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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252555, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364519

ABSTRACT

The study was designed to investigate the effect of Coconut Oil on the levels of some liver and hematological parameters in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rabbits. Also the antioxidant capacity of Coconut Oil for various concentrations was assessed on the basis of percent scavenging of (DPPH) free radical. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, eight rabbits in each group. These were: group A (Normal control), group B (Toxic control), group C (Standard control), group D (Treated with Coconut Oil 50 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication), group E (Treated with Coconut Oil 200 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication). The effects observed were compared with a standard hepatoprotective drug silymarine (50 mL/kg body weight). The Coconut Oil (200 mL/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) when compared to a toxic control rabbits. The results of extract treated rabbits were similar to silymarine administered rabbits group. Treatment with Coconut Oil root and silymarine caused no significant changes in RBC, Platelets, (Hb), (MCH) concentration and (HCT) values. However, significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in the total WBC count. The present study suggested that Coconut Oil can be used as an herbal alternative (need further exploration i.e to detect its bioactive compound and its efficacy) for hepatoprotective activit.


O estudo foi desenhado para investigar o efeito do óleo de coco nos níveis de alguns parâmetros hepáticos e hematológicos em coelhos intoxicados com tetracloreto de carbono. Também a capacidade antioxidante do óleo de coco para várias concentrações foi avaliada com base na porcentagem de eliminação de radicais livres (DPPH). Os animais experimentais foram divididos em cinco grupos, oito coelhos em cada grupo. Estes foram: grupo A (controle normal), grupo B (controle tóxico), grupo C (controle padrão), grupo D (tratado com óleo de coco 50 mL/kg de peso corporal após intoxicação por CCl4), grupo E (tratado com óleo de coco 200 mL/kg de peso corporal após intoxicação por CCl4). Os efeitos observados foram comparados com um fármaco hepatoprotetor padrão silimarina (50 mL/kg de peso corporal). O óleo de coco (200 mL/kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente (P<0,05) os níveis séricos elevados de alanina transaminase (ALT), aspartato transaminase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP), quando comparado a um coelho controle tóxico. Os resultados dos coelhos tratados com extrato foram semelhantes aos do grupo de coelhos administrados com silimarina. O tratamento com raiz de óleo de coco e silimarina não causou alterações significativas nos valores de RBC, Plaquetas, (Hb), (MCH) e (HCT). No entanto, observou-se aumento significativo (P<0,05) na contagem total de leucócitos. O presente estudo sugeriu que o óleo de coco pode ser usado como uma alternativa fitoterápica (precisa de mais exploração, ou seja, para detectar seu composto bioativo e sua eficácia) para atividade hepatoprotetora.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Carbon Tetrachloride , Palm Oil , Biomarkers/blood , Liver
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Agaricus , Exploratory Behavior , Disease Models, Animal
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251289, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355889

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present research was made to determine the micronuclei and cytotoxic capacity of the antidepressant venlafaxine in an in vivo acute and subchronic assays in mouse. In the first study, we administered once 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg of the drug, and included a negative and a daunorubicin treated group. Observations were daily made during four days. The subchronic assay lasted 5 weeks with daily administration of venlafaxine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) plus a negative and an imipramine administered groups. Observations were made each week. In the first assay results showed no micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) increase, except with the high dose at 72 h. The strongest cytotoxic effect was found with 250 mg/kg at 72 h (a 51% cytotoxic effect in comparison with the mean control level). In the subchronic assay no MNPE increase was found; however, with the highest dose a significant increase of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in the last three weeks (a mean of 51% respect to the mean control value). A cytotoxic effect with the two high doses in the last two weeks was observed (a polychromatic erythrocyte mean decrease of 52% respect to the mean control value). Results suggest caution with venlafaxine.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi feita para determinar a capacidade micronuclei e citotóxica do antidepressivo venlafaxina em ensaios agudos e subcrônicos in vivo em camundongos. No primeiro estudo, administramos uma vez 5, 50 e 250 mg/kg do medicamento e incluímos um grupo negativo e um grupo tratado com daunorubicina. As observações foram feitas diariamente durante quatro dias. O ensaio subcrônico durou cinco semanas com administração diária de venlafaxina (1, 5, e 10 mg/kg) mais um grupo negativo e um grupo administrado de imipramina. As observações foram feitas a cada semana. No primeiro ensaio, os resultados não mostraram aumento de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (MNPE), exceto com a dose elevada a 72 h. O efeito citotóxico mais forte foi encontrado com 250 mg/kg a 72 h (um efeito citotóxico de 51% em comparação com o nível médio de controle). No ensaio subcrônico não foi encontrado aumento de MNPE; entretanto, com a dose mais alta, um aumento significativo de eritrócitos normocromáticos micronucleados foi observado nas últimas três semanas (média de 51% em relação ao valor médio de controle). Foi observado um efeito citotóxico com as duas altas doses nas últimas duas semanas (uma diminuição média de 52% em relação ao valor médio de controle dos eritrócitos policromáticos). Os resultados sugerem cautela com a venlafaxina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , DNA Damage , Antineoplastic Agents , Micronucleus Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Erythrocytes , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride/toxicity
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251219, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345535

ABSTRACT

Abstract The most common form of psycho-social dysfunction is anxiety with depression being related closely without any age bar. They are present with combined state of sadness, confusion, stress, fear etc. Glyoxalase system contains enzyme named glyoxalase 1 (GLO1).It is a metabolic pathway which detoxifies alpha-oxo-aldehydes, particularly methylglyoxal (MG). Methylglyoxal is mainly made by the breakdown of the glycolytic intermediates, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Glyoxylase-1 expression is also related with anxiety behavior. A casual role or GLO-1 in anxiety behavior by using viral vectors for over expression in the anterior cingulate cortex was found and it was found that local GLO-1 over expression increased anxiety behavior. The present study deals with the molecular mechanism of protective activity of eugenol against anxiolytic disorder. A pre-clinical animal study was performed on 42 BALB/c mice. Animals were given stress through conventional restrain model. The mRNA expression of GLO-1 was analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Moreover, the GLO-1 protein expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry in whole brain and mean density was calculated. The mRNA and protein expressions were found to be increased in animals given anxiety as compared to the normal control. Whereas, the expressions were decreased in the animals treated with eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers in a dose dependent manner. However, the results were better in animals treated with nanocarriers as compared to the compound alone. It is concluded that the eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers exert anxiolytic activity by down-regulating GLO-1 protein expression in mice.


Resumo A forma mais comum de disfunção psicossocial é a ansiedade intimamente relacionada com a depressão, sem qualquer barreira de idade. Elas estão presentes em um estado combinado de tristeza, confusão, estresse, medo etc. O sistema de glioxalase contém uma enzima chamada glioxalase 1 (GLO1). É uma via metabólica que desintoxica alfa-oxo-aldeídos, particularmente metilglioxal (MG). O metilglioxal é produzido principalmente pela quebra dos intermediários glicolíticos, gliceraldeído-3-fosfatos e fosfato de diidroxiacetona. A expressão da glioxalase 1 também está relacionada ao comportamento de ansiedade. Um papel casual ou GLO1 no comportamento de ansiedade usando vetores virais para superexpressão no córtex cingulado anterior foi encontrado e descobriu-se que a superexpressão local de GLO1 aumentava o comportamento de ansiedade. O presente estudo trata do mecanismo molecular da atividade protetora do eugenol contra o transtorno ansiolítico. Um estudo pré-clínico em animais foi realizado em 42 camundongos BALB / c. Os animais foram submetidos ao estresse por meio do modelo de contenção convencional. A expressão de mRNA de GLO1 foi analisada por RT-PCR em tempo real. Além disso, a expressão da proteína GLO1 também foi examinada por imuno-histoquímica em todo o cérebro e a densidade média foi calculada. Verificou-se que as expressões de mRNA e proteínas estavam aumentadas em animais que receberam ansiedade em comparação com o controle normal. Considerando que as expressões foram diminuídas nos animais tratados com eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas de forma dependente da dose. No entanto, os resultados foram melhores em animais tratados com nanocarreadores em comparação com o composto sozinho. Conclui-se que o eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas exercem atividade ansiolítica por regulação negativa da expressão da proteína GLO1 em camundongos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Eugenol/therapeutic use , Eugenol/pharmacology , Lactoylglutathione Lyase/antagonists & inhibitors , Anxiety/drug therapy , Liposomes , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244551, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285626

ABSTRACT

Abstract Origanum vulgare has been of great interest in academia and pharma industry due to its antioxidant, antifungal and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to find the anti-MRSA potential and in vivo toxicity assessments of O. vulgare. O. vulgare extract was used to monitor anti-MRSA activity in mice. Following MRSA established infection in mice (Mus musculus), treatment with O. vulgare was continued for 7 days. Autopsies were performed and re-isolation, gross lesion scoring and bacterial load in various organs were measured. Additionally, blood sample was analysed for hematological assays. Toxicity assessment of O. vulgare potential as medicine was done at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by evaluating liver and kidney functions. Bacterial load and gross lesion in lungs and heart were significantly low compared to positive control following O. vulgare treatment. Likewise, O. vulgare treated groups had hematological, neutrophil and TLC values similar to control groups. Increased AST, ALP and total bilirubin alongwith marked hepatocellular degeneration and distortion around the central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatic cells was observed at higher dose. It is concluded that crude extract of O. vulgare may contain beneficial secondary metabolites and in future may be explored for curing infectious diseases.


Resumo Origanum vulgare tem despertado grande interesse na academia e na indústria farmacêutica devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes, antifúngicas e antitumorais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo encontrar o potencial anti-MRSA e avaliações de toxicidade in vivo de O. vulgare. O extrato de O. vulgare foi usado para monitorar a atividade anti-MRSA em camundongos. Após infecção estabelecida por MRSA em camundongos (Mus musculus), o tratamento com O. vulgare foi continuado por 7 dias. As autópsias foram realizadas e o reisolamento, pontuação das lesões grosseiras e carga bacteriana em vários órgãos foram medidos. Além disso, a amostra de sangue foi analisada para ensaios hematológicos. A avaliação da toxicidade do potencial de O. vulgare como medicamento foi feita com 200 mg / kg e 400 mg / kg, avaliando as funções hepática e renal. A carga bacteriana e as lesões graves nos pulmões e no coração foram significativamente baixas em comparação com o controle positivo após o tratamento com O. vulgare. Da mesma forma, os grupos tratados com O. vulgare apresentaram valores hematológicos, de neutrófilos e de TLC semelhantes aos grupos de controle. Aumento de AST, ALP e bilirrubina total juntamente com degeneração hepatocelular marcada e distorção ao redor da veia central, infiltração de células inflamatórias e vacuolização citoplasmática de células hepáticas foram observados em doses mais altas. Conclui-se que o extrato bruto de O. vulgare pode conter metabólitos secundários benéficos e, no futuro, pode ser explorado para a cura de doenças infecciosas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Oils, Volatile , Origanum , Anti-Infective Agents/toxicity , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Liver , Antioxidants
7.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e223816, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354701

ABSTRACT

Direct pulp capping induces a local inflammatory process. Several biomaterials have been used for this procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the dentinal bridge thickness using three different pulp capping biomaterials with the conventional technique (high speed diamond bur) or Er-Yag laser, 1 month after pulp effraction. Materials and Methods: Forty two Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of 4 maxillary incisors and 2 mandibular incisors of New Zealand rabbits. Specimens were divided into 6 treatment groups. Teeth were treated with: In Group 1: Er-Yag laser and Biodentine® (Septodont), in Group 2: Er: Yag laser and calcium hydroxide (Dycal® Dentsply), in Group 3: Er: Yag laser and adhesive system (Prime& Bond® NT Dentsply), in Group 4: high speed diamond bur and Biodentine® (Septodont), in Group 5: high speed diamond bur and calcium hydroxide (Dycal® Dentsply), and in Group 6: high speed diamond bur and adhesive system (Prime& Bond® NT Dentsply). The preparation was done with copious irrigation. The animals were sacrificed at 30 days and the teeth were extracted and prepared for histological analysis. Results: In the group of « laser Er-Yag ¼, iatrogenic pulpal wounds treated with Biodentine® were covered with a thick hard tissue barrier after 1 month. The difference was not significant with the groups of Dycal® used with Er: Yag laser and high speed diamond bur. Prime& Bond® NT Dentsply specimens showed a thin dentinal bridge layer. Conclusion: At 1 month, Er-Yag laser proved to be useful with Biodentine® for direct pulp capping procedures


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Polymethacrylic Acids , Calcium Hydroxide , Silicates , Calcium Compounds , Dental Pulp Capping , Lasers, Solid-State
8.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 218-222, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388004

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Several animal models have been used in fracture healing and bone graft studies, but hematological responses are seldom reported. Therefore, the present study reported the hematological changes observed in rabbits that underwent xenografting of caprine demineralized bone matrix (CDBM). Method Twenty-four (24) male rabbits (2.5 0.5kg) were acquired for the purpose of this study and were randomly assigned to three groups: autologous bone graft (ABG), unfilled (NC), and caprine demineralized bone matrix (CDBM). Blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture under xylazine-ketamine anesthesia on day 0 (baseline), and on days 28 and 56 postsurgery and were analyzed manually within 2hours of collection. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, and a p-value< 0.05 was considered significant. Result There was an overall significant difference in the values of total white blood cell count (p» 0.0043), neutrophil count (p< 0.0001), monocyte count (p» 0.0184), red blood cell count (p» 0.003), hemoglobin concentration (p< 0.0001) and packed cell volume (p< 0.0001) across the days and the treatment groups. There was, however, no overall significant difference in lymphocyte count (p» 0.4923), basophil count (p» 0.4183), and eosinophil count (0.4806) within days. Conclusion Response to CDBM grafting in rabbits could, therefore, be said to be characterized by marked leukocytosis with neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis by day 28 of postgrafting. This could form the basis with which hematology can be used to monitor body response of bone graft animal models.


Resumo Objetivo Diversos modelos animais têm sido usados em estudos sobre enxertos ósseos e o tratamento de fraturas, mas as respostas hematológicas são raramente relatadas. Este estudo descreveu as alterações hematológicas observadas em coelhos submetidos a xenoenxertos de matriz óssea desmineralizada caprina (MODC). Métodos Vinte e quatro (24) coelhos machos (2,5 0,5 kg) foram adquiridos para este estudo e divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: enxerto ósseo autólogo (EOA); controle negativo sem preenchimento (SP) e matriz óssea desmineralizada caprina (MODC). Amostras de sangue foram coletadas por punção cardíaca sob anestesia com xilazina-quetamina no dia 0 (para estabelecimento dos valores basais) e aos dias 28 e 56 após a cirurgia; essas amostras foram submetidas à análise manual em até 2 horas após a coleta. A análise estatística foi composta por análise de variância (ANOVA) de dois fatores com medidas repetidas, e o valor de p< 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados Houve uma diferença geral significativa nos números de leucócitos totais (p» 0,0043), neutrófilos (p< 0,0001), monócitos (p» 0,0184) e hemácias (p» 0,003), na concentração de hemoglobina (p< 0,0001) e no hematócrito (p< 0,0001) ao longo dos dias e entre os grupos de tratamento. No entanto, não houve diferença global significativa no número de linfócitos (p» 0,4923), basófilos (p» 0,4183) e eosinófilos (p» 0,4806) entre os dias. Conclusão A resposta ao enxerto de MODC em coelhos é, portanto, caracterizada por leucocitose intensa com neutrofilia, linfocitose e monocitose no 28° dia após o procedimento. Esses dados podem basear a utilização da hematologia no monitoramento da resposta corporal em modelos animais de enxerto ósseo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Bone Transplantation , Fracture Healing , Models, Animal , Heterografts , Hematology
9.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 207-212, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928530

ABSTRACT

This study explored the usefulness of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) in the early assessment of corpora cavernosa fibrosis (CCF). New Zealand male rabbits were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was injected into the dorsal penis tissue of rabbits in the experimental group. Conventional ultrasound and 2D-SWE examinations were performed before and 20 days after injection. Penile histological analysis was performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, sirius red staining, and immunohistochemistry. Measurement of 2D-SWE examination results was performed using shear wave elastography quantitative measurement (SWQ). Histological analysis outcomes were the proportion of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), collagen fibers (CFs), collagen type I (Col I), and collagen type III (Col III), as well as the SMCs/CFs ratio, measured by sirius red staining. Other histological analysis outcomes were the positive area proportion (PAP) of TGF-β1 (PAPT), fibronectin (PAPF), and Col III (PAPC), measured by immunohistochemistry. After recombinant human TGF-β1 injection, SWQ was higher in the experimental group than that in the control group (P < 0.001); however, there were no differences in conventional ultrasound results. There were significant differences in histological outcomes between the two groups (all P < 0.05). These results indicated that 2D-SWE was superior for identifying early histological changes in CCF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Fibrosis , Male , Penis/pathology , Rabbits , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of intra-articular berberine injection on the structural remodeling of subchondral bone plate and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand(OPG/RANKL) system expression in rabbits with osteoarthritis(OA).@*METHODS@#Forty 12-month-old male rabbits with an average of(2.73±0.18) kg of body weight, underwent left anterior cruciate ligament transection(ACLT), and were divided into berberine group and placebo groups after operation, 20 rabbits in each group. The berberine group received intra-articular injection of 100 μmol/L berberine 0.3 ml every week for 6 weeks. In placebo group, the same dose of 0.9% sodium chloride injection was injected into the left knee joint cavity every week for 6 weeks. Another 20 12-month-old male rabbits, weighing (2.68±0.18) kg, underwent sham operation on the left knee joint without intra-articular injection intervention (sham operation group). On the last day of the sixth week after operation, three groups of animals were sacrificed to obtain knee joint specimens. The femoral medial condyle samples were obtained for histological evaluation of cartilage and subchondral bone, Mankin scoring system was used to evaluate articular cartilage structure. Image-Pro Plus(IPP) software was used to evaluate subchondral bone plate bone volume(BV), bone volume/total volume(BV/TV), trabecular circumference(TC), mean trabecular thickness (Tb.Th). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerization Enzyme chain reaction(reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of OPG and RANKL in subchondral bone tissue at 6 weeks after operation.@*RESULTS@#The cartilage structure evaluation showed that the surface of cartilage tissue in the sham operation group was smooth and flat, and the safranin coloration was full in the full thickness of the cartilage;the cartilage tissue in the berberine group showed uneven surface layer, and the staining of safranin O was mildly decreased;the surface layer fibrosis was seen in placebo group, Safranin O faded significantly. The Mankin score in the berberine group was lower than that in placebo group(P<0.01), but higher than that in sham operation group(P<0.01). The structural evaluation of subchondral bone plate showed that the trabecular bone in sham-operated group was densely arranged;after berberine intervention, the trabeculae were closely arranged;the subchondral bone trabeculae in placebo group were relatively sparse, and the distance between trabeculae was wider. Subchondral bone plate IPP software evaluation showed that BV, BV/TV, TC, Tb.Th in berberine group were higher than those in placebo group(P<0.01), BV, BV/TV, TC, Tb.Th in berberine group were higher than those in placebo group(P<0.01), while lower than the sham operation group (P<0.01). PCR test results showed that the expression of OPG mRNA in the berberine group was significantly higher than that in placebo group(P<0.01), and OPG mRNA in the berberine group was lower than that in sham operation group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in mRNA expression of RANKL among three groups(P>0.05);the ratio of OPG/RANKL in berberine group was higher than that in placebo group(P<0.01), but lower than that in sham operation group(P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Intra-articular injection of berberine can effectively inhibit the resorption of subchondral bone in the early stage of OA and delay the development of the disease. The specific mechanism may be that berberine maintains the balance of OPG/RANKL system by up-regulating the expression of OPG gene in subchondral bone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Berberine/therapeutic use , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Plates , Cartilage, Articular , Humans , Ligands , Male , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Osteoprotegerin/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Rabbits
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of RUNX2 gene overexpression vector modified exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combined with calcium carbonate scaffold system in bone defect.@*METHODS@#Rabbit BMSCs were used as the research object, and BMSCs were identified by flow cytometry. Construct RUNX2 gene overexpression vector, transfect BMSCs with lentivirus, and collect exosomes by ultracentrifugation. The morphology of exosomes was observed by transmission electron microscope, the expression of exosome marker CD63 was detected by Western blot, and the calcium carbonate scaffold was constructed by three chamber parallel automatic temperature control reaction system. According to whether the RUNX2 gene overexpression vector was transfected or not, the complex of BMSCs and calcium carbonate scaffold was divided into three groups, namely BMSCs group, RUNX2 overexpression group and exosome group. The osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was detected by oil red O staining and RT-PCR. There were 9 clean adult healthy male New Zealand white rabbits, aged (12.97±1.21) months, with a body weight of (19.3±3.6) kg, with 3 rabbits in each group. The animal model of skull defect was constructed by surgical method, and the repair of bone defect was evaluated by imaging, he staining and Masson staining.@*RESULTS@#The results of flow cytometry showed that the expression of CD29 protein, CD44 protein, CD11b protein and CD45 protein on the surface of BMSCs were 99.5%, 100%, 0.1% and 0.1%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the exosomes were bilayer vesicles with a diameter of 50 to 150 nm. Western blot showed that the molecular marker CD63 of exosomes was positive. Oil red O staining showed that the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in exosome group was significantly higher than that in RUNX2 overexpression group and BMSCs group. The results of RT-PCR showed that the relative expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and ALP mRNA in BMSCs in exosome group were significantly higher than those in RUNX2 overexpression group and BMSCs group (P<0.05). The imaging results showed that the repair effect of skull defect in exosome group was better than that in RUNX2 overexpression group. HE staining and Masson staining showed that the repair effect of skull defect in exosome group was better than that in RUNX2 overexpression group (P<0.05). MSCs in exosome group was significantly higher than that in RUNX2 overexpression group and BMSCs group. The results of RT-PCR showed that the relative expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and ALP mRNA in BMSCs in exosome group were significantly higher than those in RUNX2 overexpression group and BMSCs group(P<0.05). The imaging results showed that the repair effect of skull defect in exosome group was better than that in RUNX2 overexpression group. HE staining and Masson staining showed that the repair effect of skull defect in exosome group was better than that in RUNX2 overexpression group(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with RUNX2 gene overexpression vector transfection, extraction of exosomes directly can promote the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblasts more efficiently, and the combination with calcium carbonate scaffold can better promote the healing of bone defects. So as to provide new ideas and methods for the clinical treatment of bone defects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium Carbonate/metabolism , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Male , Osteogenesis/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rabbits
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupotomy on the morphology and ultrastructure of rectus femoris muscle in rabbits with knee osteoarthritis and to reveal the possible therapeutic mechanism involved in the effect of acupotomology on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis(KOA).@*METHODS@#Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits aged 6 months and weighed (2.0±0.5) kg were randomly divided into blank group, model group and acupotomy group, 8 rabbits in each group. KOA model was established by modified Videman method with left hind limb extended plaster immobility for 6 weeks. In acupotomy group, the transfascial focal points of quadriceps femoris muscle were released by acupotomy under the guidance of Jingjin theory for 4 times and once a week, and the treatment points include Hedingci, Binwaixia, Binneixia. Blank group and model group were fed normally without intervention. One week after the end of the intervention, the pennation angle(PA), muscle thickness(MT), cross-sectional area(CSA) and strain ratio(SR) of rectus femoris were measured by ultrasound. HE staining was used to observe the changes of the tissue morphology, the number of muscle fibers and the average area of muscle fibers. The myofibril of rectus femoris, sarcomere and myofilament were observed by transmission electron microscope.@*RESULTS@#The PA of rectus femoris muscle in the blank group was (9.05±0.21)°. The MT was(1.09±0.09) cm and the CSA was(1.30±0.01) cm2. The PA of rectus femoris muscle in the model group was (3.06±0.15)°. The MT was (0.71±0.02) cm and the CSA was(0.77±0.02) cm2. The PA of rectus femoris muscle in the acupotomy group was (6.94±0.28)°. The MT was (0.80±0.05) cm and the CSA was(0.94±0.03) cm2. The muscle PA, MT and CSA of rectus femoris in the model group were significantly smaller than those in the blank group (P<0.05). Those in acupotomy group were significantly increased compared with those in model group (P<0.05). The SR of rectus femoris muscle was 1.19±0.02 in the blank group, 3.50±0.05 in the model group and 1.99±0.07 in the acupotomy group. The elastic SR of the model group was significantly higher than that of the blank group (P<0.05). These in acupotomy group was significantly lower than that in model group(P<0.05). The results of HE staining showed:in blank group, the fascicles of rectus femoris were arranged neatly, the number of beam of muscle fibers within the fixed visual field was 94.38±3.50 and the average CSA was(0.75±0.22) mm2. In model group, the fascicles of rectus femoris with different sizes were disorganized with a small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration, the number of beam of muscle fibers within the fixed visual field was 196.63±2.62 and the average CSA was(0.26±0.03) mm2. Compared to the blank group, a significant increase in the number of muscle fibers in the fixed field in the model group (P<0.05) and the average CSA decreased significantly(P<0.05). In acupotomy group, the rectus femoris fascicles in the acupotomy group tended to be arranged in a more orderly manner, with the inflammatory cells decreased, the number of beam of muscle fibers within the fixed visual field was 132.88±4.61 and the average CSA was(0.70±0.07) mm2. Compared to the model group, a significant decrease in the number of muscle fibers in the fixed field in the model group(P<0.05) and the average CSA increased significantly(P<0.05). The results of transmission electron microscope showed:compared with the blank group, the overall arrangement of the myofibrils of the rectus femoris in the model group was less structured. There was fracture between the muscle fibers and the sarcomere, the myofilaments were disordered, and the fracture of the Z line was discontinuous. Compared with the model group, the myofibrillar texture of rectus femoris in acupotomy group was clearer, and the Z line was more continuous.@*CONCLUSION@#Based on the jingjin theory, the release of quadriceps femoris by acupotomy can effectively improve the morphology and structure of rectus femoris, and promote the repair and reconstruction of chronic skeletal muscle injury in rabbits with KOA, which may be one of the mechanisms of acupotomy in the treatment of KOA.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Quadriceps Muscle , Rabbits , Ultrasonography
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1847-1858, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927822

ABSTRACT

Myostatin gene (MSTN) encodes a negative regulator for controlling skeletal muscle growth in animals. In this study, MSTN-/- homozygous mutants with "double muscle" phenotypic traits and stable inheritance were bred on the basis of MSTN gene editing rabbits, with the aim to establish a method for breeding homozygous progeny from primary MSTN biallelic mutant rabbits. MSTN-/- primary mutant rabbits were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. The primary mutant rabbits were mated with wild type rabbits to produce F1 rabbits, whereas the F2 generation homozygous rabbits were bred by half-sibling mating or backcrossing with F1 generation rabbits of the same mutant strain. Sequence analysis of PCR products and its T vector cloning were used to screen homozygous rabbits. The MSTN mutant rabbits with 14-19 week-old were weighed and the difference of gluteus maximus tissue sections and muscle fiber cross-sectional area were calculated and analyzed. Five primary rabbits with MSTN gene mutation were obtained, among which three were used for homozygous breeding. A total of 15 homozygous rabbits (5 types of mutants) were obtained (M2-a: 3; M2-b: 2; M3-a: 2; M7-a: 6; M7-b: 2). The body weight of MSTN-/- homozygous mutant rabbits aged 14-19 weeks were significantly higher than that of MSTN+/+ wild-type rabbits of the same age ((2 718±120) g vs. (1 969±53) g, P < 0.01, a 38.0% increase). The mean cross sections of gluteus maximus muscle fiber in homozygous mutant rabbits were not only significantly higher than that of wild type rabbits ((3 512.2±439.2) μm2 vs. (1 274.8±327.3) μm2, P < 0.01), but also significantly higher than that of MSTN+/- hemizygous rabbits ((3 512.2±439.2) μm2 vs. (2 610.4±604.4) μm2, P < 0.05). In summary, five homozygous mutants rabbits of MSTN-/- gene were successfully bred, which showed a clear lean phenotype. The results showed that the primary breeds were non-chimeric mutant rabbits, and the mutant traits could be inherited from the offspring. MSTN-/- homozygous mutant rabbits of F2 generation could be obtained from F1 hemizygous rabbits by inbreeding or backcrossing. The progenies of the primary biallelic mutant rabbits were separated into two single-allelic mutants, both of which showed a "double-muscle" phenotype. Thus, this study has made progress in breeding high-quality livestock breeds with gene editing technology.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Gene Editing , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Mutation , Myostatin/metabolism , Phenotype , Rabbits
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 148-159, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927700

ABSTRACT

The GapC protein of Streptococcus uberis located on the surface of bacteria is a protein with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. It participates in cellular processes and exhibits a variety of biological activities. In addition, it has good antigenicity. The aim of this study was to predict the possible B-cell epitopes of the GapC protein and verify the immunogenicity of candidate epitope peptides. The gapC gene of S. uberis isolate RF5-1 was cloned into a recombinant expression plasmid pET-28a-GapC and inducibly expressed. The purified protein was used to immunize experimental rabbits to produce anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies. The three-dimensional structure and three-dimensional location of the GapC B-cell epitopes and the homology comparison of the GapC protein and its B-cell epitopes were carried out using bioinformatics softwares. The results showed that the 44-kDa GapC protein had a good immunological reactivity. Six linear and 3 conformational dominant B-cell epitopes against the GapC protein were selected and synthesized. Three dimensional analysis indicated that the selected peptides have better antigen epitope formation potential. Rabbit anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies were generated after immunized with the purified GapC protein, and the polyclonal antibodies were used to identify the epitope peptide by an indirect ELISA. The ELISA results showed that all of the 9 epitope peptides could react with anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies with varying titers. Among them, the epitope polypeptide 266AANDSYGYTEDPIVSSD282 reacted with the polyclonal antibodies significantly stronger than with other epitope peptides. This study laid an experimental foundation for in-depth understanding of the immunological properties and utilizing effective epitopes of the GapC protein of S. uberis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Rabbits , Streptococcus
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e258816, 2022. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364491

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of season and various housing systems on behavioral i.e. sitting, standing, walking and physiological i.e. respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), time of sexual libido (TSL) attributes of local breed of rabbits reared in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Adult rabbits (n = 40) of 6 month to 1 year old were divided into two groups (n = 20 / group). Group I was placed under traditional colony system in the soil while group II was kept under modern cage system. Sitting and standing was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher during summer and winter respectively. The RR and RT were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in summer as compared to other study seasons. Standing behavior was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in caged rabbits as compared to colony-reared ones. Statistically higher (p ≤ 0.05) TSL value was observed in summer as compared to other three study seasons. From this study it is concluded that rabbit's behavioral and physiological traits are significantly affected by season and housing systems. We concluded that rabbits show better physio-behavioral performance in autumn and winter season while summer stress negatively affects physiology and behavior under caged-system. This study could contribute new aspects of behavioral and physiological processes in local breed of rabbits due to different seasons and housing systems.


O presente estudo foi conduzido para investigar o efeito da estação do ano e de vários sistemas de alojamento nos atributos comportamentais, isto é, sentar, levantar, andar e fisiológico, isto é, frequência respiratória (RR), temperatura retal (TR), tempo de libido sexual (TSL), atributos da raça local de coelhos criados no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Coelhos adultos (n = 40) de 6 meses a 1 ano de idade foram divididos em dois grupos (n = 20 / grupo). O grupo I foi colocado sob o sistema de colônia tradicional no solo, enquanto o grupo II foi mantido sob o sistema moderno de gaiolas. Sentar e ficar em pé foi significativamente (p ≤ 0,05) maior durante o verão e inverno, respectivamente. O RR e o TR foram significativamente (p ≤ 0,05) maiores no verão, em comparação com as outras estações do estudo. O comportamento em pé foi significativamente (p ≤ 0,05) maior em coelhos engaiolados, em comparação com os criados em colônia. O valor de TSL estatisticamente maior (p ≤ 0,05) foi observado no verão, em comparação com outras três temporadas de estudo. A partir deste estudo, concluiu-se que os traços comportamentais e fisiológicos dos coelhos são significativamente afetados pela estação do ano e pelos sistemas de alojamento. Concluímos que os coelhos apresentam melhor desempenho fisiocomportamental no outono e inverno, enquanto o estresse do verão afeta negativamente a fisiologia e o comportamento em sistema enjaulado. Este estudo pode contribuir com novos aspectos dos processos comportamentais e fisiológicos em raças locais de coelhos devido às diferentes estações do ano e sistemas de alojamento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits/physiology , Respiration , Seasons , Temperature , Behavior , Housing , Pakistan
16.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0026, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376786

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe an innovative animal model of eye transplantation used in rabbits. Methods: six Dutch-belted male rabbits were submitted to lateral orbitotomy in the right eye, wide retrobulbar anatomy exposure, dissection of the structures, identification and distal section of the optic nerve followed by anastomosis either by vicryl (group 1) or fibrin glue (group 2). Electroretinography recording was performed before the section of the optic nerve and every 30 seconds after, to monitor the function of retina. Left eye was used as control group. Results: After optic nerve resection and anastomosis, stable ERG amplitude of the right eye was lost after 302 seconds in group 1 and after 296 seconds on group 2. Left eye kept longer stable ERG amplitude curves. Conclusions: The animal model of whole eye transplantation was effective in describing a novel technique to be used in rabbits, with success of the anatomic procedure. Further studies will clarify the best anastomosis methods and maintenance of function of the receptor organ. Translational relevance: this animal model of whole eye transplantation provides a novel perspective for blind patients and the research models, since we describe a novel mammal animal model. This model can be used as basis of a human model of whole eye transplantation in future studies.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever uma técnica cirúrgica inovadora para transplante de olho em um modelo animal em coelhos. Métodos: Seis coelhos machos com Dutch Belted foram submetidos à orbitotomia lateral do olho direito, com ampla exposição da anatomia retrobulbar, dissecção do cone muscular, exposição e secção distal do nervo óptico seguida de anastomose por vicryl (Grupo 1) ou cola de fibrina (Grupo 2). O registro da eletrorretinografia foi realizado antes da secção do nervo óptico e a cada 30 segundos após, para monitorar a função da retina. O olho esquerdo foi usado como grupo controle. Resultados: Após a ressecção do nervo óptico, a estabilidade da amplitude da eletrorretinografia foi perdida no olho direito após 302 segundos no Grupo 1 e após 296 segundos no Grupo 2. O olho esquerdo manteve eletrorretinografia estável por períodos mais longos. Conclusão: O modelo animal de transplante total de olho foi eficaz em descrever uma nova técnica cirúrgica para ser utilizada em laboratório com coelhos, com sucesso do procedimento anatômico. Novos estudos esclarecerão os melhores métodos de anastomose e manutenção da função do órgão receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Optic Nerve/surgery , Retina/physiology , Electroretinography , Eye/transplantation , Orbit/surgery , Rabbits , Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology , Anastomosis, Surgical , Eye Enucleation , Models, Animal , Slit Lamp Microscopy
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodentia , Pakistan , Specimen Handling , Symbiosis
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235781, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in tempeh, has not been investigated especially in vitro as a neuroprotective agent against 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME)-induced beta-amyloid cytotoxicity. Beta amyloid peptides (Aβ) could initiate neurotoxic events and neuron-inflammatory response via microglial activation. However, it remains unknown whether the neurotoxic effect of beta-amyloid and/or associated with the potential of 2-ME to induce neurotoxic effects on primary culture of nerve cells induced by 2-ME. This study investigated potential neuroprotective of trans-resveratrol a promising agent tempeh and soybean seed coats-derived against beta-amyloid cytotoxicity on primary culture of nerve cells induced by 2-methoxyethanol. Biotium and MTT assays were used to analyze neurons, which were isolated from the cerebral cortex of fetal mice at gestation day 19 (GD-19). A standard solution of 2-methoxyethanol was dosed at 10 μL. The cultured cells were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) 2-ME group + resveratrol standard, (2) 2-ME group + resveratrol isolated from tempeh, (3) 2-ME group + resveratrol isolated from soybean seed coats, and (4) the control group, without the addition of either 2-ME or resveratrol. Exposure of the primary cortical neuron cells to beta-amyloid monoclonal antibody pre-incubated for 24 h with 10 µL of 4.2 µg/mL resveratrol and 7.5 mmol/l 2-methoxy-ethanol additions. Here, we report that the addition of 2-ME and resveratrol (standard and isolated from tempeh) of cell culture at concentrations of 1.4, 2.8 and 4.2 µg/mL showed that the majority of neurons grew well. In contrast, after exposure to 2-ME and Beta-amyloid, showed that glial activated. These findings demonstrate a role for resveratrol in neuroprotective-neurorescuing action.


Resumo O resveratrol, um polifenol natural encontrado em tempê, não foi investigado apenas in vitro como agente neuroprotetor contra a citotoxicidade beta-amiloide induzida por 2-metoxietanol (2-ME). Os peptídeos beta-amiloides (Aβ) podem iniciar eventos neurotóxicos e resposta inflamatória dos neurônios via ativação microglial. No entanto, permanece desconhecido se o efeito neurotóxico do peptídeo beta-amiloide associado ao potencial do 2-ME causa efeitos neurotóxicos na cultura primária de células nervosas induzidas pelo 2-ME. Este estudo investigou o potencial neuroprotetor do agente trans-resveratrol em cascas de sementes de soja e tempê derivadas da citotoxicidade beta-amiloide na cultura primária de células nervosas induzidas pelo 2-metoxietanol. Ensaios de biotium e MTT foram utilizados para analisar os neurônios isolados do córtex cerebral de camundongos fetais no dia da gestação 19 (GD-19). As células cultivadas foram divididas aleatoriamente nos seguintes grupos: (1) grupo 2-ME + padrão de resveratrol; (2) grupo 2-ME + resveratrol isolado de tempê; (3) grupo 2-ME + resveratrol isolado de cascas de sementes de soja; e (4) grupo controle, sem a adição de 2-ME ou resveratrol. Houve exposição das células primárias dos neurônios corticais ao anticorpo monoclonal beta-amiloide pré-incubado por 24 horas, com 10 µL de 4,2 µg/mL de resveratrol, e adições de 7,5 mmol/l de 2-metoxietanol. A adição de 2-ME e resveratrol (padrão e isolado do tempê) da cultura de células nas concentrações de 1,4, 2,8 e 4,2 µg/mL mostrou que a maioria dos neurônios cresceu bem. Por outro lado, após a exposição ao 2-ME e beta-amiloide, a glia foi ativada. Esses achados demonstram um papel do resveratrol na ação neuroprotetora e de neurorresgate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Soy Foods , Soybeans , Amyloid beta-Peptides/toxicity , Ethylene Glycols , Resveratrol , Neurons
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236297, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153472

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) is widely distributed in the world and has a range of popular therapeutic indications. This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical characterization of two leaf extracts of P. barbatus, and their antimicrobial, antineoplastic and immunomodulatory potential. After collection, herborization and obtainment of the P. barbatus aqueous extract (PBA) and acetone:water 7:3 P. barbatus organic extract (PBO), the phytochemical characterization was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antimicrobial activity was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against eight bacterial strains using the microdilution test and the fungus Trichophyton rubrum by disc diffusion assay and microdilution test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT and trypan blue methods in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at concentrations ranged between 0.1 to 100 µg.mL-1 and in neoplastic cell lines Toledo, K562, DU-145 and PANC-1 at 1, 10 and 100 µg.mL-1 . Immunomodulatory activity, was evaluated by sandwich ELISA of proinflammatory cytokines at BALB/c mice splenocytes cultures supernatant. Both extracts presented flavonoids, cinnamic derivatives, steroids and ellagic acid. PBO showed bacteriostatic activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC = 250 µg.mL-1) clinical isolate and PBA fungistatic activity against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 800 µg.mL-1). The extracts did not exhibit toxicity to PBMCs and neoplastic cells (IC50 > 100 µg.mL-1). Additionally, PBO at 100 µg.mL-1 significantly inhibited IFN-γ and IL-17A cytokines (p = 0.03). Plectranthus barbatus is a potential candidate for therapeutic use due to its low toxicity in healthy human cells and exhibits biological activities of medical interest as bacteriostatic, fungistatic and immunomodulatory.


Resumo Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) é amplamente distribuída no mundo e com uma série de indicações terapêuticas populares. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a caracterização fitoquímica de dois extratos da folha de P. barbatus e seu potencial antimicrobiano, antineoplásico e imunomodulador. Após coleta, herborização e obtenção do extrato aquoso (PBA) e acetona: água 7: 3 (orgânico) (PBO) de P. barbatus, a caracterização fitoquímica foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) contra oito cepas bacterianas usando o teste de microdiluição e o fungo Trichophyton rubrum por ensaio de difusão em disco e teste de microdiluição. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada por métodos MTT e azul de tripan em células normais mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP) em concentrações variadas entre 0,1 a 100 µg.mL-1 e nas linhagens celulares neoplásicas Toledo, K562, DU-145 e PANC-1 em 1, 10 e 100 µg.mL-1 . A atividade imunomoduladora foi avaliada por ELISA sanduíche de citocinas pró-inflamatórias em sobrenadante de culturas de esplenócitos de camundongos BALB/c. Ambos os extratos apresentaram flavonoides, derivados cinâmicos, esteróides e ácido elágico. O PBO mostrou atividade bacteriostática contra Acinetobacter baumannii (CIM = 250 µg.mL-1) e atividade fungistática do PBA contra Trichophyton rubrum (CIM = 800 µg.mL-1). Os extratos não apresentaram toxicidade para CMSP e células neoplásicas (IC50 > 100 µg.mL-1). Além disso, o PBO a 100 µg.mL-1 inibiu significativamente as citocinas IFN-γ e IL-17A (p = 0,03). Plectranthus barbatus é um candidato potencial para uso terapêutico devido à sua baixa toxicidade em células humanas saudáveis ​​e exibe atividade de interesse médico como bacteriostática, fungistática e imunomoduladora.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Plectranthus , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Arthrodermataceae , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

ABSTRACT

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Rain , Rodentia , Pakistan , Symbiosis , Agriculture
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