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West Indian med. j ; 67(4): 334-343, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045859


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare all-cause-mortality in screening-detected prostate cancer cases versus non-cases after a median 12.2-year follow-up. Methods: In this prospective, population-based study of 3089 Afro-Caribbean men aged 40-79 years in Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies, all men were screened for prostate cancer (serum prostate specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam) one to three times between 1997 and 2007 and followed for mortality to 2012. Among 502 men diagnosed with prostate cancer, 81 younger men underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy. Minimal treatment was available for older men. Survival curves compared all-cause-mortality in cases versus non-cases within 10-year age groups at first screening. Results: There were 350 all-cause-deaths over 34 089 person-years of follow-up. All-cause-survival curves in men aged 60 years or above at first screening did not diverge between cases and non-cases until after 10-12 years of follow-up (p > 0.36). In contrast, among men first screened at age 50-59 years, survival was lower in cases, with survival curves diverging at seven years (p = 0.003). Survival in men aged 50-59 years who underwent prostatectomy was similar to survival in non-cases (p = 0.63). Conclusion: Among men aged 60 years or above, the absence of excess all-cause-mortality among screening-detected prostate cancer cases provides argument against the utility of routine prostate cancer screening in this older population of African descent. However, the significantly poorer survival in men aged 50-59 years with screening-detected prostate cancer, compared with screened men without prostate cancer, along with the potential for prostate cancer treatment to improve survival, supports the continuation of prostate cancer screening in this age group, pending further research to assess the risks and benefits.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Comparar la mortalidad por todas las causas en casos de cáncer de próstata frente a no casos tras un seguimiento medio de 12.2 años. Métodos: En este estudio prospectivo poblacional de 3089 hombres afrocaribeños de 40-79 años en Tobago, Trinidad y Tobago, West Indies, todos los hombres fueron expuestos a tamizaje de cáncer de próstata (antígeno prostático específico en suero y/o examen rectal digital) de una a tres veces entre 1997 y 2007, y a un seguimiento de la mortalidad hasta 2012. De entre los 502 hombres diagnosticados con cáncer de próstata, a 81 hombres de los más jóvenes se les practicó una prostatectomía retropúbica radical. El tratamiento mínimo estuvo disponible para los hombres mayores. Las curvas de supervivencia compararon la mortalidad por todas las causas en los casos frente a los no casos dentro de los grupos de edades de 10 años en la primera tamización. Resultados: Hubo 350 muertes por todas las causas con más de 34 089 persona-años de seguimiento. Las curvas de supervivencia por todas las causas en hombres de 60 años o más en el primer tamizaje, no divergieron entre casos y no casos hasta después de 10 a 12 años de seguimiento (p > 0.36). En cambio, entre los hombres tamizados por primera vez a la edad 50-59 años, la supervivencia fue menor en los casos, con curvas de supervivencia divergentes a los siete años (p = 0.003). La supervivencia en los hombres de 50-59 años que tuvieron prostatectomía fue similar a la supervivencia en los no casos (p = 0.63). Conclusión: Entre los hombres de 60 años o más, la ausencia de exceso de mortalidad por todas las causas entre los casos de cáncer de próstata detectados por tamizaje proporciona argumentos contra la utilidad de la tamización rutinaria del cáncer de próstata en esta población mayor de ascendencia africana. Sin embargo, la supervivencia significativamente más pobre en hombres de 50 a 59 años con cáncer de próstata detectado mediante tamizaje - en comparación con los hombres tamizados sin cáncer de próstata, además de las posibilidades de tratamiento del cáncer de próstata para mejorar la supervivencia - respalda la continuación del tamizaje del cáncer de próstata en este grupo etario, quedando pendiente una investigación ulterior a fin de evaluar sus riesgos y beneficios.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Black People , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Trinidad and Tobago/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Mass Screening , Prospective Studies
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 697-703, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954078


ABSTRACT Introduction: We compared characteristics of patients undergoing prostate biopsy in a high-risk inner city population before and after the 2012 USPSTF recommendation against PSA based prostate cancer screening to determine its effect on prostate biopsy practices. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study including patients who received biopsies after an abnormal PSA measurement from October 2008-December 2015. Patients with previously diagnosed prostate cancer were excluded. Chi-square tests of independence, two sample t-tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher's exact tests were performed. Results: There were 202 and 208 patients in the pre-USPSTF and post-USPSTF recommendation cohorts, respectively. The post-USPSTF cohort had higher median PSA (7.8 versus 7.1ng/mL, p=0.05), greater proportion of patients who were black (96.6% versus 90.5%, p=0.01), and greater percentage of biopsy cores positive for disease (58% versus 29.5%, p<0.001). Multivariable analysis supported that the increase in PSA was independent of the increase in the proportion of patients who were black. The proportion of patients who were classified as D'Amico intermediate and high-risk disease increased in the post-USPSTF cohort and approached statistical significance (70.1% versus 58.8%, p=0.12). Conclusions: Our study suggests that the USPSTF recommendations may have led to an increase in pre-biopsy PSA as well as greater volume of disease. Also, a greater proportion of patients were being classified with intermediate or high risk disease. While the clinical significance of these findings is unknown, what the data suggests is somewhat troubling. Future research should further examine these changes in a larger cohort as well as resultant long-term outcomes.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Risk Assessment/methods , Image-Guided Biopsy/standards , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Reference Standards , Hospitals, Urban , Multivariate Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 500-505, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954061


ABSTRACT Background: The association of prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) polymorphism (SNP, rs544190G>A) with metastatic prostate cancer in European descent has been reported. Our aim of the current study was to re-validate the effect of PCA3 polymorphism on prostate cancer risk in an Eastern Chinese population and then estimate possible genetic discrepancies among population. Materials and Methods: Taqman assay was employed to determine genotype of SNP rs544190 in 1015 ethnic Han Chinese patients with prostate cancer and 1032 cancer-free controls. Simultaneously, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for risk relationship were calculated by logistic regression models. Results: The statistically significant relationship between PCA3 rs544190G>A and higher prostate cancer risk was not found. Stratification analysis revealed that there was no remarkable association of rs544190 variant AG/AA genotype with prostate cancer risk in every subgroup, except for patients with Gleason score ≤7(3+4). Conclusion: Although the results demonstrated that SNP rs544190 was not involved in prostate cancer risk in Eastern Chinese descent, unlike in European population, these might have clinical implications on prostate cancer heterogeneity around the World. To validate these findings, well-designed studies with different ethnic populations are warranted.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Risk Assessment/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Asian People/genetics , Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Smoking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression , Logistic Models , China , Risk Factors , Genetic Association Studies , Neoplasm Grading , Genotype , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 63(8): 704-710, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896386


Summary Objective: To evaluate the relation between serum total testosterone (TT) and prostate cancer (PCa) grade and the effect of race and demographic characteristics on such association. Method: We analyzed 695 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), of whom 423 had serum TT collected. Patients were classified as having hypogonadism or eugonadism based on two thresholds of testosterone: threshold 1 (300 ng/dL) and threshold 2 (250 ng/dL). We evaluated the relation between TT levels and a Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7 in RP specimens. Outcomes were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses, accounting for race and other demographic predictors. Results: Out of 423 patients, 37.8% had hypogonadism based on the threshold 1 and 23.9% based on the threshold 2. Patients with hypogonadism, in both thresholds, had a higher chance of GS ≥ 7 (OR 1.79, p=0.02 and OR 2.08, p=0.012, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, TT, body mass index (BMI) and race, low TT (p=0.023) and age (p=0.002) were found to be independent risk factors for GS ≥ 7. Among Black individuals, low serum TT was a stronger predictor of high-grade disease compared to White men (p=0.02). Conclusion: Hypogonadism is independently associated to higher GS in localized PCa. The effect of this association is significantly more pronounced among Black men and could partly explain aggressive characteristics of PCa found in this race.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre testosterona sérica total (TT) e grau do câncer de próstata (CP) e o efeito da raça e de características demográficas sobre essa associação. Método: Foram analisados 695 pacientes submetidos a prostatectomia radical (PR), dos quais 423 tinham medidas dos níveis séricos de TT. Os pacientes foram classificados como portadores de hipogonadismo ou eugonadismo com base em dois limites de testosterona: limite 1 (300 ng/dL) e limite 2 (250 ng/dL). Avaliou-se a relação entre nível de TT e escore Gleason (GS) ≥ 7 em amostras de PR. Os resultados foram avaliados por análises univariada e multivariada, com ajuste para raça e outros fatores prognósticos demográficos. Resultados: Do total de 423 pacientes, 37,8% apresentavam hipogonadismo com base no limite 1, e 23,9% com base no limite 2. Os pacientes com hipogonadismo, independentemente do limite de referência, tiveram uma chance maior de GS ≥ 7 (OR 1,79, p=0,02 e OR 2,08, p=0,012, respectivamente). Na análise multivariada, após ajuste para idade, TT, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e raça, baixo TT (p=0,023) e idade (p=0,002) foram considerados fatores de risco independentes para GS ≥ 7. Entre os indivíduos negros, baixo TT sérico foi mais preditivo de doença de alto grau em comparação com os brancos (p=0,02). Conclusão: O hipogonadismo é independentemente associado a escores mais altos de GS no CP localizado. O efeito dessa associação é significativamente mais pronunciado entre homens negros, o que poderia explicar, em parte, as características agressivas do CP observadas nessa população.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Testosterone/deficiency , Testosterone/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Hypogonadism/blood , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Neoplasm Grading , Hypogonadism/complications , Hypogonadism/ethnology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(2): 360-366, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748293


Objectives To evaluate if the different results of prostate cancer risk between black and white Brazilian men may be associated with the varying methodology used to define participants as either Blacks or Whites. Patients and Methods We evaluated median PSA values, rate of PSA level ≥4.0 ng/mL, indications for prostate biopsy, prostate cancer detection rate, biopsy/cancer rate, cancer/biopsy rate, and the relative risk of cancer between blacks versus whites, blacks versus non-blacks (browns and whites), non-whites (browns and blacks) versus whites, African versus non-African descendants, and African descendants or blacks versus non-African descendants and non-blacks. Results From 1544 participants, there were 51.4% whites, 37.2% browns, 11.4% blacks, and 5.4% African descendants. Median PSA level was 0.9 ng/mL in whites, browns, and non-African descendants, compared to 1.2 ng/mL in blacks, and African descendants or blacks, and 1.3 ng/mL in African descendants. Indications for prostate biopsy were present in 16.9% for African descendants, 15.9% of black, 12.3% of white, 11.4% for non-African descendants, and 9.9% of brown participants. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 30.3% of performed biopsies: 6.2% of African descendants, 5.1% of blacks, 3.3% of whites, 3.0% of non-African descendants, and 2.6% of browns. Conclusions Median PSA values were higher for Blacks versus Whites in all classification systems, except for non-white versus white men. The rate of prostate biopsy, prostate cancer detection rate, and relative risk for cancer was increased in African descendants, and African descendants or blacks, compared to non-African descendants, and non-African descendants and non-blacks, respectively. .

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Black People/ethnology , Ethnology/classification , White People/ethnology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Risk Assessment/methods , Black People/classification , Biopsy , Brazil/ethnology , White People/classification , Multivariate Analysis , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Reference Values , Risk Factors
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2014. ix,88 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-745470


A idade é considerada um importante fator de risco para o câncer. Com o crescimento do número de idosos na população, os casos de câncer em idosos serão cada vez mais frequentes.Devido a heterogeneidade que apresenta a população idosa, a Avaliação Geriátrica Multidimensional (AGM) tem sido utilizada para a determinação da saúde global de idoso com câncer e orientar a condução do tratamento. O domínio nutricional é um componente importante dessa avaliação, já que o risco nutricional está associado à ocorrência de efeitos adversos à saúde do idoso. O objetivo da dissertação foi caracterizar o perfil nutricional,estimar a prevalência de risco nutricional / desnutrição e avaliar fatores associados em pacientes idosos com câncer de próstata incidente no período que precede a definição da terapêutica oncológica, em Campo Grande, MS e no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Este é um estudo seccional com 333 idosos. Foram analisadas variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e da AGM.O risco nutricional foi avaliado com a Mini Avaliação Nutricional reduzida (MANR). Foi também avaliado o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) segundo a classificação de Lipschitz. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado para analisar diferenças entre as distribuições das categorias de classificação da MANR e do IMC segundo os itens componentes da MANR. A regressão de Poisson foi empregada na análise múltipla para avaliar a associação entre as diferentes covariáveis do estudo e a variável dependente. A idade média da população foi de 69,02 (mais ou menos 6,53) anos. Entre os idosos 73,0 por cento apresentavam estado nutricional adequado; 23,0 por cento a presentavam risco nutricional e 4,0 por cento eram desnutrição. As variáveis da MANR apresentaram proporções de idosos elevadas nos itens indicativos de risco / desnutrição com significância estatística...

Age is considered an important risk factor for cancer. With the growth of the number of eldersin the population, cancer cases will be more frequent. Due to the heterogeneity of the elderpopulation, the Multidimensional Geriatric Assessment (MGA) has been used to determinethe health condition of older adults with cancer and to aid in the conduction of treatment. Thenutritional domain is an important component of this evaluation, as it is associated withadverse health effects in elders. The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritionalprofile, to estimate the prevalence of nutritional risk/malnutrition and to evaluate associatedfactors, before therapeutic decision, in elders with incident prostate cancer, receivingoncological care in the National Health System in Campo Grande, MS and in Rio deJaneiro, RJ. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 333 elders. Socio-demographic, clinical and MGA variables were analyzed. Nutritional risk was evaluated by MNA-SF. TheIMC was evaluated according to the Lipschitz classification. Chi-square test was used to testthe statistical significance of differences among categories of the MNA-SF and the BMI classifications, according to the items that comprise the instrument. Poisson regression wasused for multivariate analysis in order to evaluate associations between the co-variables anddependent variable. Mean age was 69.02 (...) years. Among the older patients, 73.0 per cent hadadequate nutritional status; 23.0 per cent were at nutritional risk and 4.0 per cent had malnutrition. TheMNA-SF variables presented high proportions of elders in the items that indicate nutritionalrisk / malnutrition with statistical significance...

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Geriatric Assessment , Malnutrition , Nutritional Status , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Risk , Risk Factors
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(6): 539-545, 02/jul. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679205


Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4'ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P<0.0001). Median serum PSA, prostate volume, and PSA density values were 6.1'ng/mL, 47.3 g, and 0.12'ng·mL−1·g−1, respectively, for MUHC patients and 5.2'ng/mL, 64.5'g, and 0.08'ng·mL−1·g−1, respectively, for KSUH patients (P<0.0001, t-test followed by one-way ANOVA). In addition, the KSUH group had a significantly lower PCa detection rate among patients younger than 60 years of age and with PSA values <10'ng/mL.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Organ Size , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Saudi Arabia/ethnology , Canada/ethnology , Analysis of Variance , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Digital Rectal Examination/statistics & numerical data , Image-Guided Biopsy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 38(6): 769-778, Nov-Dec/2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666016



To evaluate the significance of several risk factors for prostate cancer in a cohort of Brazilian men.

Subjects and methods: Men ≥ 40 years-old participating in a prostate cancer screening program between December 2006 and April 2011 in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, were evaluated to determine the prevalence, relative risk (RR) and 95% CI of prostate cancer according to age, race, ethnicity, family history of prostate cancer, educational level, and history of vasectomy, increased blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and urethritis. Results

In 2121 men included in this study, prostate cancer prevalence was 0.6% for men between 40-49 years versus 2.0% (adjusted RR = 2.58), 7.7% (adjusted RR = 5.76), and 8.4% (adjusted RR = 4.88) for men 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and ≥ 70 years, respectively (p < 0.05 to all). The prevalence of cancer was 5.1% in blacks versus 3.3% in whites (adjusted RR = 1.56, p > 0.05); 6.1% in African descendants, in comparison to 3.0% in non-African descendants (adjusted RR = 3.17, p < 0.05); 5.1% in men with a positive family history, compared to 2.5% in those with no family history (adjusted RR = 1.55, p > 0.05); and 4.8% in participants with incomplete elementary school level or lower, compared to 2.2% in men with complete elementary school level or higher education (adjusted RR = 1.85, p > 0.05). Men with/without history of vasectomy, increased blood pressure, diabetes, and urethritis had a prostate cancer prevalence of 0.8%/3.0% (adjusted RR = 0.23, p > 0.05), 3.8%/2.2% (adjusted RR = 1.16, p > 0.05), 3.7%/2.6% (adjusted RR = 1.39, p > 0.05), and 2.6%/2.6% (adjusted RR = 0.99, p > 0.05), respectively. Conclusions

Risk factors associated with an increased prevalence of prostate cancer in this cohort ...

Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
Int. braz. j. urol ; 38(4): 440-447, July-Aug. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649436


BACKGROUND: Black men have a higher incidence of prostate cancer compared with White men in several countries. In Brazil, most studies reported a similar prevalence of prostate cancer between Blacks and Whites as a result of the high race mixture of the population. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of the prevalence of prostate cancer in Black versus White, Brown versus White, and Black versus Brown Brazilian men. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This systematic review included cohort, cross sectional and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of prostate cancer between races in Brazil. It was performed using an electronic search of references in bibliographic databases, and dissertations and theses databases from several Brazilian hospitals, universities, and schools of medicine. Meta-analysis was conducted using the RevMan software from the Cochrane Collaboration. To control for potential confounding variables, sensitivity analyses excluding case-control and cross sectional studies were performed. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes of interest included the number of participants, prevalence of prostate cancer, and odds ratio of cancer between Black and White men, Brown and White men, and Black and Brown men. Results and Limitations: Twelve studies approaching the prevalence of prostate cancer in Black or Brown vs. White men in Brazil were identified, totalizing 41388 participants. The prevalence of prostate cancer was 9.6% in Black vs. 5.6% in White men (OR 1.58), 10.1% in Black vs. 6.7% in Brown men (OR 1.43), and 6.7% in Brown vs. 6.6% in White men (OR 1.14). Limitations of this review reflect the complexity and ambiguity in the definition of who is Black and who is not in such an heterogeneous population like the Brazilian people. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review with meta-analysis demonstrates a higher prevalence of prostate cancer in Black men compared to White or Brown Brazilian men. The prevalence of prostate cancer is similar in Brown versus White men.

Humans , Male , Black People/statistics & numerical data , White People/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Brazil/ethnology , Epidemiologic Studies , Ethnicity/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology
West Indian med. j ; 60(1): 9-12, Jan. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672709


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the trends in incidence and age-distribution of prostate cancer in Kingston and St Andrew (KSA), Jamaica, over the 30-year period 1978-2007. METHODS: From published Jamaica Cancer Registry (JCR) data, we extracted age-standardized rates of prostate cancer for the six 5-year reporting periods that comprised the 30-year study span, and from the archived files ofthe JCR, the patient ages at diagnosis for all prostate cancer cases recorded over the 30-year period were extracted. The results were compared with data from other black populations. RESULTS: The incidence of prostate cancer in KSA, Jamaica, is lower than that in black men in the United States and United Kingdom. The KSA incidence showed a progressive increase since the 1983-1987 reporting period, and the greatest 5-year percentage increases were seen over the period 1983 to 1997. Men in the 60-74-year age group were the commonest contributors to prostate cancer total in all 5-year periods examined, and between 1988 and 2007, there were increases in the proportionate contributions from the 25-59 and 60-74-year age groups, and a decrease in contribution from men aged 75 years and older. CONCLUSION: The incidence of prostate cancer in KSA, Jamaica, has been progressively increasing since 1983, and there has been a concomitant increase in the proportionate contribution from younger men. Continued increase is likely over the next several years, but KSA currently appears to be a relatively low-risk region for prostate cancer, compared to black populations in developed Western countries.

OBJETIVO: Investigar las tendencias en la incidencia y distribución por edad del cáncer de próstata en Kingston y Saint Andrew (KSA), Jamaica, por un período de 30 años, 1978-2007. MÉTODO: De la publicación de Registro de Cáncer de Jamaica (JCR), se extrajeron datos de tasas estandarizadas por edad del cáncer de próstata durante los seis períodos quinquenales que comprenden el espacio de 30 años del estudio, y de los archivos del JCR, se registraron las edades de los pacientes en el momento del diagnóstico en todos los casos de cáncer de próstata, por espacio de 30 años. Los resultados se compararon con los datos de otras poblaciones negras. RESULTADOS: La incidencia del cáncer de próstata en KSA, Jamaica, es menor que la existente entre la población masculina negra de Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido. La incidencia en KSA mostró un aumento progresivo a partir del período reportado de 1983-1987, y los más grandes aumentos de porcentaje en 5 años, fueron vistos en el periodo de 1983 a 1997. Los hombres en el grupo etario de 60-74 años fueron quienes más comúnmente contribuyeron a engrosar el total de total de cáncer de próstata en todos los periodos quinquenales examinados, y entre 1988 y 2007, se produjeron aumentos en las contribuciones proporcionales de los grupos etáreos de 25-59 y 60-74 años, así como una disminución en la contribución de los hombres de 75 años o más. CONCLUSIÓN: La incidencia de cáncer de próstata en KSA, Jamaica, ha estado aumentando progresivamente desde 1983, y ha habido un aumento concomitante en la contribución proporcional de los hombres más jóvenes. Es probable que en el curso de los próximos años continúe un aumento progresivo, pero KSA parece ser una región relativamente de bajo riesgo en lo que se refiere al cáncer de próstata, en comparación con las poblaciones negras de los países occidentales desarrollados.

Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Black People/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Incidence , Jamaica/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Registries
Int. braz. j. urol ; 36(5): 571-582, Sept.-Oct. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567897


PURPOSE: To determine if there are any differences in the zonal distribution and tumor volumes of familial and sporadic prostate cancers (PC) in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 839 patients underwent a radical prostatectomy in the absence of prior neoadjuvant therapy between 1987 and 1996. Telephone interviews were conducted to obtain an updated family history. A positive family history was defined as the diagnosis of PC in at least one first degree relative. Prostatectomy specimens were examined to determine the number of tumor foci, zonal origin of the dominant tumor focus, tumor volume of the largest cancer focus, total tumor volume, Gleason score and stage, and the surgical margin status. Results were stratified according to family history and ethnicity. RESULTS: We successfully contacted 437 patients (52 percent). Prostatectomy specimens from 55 patients were excluded from review due to a history of prior transurethral resection of the prostate (n = 26) or uncertain pathological stage (n = 29). Of the remaining 382 patients, 76 (20 percent) reported having a first-degree relative with PC. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the pathologic variables between the two groups of patients with or without a family history of PC. CONCLUSIONS: Familial and sporadic PC share similar characteristics. No histopathological differences account for the increased positive predictive value of PC screening tests among patients with a family history of PC.

Humans , Male , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Burden , Age Factors , Family Characteristics , Logistic Models , Neoplasm Staging , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors , United States
Int. braz. j. urol ; 35(2): 183-189, Mar.-Apr. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-516960


PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172) according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42) and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130). The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI), serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA) were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20), but without statistic significance (p = 0.235). The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010) and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014) in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001), a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001), low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001), and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040) were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001) and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014) in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first...

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Density , Osteoporosis/etiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Body Mass Index , Korea , Linear Models , Osteoporosis/blood , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Testosterone/deficiency
Int. braz. j. urol ; 35(2): 151-157, Mar.-Apr. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-516965


PURPOSE: To compare the perioperative outcomes in 2 initial series of open radical prostatectomy (ORP) and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) in Asian men with prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 1999 to February 2007, the first 100 consecutive patients who underwent ORP and the first 100 consecutive patients who underwent LRP by the same surgeon (SL) were assessed. Mean age, clinical stage, preoperative PSA level, Gleason score, operative time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion rate, perioperative complications, pathological stage and margin status were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: For each 100 patients in ORP and LRP, mean age and clinical stage were not significantly different. The operative time in LRP was significantly longer than ORP (188 ± 55 versus 114 ± 31 minute, p value = 0.01). Mean estimated blood loss and blood transfusion rate in LRP was significantly lower than ORP, 521 ± 328 versus 809 ± 510 mL (p value = 0.03) and 27 percent versus 55 percent (p value = 0.01), respectively. For pathological organ confined disease, the free surgical margin rate of ORP and LRP was not significantly different (88.9 percent versus 91.3 percent, respectively, p = 0.58). There was no significant major complication in either group. CONCLUSIONS: For initial experience by a single surgeon, LRP is comparable to ORP with no significant morbidity. LRP had longer operative time. However, LRP decreased blood loss and blood transfusion. For localized prostate cancer, free surgical margin rate of ORP and LRP was not significantly different.

Aged , Humans , Male , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Asian People , Adenocarcinoma/ethnology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Feasibility Studies , Perioperative Care , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Treatment Outcome
Braz. j. urol ; 28(3): 214-220, May-Jun. 2002. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-425443


Objetivo: Analisar descritivamente as diferenças etnicas na prevalência de câncer de próstata no Brasil. Materiais e métodos: Entre 1922 e 1997, 1773 homens foram submetidos a toque retal (TR), dosagem de PSA e questionário padrão (AUA-IPSS). Foram classificados etnicamente em amarelos (45 casos), brancos (1180 casos) e negróides (210 casos). Em 347 homens não foi possível definir a etnia. Os pacientes foram orientados a submeter-se a biópsia de próstata quando o PSA e/ou o TR estivessem alterados. Avaliou-se também o estádio clínico e escore de Gleason na ocasião do diagnóstico, sendo que as etnias foram comparadas quanto à prevalência de câncer. Resultados:Foram feitas 346 biópsias e diagnosticados 51 tumores (14,7 porcento de positividade nas biópsias). Dos tumores, 4 (7,8 porcento) apresentavam PSA normal, 16 (31,4 porcento) PSA entre 4,1 ng/ml e 10 ng/ml e 31 (60,8 porcento), PSA>10 ng/ml. A prevalência de câncer em brancos foi de 2,4 porcento e em negróides de 5,5 porcento (p<0,05). A média de idade para brancos foi de 62,3 ± 0,4 anos e para negróides 62,4 ± 0,7 anos (p>0,05). O PSA mediano para brancos foi 3 ng/ml e para negróides 3,3 ng/ml (p>0,05). Os negróides apresentaram maior prevalência de TR alterado (18,9 porcento versus 11,7 porcento, p<0,05). A instrução mediana de brancos foi 3 e a de negróides 2 (p<0,05). A prevalência de tumores clinicamente localizados foi de 61,3 porcento. Conclusões: A prevalência de câncer de próstata em negróides é maior do que em brancos (5,5 porcento versus 2,4 porcento). O PSA mediano foi similar em ambas etnias. Os negróides apresentaram maior prevalência de toque retal alterado (18,9 porcento versus 11,7 porcento).

Middle Aged , Humans , Male , Epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, Differentiation , Medical Examination , Prevalence