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2.
Indian J Pediatr ; 1998 Nov-Dec; 65(6): 781-95
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-79987

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein substance that lines the lungs and helps reduce surface tension. Surfactant associated protein-A (SP-A) is the most abundant non-serum protein in pulmonary surfactant. This complex glycoprotein aids in the synthesis, secretion and recycling of surfactant phospholipids, and facilitates the reduction of surface tension by surfactant phospholipids. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of SP-A in the innate immune system present in the lung. SP-A may play a major role in defense against pathogens by interacting with both infectious agents and the immune system. Factors that affect fetal lung maturation, e.g. gestational age and hormones regulate SP-A gene expression. Mediators of immune function also regulate SP-A levels. A number of lung disorders, including infectious diseases and respiratory distress syndrome are associated with abnormal alveolar SP-A levels. SP-A can no longer be called a lung-specific protein, since it has recently been detected in other tissues. In most species, SP-A is encoded by a single gene, however in humans it is encoded by two, very similar genes. Models for the structure of the human SP-A protein molecule have been proposed, suggesting that the mature alveolar SP-A molecule is composed of both gene products. The study of SP-A may provide information helpful in understanding disease processes and formulating new treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression/physiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Organ Specificity , Proteolipids/genetics , Pulmonary Alveoli/physiopathology , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins , Pulmonary Surfactants/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Surface Tension
3.
Indian J Pediatr ; 1998 Sep-Oct; 65(5): 629-41
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-81171

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein substance that lines the lungs and helps reduce surface tension. Surfactant associated protein-A (SP-A) is the most abundant non-serum protein in pulmonary surfactant. This complex glycoprotein aids in the synthesis, secretion and recycling of surfactant phospholipids, and facilitates the reduction of surface tension by surfactant phospholipids. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of SP-A in the innate immune system present in the lung. SP-A may play a major role in defense against pathogens by interacting with both infectious agents and the immune system. Factors that affect fetal lung maturation, e.g., gestational age and hormones, regulate SP-A gene expression. Mediators of immune function also regulate SP-A levels. A number of lung disorders, including infectious diseases and respiratory distress syndrome are associated with abnormal alveolar SP-A levels. SP-A can no longer be called a lung-specific protein, since it has recently been detected in other tissues. In most species, SP-A is encoded by a single gene, however in humans it is encoded by two, very similar genes. Models for the structure of the human SP-A protein molecule have been proposed, suggesting that the mature alveolar SP-A molecule is composed of both gene products. The study of SP-A may provide information helpful in understanding disease processes and formulating new treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression/physiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/pathology , Microscopy, Electron , Proteolipids/genetics , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins , Pulmonary Surfactants/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Surface Tension
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