Because of this, there are medical and scientific efforts to improve the quality of the procedure. Objective: Compare the quality of sampling between the conventional and modified technique. Material and methods: Descriptive and comparative observational study in 150 cervical cytology samples (75 conventional technique samples and 75 in modified technique) in women aged 25 to 64 years. Demographic variables, characteristics of the cervix and quality of the sample were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and association measures were performed. Study with risk greater than the minimum. All participants signed an informed consent. Results: The quality of the sample was satisfactory in 92.0% for the conventional technique vs 89.3% for the modified technique. The main cause of unsatisfactory samples was insufficient cellularity 6.7% in conventional technique vs 12% of the modified technique, with no significant difference between both techniques p = 0.575 (1.37; 0.45-4.1), findings that reject the working hypothesis. Conclusions: There was no significant difference when using both tests, the samples with satisfactory quality were similar between both techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Papanicolaou Test/methods , Quality Control , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Saline Solution
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 106-: I-110, II, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363696

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los cambios en la rutina y en el entramado social que generó la pandemia por COVID-19 afectaron a los niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNyA). El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer el estado de ánimo, las emociones y las conductas de los NNyA durante el aislamiento por COVID-19. Población y métodos . Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo y transversal. Se preguntó a los padres y/o cuidadores de niños de 3 a 15 años de edad, de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, cómo percibían el estado de ánimo, las conductas y las emociones de los NNyA durante el período de aislamiento. Resultados. Se incluyeron 1080 cuestionarios. El 81 % de los padres y/o cuidadores advirtió algún cambio en la salud emocional de los NNyA. El 76 % refirió que los niños de 3-5 años se mostraban aburridos, enojados y angustiados. Además, observaron un aumento de los episodios de llanto (52 %) y regresión a comportamientos ya superados (29 %). En el grupo de 6-11 años, el 43 % presentó dificultad en mantener la concentración. En 3 de cada 10 adolescentes, de 12 a 15 años de edad, los adultos percibieron abandono de actividades que antes disfrutaban, preocupación y tristeza. Conclusión. La pandemia de COVID-19 impactó en el estado de ánimo, las conductas y las emociones de los NNyA. Predominaron los sentimientos negativos, como aburrimiento, tristeza, angustia y preocupación.


Introduction. Changes in daily routine and social fabric resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic had an effect on children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to know the mood, emotions, and behaviors of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown. Population and methods. This was a prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Parents and/or caregivers of children and adolescents aged 3-15 years in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires were asked about their perceptions of the mood, behaviors, and emotions of children and adolescents during the lockdown. Results. A total of 1080 questionnaires were included. Results showed that 81% of parents and/or caregivers observed changes in children and adolescents emotional health; 76% referred that children aged 3-5 years were bored, angry, and upset. They also observed an increase in crying spells (52%) and regression to behaviors that had been outgrown (29%). In the 6-11-year-old group, 43% showed difficulty focusing. Adults noticed that 3 out of 10 adolescents aged 12-15 years discontinued activities they used to enjoy and were sad and worried. Conclusion. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted on the mood, behaviors, and emotions of children and adolescents. Negative feelings prevailed, such as boredom, sadness, anxiety, and worry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Prospective Studies , Emotions , Pandemics
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