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1.
Dent. press endod ; 11(3): 5-5, Sept-Dec.2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378751

ABSTRACT

Será o exame de tomografia computadorizada realmente de alto custo para o paciente, ou existe uma resistência por grande parte dos profissionais em indicá-lo? Paradigmas já foram quebrados com relação à dose de radiação. Ela é tão pequena que, em muitas universidades nos EUA, o paciente não utiliza avental de chumbo durante o exame. Isso se dá porque o exame usado para Endodontia tem algumas diferenças em relação à tomografia médica (AU).


Is the CT scan really a high cost for the patient, or is there a resistance on the part of most professionals to indicate it? Paradigms have already been broken with regard to the radiation dose. In many universities in the USA, the patient does not wear a lead apron during the exam because the dose is so small. The reason for this is that the exam used for Endodontics has some differences in relation to medical tomography (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Dosage , Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Endodontics , Radiation , Lead
2.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 31(1): 1-7, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222455

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hipofraccionamiento moderado (hRt) en cáncer de próstata, consisten en dismi-nuir el tiempo total de tratamiento con radioterapia, lo que mejora la adherencia terapéutica y opti-miza recursos tecnológicos. En cáncer de próstata, existe evidencia robusta con datos maduros a 5 años de seguimiento, donde se evidenció que hRtno es inferior al tratamiento con fraccionamiento estándar en control oncológico, con menor o igual toxicidad aguda y tardía. Se hace una revisión de la evidencia, dosis de tolerancia, contorneo de volúmenes objetivo (GTV-CTV-PTV) / órganos de ries-go, planificación y reproducibilidad del hRt en cáncer de próstata localizado.


Introduction: Moderate hypofractionation (hRt) in prostate cancer consists of reducing the total time of treatment with radiotherapy, which improves therapeutic adherence and optimizes technolog-ical resources. In prostate cancer, there is robust evidence with mature data at 5 years of follow-up, where it was evidenced that hRt is not inferior to treatment with standard fractionation in oncological control, with less or equal acute and late toxicity. A review of the evidence, tolerance dose, contouring of target volumes (GTV-CTV-PTV) / organs at risk, planning and reproducibility of hRt in localized prostate cancer is made.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Radiation , Dosage
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 87-90, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153099

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This is a rare case report of acute, paracentral corneal melting and perforation occurring 1 week after an uneventful cataract surgery, with discussions on possible pathogenetic mechanisms. Relevant literature was also reviewed. Herein, a case of an 86-year-old woman with acute, paracentral, and sterile corneal melting and perforation in her left eye at 1 week after an uncomplicated cataract extraction is described. This occurs at the base of ocular surface disorders due to previous radiation of her lower eyelid and cheeks for the treatment of cancer and previously undiagnosed rheumatoid arthritis. She underwent surgical treatment using Gundersen's conjunctival flap for the existing perforation due to low visual expectancies and reluctance to undergo corneal keratoplasty due to the risk of corneal graft rejection. The risk of coming across an acute corneal melting after an uncomplicated cataract surgery in the eyes with ocular surface disorders should always be considered.


RESUMO É apresentado um caso raro de ceratomalácia paracentral aguda estéril e perfuração da córnea em uma paciente de 86 anos, uma semana após cirurgia para catarata sem intercorrências. Também são discutidos possíveis mecanismos de patogênese e a literatura relevante é revisada. Esses distúrbios da superfície ocular ocorreram devido à irradiação da pálpebra inferior e da bochecha em um tratamento de câncer e a uma artrite reumatoide não diagnosticada anteriormente. A paciente submeteu-se a um tratamento cirúrgico com um flap conjuntival de Gundersen sobre a perfuração existente, devido às suas baixas expectativas visuais e à relutância em submeter-se a uma ceratoplastia da córnea, considerando o risco de rejeição do enxerto corneano. Deve-se sempre considerar o risco de ocorrência de ceratomalácia aguda após cirurgias de catarata sem complicações em olhos apresentando distúrbios da superfície ocular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Radiation , Cataract Extraction , Corneal Diseases , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Corneal Diseases/etiology
4.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 117-125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877178

ABSTRACT

@#Background. Accidental radiation exposure can occur anytime. Biodosimeters help in quantifying the absorbed dose of individuals who are not equipped with personal dosimeters during radiation exposure. The dicentric assay can quantify radiation damage by correlating radiation dose exposure with the frequency of dicentric chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes extracted from exposed individuals. Objective. The study aims to present the interim results of the reference dose-response curve for a Philippine radiotherapy facility constructed using a 6MV linear accelerator (ClinacX, Varian). Methods. Samples of peripheral blood from healthy volunteers were irradiated in a customized water phantom of doses 0.10 to 5.0 Gray using a linear accelerator. The irradiated samples were cultured and analyzed following the International Atomic Energy Agency Cytogenetic Dosimetry Protocol (2011) with modifications. Linear-quadratic model curve fitting and further statistical analysis were done using CABAS (Chromosome Aberration Calculation Software Version 2.0) and Dose Estimate (Version 5.2). Interim results of the samples were used to generate these curves. Results. The dose-response curve generated from the preliminary results were comparable to published dose response curves from international cytogenetic laboratories. Conclusion. The generated dose-response calibration curve will be useful for medical triage of the public and radiologic staff accidentally exposed to radiation during medical procedures or in the event of nuclear accidents.


Subject(s)
Cytogenetics , Biological Assay , Chromosome Disorders , Cytogenetic Analysis , Radiation
5.
Más Vita ; 2(4): 80-87, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1373018

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia del nódulo tiroideo (NT) en la población general es de entre el 2 al 7% por palpación y de 19 a 76% por ultrasonido. Su incidencia es más alta con la edad, en personas provenientes de áreas con deficiencia de yodo, en mujeres, y después de exposición a radiación. Objetivo: Estudiar distintas fuentes bibliográficas para así establecer la importancia del uso práctico de la clasificación TI-RADS en el nódulo tiroideo. Metodología: Se constituye en una investigación de carácter documental, tanto bibliográfica como digital. Resultados: La importancia del estudio del nódulo tiroideo radica en la necesidad de excluir cáncer, por lo cual, todo nódulo tiroideo >1cm debe ser evaluado. Los nódulos <1cm serán sospechosos cuando se encuentren asociados a factores de riesgo y en presencia de hallazgos ultrasonográficos sugestivos de malignidad. La clasificación TI-RADS de los NT basada en un sistema de puntuación acorde a los criterios ecográficos más relevantes de malignidad tiene una mejor y más fácil aplicación en la práctica diaria. Conclusión: Según los criterios de malignidad y la puntuación asignada en este estudio, la posibilidad de que un NT con un punto en la escala sea maligno es de aproximadamente un 10%, mientras que la probabilidad para aquellos con dos puntos es casi del 50% y para los valorados con tres o cuatro puntos del 85%. Todos los NT con 5 o más puntos son malignos. El presente artículo resume una comparación de referencias bibliográficas para actualización y aplicación de la clasificación TIRADS(AU)


The prevalence of the thyroid nodule (TN) in the general population is between 2 to 7% by palpation and from 19 to 76% by ultrasound. Its incidence is higher with age, in people from iodine-deficient areas, in women, and after exposure to radiation. Objective: To study different bibliographic sources in order to establish the importance of the practical use of the TI-RADS classification in the thyroid nodule. Methodology: It constitutes a documentary research, both bibliographic and digital. Results: The importance of studying the thyroid nodule lies in the need to exclude cancer, therefore, any thyroid nodule> 1cm should be evaluated. Nodules <1cm will be suspicious when associated with risk factors and in the presence of ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy. The TI-RADS classification of NTs based on a scoring system according to the most relevant ultrasound criteria of malignancy has a better and easier application in daily practice. Conclusion: According to the malignancy criteria and the score assigned in this study, the possibility that a TN with one point on the scale is malignant is approximately 10%, while the probability for those with two points is almost 50% and for those valued with three or four points of 85%. All TNs with 5 or more points are malignant. This article summarizes a comparison of bibliographic references for updating and applying the TIRADS classification(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Iodine Deficiency , Thyroid Nodule , Methodology as a Subject , Palpation , Radiation , Diagnostic Imaging , Risk Factors
6.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 362-368, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138794

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enteritis por radiación es una patología causada por la radiación que se suministra durante el manejo de neoplasias radiosensibles. Esta enfermedad puede clasificarse en enteritis aguda o crónica, en las cuales es posible que se desarrollen síntomas por malabsorción u obstrucción intestinal, que alteran la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Presentamos el reporte de caso de un paciente masculino de 67 años, con antecedente de adenocarcinoma difuso con células en anillo de sello infiltrante y compromiso de todo el espesor de la pared gástrica, quien había recibido un manejo quirúrgico mediante gastrectomía total, asociado a quimio-radioterapia. El individuo consultó por síntomas de obstrucción intestinal. En principio, se consideró la existencia de una recaída tumoral. Sin embargo, se corroboró que los síntomas estaban relacionados con el compromiso causado por la radiación.


Abstract Radiation enteritis is a pathology caused by radiation therapy, used to treat radiosensitive tumors. Acute or chronic enteritis may be suspected in the presence of symptoms such as malabsorption or intestinal obstruction, which alter the patients quality of life. The following is the case report of a 67-year-old male patient, who consulted for symptoms of intestinal obstruction, with a history of diffuse type adenocarcinoma with infiltrating signet ring cells involving the entire thickness of the gastric wall. The patient underwent a total gastrectomy associated with chemoradiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Radiation , Enteritis , Intestinal Obstruction , Literature
7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(2): 165-168, 20200800.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119717

ABSTRACT

La enteritis por radiación o enteritis actínica es una complicación secundaria al uso de radioterapia para tratamiento de tumores pélvicos, que puede afectar con mayor frecuencia al intestino delgado (principalmente íleon) y al colon. La cirugía en pacientes con enteritis por radiación crónica debe reservarse ante la presencia de complicaciones, ya que está relacionada con una alta morbilidad y estancia hospitalaria prolongadas, así como posibilidad de re operación. Exponemos el caso de una paciente con oclusión intestinal secundaria a enteritis por radiación que desarrolló años después de la conclusión de su tratamiento por cáncer de cuello uterino, con el objetivo de que esta enfermedad sea sospechada en pacientes con antecedentes de radiación.


Radiation enteritis or actinic enteritis is a complication secondary to the use of radiotherapy to treat pelvic tumors, which can more frequently affect the small intestine (mainly ileum) and the colon. Surgery in patients with chronic radiation enteritis should be reserved in the presence of complications, since it is related to high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay, as well as the possibility of reoperation. We present the case of a patient with intestinal occlusion secondary to radiation enteritis who developed years after the conclusion of her treatment due to cervical cancer, with the objective that this disease has to be suspected in patients with history of radiation.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Tract/radiation effects , Enteritis , Radiation , Radiotherapy/adverse effects
8.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e46780, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1118766

ABSTRACT

Introdução: ouso da radiação ionizante na prática médica pode ocasionar eventos nocivos à saúde do indivíduo exposto. Diante disso, o emprego ético da radiação ionizante deve contemplar o que preconiza a legislação nacional e internacional, assim como os princípios de proteção radiológica e da bioética. O sofrimento moral relaciona-se à dimensão ética na prática da saúde,podendo afetar os profissionais das técnicas radiológicas. Objetivo: identificar as situações desencadeadoras de sofrimento moral nos profissionais das técnicas radiológicas em um serviço de radiologia convencional. Metodologia: trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória. Usou-se como técnicas de coleta de dados a observação participante, a entrevista semiestruturada e a validação consensual. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise temática. Resultados e discussão: observou-se situações de sofrimento moral quando o profissional da técnica radiológica se deparava com pacientes em condições clínicas de se dirigir a unidade de diagnóstico e imagem, diante da não indicação clínica do exame radiológico, ante ao desrespeito dos princípios de proteção radiológica e perante a falta de autonomia para fazer cumprir os preceitos éticos do emprego da radiação ionizante. Conclusão: o desrespeito dos princípios legais, assim como dos princípios de proteção radiológica e bioéticos levamo profissional das técnicas radiológicas ao sofrimento moral.


Introduction: The use of ionizing radiation in medical practice may cause harm to the health of the exposed individual. Thus, the ethical use of ionizing radiation must contemplate what is required by national and international legislation, as well as the principles of radiological protection and bioethics. Moral distress is related to the ethical dimension in healthpractice, and may affect radiological technologists. Objective:To identify the situations that trigger moral distress among radiological technologistsin a conventional radiology service.Methodology:This is a qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research. Data collection techniques were participant observation, semi-structured interview and consensus validation. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Results and discussion:Situations of moral distress were observed when the radiological technologist was faced with patients in clinical conditions to go to the diagnostic and imaging unit, due to the non-clinical indication of the radiological exam, due to the disrespect of the protection principles and lack of autonomy to enforce the ethical precepts of the use of ionizing radiation. Conclusion:Failure to respect the legal principles as well as the principles of radiological and bioethical protection lead the professional of radiological techniques to moral distress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiation , Radiation Protection , Radiology , Health Personnel , Morale , Patients , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiology Department, Hospital , X-Rays , Bioethics , Health , Occupational Health , Personal Autonomy , Education, Continuing , Ethics , Respect , Intensive Care Units , Lead
9.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 7(2): 119-133, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1046765

ABSTRACT

La odontología no es ajena al uso de equipos de rayos X, porque estos ayudan al diagnóstico, detección y control de patologías. Se calcula que 520 millones de personas se realizan estos exámenes cada año; pero la radiación emitida por los equipos de rayos X puede tener un efecto en el tejido celular, el cual depende de la dosis, el tiempo y el tipo de tejido. Por esto, las principales instituciones han establecido normas, guías e instrucciones sobre protección radiológica, las cuales ayudan a prevenir y disminuir los efectos y riesgos biológicos en las personas. El presente artículo tiene como propósito revisar las principales normas, reglamentos, guías e instrucciones acerca de la protección radiológica para el uso de equipos de rayos X en odontología. (AU)


Dentistry is no stranger to the use of X-ray equipment, because it helps to diagnose, detect and control the evolution of pathologies. An estimated 520 million people take these exams in a year. The radiation emitted by X-ray equipment can have an effect on cell tissue, it will depend on the dose, time and type of tissue. That is why the main institutions have established standards, guidelines and instructions on radiation protection, which help to prevent, reduce the effects and biological risks in which the health of people is exposed. The purpose of this article is to review the main rules, regulations, guides and instructions about radiation protection for the use of X-ray equipment in dentistry of the main institutions. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation , Radiation Protection/legislation & jurisprudence , X-Rays , Radiography , Dentistry
10.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(supl.1): 44-47, ago. 9, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141516

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of total and self- etch adhesives irradiated at different distances. Materials and Methods: Sixty cylindrical specimens of 0.78mm diameter and 10 mm length were prepared of two types of adhesive systems total etch Excite DSC (EX ­ Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and one-step self-etch Clearfil S3 Bond (S3, Kuraray Medical Inc., Tokyo, Japan). Specimens of each adhesive were divided into three groups according to the light irradiation distance (0, 2, 4mm) (n=10). Each specimen was attached to universal testing machine (Digital Force Gauge, IMADA CO., LTD, Japan) and loaded at cross head speed of 1mm/min until failure. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Independent Student t-test at p< 0.05. Results: Mean UTS for total etch (24.63, 18.19, 17.26 Mpa) and for self-etch (12.68, 8.53, 7.58Mpa) at (0, 2, 4mm) distances. Specimens irradiated directly show significantly the highest UTS while those irradiated at 4mm show the lowest values (p<0.05). Excite DSC total etch adhesive have higher UTS than Clearfil S3 self-etch adhesive regardless of irradiation distance (p<0.05).Conclusions: The UTS of the evaluated adhesives was light irradiation distance and adhesive system dependant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tensile Strength/radiation effects , Dental Bonding , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Radiation , Dental Cements , Dental Stress Analysis
11.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 7(3): 228-232, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005601

ABSTRACT

Objective:to describe the incidence of cancer cases in the direct victims of the accident, Groups I and II, and compare with overall cancer incidence rates for the population of Goiânia. Method: A descriptive study is presented herein, on the cohort of patients directly exposed and contaminated (Groups I and II) during the cesium-137 accident, which occurred in Goiania (Midwest Brazil) in 1987. The incident cases of malignant neoplasms diagnosed between 1988 and 2017 are described. Analysis included calculation of the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI95%), according to gender. Results: In the 30-year period (1987-2017) following individual exposure, there were seven cancer cases in six directly exposed victims of the cesium-137 accident. Of these, five neoplasms occurred in men, in the esophagus (1), prostrate (3), bladder (1), and two in women, involving breast cancer (1) and skin melanoma (1). The accumulated incidence rates in the direct victims of the Cesium-137 accident were 327.9/100,000 for men and 148.6/100,000 for women. For the overall population of Goiânia, rates were 221.4/100,000 and 231.2/100,000 in men and women, respectively. The ratios of brute incidence rates (direct victims of Cesium-137/population of Goiânia) were 1.5 (IC95%:0.4;5.9) in men and 0.6 (IC95%:0.1;3.8) in women, with no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Cancer incidence in the direct victims of the Cesium-137 accident (Groups I and II), according to sex, was not different from the incidence in those not exposed to Cesium-137 in the municipality of Goiânia. Cancer risk was similar to that of the general population of the municipality of Goiânia


Objetivo: descrever a incidência de casos de câncer nas vítimas diretas do acidente Grupo I e II e comparar com as taxas de incidência de câncer na população de Goiânia. Método: Estudo descritivo da coorte de pacientes diretamente expostos e contaminados (Grupos I e II), no acidente com Césio 137, ocorrido em Goiânia (Brasil), em 1987. Descrevemos os casos incidentes de neoplasia maligna diagnosticados no período entre 1988 e 2017. Foram calculados a razão das taxas de incidência e os intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%), segundo o sexo na população de estudo. Resultados: No período de 30 anos (1987-2017), ocorreram sete casos de câncer, em seis vítimas diretas do acidente pelo césio-137. Desses, cinco ocorreram em homens (esôfago [1], próstata [3] e bexiga [1]) e dois, em mulheres (mama [1] e melanoma da pele [1]). As taxas de incidência acumulada nas vítimas diretas do Césio-137 foram de 327,9/100,000 entre homens e de 148,6/100,000 entre as mulheres. Na população de Goiânia, as taxas foram de 221,4/100,000 e 231,2/100,000 em homens e mulheres, respectivamente. As razões das taxas de incidência bruta (vítimas diretas do Césio-137/população de Goiânia) foram 1,5 (IC95%:0,4;5,9) em homens e 0,6 (IC95%:0,1;3,8) em mulheres, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Conclusão: A incidência de câncer nas vítimas diretas do acidente pelo Césio 137 (Grupos I e II), segundo o sexo, não foi diferente da população não exposta ao Césio-137 do município de Goiânia; portanto, o risco de câncer foi semelhante ao da população geral do Município de Goiânia.


Subject(s)
Cesium , Radiation , Neoplasms
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180470, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989423

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effects of gamma radiation (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy) were used to evaluate the stability and thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins, as well as the stability of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity at different temperatures (4, 25, 35 and 45 °C) during the storage (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days) of black rice flour. This flour can be used as ingredient for gluten-free cereal products with higher nutritional value. For this it is necessary to preserve the anthocyanin content during thermal processing and shelf-life periods. At time 0, the dose of 3 kGy provided all of the most available bioactive compounds, raising their antioxidant potential, except for TPC. During the storage at different temperatures up to 120 days, gradual losses occurred in all the analysed parameters. Regarding the total anthocyanin content and TPC, the sample irradiated with a 1 kGy dose remained most stable. The analysis of kinetic data indicated a first-order reaction for the degradation of anthocyanins. The combination of irradiation with different temperatures may improve the shelf-life of black rice flour.


Subject(s)
Radiation , Oryza , Thermodynamics , Phytochemicals , Anthocyanins/chemistry
13.
Ethiop. j. health sci ; 29(2): 195-202, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1261900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow is extremely vulnerable to damage caused by radiation therapy. Hence, bone marrow suppression is an important side effect of radiotherapy. Effective use of radiotherapy is therefore compromised by radiation-related injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six Guinea-pigs were recruited for the study of which three were subjected to total body irradiation with Co60 while the other three served as controls. Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples were collected before and at days 9, 14 and 21, post irradiation. Manual and automated counts were performed for bone marrow nucleated cells and peripheral blood cells respectively. RESULTS: Declining bone marrow cellularity was evident immediately post irradiation. Mean ± SD of marrow cell counted per mm3 were 121,924±281, 87,603±772, 121,367±375 and 122,750±1000 pre-irradiation and days 9, 14 and 21, postirradiation (p-values 0.10, 0.27 and 0.29 respectively). Significant drops in counts were noticed on day 9 post-irradiation for all red cell parameters (p-values <0.05), for Total White Blood Cell Count and Neutrophil count (p-values <0.05) and also on days 14 and 21 for Lymphocytes (p-values <0.05) and on day 21 for Eosinophil/Basophil/Monocytes (p-value <0.05). A significant drop in platelets counts was also noticed on day 9 (p-value <0.05) which significantly increased above pre-irradiation value on day 21. CONCLUSION: Total body irrradiation with Co60 significantly affects the bone marrow with maximum reductions in marrow nucleated cells and peripheral blood cells counts on day 9 post irradiation


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Models, Animal , Nigeria , Radiation , Radiation, Ionizing
16.
West Afr. j. radiol ; 25(1): 28-33, 2018.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1273543

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of occupational hazards among medical radiation workers in Northern Nigeria and to assess the adequacy of existing occupational safety measures in the region. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of 139 medical radiation workers in six tertiary health-care institutions in northern Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain vital information about the occurrence of occupational hazards, prevention and control measures. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using the computer software SPSS. Results: Out of 159 questionnaires distributed 139 were retrieved giving a response rate 87.4%. Stress, direct contact with bodily fluids, and contrast media splashes were the three most prevalent hazards reported by 121 (87.1%), 78 (56.1%), and 72 (51.8%), respectively. Conclusion: Medical radiation workers in Northern Nigeria face a wide range of occupational hazards, and therefore concerted efforts must be channeled toward mitigating these hazards


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Imaging/adverse effects , Nigeria , Radiation , Radiation Exposure
17.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 30(4): 715-723, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892030

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The Vert-3D is a radiation-free system which offers a three-dimensional view of the back's surface, providing a quantitative assessment of spinal curvatures. Objective: To verify the repeatability, inter-rater reproducibility, and correlation between Cobb angles and the results of the Vert-3D system version 1 in the evaluation of the front curvatures of the spine in children with different nutritional profiles. Methods: The sample was composed of 115 children who underwent posterior-anterior panoramic digital radiography of the spine and five evaluations with the Vert-3D system by three trained raters. Results: Version 1 of the Vert-3D system showed: (1) significant and moderate correlations of repeatability for arrows on the left (ICC between .54 to .83) and significant and moderate correlations for arrows on the right (ICC between .55 to .60) for only normal BMI; (2) significant correlations of inter-rater reproducibility for left arrows (ICC between .47 to .65), weak to moderate correlations for right arrows (ICC between .29 to .60), and no significance for obese samples; and (3) significant correlations ranging between .31 and .60 on the left side and non-significant correlations to the right side between Cobb angles and scoliosis arrows. Conclusion: High correlation levels solely on the left side decrease the possibility of system-use for the assessment of scoliosis.


Resumo Introdução: O sistema Vert-3D fornece visão tridimensional da superfície das costas, possibilitando uma avaliação quantitativa das curvaturas da coluna vertebral, livre de radiação. Objetivo: Verificar a repetibilidade, a reprodutibilidade interavaliador e a correlação entre os ângulos de Cobb e os resultados da versão 1 do sistema Vert-3D na avaliação das curvaturas frontais da coluna vertebral de crianças com diferentes perfis nutricionais. Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 115 crianças, que foram submetidas à radiografia digital panorâmica póstero-anterior da coluna vertebral e cinco avaliações com o sistema Vert-3D, por três avaliadores treinados. Resultados: A versão 1 do sistema Vert-3D apresentou: (1) correlações significativas e moderadas de repetibilidade para flechas à esquerda (ICC entre 0,54 e 0,83) e correlações significativas e moderadas para flechas à direita (ICC entre 0,55 e 0,60), somente para IMC normal; (2) correlações significativas de reprodutibilidade interavaliador para flechas à esquerda (ICC entre 0,47 e 0,65), de fracas a moderas para as flechas a direita (ICC entre 0,29 e 0,60) e não significativa para os obesos; e (3) correlações significativas entre 0,31 e 0,60 para o lado esquerdo e não significativas para o lado direito entre os ângulos de Cobb e as flechas escolióticas. Conclusão: Os bons níveis de correlação apenas para o lado esquerdo diminuem as possibilidades de uso do sistema para avaliação da escoliose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Scoliosis , Spinal Curvatures , Radiation , Radiographic Image Enhancement , Body Mass Index
18.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(3): 275-282, July-Sept. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-859951

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian semiarid region presents some adverse environmental conditions for the settled population such as a restricted water availability and the presence of radon and metal natural sources that can contaminate the water reservoirs and consequently become a concern for human health. The present study evaluated the water quality of the Riacho das Cachoeiras Dam located in the urban area of Lajes Pintadas (state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil) as source for human consumption. An analysis of Physicochemical parameters, heavy metal content and Radon in water samples was performed along with the assessment of the water mutagenic potential through Micronucleus Test (MN) on Tradescantia pallida and Oreochromis niloticus. The content of metals in water for Al, Cd, and Ni were above water quality guidelines for human consumption. Moreover, high levels of Pb along with dissolved Radon were found. An acute and chronic mutagenic water capability was observed. These findings demonstrated that the water quality is unsuitable for human consumption due to the presence of high levels of contaminants mainly from geogenic origin and its deleterious effect on living systems.


A região semiárida brasileira apresenta condições ambientais adversas para população local, como a escassez na disponibilidade de água e a presença de fontes naturais de radônio e de metais que podem contaminar os reservatórios de água e, consequentemente, tornar-se um problema de saúde humana. O estudo avaliou a qualidade da água do Açude do Riacho das Cachoeiras localizado na área urbana de Lajes Pintadas (Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil) como fonte para o consumo humano. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas, de conteúdo de metais e de radônio em amostras de água em conjunto com a avaliação do potencial mutagênico da água por meio do teste de micronúcleos (MN) em Tradescantia pallida e Oreochromis niloticus. Os metais Al, Cd, e Ni estavam acima das diretrizes de qualidade da água para o consumo humano. Além disso, foram encontrados altos níveis de Pb dissolvido, juntamente com o radônio. Observou -se um potencial de indução de efeito mutagênico nas amostras de água testadas, tanto na exposição aguda quanto na crônica. Estes resultados demonstram que a qualidade da água do Açude está imprópria para o consumo humano devido à presença de elevados níveis de contaminantes de origem geogênica, com capacidade de exercer efeito deletério sobre os organismos.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Lead , Micronucleus Tests , Mutagenicity Tests , Radiation , Semi-Arid Zone , Water Quality
20.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(2): 82-87, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-847844

ABSTRACT

O processo de decisão clínica para utilização de radiação ionizante para obter estudos diagnósticos e prognósticos por imagem inclui obrigatoriamente critérios apropriados de indicação e avalia a razão risco-benefício dentro do princípio da mínima exposição, enquanto são obtidas informações de alta qualidade. Adicionalmente, a exposição à radiação médica continua a ser tópico de constante discussão, considerando-se o crescimento do uso de exames de imagem, em especial na oncologia e nas doenças cardiovasculares, o consequente aumento da dose efetiva de radiação, a falta de monitoração e a insuficiência de dados na exposição longitudinal à radiação de pacientes submetidos a múltiplos procedimentos ao longo do tempo, entre outros. Consequentemente, o tema "dose de radiação" envolvendo tais procedimentos ganhou destaque mundial e muitas teorias e especulações surgiram, tanto na literatura médica quanto na mídia leiga. O assunto com certeza merece atenção da comunidade médica e deve continuar recebendo novos investimentos, tanto no estudo de seus efeitos biológicos quanto na evolução tecnológica de equipamentos com capacidade de produzir exames com excelente capacidade diagnóstica e com dose de radiação cada vez menor. Até o momento, não se conhecem ao certo quais os efeitos biológicos da radiação de baixa dose em adultos, mas, considerando- se alguns fatos, evidências experimentais e epidemiológicas que relacionam a exposição a baixas doses de radiação ionizante e desenvolvimento de tumores sólidos e leucemias, protocolos rígidos de controle e segurança devem ser implementados na rotina diária, seguindo normatizações estabelecidas dos órgãos reguladores. Publicações recentes que envolvem a Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica (IAEA - 2016) recomendam como estratégia de redução de dose em imagens de perfusão do miocárdio com o uso de radiofármacos a observação rígida dos princípios básicos de proteção à radiação médica, categorizados como princípios da "Justificação" (teste correto para o paciente certo), "Otimização" (princípio "ALARA") e "Melhores Práticas". Finalmente, os estudos de imagem cardiovascular com radiação ionizante são considerados maléficos, subestimando-se, muitas vezes, os benefícios resultantes quando eles são bem indicados, porque podem ser decisivos para a conduta adequada


The clinical decision to use ionizing radiation to obtain diagnostic and prognostic studies by image must include appropriate indication criteria, and evaluate the risk-benefit ratio, adhering to the principle of minimum exposure while obtaining high-quality information. Moreover, medical exposure to radiation is a subject of ongoing debate, in view of the growth in the use of imaging exams, especially in oncology and cardiovascular disease, the consequent increase in effective radiation doses, the lack of monitoring, and the inadequacy of data on longitudinal exposure to radiation in patients submitted to multiple procedures over time,among other factors. Consequently, the subject of the "radiation dose" involved in these procedures has gained interest worldwide, and many theories and speculations have arisen, both in the medical literature and in the general media. Without a doubt, the subject deserves the attention of the medical community, and should continue to receive new investments, whether on the study of its biological effects or on the technological development of equipment capable of producing exams with excellent diagnostic capacity and increasingly lower radiation doses. So far, the biological effects of low radiation doses in adults is not known for certain, but considering some facts, such as experimental and epidemiological evidence linking exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation with the development of solid tumors and leucemias,strict control and safety protocols should be implemented as routine, following the guidelines of the regulatory bodies. Recent publications involving the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA - 2016) recommend, as a strategy for reducing the radiation dose in images of myocardial perfusion with the use of radiodrugs, strict observation of the basic principles of protection against medical radiation, categorized as principles of "Justification" (right test for the right patient), "Optimization" ("ALARA" principle) and "Best Practices". Finally, cardiovascular imaging studies with ionizing radiation are considered harmful, often underestimating the resulting benefits when they are well indicated, because they may be decisive for the appropriate conduct


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation , Radiation Protection/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors , Radiation, Ionizing , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Dosimetry , Neoplasms/therapy
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