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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250675, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448938

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020 a situação causada pela covid-19 foi elevada à categoria de pandemia, impactando de inúmeras formas a vida em sociedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender os impactos da pandemia na atuação e saúde mental do psicólogo hospitalar, profissional que atua nos espaços de saúde e tem experienciado mais de perto o sofrimento dos doentes e dos profissionais de saúde frente à covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com 131 psicólogos que atuam em hospitais. Os profissionais foram convidados a participar através de redes sociais e redes de contatos das pesquisadoras, utilizando-se a técnica Bola de Neve. Foram utilizados dois questionários, disponibilizados na plataforma Google Forms, um abordando os impactos da pandemia sentidos pelos profissionais e outro referente ao sofrimento psíquico. Os dados foram analisados a partir de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Foram observados impactos na atuação de quase a totalidade dos participantes, constatada a necessidade de preparação dos profissionais para o novo cenário, a percepção de pouco apoio institucional e quase metade da população estudada referiu-se a sintomas de sofrimento psíquico considerável desde o início da pandemia. É fundamental dar atenção a sinais e sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, procurando evitar o adoecimento de uma categoria profissional que se encontra na linha de frente do combate aos danos psicológicos da pandemia e cuja própria saúde mental é pouco abordada na literatura.(AU)


In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic breakout hugely impacted life in society. This study analyzes how the pandemic impacted hospital psychologists' mental health and performance, professional who more closely experienced the suffering of patients and health professionals in this period. An exploratory and descriptive study was conducted with 131 hospital psychologists. Professionals were invited to participate through the researchers' social and contact networks using the Snowball technique. Data were collected by two questionnaires available on the Google Forms platform, one addressing the impacts felt by professionals and the other regarding psychic suffering, and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that almost all participants had their performance affected by the need to prepare for the new scenario, the perceived little institutional support. Almost half of the study sample reported considerable psychological distress symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Paying attention to signs and symptoms of psychic suffering is fundamental to avoid compromising a professional category that is on the front line of combating the psychological damage caused by the pandemic and whose own mental health is little addressed by the literature.(AU)


En marzo de 2020, la situación provocada por el COVID-19 se caracterizó como pandemia e impactó el mundo de diversas maneras. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender los impactos de la pandemia en la salud mental y la actuación del psicólogo en los hospitales, uno de los profesionales que trabaja en espacios sanitarios y que ha experimentado más de cerca el sufrimiento de pacientes y profesionales sanitarios frente al COVID-19. Este es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, realizado con 131 psicólogos que trabajan en hospitales. Los profesionales recibieron la invitación a participar a través de las redes sociales y redes de contactos de las investigadoras, mediante la técnica snowball. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios disponibles en la plataforma Google Forms: uno sobre los impactos de la pandemia en los profesionales y el otro sobre el sufrimiento psíquico. Los datos se analizaron a partir de estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Se observaron impactos en el trabajo de casi todos los participantes, la necesidad de preparación de los profesionales para este nuevo escenario, la percepción de poco apoyo institucional, y casi la mitad de la población estudiada reportaron sentir síntomas de considerable angustia psicológica desde el inicio de la pandemia. Es esencial prestar atención a los signos y síntomas del sufrimiento psíquico, buscando evitar la enfermedad de una categoría profesional que está a la vanguardia de la lucha contra el daño psicológico de la pandemia y cuya propia salud mental se aborda poco en la literatura.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Anxiety , Orientation , Physicians , Protective Clothing , Respiration , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Attention , Set, Psychology , Social Adjustment , Social Isolation , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Software , Immunoglobulin M , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Irritable Mood , Family , Carrier State , Epidemiologic Factors , Public Health Practice , Quarantine , Sanitation , Hygiene , Public Health , Epidemiology , Risk , Disease Outbreaks , Data Collection , Survival Rate , Mortality , Transportation of Patients , Triage , Contact Tracing , Occupational Health , Immunization , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Immunization Programs , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Coronavirus , Comprehensive Health Care , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Remote Consultation , Containment of Biohazards , Pulmonary Ventilation , Emergency Plans , Disaster Vulnerability , Declaration of Emergency , Death , Trust , Air Pollution , Ethanol , Economics , Emergencies , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Empathy , Ethics, Professional , Professional Training , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Fear , Epidemics , Social Networking , Binge Drinking , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment , Emotional Adjustment , Emergency Medical Dispatch , Survivorship , Family Separation , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Embarrassment , Sadness , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociodemographic Factors , Suicide Prevention , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Health Services Research , Immune System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Loneliness , Masks , Mass Media , Negativism , Nurses, Male , Nursing Assessment
2.
S. Afr. respir. j ; 29(1): 6-11, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1437395

ABSTRACT

Background.The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. Shisha use has recently been gaining increased popularity in many developed and developing countries.Objective. To determine the prevalence of shisha use among students in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and associated knowledge, smoking practices and beliefs about health effects.Method. A total of 443 students were selected for this cross-sectional study, using a stratified sampling method. Data on shisha use, knowledge about shisha, shisha smoking practices, and factors associated with use of shisha were collected via a questionnaire. The association between the independent variables and shisha use was assessed using a χ2 test (p<0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine variables that were independently associated with shisha smoking.Results.Of the 421 respondents, 162 (38.5%) indicated that they had smoked shisha; 14.0% were regular smokers. We found that 183 students (43.5%) had poor knowledge about the health effects of shisha. The main reasons for shisha smoking were being in the company of friends who were users (57.4%), the pleasant flavour and fragrance of shisha (25.9%), and fashion (22.2%). Ninety-nine shisha smokers (61.1%) also consumed alcohol. Factors associated with shisha smoking included age <20 years (p<0.001), gender (p=0.034), and educational level of the respondent's father (p=0.0001) and mother (p=0.0004).Conclusion. We found a relatively high prevalence of shisha smoking among the students, and that 43.5% of them had poor knowledge about its effects on health. Developing surveillance, intervention and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to shisha has become a public health priority.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students , Nicotiana , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Public Health Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoking Water Pipes , Culture
3.
Univ. salud ; 24(3): 267-272, sep.-dic. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1410294

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic requires permanent adaptations in management depending on the epidemiological situation. Objective: To analyze the epidemiological behavior of COVID-19 in Cali (Colombia) after ending the face mask mandate in open and enclosed spaces between March 1 and July 11 of 2022. Materials and methods: An observational descriptive study of COVID-19 cases and cumulative incidence (CI) for 7 days with two temporary milestones: refusal of the obligatory use of face masks in open and enclosed environments, using data published by the National Institute of Health. The temporary tendency was evaluated with the Mann-Kendall non parametric test. Results: Differences were found between the first and second milestone; 922 cases in 75 days vs. 12,037 in 59 days; Tau=-0.22 vs. 0.57, S=-608 vs. 968, Var(S)=47,574.66 versus 233,280.66; Sen slope=-0.10 (IC95%: -0.18 and -0.03) versus 7.39 (IC95%: 5.23 and 8.88). After the second milestone, the CI increased with a positive tendency (S=23, p=0.006). Conclusions: The significant increases of COVID-19 cases and the CI coincided with the ending of the face mask mandate in enclosed spaces. Therefore, it is advisable to return to the use of face masks in enclosed spaces, strengthen infodemic management, promote vaccination, and improve natural ventilation.


Introducción: La pandemia COVID-19 demanda permanentes adaptaciones en la gestión según la situación epidemiológica. Objetivo: Analizar el comportamiento epidemiológico de COVID-19 en Cali (Colombia) post levantamiento de obligatoriedad de usar mascarillas en ambientes abiertos y cerrados, entre marzo 1 y julio 11/2022. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo de casos de COVID-19 e incidencia acumulada (IA) para 7 días, con dos hitos temporales: desistimiento del uso mandatorio de mascarillas en ambientes abiertos y cerrados, usando datos publicados por el Instituto Nacional de Salud. Se evaluó la tendencia temporal con la prueba no paramétrica Mann-Kendall. Resultados: Se demostraron diferencias entre el primer y segundo hito: 922 casos en 75 días versus 12.037 en 59 días; Tau=-0,22 versus 0,57, S=-608 versus 968, Var(S)=47.574,66 versus 233.280,66; pendiente de Sen=-0,10 (IC95%: -0,18 y -0,03) versus 7,39 (IC95%: 5,23 y 8,88). Luego del segundo hito, la IA aumentó con tendencia positiva (S=23, p=0,006). Conclusiones: El aumento significativo de casos de COVID-19 y de IA coincidió con el levantamiento de la medida de usar mascarillas en espacios cerrados. Por tanto, se apoya el regresar al uso de mascarillas en espacios cerrados, reforzar la gestión infodémica, promover la vacunación y acrecentar la ventilación natural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health Practice , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Incidence , Epidemiological Monitoring , Masks
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(1): 215-243, Mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375604

ABSTRACT

Resumo O texto aqui comentado reconstitui o cotidiano no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz no começo do século XX com base em depoimentos de antigos funcionários. "Os escravos são as mãos e os pés do senhor do engenho" - escreveu Antonil em 1711. Cada laboratório do instituto era como um pequeno engenho onde as mãos e os pés dos pesquisadores eram seus serventes, que executavam desde as tarefas mais desqualificadas até operações bem delicadas da pesquisa científica, atualmente confiadas a técnicos formados em escolas próprias. As habilidades dos primitivos técnicos, muitos recrutados ainda meninos nas oficinas da instituição, eram adquiridas empiricamente. O instituto era moderno por suas atividades, mas as relações de trabalho traziam as marcas de uma sociedade agrária e patriarcal, recém-egressa da escravidão.


Abstract This text reconstructs everyday routines at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century based on statements from staff at that time. As Antonil wrote in 1711, "Slaves are the hands and feet of the sugar-mill owner." The researchers' assistants fulfilled a similar role in the laboratories; their work ranged from unskilled tasks to extremely delicate scientific research that today requires specialized training. These early technicians, many recruited as boys in the institution's workshops, acquired their skills empirically. While the institute carried out modern activities, labor relations there still bore the marks of an agrarian and patriarchal society that had only recently abandoned slavery.


Subject(s)
Public Health Practice , Academies and Institutes , Laboratories , Occupational Groups , Brazil , History, 20th Century
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00042021, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416750

ABSTRACT

In the last decades, the global incidence of arboviruses transmitted by the vector Aedes aegypti has increased dramatically with the increased oh human mobility and urbanization. The study of the mosquito population is of great importance for public health in countries where climatic and environmental conditions are favorable for the spread of these diseases transmitted by A. aegypti. This was a cross-sectional study that assessed causal relationships between why mosquitoes are prevalent in the region studied and socioeconomic variables, practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the effect of the cause in two regions chosen according to vulnerability (São Paulo Social Vulnerability Index). Of the 435 residents interviewed, 95% (413/435) were informed about vector control and claimed to contribute to the day-to-day sanitary practices necessary to combat it, in addition to being able to identify it. Most participants in both regions believed they were at risk, but vector control practices did not match those recorded in the survey. A correlation was found between the population's level of education and the practices observed. Despite the high levels of knowledge and the perceptions of the interviewed population about A. aegypti, the erroneous behavior of the residents persisted, thus hindering disease prevention and vector control actions, promoting the conditions conducive to the proliferation of the vector, and, consequently, increasing the risk of disease. The study indicated that one of the most effective means to control the A. aegypti vector is a society informed about preventive measures in the surveillance sectors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Urban Health/education , Infection Control/instrumentation , Aedes , Dengue/prevention & control , Brazil , Public Health Practice , Insect Vectors
6.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e210386, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366025

ABSTRACT

Resumo Ao fomentar a redefinição das práticas de saúde de profissionais inseridos na proposta, a implantação dos Núcleos de Apoio à Saúde da Família (Nasf) no Brasil provocou, além de inovações, indagações em diversos âmbitos, incluindo a questão da identidade profissional. Este artigo busca descrever e analisar trajetórias de formação e de trabalho de pessoas que atuam nesses núcleos e discutir o processo de construção/reconstrução de suas identidades profissionais. Trata-se de estudo de caso qualitativo conduzido com profissionais que trabalham em Salvador, Bahia, com os quais foram realizadas entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas. Os resultados evidenciaram que somente após a inserção no Nasf os indivíduos passaram a se reconhecer efetivamente como profissionais da saúde, à medida que desenvolviam ações que extrapolavam atividades exclusivamente técnicas, a partir das diversas necessidades de saúde dos territórios. Nesses núcleos, vivenciaram um trabalho em equipe colaborativo, interdependente e complexo, com importante grau de controle sobre o próprio trabalho, ainda que com limitações. Esse contexto contribuiu para o processo de desalienação profissional e formação de sujeitos sociais, tornando possível a emergência de uma forma identitária essencialmente estratégica e relacional, forjada no trabalho em equipe interprofissional e potencialmente transformadora do modelo de atenção à saúde no contexto estudado.


Abstract By redefining the health practices of professionals included in the proposal, the implementation of the Family Health Support Center (NASF) in Brazil provoked, besides innovations, discussions in several areas, including the issue of professional identity. This article describes and analyzes the education and work trajectories of professionals who work in these Centers and discuss the process of (re)construction of their professional identities. This qualitative case study carried out semi-structured individual interviews with professionals working in Salvador, Bahia. Results showed that only after joining the NASF, did these individuals began to effectively recognize themselves as health professionals, as they developed actions beyond exclusively technical activities, based on the diverse healthcare needs of the territories. In these centers, they experienced a collaborative, independent, and complex teamwork, with an important degree of control over their own work, although with limitations. This context contributed to the process of professional de-alienation and formation of social subjects, making possible the emergence of an essentially strategic and relational form of identity, forged through interprofessional teamwork and potentially transforming the health care model in the context studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Case Reports , Public Health Practice , Family Health , Health Personnel , Interpersonal Relations
7.
Saúde Soc ; 31(3): e200761pt, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410098

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo foi construído junto a mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola situada na região metropolitana de Fortaleza (CE), a partir da investigação sobre lugares de cuidado em saúde. Destacamos a importância de debater a dimensão afetiva das práticas de saúde com base nos cotidianos das comunidades, considerando questões sociopolíticas como o debate étnico-racial. Nosso objetivo foi reconhecer concepções de saúde e demandas trazidas pelas participantes e, a partir disso, discutir modos de fazer saúde. Foi utilizado o Instrumento Gerador dos Mapas Afetivos para captar questões relacionadas ao cuidado advindas dos afetos. Contamos com 13 participantes, mulheres com idades entre 38 e 77 anos, e, baseadas em suas respostas, categorizamos quatro lugares: igrejas evangélicas, casa, espaços de convivência comunitária e centros comerciais. Outros espaços foram citados secundariamente e tiveram maior variabilidade. Percebemos a relevância que a coletividade, o acesso, o território e os afetos têm na construção dos processos de saúde das participantes. Por fim, discutimos os modos de fazer cuidado institucionalizados nos serviços de saúde e apontamos questões para a construção de processos mais dialógicos e pautados na autonomia.


Abstract This study aims to investigate the health care settings by interviewing women from a Quilombola community in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza, in the State of Ceará. We highlight the importance of discussing the dimensions of affection within health care practices based on the daily lives of communities, considering socio-political issues, such as the ethnic-racial debate. We aim to identify the participants' health care concepts and demands and, discuss new ways to think and act in health. The Affective Map Generator Questionnaire was used to capture issues related to health care according to affections. In total, 13 women aged from 38 to 77 years participated in this survey. We categorized four health care settings based on their answers: evangelical churches, home, community spaces, and commercial centers. Participants gave less important to other spaces, which showed greater variability. We found that collectivity, access, territory, and affections are relevant in the development of participants' health processes. Finally, we discuss ways of conducting institutionalized care in health services and we raised some considerations for the construction of more dialogical processes that value autonomy.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Public Health Practice , Affect , Delivery of Health Care , Racial Groups , Quilombola Communities
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e243075, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422378

ABSTRACT

Este estudo visa relatar as reuniões de um grupo de ajuda mútua organizadas por um Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família (NASF), utilizando a Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF), no interior da Bahia. O objetivo é entender de que modos a ESF trabalha o cuidado no convívio com pessoas em sofrimento mental, seus cuidadores e os trabalhadores. A escolha por adotar a abordagem praxiográfica como método investigativo foi inspirada nos estudos sobre cuidado de Annemarie Mol. Deste modo, a partir dos registros em um diário de campo, realizados ao longo de um ano, foram produzidas compreensões sobre os efeitos da participação dos usuários e familiares nos grupos, além de suas interações com outros atores não humanos. Ao produzir o reconhecimento minucioso de uma prática, este estudo pôde demonstrar o quanto essa tecnologia se apresenta de forma imprevisível e incerta, pois é mediada e modificada por vários atores, ainda que também os modifique. Essa abordagem tornou possível perceber a fluidez, abertura e imprevisibilidade dessa prática processual de cuidado em saúde mental, atuando na produção de vínculos entre usuários, familiares e profissionais.(AU)


This study aimed at reporting the meetings of a mutual aid group organized by a Family Health Support Nucleus (NASF), with the Family Health Strategy (ESF), in the interior of the state of Bahia. It aimed to understand how ESF works with care in living with people in mental suffering, their caregivers, and workers. This praxiographic approach was adopted as investigative method, inspired by Annemarie Mol's studies about care. Thus, from the records in a field diary, registered throughout a year, understandings were produced about effects of user and family participation in groups, in addition to their interactions with other non-human actors. By producing the detailed recognition of a practice, this study was able to demonstrate how unpredictably and uncertainly this technology presents itself, since it is mediated and modified by several actors, despite also modifying these actors. This approach allowed us to perceive the fluidity, openness, and unpredictability of this procedural practice of mental health care, acting in the production of bonds between users, family members, and professionals.(AU)


Este estudio tiene como objetivo relatar las reuniones de un grupo de ayuda mutua implementado por un Centro de Apoyo a la Salud de la Familia (NASF), utilizando la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia (/ESF), en el interior de Bahía. Se pretende comprender cómo la ESF trabaja los cuidados para vivir con personas con sufrimiento mental, sus cuidadores y trabajadores. La elección del enfoque praxiográfico como método de investigación se inspiró en los estudios sobre el cuidado de Annemarie Mol. Por lo tanto, a partir de los registros en un diario de campo, registrado durante un año, se produjeron entendimientos sobre los efectos de la participación de usuarios y familias en grupos, además de sus interacciones con otros actores no humanos. Al producir el reconocimiento detallado de una práctica, este estudio pudo demostrar cuán impredecible e incierta se presenta esta tecnología, ya que es mediada y modificada por varios actores, aunque también los modifica a ellos.. Este enfoque nos permitió percibir la fluidez, apertura e imprevisibilidad de esta práctica procesal de la atención de la salud mental actuando en la producción de vínculos entre usuarios, familiares y profesionales.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Public Health Practice , Mental Health , Group Practice , Psychotherapy, Group , Therapeutics , Family , Caregivers , Health Personnel , Comprehensive Health Care , Resilience, Psychological , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Social Workers , Psychological Distress , Social Inclusion , Persons , Object Attachment
9.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 13(2): 1-6, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1395696

ABSTRACT

In Togo where malaria is endemic, because main signs of malaria and dengue are similar, the use of malarial drugs first could contribute to a delay in the diagnosis of dengue and the dissemination of the disease. Thus, it is important that healthcare workers (HCW) have a good knowledge of these diseases. To assess the knowledge, and practices regarding dengue infection among HCW in Togo. A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2020 to March 2021 among HCW in Togo. A pre-tested digital questionnaire was used for data collection. Based on clinical signs of dengue, preventive measures, infection type and disease type, a knowledge score was constructed with eight questions. A total of 334 HCW with median age 32 years, IQR:(28-38) responded to the survey and the sex ratio male/female was 5.9. The majority (94.0%) of HCW have heard about dengue through training (73.3%), internet (38.0%) and media (33.2%). Compared with lower executive HCW, senior manager were more knowledgeable about the causative agent, the symptoms and preventive methods of dengue infection (p<0.001). Globally, good knowledge (score ≥6) about dengue was found for 47.1% of HCW. More than 9 out of 10 HCW (91.3%) reported the lack of dengue diagnostic tools. Providing health structures with dengue diagnostic tools and training health personnel in their use in any febrile patient with a negative or positive malaria test would help prevent dengue epidemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Togo , Dengue , Public Health Practice , Health Personnel , Knowledge
10.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 13(2): 1-5, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1395700

ABSTRACT

Induction of labour (IOL) is defined as an artificial stimulation administered to initiate the delivery process before the onset of spontaneous labour. Setting-adapted guidelines need to be developed to promote safe maternal and neonatal care in line with the needs of a specific institution. This study aimed to describe and assess the current IOL practices at Botshabelo District Hospital, focusing on incidence, indications, induction methods, complications, and outcomes. A retrospective-descriptive study included all relevant data from IOL cases over six months between July and December 2017. From 168 attempted inductions of labour, 153 files were retrieved. The majority of cases (69.7%) were for post-dates. Normal vaginal delivery (NVD) was achieved in most patients (69.3%), while one patient had an assisted delivery. Thus, 30.1% of inductions failed and required caesarean sections. The incidence, indications, methods of induction, complications, and outcomes of IOL in BDH are in line with international guidelines; however, including the sweeping of membranes at term and balloon catheters as methods could improve the current guidelines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health Practice , Health Planning Guidelines , Organizational Objectives , Legislation, Labor , Practice Guideline
11.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(3): 212-235, 20213112.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393121

ABSTRACT

Este artigo pretende sumarizar a prevalência e os fatores associados à anemia ferropriva em crianças brasileiras. Trata-se de um estudo de revisão sistemática e metanálise baseado nas normas do Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde, da Pubmed, da ScienceDirect, Scopus e da Scielo, utilizando três moduladores booleanos: "anemia ferropriva" AND "criança" AND "Brasil" e "Anemia, Iron-Deficiency" AND "Child" AND "Brazil". A qualidade metodológica dos artigos selecionados foi analisada de acordo com a escala Effective Public Health Practice Project: Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Por fim, dos 6.697 estudos identificados, 112 foram selecionados para a síntese qualitativa e 61 submetidos à metanálise. A prevalência média estimada de anemia ferropriva foi de 27% (IC 95%: 27 ­ 28). Foi constatado que os meninos (1,09 IC 95% 1,04-1,14), as faixas etárias menores de 24 meses (3,71 IC 95% 3,50-3,92) e 36 meses (3,33 IC 95% 2,48-4,47), o baixo peso ao nascer (1,17 IC 95% 1,04-1,32) e a escolaridade dos pais menor que 4, 5 e 8 anos (1,32 IC 95% 1,09-1,59) foram os fatores de risco associados à anemia, enquanto o uso profilático do ferro reduziu em 14% o desfecho analisado. Portanto, o Brasil, de forma geral, necessita de medidas incisivas para a efetiva funcionalidade dos programas de combate à anemia, como é o caso do uso profilático do ferro, por meio da mobilização de três pilares essenciais: assistência profissional, educação familiar e adesão por parte dos cuidadores.


This study summarizes the prevalence and factors associated with iron-deficiency anemia in Brazilian children. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines. Bibliographic search was performed in the Virtual Health Library, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Scielo databases, using three Boolean modulators: "iron-deficiency anemia" AND "child" AND "Brazil" and "Anemia, Iron-Deficiency" AND "Child" AND "Brazil." Methodological quality of the selected articles was analyzed according to the Effective Public Health Practice Project: Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies scale. Of the 6,697 studies found, 112 were selected for qualitative synthesis and 61 underwent meta-analysis. Estimated mean prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia was 27% (95% CI: 27 ­ 28). Boys (1.09 95%CI 1.04-1.14), younger than 24 months (3.71 95%CI 3.50-3.92) and 36 months (3.33 95%CI 2.48-4.47), with low birth weight (1.17 95%CI 1.04-1.32), and parents' education below 4, 5 and 8 years (1.32 95%CI 1.09-1.59) were the risk factors associated with anemia. Prophylactic use of iron reduced the outcome analyzed by 14%. Therefore, Brazil needs urgent measures for the effective functionality of programs to combat anemia, such as the prophylactic use of iron, by mobilizing three essential pillars: professional care, family education, and adherence by caregivers.


Este artículo busca sintetizar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la anemia por deficiencia de hierro en niños brasileños. Se trata de un estudio de revisión sistemática con metaanálisis basado en las normas Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus y SciELO, utilizando tres moduladores booleanos: "anemia ferropriva" AND "criança" AND "Brasil" y "Anemia, Iron-Deficiency" AND "Child" AND "Brazil". La calidad metodológica de los artículos seleccionados se analizó según la escala Effective Public Health Practice Project: Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. De los 6.697 estudios identificados, se seleccionaron 112 para la síntesis cualitativa y 61 se sometieron a metaanálisis. La prevalencia media de anemia ferropénica fue del 27% (IC 95%: 27 ­ 28). Se encontró que los niños (1,09 IC 95%: 1,04-1,14), los grupos de edad menores de 24 meses (3,71 IC 95%: 3,50-3,92) y de 36 meses (3,33 IC 95%: 2,48-4,47), el bajo peso al nacer (1,17 IC 95%: 1,04-1,32) y la educación de los padres por debajo de los 4, 5 y 8 años (1,32 IC 95%: 1,09-1,59) fueron los factores de riesgo asociados a la anemia, mientras que el uso profiláctico del hierro redujo el resultado en un 14%. Brasil necesita medidas efectivas para los programas de lucha contra la anemia, como es el caso del uso profiláctico del hierro, a través de la movilización de tres pilares esenciales: la asistencia profesional, la educación familiar y la adhesión por parte de los cuidadores.


Subject(s)
Child , Public Health Practice , Risk Factors , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Minors , Iron Deficiencies
12.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25: e200511, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143136

ABSTRACT

A tradição indiana milenar do yoga oportuniza o autoconhecimento dos indivíduos em suas possibilidades e limitações, tornando-os mais autônomos na busca de bem-estar, mais saudáveis e conscientes. O ensaio teórico, fundamentado na revisão da literatura, analisa a repercussão do yoga em algumas de suas implicações como prática de saúde na racionalidade ocidental. A apropriação do yoga pela cultura ocídua implica a compreensão do sistema capitalista sobre o modo de produzir saúde nas sociedades contemporâneas e no aprofundamento das discussões acerca de seus benefícios filosóficos e práticos na Saúde Coletiva. Esse aprendizado fundamenta o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e vem consolidando o conceito ampliado de saúde por meio da criação de pontes culturais baseadas na tolerância e no respeito a sua tradição. (AU)


La tradición hindú milenaria del yoga da oportunidad al autoconocimiento de los individuos en sus posibilidades y limitaciones, haciéndolos más autónomos en la búsqueda de bienestar, más saludables y conscientes. El ensayo teórico, fundamentado en la revisión de la literatura, analiza la repercusión del yoga en algunas de sus implicaciones como práctica de salud en la racionalidad occidental. La apropiación del yoga por la cultura occidua implica la comprensión del sistema capitalista sobre el modo de producir salud en las sociedades contemporáneas y la profundización de las discusiones sobre sus beneficios filosóficos y prácticos en la salud colectiva. Ese aprendizaje fundamenta el Sistema Brasileño de Salud (SUS) y consolida el concepto ampliado de salud, a partir de la creación de puentes culturales basados en la tolerancia y respeto a su tradición. (AU)


The ancient tradition of yoga coming from India provides individuals with self-knowledge regarding their possibilities and limitations, making them more autonomous in the search for well-being, healthier and more conscious. This theoretical essay, based on the literature review, analyzes the repercussion of yoga through some of its implications as a health practice within Western rationality. The appropriation of yoga by the Western culture implies an understanding of the capitalist system regarding the way of producing health in contemporary societies, and in the deepening of discussions about its philosophical and practical benefits in public health. This construction underlies the Brazilian National Health Sytem (SUS), and helped in the consolidation of an expanded concept of health, creating cultural bridges based on tolerance and respect for its tradition. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Yoga/history , Public Health Practice , Brazil , Public Health , National Health Programs
13.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 261 f p. tab, il, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368558

ABSTRACT

Os Consultórios na Rua (eCR) são equipes de Atenção Básica (AB) específicas para o atendimento da população em situação de rua (PSR) no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Estas equipes foram criadas em 2011 pela Política Nacional de Atenção Básica. Atualmente, há 171 eCR atuando no território nacional, com aproximadamente 1.500 profissionais. Neste cenário, o conjunto de informações de âmbito nacional sobre o processo de trabalho das eCR é ainda incipiente, sobretudo informações que possam contribuir com a orientação e a organização do processo de trabalho e com os objetivos e a resolutividade esperada da atuação das eCR na AB, além de critérios para o monitoramento e a avaliação da prática destas equipes. Esta tese buscou sistematizar e debater as noções de objetivo, resolutividade e critérios de monitoramento e avaliação presentes na literatura (2009/2020), no registro das práticas das eCR (2019/2020), e junto aos atores envolvidos (pesquisadores, gestores de eCR, trabalhadores de eCR e usuários ­ pessoas em situação de rua) (2020). A metodologia adotada para tal seguiu três passos. Inicialmente foi realizada uma revisão documental e na literatura científica sobre estas equipes específicas, a fim de obter um mapeamento sobre os sentidos e os significados conferidos às noções de objetivo, resolutividade e critérios de monitoramento e avaliação das eCR. Na sequência, foi analisado um conjunto de dados do Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde, além de quatro fichas do prontuário eletrônico da AB (e-SUS AB) - fichas de cadastro, atendimento individual, procedimentos e atividade coletiva, para obter um retrato do cenário de implantação das eCR, do perfil profissional das equipes e do mapeamento das práticas das equipes. Por fim, foram realizadas 28 entrevistas com os atores envolvidos diretamente com as práticas das eCR nas cinco regiões do País, para obter a posição e os sentidos e significados dos atores sobre as noções estudadas. A imersão no universo das eCR revelou que ainda é tímida a literatura sobre os objetivos, a resolutividade e os critérios de monitoramento e avaliação para as eCR. Nos documentos oficiais e na literatura científica, o principal tema foi o acesso (da PSR à AB e ao SUS, ampliando a resolutividade da eCR e reforçando a eCR como equipe de AB nas redes locais). A literatura, as práticas mapeadas no e-SUS AB e as entrevistas apontaram para o aumento de enfermeiros e médicos nas equipes como uma questão a ser analisada, com efeitos na organização do processo de trabalho da equipe. Outras questões levantadas foram a necessidade de construção de um olhar específico para as mulheres em situação de rua e para as pessoas com problemas na relação com álcool e outras drogas. No geral, a sistematização dessas noções provoca reflexões sobre as possibilidades e os limites da atuação da eCR e da AB. As trocas com os campos estudados (literatura, prontuário eletrônico e os atores envolvidos) mostraram que as eCR transitam por muitas fronteiras (as fronteiras das políticas públicas, entre a AB e a Saúde Mental, entre os campos do conhecimento e entre a sociedade civil e as políticas públicas). Por esta característica junto à sua trajetória no SUS, mais do que delimitar fronteiras, as eCR podem ser ponte, provocando e sustentando conexões.


Street Offices Teams (eCR) are Primary Health Care (PHC) teams, specific for the care of the homeless population (PSR), in the Unified Health System (SUS). These teams were created in 2011 by the National Primary Care Policy. Currently, we have active 171 eCR in the national territory, with approximately 1,500 professionals. In this scenario, national information about the eCR work process is still incipient, especially those that can contribute to the orientation and organization of the work process, such as the objectives and the expected resolutivity of the eCR's performance in PHC, in addition to criteria for monitoring and evaluating the practice of these teams. This thesis sought to systematize and debate the notions of objective, resolution and monitoring and evaluation criteria from the literature (2009/2020), the registration of eCR practices (2019/2020), and the actors involved (researchers, eCR managers, eCR workers and users - people living on the streets) (2020). The methodology adopted for this followed three steps. Initially, a documental analysis and scientific literature review on these specific teams were carried out, to map the meanings and meaningfulness embedded on the eCR objectives, resolution and monitoring and evaluating criteria. Then, a set of data from the National Register of Health Establishments (CNES, in Portuguese) was analyzed, as well as four forms from the electronic medical record of the AB (e-SUS AB) - registration forms, individual care, procedures and collective activities), to obtain a picture of the eCR implementation scenario, the professional profile of the teams, in addition to the mapping of team practices. Finally, we conducted 28 interviews with the actors directly involved with the eCR practices in five regions of the country to obtain the actors' position and meanings and meaningfulness on the studied notions. Immersion in the eCR universe revealed that the literature on the objectives, resolution and monitoring and evaluation criteria for eCR is still timid. In the official documents and the scientific literature, the central theme was the access (from PSR to AB and SUS, expanding the resoluteness of eCR and reinforcing eCR as a PHC team in local networks). The literature, the practices mapped in e-SUS AB and the interviews pointed to the increase of nurses and doctors in the teams as an issue to be analyzed, with effects on the team's work process. Other issues raised were the need to have a specific approach for women on the street and people with alcohol and other drugs problems. In general, the systematization of these notions provoked reflections on the possibilities and limits of eCR and AB activities. Exchanges with the fields studied (literature, electronic medical records and the actors involved) showed that eCRs travel across many borders (the boundaries of public policies, PHC and Mental Health, between fields of knowledge, between civil society and public policies). Due to this characteristic and its trajectory in SUS, eCR can be a bridge, provoking and sustaining connections more than delimiting borders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Ill-Housed Persons , Health Services Research , Unified Health System , Public Health Practice , Health Personnel
14.
Babcock Univ. Med. J ; 4(1): 14-22, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1291976

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examined the perception and practices relating to Hepatitis B infection among In-school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 300 in-school adolescents selected by a multi-stage sampling method. Data were elicited using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions relating to respondents' risky practices, and a 35-point Hepatitis B perception scale. Descriptive statistics, as well as Chi-square statistics, were generated using IBM SPSS Version 23, and the significance level was set at 0.05.Results: The mean age of the respondents was14.31 ± 1.73years and slightly over half (51.7%) were females. Less than half (45%) of the adolescents perceived themselves to be susceptible to Hepatitis B infection, while 31% perceived Hepatitis B infection to be a serious disease. Almost half (49%) of the adolescents had unfavorable perceptions. The most common risky practices among the respondents were sharing skin-piercing instruments with their family members (79%) and friends (68.7%). There are significant associations between sex (gender) and risky practices such as the practices of unsafe sex (X2= 9.11; p=0.10); having multiple sexual partners (X2= 12.08;p =0.02); and sharing skin-piercing instruments (X2= 5.52;p=0.01) with more males reporting the above practices than females. Conclusion/Recommendation: To minimize the identified risky practices and unfavorable perception, educational intervention programs aimed at promoting Hepatitis B virus preventive behaviors and increasing the level of perception of vulnerability and seriousness of HBV infection among in-school adolescents should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Perception , Public Health Practice , Hepatitis B , Adolescent , Nigeria
15.
Djouba; Rift Valley Institute; 2021. 44 p.
Non-conventional in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1358117

ABSTRACT

Across South Sudan, long before the global COVID-19 pandemic emerged, communities have created systems and structures to control the spread of epidemics and infectious diseases. South Sudanese people have extensive knowledge of infectious diseases and experience of organizing responses to epidemics during wars and other crises. Most people have experience of multiple epidemics within their households and neighbourhoods. Many informal healthcare providers have been involved directly in organized medical responses to past epidemic outbreaks: in several areas of the country people have been involved in contact tracing and infection management since the 1970s. This research report details community infectious disease management strategies developed within the realities of South Sudan's local healthcare systems. Because the South Sudan clinical healthcare sector is overstretched and only semi-functional, the majority of South Sudanese people mostly rely on non-clinical medical advice and support from a wide field of healthcare workers and caregivers, including small private clinics and unlicenced pharmaceutical sellers, traditional herbal and surgical experts, midwives and spiritual healers. South Sudanese community-led infectious disease management relies on symptomatic identification, the containment of potential infections through applying knowledge of infection vectors and pathologies, and creative treatment using a high level of botanical knowledge. There are multiple, locally-specific methods used by communities for interrupting infection transmission and managing epidemics. For airborne diseases or infections spread through contact, people often organize houses for self-isolation, mark out separate food and water access points for households, make homemade rehydration salts, carefully manage dirty linen, bed spaces and drinking water provision to avoid cross-contamination, and use urine, hot water and ashes for disinfecting. Different communities across the country use crossed posts, rope barriers, or ash markings across paths to warn people away from sick households in quarantine. Particular care is taken to avoid transmission to high-risk residents, especially pregnant and post-partum women and young children. Across research sites, people are already working on developing local safety measures and strategies to prevent the further spread of COVID-19 in South Sudan. This research documents these community infectious disease management strategies, based on sustained investigative research in the Yei, Juba, Wau, Malakal, Aweil West and Rubkona areas, both in-person and remotely via telephone, from August to November 2020.1 The health and wellbeing of the team and our interviewees was the prioritythroughout the project. Interviewees include midwives and traditional birth attendants, male and female nurses, herbal experts, traditional healers, pharmacists, chiefs and community elders, elderly women, and local public health workers, among many others. Recommendations for action include: 1. Collaborate with wider non-clinical health workers and caregivers, who are often first responders, including women, midwives, herbal experts and local pharmaceutical sellers. Include these workers in public health planning and clinical training. 2. Support communities with the broad epidemiological and logistical skills to prepare for COVID-19 and other epidemic outbreaks. Build sustained and detailed public health information systems to help local non-clinical and clinical workers plan locally appropriate infectious disease management strategies. More detailed and sustained information drives, in partnership with local first responders, will also build trust and counter misinformation and fatigue. 3. Localise epidemic response planning. Central planning is heavy handed and ineffective, overlooking critical local knowledge and community leadership that will make responses effective. Public health strategies should aim to build on measures people already take to try to protect themselves and their communities from multiple infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Health Practice , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Management , Delivery of Health Care , COVID-19
16.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190013, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Article in English | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1145160

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to know and reflect on the best practices in nursing and their interface with the Expanded Family Health and Basic Healthcare Centers (NASF-AB). Method: this is a participatory research based on Paulo Freire's methodological framework and developed from thematic investigation, coding, decoding, and critical unveiling. The information was produced and analyzed in four Culture Circles, with an average of five nurses and duration of two hours each, between April and June 2018. The investigation revealed four generating themes, unveiled during the meetings. In this study, the theme "best nursing practices that favor relations with NASF-AB" will be discussed. Results: nurses acknowledge communication as a tool that promotes best practices in nursing. It was possible to deepen the dialogue and knowledge about NASF-AB's work process and the role of nursing. Nurses act as a link between the support team and the Family Health team, a skill resulting from their training focused on management, having leadership and dialogue as resources for conflict resolution. Conclusion: the present study contributed to improve nurses' thinking and acting in relation to the proposed theme. The reflections made during Culture Circles boosted transformative attitudes in the practice settings. Nurse approximation with NASF-AB favors autonomy and collaborative practices (understood as best practices), encouraging interprofessional and solve-problem actions within Basic Care.


RESUMEN Objetivo: conocer y reflexionar sobre las mejores prácticas en enfermería y su interfaz con el Núcleo Extendido de Salud de la Familia y Atención Primaria (NASF-AB). Método: investigación participativa basada en el marco metodológico de Paulo Freire y desarrollada a partir de las etapas de investigación temática, codificación, decodificación y develación crítica. La información fue producida y analizada en cuatro Círculos de Cultura, con un promedio de cinco enfermeros y una duración de dos horas cada uno, entre abril y junio de 2018. La investigación reveló cuatro temas generadores, develados durante los encuentros. En este estudio se discutirá el tema: mejores prácticas de enfermería que favorecen las relaciones con la NASF-AB. Resultados: las enfermeras reconocen la comunicación como una herramienta que promueve las mejores prácticas en esta interfaz. Se logró profundizar el diálogo y el conocimiento sobre el tema, sobre el proceso de trabajo NASF-AB y el papel de la enfermería en este contexto. Se perciben a sí mismos como un vínculo entre el equipo de apoyo y el equipo de Salud de la Familia, habilidad resultante de su formación enfocada al ejercicio de la gestión y al liderazgo y al diálogo como recursos para la resolución de conflictos. Conclusión: el estudio contribuyó a la mejora del pensamiento y la actuación de los enfermeros en relación con el tema propuesto, ya que las reflexiones realizadas durante los Círculos Culturales estimularon actitudes transformadoras en los escenarios de práctica. Se observa que la aproximación de enfermeras con la NASF-AB favorece la autonomía y las prácticas colaborativas (entendidas como mejores prácticas), estimulando movimientos interprofesionales y resolutivos en el ámbito de la Atención Primaria.


RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer e refletir sobre as melhores práticas em enfermagem e sua interface com o Núcleo Ampliado de Saúde da Família e Atenção Básica. Método: pesquisa participante pautada no referencial metodológico de Paulo Freire e desenvolvida a partir das etapas de investigação temática, codificação, decodificação e desvelamento crítico. As informações foram produzidas e analisadas em quatro Círculos de Cultura, com média de cinco enfermeiras e duração de duas horas cada, entre abril e junho de 2018. A investigação revelou quatro temas geradores, desvelados durante os encontros. Neste estudo será discutido o tema: melhores práticas de enfermagem que favorecem as relações com o Núcleo Ampliado. Resultados: as enfermeiras reconhecem a comunicação como ferramenta que promove as melhores práticas nessa interface. Foi possível aprofundar o diálogo e o conhecimento sobre o tema, sobre o processo de trabalho do Núcleo e o papel da enfermagem nesse contexto. Elas se percebem como elo entre a equipe apoiadora a equipe de Saúde da Família, habilidade decorrente da sua formação voltada para o exercício da gestão e tendo a liderança e o diálogo como recursos para a resolução de conflitos. Conclusão: o estudo contribuiu para o aprimoramento do pensar e do agir das enfermeiras em relação ao tema proposto, pois as reflexões tecidas durante os Círculos impulsionaram atitudes transformadoras nos cenários de prática. Nota-se que a aproximação das enfermeiras com os Núcleos favorece a autonomia e as práticas colaborativas (compreendidas como melhores práticas), estimulando movimentos interprofissionais e resolutivos no âmbito da Atenção Primária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Public Health Practice , Evidence-Based Nursing , Integrality in Health , Management Quality Circles
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(11): 4573-4582, nov. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133050

ABSTRACT

Resumo A dor envolve dimensões socioculturais e psicossociais que influem na experiência e expressão do fenômeno doloroso, bem como nos recursos humanos e tecnológicos necessários para o seu cuidado. Este artigo busca compreender o significado atribuído por idosos ao cuidado da pessoa na velhice que vivencia processo álgico e discuti-lo a partir da abordagem conferida à dor nas práticas de saúde coletiva. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na abordagem qualitativa de cunho antropológico e fundamentada no contato intersubjetivo entre pesquisador/sujeitos pesquisados. Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas com 57 idosos. A metodologia de Signos, Significados e Ações orientou a coleta e análise dos dados possibilitando a investigação das representações e comportamentos concretos associados à experiência da dor. Observou-se o sentido do cuidado da dor nas práticas da saúde coletiva em três categorias analíticas: a dor no contexto de vida, a linguagem no cuidado da pessoa em dor, e a dor infligida nas práticas de cuidado. O cuidado da dor na atenção à saúde não se prende ao orgânico, mas mobiliza toda a existência da pessoa idosa, interfere no processo comunicativo e produz sofrimento. O cuidado à dor precisa incluir o usuário no processo terapêutico e mobilizá-lo para assumir de volta sua vida.


Abstract Pain involves sociocultural and psychosocial dimensions that influence the experience and expression of the pain phenomenon, as well as the human and technological resources required for its care. This article seeks to understand the meaning attributed by elderly people to care of the person in old age who experiences pain and discuss it from the approach to pain in public health practices. The research was developed using a qualitative anthropological approach and based on the intersubjective contact between the researcher and the individuals researched. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 elderly people. The methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions governed the collection and analysis of the data to investigate behavior associated with pain. The meaning of care of pain in public health practices was observed in three analytical categories, namely pain in the context of life, language in the care of the person in pain, and the pain inflicted in care practices. The care of pain in health care is not limited to the organic aspect, but it mobilizes the whole existence of the elderly person, interferes in the communicative process and causes suffering. Care of pain must include the users in the therapeutic process and mobilize them to regain control over their lives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Pain , Public Health Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Communication , Delivery of Health Care , Qualitative Research
18.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(5): e401, sep.-oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139457

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Este ensayo expone cómo el educador de la salud, en su quehacer en el campo de la salud pública tradicional, solventa formas de relación con los educandos, enmarcadas en la preponderancia del modelo biomédico, a través de la imposición de significados y valores situados en una concepción biologista de la enfermedad que ha invisibilizado a la salud. En contraste, se presenta la perspectiva crítica de la salud pública alternativa como una posibilidad de resignificar la práctica del educador de la salud. A partir de actuaciones en las que la salud se entiende como un constructo social, el presente artículo busca potenciar abordajes más coherentes con la realidad de los problemas complejos relacionados con la salud desde su conexión con la vida.(AU)


ABSTRACT This essay argues how the health educator in his work in the field of traditional public health solves forms of relationship with the students, framed in the preponderance of the biomedical model, through the imposition of meanings and values located in a conception biologist of the disease that has made health invisible. In contrast, the critical perspective of alternative public health is presented as a possibility to give another meaning to the practice of the health educator. On the roll of the health like a social construct, this paper aims to boost approaches more consistent with the reality of the complex problems related to the health from its connection with the life.(AU)


Subject(s)
Public Health Practice , Health Education/trends , Health Educators/trends , Health Promotion
19.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 25: 1-6, set. 2020. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148241

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the experience of the development of the upgrading course in strategic actions for professionals in the Academia das Cidades e Saúde Programs, conducted by the School of Government in Public Health, together with the technical team of the Programs at the State Health Secretariat and the Secretariat for Urban Development and Housing, both from Pernambuco. For this, the experience report format was used. The course was developed through distance learning, in three stages: planning, development and evaluation. The minutes of meetings, tutors' reports, online course monitoring files and students' evaluations were used to describe the experience. The course was offered in 2019, in the state's first health macro-region. Of the 156 professionals enrolled in the course, and who worked in the Programs, 100 concluded it, and positively evaluated the course, mainly in terms of changes in their work practices


O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever a experiência de desenvolvimento do curso de aperfeiçoamento em ações estratégicas para profissionais dos programas Academia das Cidades e da Saúde, realizado pela Escola de Governo em Saúde Pública, em conjunto com a equipe técnica dos Programas na Secretaria Estadual de Saúde e na Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Urbano e Habitação, ambas de Pernambuco. Para isso, utilizou-se o formato de relato de experiência. O curso foi desenvolvido na modalidade a distância, em três etapas: planejamento, desenvolvimento e avaliação. Para descrição da experiência foram utilizadas as atas de reuniões, os relatórios dos tutores, os arquivos online de monitoramento do curso e as avaliações discentes. O curso foi ofertado em 2019, na primeira macrorregião de saúde do Estado. Dos 156 profissionais matriculados no curso, e que atuavam nos Programas, 100 concluíram e avaliaram positivamente o curso, principalmente no que se refere as transformações em suas práticas de trabalho


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Public Health Practice , Education, Distance , Education, Continuing , Health Promotion
20.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 211-230, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134086

ABSTRACT

Abstract Economic development and good health depended on access to clean water and sanitation. Therefore, because economic development and good health depended on access to clean water and sanitation, beginning in the early 1970s the World Bank, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others began a period of sustained interest in developing both for the billions without either. During the 1980s, two massive and wildly ambitious projects showed what was possible. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade and the Blue Nile Health Project aimed for nothing less than the total overhaul of the way water was developed. This was, according to the WHO, "development in the spirit of social justice."


Resumo Crescimento econômico e boa saúde dependem de acesso a saneamento e água limpa. Assim, o Banco Mundial, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e outros órgãos, a partir do início da década de 1970, inauguraram um período de contínuo interesse no desenvolvimento de ambos para bilhões de pessoas desprovidas de tais necessidades. Durante a década de 1980, dois projetos monumentais e extremamente ambiciosos demonstraram o que era viável fazer. A International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade e o Blue Nile Health Project visavam à total reestruturação do modelo de desenvolvimento da água. Tratava-se, segundo a OMS, do "desenvolvimento do espírito de justiça social".


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Water Supply/history , Public Health Practice/history , Sanitation/history , Global Health/history , United Nations/history , World Health Organization/history , Africa
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