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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 214-219, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364976

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Various studies are ongoing related to the radioprotective agents. Herbal preparations are currently becoming popular because of their beneficial effects with fewer side effects compared to the synthetic/semi-synthetic medicines, and Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is only one of them. Objective To investigate NSO for its antioxidant effects on the heart tissue of rats exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Methods Thirty six male albino Wistar rats, divided into four groups, were designated to group I (IR plus NSO group) that received both 5 Gray of gamma IR to total cranium and NSO; group II (IR alone group) that received IR plus saline, group III (control group of NSO) that received saline and did not receive NSO or IR; group IV (control group) that received only sham IR. Alterations in Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS), Oxidative stres index (OSI), Sulhydryl group (SH), Lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), Paraoxonase (PON) levels, Arylesterase (ARE) and Ceruloplasmin (CER) activities in homogenized heart tissue of rats were measured by biochemical methods. Results In heart tissue of the rats in the IR alone group (group II) LOOH, TOS and OSI levels were found to be higher, ARE activity and TAS level were found to be lower than all of the other groups (p < 0.01). These results also support that IR increases oxidative stress and NSO's protective effect. Conclusion NSO would reduce the oxidative damage in the irradiated heart tissue in the experimental rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Radiation-Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Nigella sativa , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Heart/radiation effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Radiation-Protective Agents/analysis , Rats, Inbred Strains , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/radiation effects , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Heart/drug effects , Phytotherapy
2.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e52826, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368744

ABSTRACT

The liver as an organ is important for the metabolism of drugs and toxins. However, it is not immune from environmental insults. Exposure of liver cells to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) results in the generation of tricholoromethyl radicals, which induce liver toxicity. This study aims at investigating the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon aqueous extract (CAE) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats through the intraperitoneal administration of 0.5 mL kg-1body weight of CCl4. The analyses of the results obtained showed significant reduction in the levels of serum biochemical markers for 400 and 600 mg kg-1bw of CAE protected rats as compared with CCl4group. In addition, CAE administration reversed liver tissue damaged via increased antioxidants markers. Histopathological examination of CAE treatment on rats showed improved changes to the liver damage caused by CCl4 with no evidence of steatosis and inflammation. This result hence suggests that CAE has marked hepatoprotective and healing activities against CCl4-induced liver damage and could serve as a suitable candidate in drug discovery for the treatment of liver toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Rats, Inbred Strains , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/toxicity
3.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(2): 1-12, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1178040

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous tissue response after different protocols to photodynamic therapy (PDT). In Phase 1, were tested the diode laser (used for 1min) associated to the photosensitizer phenothiazine chloride solution (PCS) in different concentrations. In Phase 2 ­ the diode laser and LED were tested associated to two different photosensitizers, PCS and Curcumin, in different exposure times of light application. Material and Methods: After 7, 21 and 63-days the animals were euthanized and the subcutaneous tissue processed to histological analysis. Qualitative and semi-quantitative descriptions of the inflammatory process and immunohistochemical technique were performed. The obtained data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-test (α= 0.5). Results: On Phase 1, the tissue response was very similar among the groups. For the inflammatory infiltrate, PCS with concentration of 10mg/mL exhibited the most intense reaction (p > 0.05). On Phase 2, at 7-days period, the analyzed parameters presented small magnitude and after 21 and 63-days, all the parameters demonstrated tissue compatibility. Conclusion: Both photosensitizers presented proper tissue compatibility regardless the different concentrations used on Phase 1 and different durations of light exposure on Phase 2 (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou a resposta do tecido subcutâneo após terapia fotodinâmica, utilizando na Fase 1 - laser diodo por 1min e solução fotossensibilizadora de cloreto de fenotiazina (CF) em diferentes concentrações e Fase 2 - laser diodo e LED e dois fotossensibilizadores, CF e Curcumina, em diferentes tempos de exposição da aplicação de luz. Material e Métodos: Após 7, 21 e 63 dias, foram realizadas descrições qualitativas e semiquantitativas do processo inflamatório e técnica de imunoistoquímica. Os dados foram analisados pelo pós-teste de Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn (α = 0,5). Resultados: Na Fase 1, a resposta do tecido foi muito semelhante. O infiltrado inflamatório, na concentração de 10 mg / mL, exibiu reação mais intensa (p > 0,05). Na Fase 2, aos 7 dias, os parâmetros analisados apresentaram pequena magnitude. Aos 21 e 63 dias, todos os parâmetros demonstraram compatibilidade com o tecido. Conclusão: Ambos os fotossensibilizadores apresentaram compatibilidade de tecido adequada, independentemente das diferentes concentrações utilizadas na Fase 1 e diferentes durações de exposição à luz na Fase 2 (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Photochemotherapy , Rats, Inbred Strains , Curcumin , Subcutaneous Tissue
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 449-456, dez 5, 2020. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357950

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o fármaco ranelato de estrôncio (RE) é muito utilizado na terapêutica profilática e no controle da osteoporose. Age sistemicamente diminuindo a reabsorção e aumentando a formação óssea, apresentando eventos adversos pouco esclarecidos na literatura, à exemplo a síndrome DRESS com envolvimento hepático. Objetivo: avaliar a morfologia hepática em ratos norvegicus albinus após administração do RE. Metodologia: estudo experimental com 10 ratos, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos, Grupo Controle (GC), sem administração do RE, e Grupo Ranelato de Estrôncio (GRE), ambos acompanhados durante 15 dias, e, em seguida, sacrificados e o fígado de cada animal colocado para fixação no solução de formaldeído a 4% durante 48 horas. Após essa etapa, foram realizados os procedimentos necessários à análise pela microscopia óptica, com lâminas coradas pela hematoxilina e eosina, e picrosirius red.Resultados: nos GC e GRE foram encontradas alterações similares, como reação ductular, dilatação sinusoidal e fibrose perissinusoidal, com intensidades distintas entre os grupos, sendo a reação ductular mais proeminente no GC, e a dilatação sinusoidal e fibrose perissinusoidal mais pronunciada no GRE. Além disso, no GC foram evidenciados achados inflamatórios, como presença de infiltrado inflamatório misto e hiperplasia de células de Kupffer, não visualizados no GRE, implicando numa possível ação anti-inflamatória do RE. Conclusão: pode-se concluir que foram visualizadas diferenças nos achados morfológicos do parênquima hepático dos ratos tratados com o RE em comparação aos não tratados, ainda que esses achados não sejam suficientes para inferir a incidência de um processo patológico característico, como cirrose ou hepatite.


Introduction: the drug strontium ranelate (SR) is widely used in prophylactic therapy and in the control of osteoporosis. It acts by reducing reabsorption and increasing bone formation systemically, presenting unclear adverse events in the literature, such as the DRESS syndrome with hepatic involvement. Objective: to evaluate hepatic morphology in norvegicus albinus rats after SR administration. Methodology: experimental group with 10 rats, divided into two groups, randomly distributed, five from the Control Group (CG), without SR administration, and the other five from the Strontium Ranelate Group (SRG), both followed for 15 days, and then sacrificed and the liver of each animal placed for fixation in 4% formalin for 48 hours. After this step, the procedures necessary for the analysis by optical microscopy were performed, with blades stained by hematoxylin e eosin, and picrosirius red. Results: in CG and SRG, similar alterations were observed, such as ductular reaction, sinusoidal dilatation and perissinusoidal fibrosis, with distinct intensities between the groups, being the ductular reaction more prominent in the CG, and sinusoidal dilation and a perissinusoidal fibrosis more pronounced in the SRG. In addition, in the CG were evidenced inflammatory findings such as the presence of mixed inflammatory infiltrate and Kupffer cell hyperplasia, not visualized in the SRG, implying a possible anti-inflammatory action of SR. Conclusion: it can be concluded that differences were observed in the morphological findings of the hepatic parenchyma of rats treated with SR compared to untreated rats, although these findings are not sufficient to infer the incidence of a characteristic pathological process, such as cirrhosis or hepatitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Rats , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Rats, Inbred Strains
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 507-513, dez 5, 2020. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358030

ABSTRACT

A dor miofascial orofacial vem sendo tratada com analgésicos, anti-inflamatórios, relaxantes musculares, fisioterapia, laserterapia e placas oclusais. Contudo, muitas vezes, tais condutas falham em amenizar o quadro doloroso, havendo a necessidade de testar outras estratégias de tratamento. Metodologia: Uma opção para avaliação experimental dessas terapias seria o teste de dor induzido pela carragenina, associado ao teste de avaliação do limiar nociceptivo, originalmente desenvolvido para avaliar a ação de drogas nas patas de roedores. Sendo assim, o presente estudo analisou a nocicepção causada pela carragenina em masseteres de ratos, através do teste de Von Frey, correlacionando-a com alterações teciduais produzidas por esta droga. A carragenina foi injetada no músculo masseter de ratos, enquanto o grupo controle recebeu soro fisiológico. O limiar nociceptivo foi mensurado com um analgesímetro digital antes da administração da carragenina e 5 horas, 1, 3 e 7 dias após o seu uso. Decorridos 8 dias da intervenção, os animais foram eutanasiados, sendo seus masseteres encaminhados para processamento histológico e coloração H&E. Resultados: Observou-se uma diminuição do limiar da resposta nociceptiva em todos os períodos no grupo com carragenina, quando comparado com o grupo controle, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante nas 5 horas. A análise histológica do grupo experimental mostrou a presença de espaços perimisial e endomisial alargados e preenchidos por uma matriz com alguns linfócitos, muitos macrófagos e raros mastócitos. Conclusão: Os resultados indicaram que a associação de uma droga inflamatória com o método Von Frey pode ser uma opção para o estudo do efeito de terapias de dor miofascial.


Myofascial orofacial pain has been treated with analgesics, anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants, physiotherapy, laser therapy and occlusal plaques. However, many times, such behaviors fail to alleviate the painful condition, with the need to test other treatment strategies. Methodology: An option for experimental evaluation of these therapies would be the pain test induced by carrageenan associated with the nociceptive threshold assessment test, originally developed to assess the action of drugs on the rodents' feet. Thus, the present study analyzed the nociception caused by carrageenan in rat masseter using the Von Frey test, correlating it with tissue changes produced by this drug. Carrageenan was injected into the masseter muscle of rats, while the control group received saline. The nociceptive threshold was measured with a digital analgesometer before administration of carrageenan and 5 hours, 1, 3 and 7 days after its use. After 8 days of the intervention, the animals were euthanized, and their masseters were sent for histological processing and H&E staining. Results: There was a decrease in the nociceptive response threshold in all periods in the group treated with carrageenan when compared to the control group, with a statistically significant difference at 5 hours. Histological analysis of the experimental group showed the presence of enlarged perimisial and endomisial spaces, filled by a matrix with some lymphocytes, many macrophages and rare mast cells. Conclusion: Results indicated that the association of an inflammatory drug with the Von Frey method may be an option for studying the effect of therapies on myofascial pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Carrageenan , Nociception , Myofascial Pain Syndromes , Physical Therapy Modalities , Occlusal Splints , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Muscle Relaxants, Central
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1293084

ABSTRACT

La tripanosomiasis americana y la leishmaniasis son problemas de salud pública relevantes en Iberoamérica. Las drogas utilizadas actualmente para el tratamiento de estas enfermedades poseen efectos colaterales tóxicos severos. Varios grupos de investigación están abocados a la búsqueda de productos naturales y sintéticos para encontrar nuevos agentes terapéuticos efectivos que no presenten reacciones colaterales adversas. En la evaluación de compuestos de la especie vegetal Zanthoxylum chiloperone (Rutaceae), se demostró que compuestos aislados del extracto presentaban actividad leishmanicida, tripanocida y antifúngica in vivo. Teniendo como antecedentes estos resultados, en el presente estudio se evaluaron los efectos genotóxico y citotóxico del cantín-6-ona y del 5-metoxicantin-6-ona, moléculas aisladas de la planta, en células de médula ósea de animales tratados. El estudio de los efectos genotóxicos se hizo a través del ensayo de modificaciones en la frecuencia de micronúcleos y el efecto citotóxico por modificaciones en la relación entre eritrocitos policromáticos y eritrocitos normocromáticos. Se realizaron 2 ensayos independientes y en cada ensayo los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos de tratamiento: GRUPO I: control negativo que recibió 200 uL de agua y 2.1% de DMSO, vía oral, GRUPO II: compuesto a ser evaluado (canthin-6-ona o 5-methoxicantin-6-ona) con 2.1% de DMSO, y GRUPO III: control positivo que recibió ciclofosfamida 50mg/kg/peso del animal, vía intraperitoneal. El análisis estadístico mostró que ambos compuestos no presentaron efectos genotóxicos ni citotóxicos. Estos resultados permiten proponer a estas moléculas como candidatas a ser sometidas a estudios más detallados como potenciales fármacos contra estas dos enfermedades


American trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are relevant public health problems in Latin America. The drugs currently used to treat these diseases have severe toxic side effects. Several research groups are dedicated to the search of natural and synthetic products to find new effective therapeutic agents that do not present adverse collateral reactions. In the evaluation of compounds of the plant species Zanthoxylum chiloperone (Rutaceae), it was shown that isolated compounds of the extract had leishmanicidal, trypanocidal and antifungal in vivo activities. Based on these results, the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of canthin-6-one and 5-methoxycanthin-6-one, molecules isolated from the plant, on bone marrow cells of treated mice were evaluated in the present study. The study of genotoxic effects was made through the test of modifications in the frequency of micronuclei and the cytotoxic effects by modifications in the relationship between polychromatic erythrocytes and normochromic erythrocytes. Two independent assays were performed and in each assay the animals were divided into three treatment groups: GROUP I: negative control that received 200 µL of water and 2.1% of DMSO, orally, GROUP II: compound to be evaluated (canthin-6 -one or 5-methoxycanthin-6-one) with 2.1% DMSO, and GROUP III: positive control that received cyclophosphamide 50mg /kg animal weight, intraperitoneal. Statistical analysis showed that both compounds had neither genotoxic nor cytotoxic effects. These results allow these molecules to be proposed as candidates to be subjected to more detailed studies as potential drugs against these two diseases


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Micronucleus Tests , Rutaceae , Animals, Laboratory , Mice , Rats, Inbred Strains , Genotoxicity/adverse effects
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 245-255, jan./feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049246

ABSTRACT

Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause hepatotoxicity with oxidative stress; the present study was carried out to establish the possible protective effect of olive leaves extract (OLE) on toxicity induced by paracetamol in adult male rats. Twenty four adult male rats were divided into four equal groups; control, olive leaves extract group, paracetamol group and olive leaves extract plus paracetamol group. Some biochemical parameters and liver histopathology were evaluated. PCM treatment significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein. Paracetamol was found to significantly increase malonaldehyde (MDA) and decrease glutathione reductase (GR) activity in tissue and significantly decrease total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum. Administration of OLE caused a significant decrease serum AST, ALT enzyme, total bilirubin, GGT, LDH, creatinine, urea, alpha-fetoprotein. Also, amelioration of oxidant ­ antioxidant status with olive leaves extract was observed in addition to a significant decrease in MDA and a significant increase in TAC in liver tissue with a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) and SOD in serum compared to paracetamol treated group The chemical pathological changes were in step with histopathological observation suggesting marked hepatoprotective result of olive leaves extract. It could be concluded that olive leaves extract (OLE) treatment may be effective in decreasing hepatic injury and oxidative stress induced by paracetamol overdose in male albino rats


A sobredosagem de paracetamol (PCM) pode causar hepatotoxicidade com estresse oxidativo; o presente estudo foi realizado para estabelecer o possível efeito protetor do extrato de folhas de oliveira (OLE) na toxicidade induzida pelo paracetamol em ratos machos adultos. Vinte e quatro ratos machos adultos foram divididos em quatro grupos iguais: controle, grupo extrato de folhas de oliveira, grupo paracetamol e extrato de folhas de oliveira mais grupo paracetamol. Alguns parâmetros bioquímicos e histopatologia hepática foram avaliados. O tratamento com PCM aumentou significativamente aspartato aminotransferase sérica (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), bilirrubina total, gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT), lactato desidrogenase (LDH), uréia, creatinina e alfa-fetoproteína. Verificou-se que o paracetamol aumenta significativamente o malonaldeído (MDA) e diminui a atividade da glutationa redutase (GR) no tecido e diminui significativamente a capacidade antioxidante total (TAC) e a superóxido dismutase (SOD) no soro. A administração de OLE causou uma diminuição significativa de AST, enzima ALT, bilirrubina total, GGT, LDH, creatinina, uréia, alfa-fetoproteína. Também foi observada melhora do status oxidante - antioxidante com extrato de folhas de oliveira, além de uma diminuição significativa no MDA e um aumento significativo no TAC no tecido hepático, com um aumento significativo na glutationa redutase (GR) e SOD no soro em comparação ao grupo tratado com paracetamol. As alterações patológicas químicas acompanharam a observação histopatológica, sugerindo resultado hepatoprotetor acentuado do extrato de folhas de oliveira. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento com extrato de folhas de oliveira (OLE) pode ser eficaz na diminuição da lesão hepática e do estresse oxidativo induzido pela overdose de paracetamol em ratos albinos machos


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Olea , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Rats, Inbred Strains , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Random Allocation , Oxidants , Rats, Wistar , Plant Leaves , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
8.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(2): 232-235, ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094395

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Determinar efecto del consumo del extracto de quinua en anemia ferropénica inducida, en ratones. Material y Métodos Se utilizaron treinta ratones albinos M. musculus de la cepa Bal-b/c, machos de peso promedio 24±32,7 g. Se formó tres grupos de diez ratones cada uno: a) grupo control negativo hierro suficiente(HS),recibió 40g/d de alimento balanceado durante siete semanas; b)grupo control positivo hierro deficiente (HD), recibió 40g/d de dieta ferropénica durante siete semanas; y, c) grupo experimental hierro defi-ciente(HD), recibió 40g/d de dieta ferropénica durante siete semanas y a partir de la semana cinco se agregó 20g/d de extracto de quinua(EQ). Se midió el nivel de hemoglobina. Resultados Al finalizar el tratamiento, se observó diferencia significativa en los niveles de hemoglobina entre los grupos control positivo (8,9±1,1g/dL) HD y experimental (11,4±0,5 g/dL.) HD+EQ (t student, p<0,05). No se encontró diferencia significativa en los niveles de hemoglobina, al término del periodo de inducción entre los grupos control positivo (9,1±1,1) HD y experimental (9,3±0,7) HD (t student, p>0,05). Conclusiones En condiciones experimentales, la quinua presenta efecto antianémico, sustentado en los resultados de los niveles de hemoglobina.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To determine the effect of quinoa extract consumption on iron deficiency-induced anemia in mice. Materials and Methods Thirty male M. musculus albino mice of the Balb/c strain, with an average weight of 24±32.7 g, were used. Three groups of ten mice each were formed: 1) a negative control group of iron-sufficient (IS) mice that received 40g/d of balanced feed for 7 weeks; 2) a positive control group of iron-deficient (ID) mice that received 40g/d of feed rich in iron for 7 weeks; and 3) an experimental group of ID mice that received 40 g/d of feed rich in iron for 7 weeks and 20 g/d of quinoa extract (QE) from week 5. Hemoglobin levels were measured. Results At the end of the treatment, a significant difference was found in hemoglobin levels between the positive (ID mice: 8.9±1.1 g/dL) and experimental (ID+QU mice: 11.4±0.5 g/dL) groups (student's t, p<0.05). No significant difference was found in hemoglobin levels at the end of the induction period between the positive (IS mice: 9.1±1.1) and experimental (ID mice: 9.3±0.7) groups (student's t, p>0.05). Conclusions Under experimental conditions, quinoa has an antianemic effect based on the results of hemoglobin levels.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hemoglobins/analysis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/chemically induced , Chenopodium quinoa/drug effects , Rats, Inbred Strains , Intervention Studies
9.
Rev. salud pública ; 20(6): 737-741, nov.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020852

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Determinar el efecto del consumo del extracto de alfalfa en anemia ferropé-nica inducida, en ratones. Materiales y Métodos Se utilizaron treinta ratones albinos M. musculus de la cepa Balb/c, machos de peso promedio 23±33,7 g. Se formaron tres grupos de diez ratones cada uno: a) grupo control negativo hierro suficiente (HS), recibió 40g/d de alimento balanceado durante siete semanas; b) grupo control positivo hierro deficiente (HD), recibió 40g/d de dieta ferropénica durante siete semanas y; c) grupo experimental hierro deficiente (HD), recibió 40g/d de dieta ferropénica durante siete semanas y a partir de la semana cinco se agregó 20g/d de extracto de alfalfa (EA). Resultados Al finalizar el tratamiento se observó diferencia significativa en los niveles de hemoglobina entre los grupos control positivo (8.41±3.9 g/dL) y experimental (13.4±3.3 g/dL) (t student, p<0,05). No se encontró diferencia significativa en los niveles de hemoglobina, al término del periodo de inducción entre los grupos control positivo (8.76±3.9 g/dL) y experimental (8.59± 3.1 g/dL) (t student, p>0,05). Conclusiones En condiciones experimentales, la alfalfa presenta efecto antianémico, sustentado en los resultados de los niveles de hemoglobina.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To determine the effect of alfalfa extract consumption on induced iron deficiency anemia in mice. Materials and Methods Thirty M. musculus albino mice of the BALB/c strain were used for this study. All of them were males, with a mean weight of 23±33.7 g. Three groups of 10 mice each were formed: a) negative control group with sufficient iron (HS), which received 40g/d of balanced feed for seven weeks; b) positive control group with iron deficiency (HD), which received 40g/d of a diet plan for anemia for seven weeks; and c) experimental group with iron deficiency (HD), which received 40g/d of a diet plan for anemia for seven weeks and 20g/d of alfalfa extract (EA) from week five. Hemoglobin levels were measured. Results At the end of the treatment, a significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between the positive (8.41±3.9 g/dL) and experimental (13.4±3.3 g/dL) control groups (T student, p<0.05). There was no significant difference in hemoglobin levels at the end of the induction period between the positive (8.76±3.9 g /dL) and experimental (8.59±3.1 g/dL) groups (T student, p>0.05). Conclusions Under experimental conditions, alfalfa has an antianemic effect based on the results of hemoglobin levels.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , /blood , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/chemically induced , Diet/methods , Medicago sativa/drug effects , Rats, Inbred Strains , Intervention Studies
10.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(3): 35-43, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-998341

ABSTRACT

La toxoplasmosis es una enfermedad endémica con prevalencia mundial variable, cuyo agente causal es el parásito Toxoplasma gondii. Para un diagnóstico certero de la infección por T. gondii son necesarias combinaciones de métodos serológicos. Estudios recientes han reportado que la técnica de Western Blot permite evidenciar proteínas antigénicas como marcadores de la infección, así como ciertos perfiles proteicos como posibles indicadores de las fases de la infección, aguda y crónica. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar el perfil antigénico específico asociado a las diferentes fases de la toxoplasmosis. Fueron incluidos en el estudio 55 sueros de embarazadas con toxoplasmosis, diferenciados en fase aguda y crónica de la enfermedad por medio del método de ELISA de Avidez de IgG. Mediante el método de Western Blot se observó que las proteínas antigénicas p35, p43, p45, p56 y p107 fueron reconocidas por el 20- 60% de los sueros de pacientes en fase aguda, mientras que p65, p95, p98 y p113 fueron reconocidas por el 17-35% de sueros de pacientes en fase crónica. Se observó que seis proteínas antigénicas, p32, p38, p41, p48, p59 y p72, fueron reconocidas por más del 60% de los sueros de pacientes tanto en fase aguda como crónica. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que estas seis proteínas podrían ser consideradas como marcadores diagnósticos de la enfermedad(AU)


Toxoplasmosis is an endemic disease with variable global prevalence, being the causative agent the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. For an accurate diagnosis of a T. gondii infection, combinations of serological methods are required. Recent studies have reported that the Western Blot technique allows the detection of antigenic proteins as markers of infection, as well as certain protein profiles as possible indicators of acute and chronic phases of infection. The objective of the study was to identify the specific antigenic profile associated with different phases of toxoplasmosis. Fifty five sera from pregnant women with toxoplasmosis were included in the study, differentiated in acute and chronic phase of the disease by an IgG Avidity ELISA. By using the Western Blot method it was observed that antigenic proteins p35, p43, p45, p56 and p107 were recognized by 20-60% of sera from patients in acute phase, while p65, p95, p98 and p113 were recognized by 17-35% of sera from patients in chronic phase. It was observed that six antigenic proteins, p32, p38, p41, p48, p59 and p72, were recognized by more than 60% of sera from patients in both acute and chronic phases. The results obtained in this study suggest that these six proteins could be considered as diagnostic markers of the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Blotting, Western , Antigens, Protozoan , Rats, Inbred Strains , Toxoplasma/immunology , Protozoan Proteins , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(6): 1217-1224, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955432

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho visou avaliar os efeitos de sulfato de vincristine sobre os testículos de ratos tratados na fase pré púbere, sobretudo quanto às alterações das células de Sertoli e das células germinativas. Foram utilizados 30 animais controles e 30 tratados com sulfato de vincristine. As aplicações da droga ocorreram aos 15 dias de vida, e a eutanásia aos 40, 64 e 127 dias de vida para possibilitar a avaliação em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento reprodutivo. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas (pesos corpóreos e testiculares), medidas morfométricas testiculares, (eixos testiculares maiores e menores, diâmetros testiculares de túbulo e lúmen seminíferos, e altura do epitélio seminífero) e estereológicas (volumes testiculares e as densidades de volume do tecido tubular e do tecido intersticial testicular). As medidas biométricas foram feitas em todos os animais do experimento, e as avaliações morfométricas e estereológicas foram realizadas em 200 túbulos seminíferos. Os resultados demonstraram que sulfato de vincristine reduz parâmetros biométricos como peso corpóreo, peso testicular e volume testicular total. Variáveis morfométricas e estereológicas como diâmetro dos túbulos seminíferos, altura do epitélio seminífero e volume dos túbulos seminíferos também foram reduzidos. Os tipos celulares mais atingidos foram as espermatogônias, espermátides tardias e células de Sertoli.(AU)


This study evaluated the vincristine sulfate effect on rat testes treated in pre pubertal stage, especially regarding the changes of Sertoli cells and germ cells. Thirty control rats and 30 rats treated with vincristine sulfate were used. The drug application occurred at 15 days of life, and euthanasia at 40, 64 and 127 days of life to enable evaluation at different stages of reproductive development. Biometric measurements were performed (body and testicular weights), testicular morphometric measures (major and minor testicular axis and of seminiferous tubule and seminiferous lumen) and stereological (testicular volumes and volume densities of the tubular and testicular interstitial tissue). The biometric measurements were made on all rats in the experiment, and morphometric and stereological analysis was carried out in 200 seminiferous tubules. The results demonstrate that vincristine sulfate reduces biometric parameters such as body weight, testicular weight and the total testicular volume. Morphometric and stereological variables as diameter of the seminiferous tubules, height of the seminiferous epithelium and volume of the seminiferous tubules were also reduced. The most affected cell types were spermatogonia, late spermatids and Sertoli cells.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains/abnormalities , Vincristine/adverse effects , Testis/abnormalities
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e7033, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889046

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time the existence of cardiac proteomic differences between non-selectively bred rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacities. A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to study the left ventricle (LV) tissue proteome of rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacity. Low running performance (LRP) and high running performance (HRP) rats were categorized by a treadmill exercise test, according to distance run to exhaustion. The running capacity of HRPs was 3.5-fold greater than LRPs. Protein profiling revealed 29 differences between HRP and LRP rats (15 proteins were identified). We detected alterations in components involved in metabolism, antioxidant and stress response, microfibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. Contractile proteins were upregulated in the LVs of HRP rats (α-myosin heavy chain-6, myosin light chain-1 and creatine kinase), whereas the LVs of LRP rats exhibited upregulation in proteins associated with stress response (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, α-crystallin B chain and HSPβ-2). In addition, the cytoskeletal proteins desmin and α-actin were upregulated in LRPs. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased contractile protein levels in HRP rats partly accounted for their improved exercise capacity, and that proteins considered risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease were expressed in higher amounts in LRP animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Running/physiology , Proteins/metabolism , Heart Function Tests/methods , Myocardium/metabolism , Organ Size , Rats, Inbred Strains , Mass Spectrometry , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Proteins/isolation & purification , Contractile Proteins/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Proteomics , Desmin/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism
13.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 2(3)May-June 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that Arnica montana shows anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. It has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Arnica montana on mast cells during the wound healing of oral ulcers. METHOD: An ulcerated lesion was chemically induced on the tongue of 75 male albino rats and, then, treated topically for seven days using saline solution (control), Arnica montana gel or tincture. The animals were killed after 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21th and 42th day of treatment. The tongues were removed and subjected to routine laboratory (0.2% toluidine blue staining). The numbers of mast cell were determined in two regions: superficial and submucosa. RESULTS: The numbers of mast cells were significantly increased for all groups in the region of the deeper tissue when compared to the superficial region. No statistical difference was observed in mast cell numbers for each group. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that Arnica montana tincture and gel were unable to change mast cell population during wound healing of oral ulcer of rats. According to these results, the anti-inflammatory effects of Arnica montana were not related to inhibition of mast cell degranulation.


OBJETIVO: Sabe-se que a Arnica montana mostra atividade anti-inflamatória e anti-oxidante e tem sido usada em medicina tradicional para o tratamento de vários distúrbios. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da Arnica montana em mastócitos durante a cicatrização de feridas de úlceras orais. MÉTODO: Uma úlcera foi quimicamente induzida na língua de 75 ratos albinos machos e, em seguida, tratada topicamente durante sete dias, utilizando solução salina (controle), gel ou tintura de Arnica montana. Os animais foram sacrificados após 2, 7, 14, 21 e 42º dia de tratamento. As línguas foram removidas e submetidas a rotina de laboratório (coloração com 0,2% de azul de toluidina). A densidade de mastócitos foi determinada em duas regiões: superficial e submucosa. RESULTADOS: O número de mastócitos aumentou nitidamente para todos os grupos na região mais profunda do tecido peri-ulceroso, quando comparada à região superficial. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada no número de mastócitos entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo revelou que a tintura ou o gel de Arnica montana foram incapazes de interferir na população de mastócitos durante a cicatrização da úlcera oral de ratos. De acordo com estes resultados, os efeitos anti-inflamatórios de Arnica montana não foram relacionados à inibição da degranulação dos mastócitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Arnica , Oral Ulcer/therapy , Mast Cells , Rats, Inbred Strains
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812514

ABSTRACT

The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a spontaneous type 2 diabetic animal model, which is characterized by a progressive loss of beta islet cells with fibrosis. In the present study, the hypoglycemic effect of asiatic acid (AA) in GK rats was examined. GK rats receiving AA at a daily dose of 25 mg·kg(-1) for four weeks showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Age-matched normal Wistar rats were given 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) solution for the same periods and used as control. Compared to the normal Wistar rats, GK rats treated with AA showed improvement in insulin resistance partially through decreasing glucose level (P < 0.01) and insulin level (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the results of immunohistochemistry indicate that AA treatment reduced islet fibrosis in GK rats. Fibronectin, a key protein related to islet fibrosis, was over-expressed in GK rats, which was reversed significantly by AA treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that AA has a beneficial effect on lowering blood glucose levels in GK rats and improves fibrosis of islets in diabetes, which may play a role in the prevention of islets dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Centella , Chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Fibronectins , Metabolism , Fibrosis , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hyperglycemia , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Insulin , Blood , Insulin Resistance , Islets of Langerhans , Pathology , Male , Pancreatic Diseases , Metabolism , Pathology , Pentacyclic Triterpenes , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Rats, Inbred Strains
15.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 52(2): 125-133, 20150000.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764770

ABSTRACT

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are known carcinogens used in rodent experimental models. In this study, the carcinogen DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene) was administered by gavage, diluted in corn oil, to female BALB / c mice at hebdomadary doses of 1 mg per animal for 1, 3, 6 or 9 weeks. Animals were weighed and monitored weekly until death. Remaining animals were euthanized at the age of 53 weeks. At necropsy, representative fragments of neoplasms were collected and routinely processed for histopathological analysis. Of all mice that received DMBA, 68.57% developed some type of tumor. Of the 70 mice treated with various doses of DMBA, 22 (31.43%) developed mammary tumors. The adenoacanthoma was the most commonly (18.75%) diagnosed histological type of breast cancer. Lung (15.71%), lymphoid tissue (11.43%), stomach (7.14%) and skin (2.86%) were also primary sites of tumor development. One third (33.33%) of the mice receiving 1 mg of DMBA developed lung cancer. Therefore, the administration of DMBA was shown to be an efficient model of carcinogenesis in mice, especially for the study of breast cancer, when using the highest dose, and lung, when using the lowest dose. Carcinogenesis models have been used for several purposes in cancer research. These results represent new facts for a classic carcinogenesis model.


Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos e aromáticos são carcinógenos usados em modelos experimentais em roedores. Neste estudo, o carcinógeno DMBA (7,12-dimetilbenzantraceno) foi administrado por gavagem, diluído em óleo de milho, para camundongos BALB/c em doses hebdomadárias de 1 mg por animal por 1, 3, 6 ou 9 semanas. Os animais foram pesados e monitorados semanalmente até a morte. Os animais remanescentes foram eutanasiados com a idade de 53 semanas. Na necroscopia, fragmentos representativos das neoplasias foram colhidos e rotineiramente processados para exame histopatológico. De todos os animais que receberam DMBA, 68,57% desenvolveram algum tipo de tumor. Entre os 70 camundongos tratados com diferentes doses de DMBA, 22 (31,43%) desenvolveram neoplasias mamárias. O adenoacantoma foi o tumor mamário mais comumente diagnosticado (18,75%). Pulmões (15,71%), tecido linfoide (11,43%), estômago (7,14%) e pele (2,86%) foram também locais primários de desenvolvimento de neoplasias. Um terço (33,33%) dos camundongos que receberam 1 mg de DMBA desenvolveram neoplasias pulmonares. Portanto, a administração de DMBA foi considerada um modelo eficiente de carcinogênese em camundongos, especialmente para o estudo de neoplasias mamárias, quando a maior dose é utilizada, e de neoplasias pulmonares, quando utilizada a menor dose. Os modelos de carcinogênese química têm sido usados para diversos estudos na pesquisa em câncer, os resultados aqui apresentados mostram novos fatos para um modelo clássico de carcinogênese.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , /administration & dosage , Carcinogenesis/chemically induced , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Rats, Inbred Strains/immunology , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/administration & dosage , Neoplasms/veterinary
16.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 64(6): 382-390, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728870

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning by brief ischemia of unilateral hind limb when combined with dexmedetomidine on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by histopathology and active caspase-3 immunoreactivity in rats. Methods: 28 Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I (Sham, n = 7): Laparotomy and renal pedicle dissection were performed at 65th minute of anesthesia and the rats were observed under anesthesia for 130min. Group II (ischemia-reperfusion, n = 7): At 65th minute of anesthesia bilateral renal pedicles were clamped. After 60 min ischemia 24 h of reperfusion was performed. Group III (ischemia-reperfusion + dexmedetomidine, n = 7): At the fifth minute of reperfusion (100 μg/kg intra-peritoneal) dexmedetomidine was administered with ischemia-reperfusion group. Reperfusion lasted 24 h. Group IV (ischemia-reperfusion + remote ischemic preconditioning + dexmedetomidine, n = 7): After laparotomy, three cycles of ischemic preconditioning (10 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion) were applied to the left hind limb and after 5 min with group III. Results: Histopathological injury scores and active caspase-3 immunoreactivity were significantly lower in the Sham group compared to the other groups. Histopathological injury scores in groups III and IV were significantly lower than group II (p = 0.03 and p = 0.05). Active caspase-3 immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the group IV than group II (p = 0.01) and there was no significant difference between group II and group III (p = 0.06). Conclusions: Pharmacologic conditioning with dexmedetomidine and remote ischemic preconditioning when combined with dexmedetomidine significantly decreases renal ischemia- reperfusion injury histomorphologically. Combined use of two methods prevents apoptosis via active caspase-3. .


Justificativa e objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos do pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto, mediante breve isquemia de membro posterior unilateral, em combinação com dexmedetomidina em lesão de isquemia-reperfusão renal por meio de histopatologia e imunorreatividade da caspase-3 ativa em ratos. Métodos: Foram divididos em quatro grupos 28 ratos machos albinos Wistar. Grupo I (Sham cirurgia controle], n = 7): laparotomia e dissecção do pedículo renal foram feitas em 65 minutos de anestesia e os ratos foram observados sob anestesia por 130 minutos. Grupo II (isquemia-reperfusão, n = 7): no 65° minuto de anestesia, os pedículos renais bilaterais foram pinçados; após 60 minutos de isquemia, foi feita reperfusão de 24 horas. Grupo III (isquemia-reperfusão + dexmedetomidina, n = 7): no quinto minuto de reperfusão, dexmedetomidina (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal) foi administrada ao grupo com isquemia-reperfusão. A reperfusão durou 24 horas. Grupo IV (isquemia-reperfusão + pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto + dexmedetomidina, n = 7): após a laparotomia, três ciclos de pré-condicionamento isquêmico (10minutos de isquemia e 10minutos de reperfusão) foram aplicados no membro posterior esquerdo e depois de cincominutos ao grupo III. Resultados: Os escores de lesão histopatológica e imunorreatividade da caspase-3 ativa foram significativamente menores no grupo Sham em comparação com os outros. Os escores de lesão histopatológica dos grupos III e IV foram significativamente menores do que os do II (p = 0,03 e p = 0,05). A imunorreatividade da caspase-3 foi significativamente menor no grupo IV do que no II (p = 0,01) e não houve diferença significante entre os grupos II e III (p = 0,06). Conclusões: O condicionamento farmacológico com dexmedetomidina e o pré...


Introducción y objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos del precondicionamiento isquémico remoto mediante breve isquemia del miembro posterior unilateral en combinación con la dexmedetomidina en la lesión de isquemia-reperfusión renal por medio de histopatología e inmunoreactividad de la caspasa-3 activa en ratones. Métodos: 28 ratones machos albinos Wistar fueron divididos en 4 grupos. Grupo I (Sham cirugía control], n =7): se realizó laparotomia y disección del pediculo renal en 65 min de anestesia y los ratones fueron observados bajo anestesia durante 130min. Grupo II (isquemia-reperfusión, n = 7): en el sexagésimo quinto minuto de anestesia, los pídiculos renales bilaterales fueron pinzados; después de 60min de isquemia, se realizaron 24h de reperfusión. Grupo III (isquemia-reperfusión + dexmedetomidina, n = 7): al quinto minuto de reperfusión, la dexmedetomidina (100 μg/kg intraperitoneal) fue administrada en el grupo con isquemia-reperfusión; la reperfusión duró 24 h. Grupo IV (isquemia-reperfusión + precondicionamiento isquémico remoto + dexmedetomidina, n=7): después de la laparotomía, se aplicaron 3 ciclos de precondicionamiento isquémico (10 min de isquemia y 10 min de reperfusión) en el miembro posterior izquierdo y después de 5 min en el grupo in. Resultados: Las puntuaciones de lesión histopatológica e inmunoreactividad de la caspasa-3 activa fueron significativamente menores en el grupo Sham en comparación con los otros grupos. Las puntuaciones de lesión histopatológica de los grupos III y IV fueron significativamente menores que las del grupo II (p = 0,03 y p = 0,05). La inmunorreactividad de la caspasa-3 fue significativamente menor en el grupo IV que en el grupo II (p = 0,01) y no hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos II ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Ischemic Preconditioning/instrumentation , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Caspase 3/pharmacology , Rats, Inbred Strains , Rats, Wistar
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 561-564, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732249

ABSTRACT

The incidence of facial trauma is high. This study has the primary objective of documenting and cataloging maxillofacial fractures in polytrauma patients. From a total of 1229 multiple trauma cases treated at the Emergency Room of the Santo Antonio Hospital - Oporto Hospital Center, Portugal, between August 2001 and December 2007, 251 patients had facial wounds and 209 had maxillofacial fractures. Aged ranged form 13 to 86 years. The applied selective method was based on the presence of facial wound with Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥1. Men had a higher incidence of maxillofacial fractures among multiple trauma patients (86.6%) and road traffic accidents were the primary cause of injuries (69.38%). Nasoorbitoethmoid complex was the most affected region (67.46%) followed by the maxilla (57.42%). The pattern and presentation of maxillofacial fractures had been studied in many parts of the world with varying results. Severe multiple trauma patients had different patterns of maxillofacial injuries. The number of maxillofacial trauma is on the rise worldwide as well as the incidence of associated sequelae. Maxillofacial fractures on multiple trauma patients were more frequent among males and in road traffic crashes. Knowing such data is elementary. The society should have a key role in the awareness of individuals and in prevention of road traffic accidents.


É alta a incidência de traumas na face. Este estudo teve por objetivo documentar e catalogar as fraturas maxilofaciais em pacientes com politraumatismos. De um total de 1229 casos de politraumatizados tratados na Sala de Emergência do Hospital de Santo António - Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Portugal, entre Agosto de 2001 e Dezembro de 2007, 251 pacientes tiveram ferimentos na face e 209 apresentaram fraturas maxilofaciais. As idades variaram de 13 a 86 anos. O método de seleção baseou-se na presença de ferimentos na face com Abreviated Injury Scale ≥1. Os homens apresentaram maior incidência de fraturas maxilofaciais (86,6%) entre os pacientes com múltiplos traumatismos na face e os acidentes de trânsito foram a causa principal dos traumatismos (69,38%). A região mais afetada foi o complexo naso-órbito-etmoidal (67,46%), seguido pela maxila (57,42%). O padrão e a apresentação das fraturas maxilofaciais tem sido estudado em muitas regiões do mundo com resultados variados. Pacientes com politraumatizados graves apresentaram padrões diferentes de traumatismos maxilofaciais. O número de traumatismos maxilofaciais tem aumentado à escala mundial, assim como a incidência das sequelas associadas. Entre os pacientes com traumatismos múltiplos, a maioria pertencia ao sexo masculino, assim como a causa mais frequente foram os acidentes automobilísticos. É elementar o conhecimento destes dados. A sociedade tem um papel primordial nos cuidados individuais e na prevenção dos acidentes de trânsito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Cholinesterase Reactivators , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Diazinon/antagonists & inhibitors , Neurotransmitter Agents/pharmacology , Physostigmine/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrrolidines/antagonists & inhibitors , Choline/metabolism , Choline/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/toxicity , Diazinon/toxicity , Mice, Inbred ICR , Physostigmine/toxicity , Pyrrolidines/toxicity , Rats, Inbred Strains , Receptors, Cholinergic/drug effects , Receptors, Cholinergic/metabolism
18.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 554-560, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732259

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess, by the three-dimensional finite element method, the influence of crown-to-implant ratio and parafunctional occlusal loading on stress distribution in single external hexagon implant-supported prosthesis. Computer-aided design software was used to confection three models. Each model was composed of a block bone and an external hexagon implant (5x10.0 mm) with screw-retained implant prostheses, varying the height crown: 10, 12.5 and 15 mm. Finite element analysis software was used to generate the finite element mesh and to establish the loading and boundary conditions. Normal (200 N axial and 100 N oblique load) and parafunctional forces (1,000 N axial and 500 N oblique load) were applied. The results were visualized by von Mises and maximum principal stress. In comparison with the normal occlusal force, the parafunctional occlusal force induced an increase in stress concentration and magnitude on implant (platform and first threads) and screw (neck). The cortical bone showed the highest tensile stress under parafunctional force (oblique load). The stress concentration increased as the crown height increased. It was concluded that: increasing the C/I increased stress concentration in both implant components and cortical bone; parafunctional loading increased between 4-5 times the value of stresses in bone tissue compared with functional loading; the type of loading variation factor is more influential than the crown-to-implant factor.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, através do método dos elementos finitos tridimensionais, a influência do carregamento oclusal parafuncional e da altura da coroa na distribuição das tensões em próteses unitárias implantossuportadas de hexágono externo. Foram confeccionados três modelos com o auxílio de programas de desenho assistido. Cada modelo foi composto por um bloco ósseo da região molar mandibular, por um implante de tipo hexágono externo (5x10,0 mm) e por coroa com diferentes alturas: 10, 12,5 e 15 mm. Os modelos foram exportados para o programa de elementos finitos NEiNastran 9.0, para geração das malhas e estabelecer as condições de contorno. Aplicou-se uma carga funcional (200 N axial e 100 N oblíqua), bem como uma carga parafuncional (1.000 N axial e 500 N oblíqua). Os resultados foram visualizados por meio de mapas de Tensão de von Mises e mapas de Tensão Máxima Principal. O carregamento parafuncional induziu um aumento da área de distribuição e da magnitude das tensões no implante (plataforma e primeiras roscas) e parafuso (pescoço) em comparação com o carregamento funcional. A cortical óssea apresentou maiores áreas de tensão por tração sob carregamento parafuncional oblíquo. A concentração de tensões aumentou à medida que aumentou a altura da coroa. O aumento da altura da coroa induziu um aumento na concentração de tensões, tanto nos componentes do implante, quanto na cortical óssea; o carregamento parafuncional induziu um aumento entre 4-5 vezes da magnitude das tensões no tecido ósseo; o tipo de carregamento apresenta-se como um fator de variação mais influente do que a proporção coroa/implante.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Quercetin/pharmacology , /antagonists & inhibitors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Dioxolanes/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Infusions, Intravenous , Injections, Intravenous , Parasympatholytics , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Rats, Inbred Strains , Time Factors
19.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(6): 979-986, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732807

ABSTRACT

Este artigo apresenta uma compreensão sobre o autocuidado do cuidador familiar segundo a teoria de Dorothea Orem. Resulta de uma pesquisa qualitativa com aporte da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados, utilizando-se das técnicas de visita domiciliar, registro de notas de campo e entrevista semiestruturada com 11 cuidadores, após a internação de familiar em um Hospital Universitário de Minas Gerais. Foram obtidas quatro categorias, destacando uma categoria central, em torno da qual se analisaram as facilidades, dificuldades e estratégias para o autocuidado do cuidador. Entre as dificuldades, foram evidenciadas: tempo insuficiente para os cuidados com a saúde e, entre as facilidades, o apoio de outros familiares. As principais estratégias foram: apoio na fé; revezamento nos cuidados e recursos na comunidade. Concluiu-se que orientações no momento da alta e o acompanhamento de enfermagem após a alta contribuem para o autocuidado do cuidador, atuando sobre suas dificuldades e estimulando suas potencialidades.


This article presents an understanding concerning self-care in family caregivers according to Dorothea Orem's theory. Resulting from a qualitative research based on Grounded Theory, this work uses the techniques of home visiting, field notes and semistructured interviews with 11 caregivers after the hospitalization of a family member in a teaching Hospital located in Minas Gerais. Four categories were found and among them a central category is highlighted from which some facilities, difficulties and strategies for selfcare in caregiver were analyzed. Considering the difficulties, insufficient time for healthcare was noticed whereas the support from other family members appeared as a facility. The main strategies were: faith as a support; shift work in healthcare and community resources. This study demonstrated that hospital discharge guidelines and nursing follow-up after discharge were responsible for positive contributions to self-care in caregivers helping them to overcome their difficulties and enhancing their potentialities.


El artículo presenta una comprensión sobre el autocuidado del cuidador familiar, según la teoría de Dorothea Orem. Resulta de investigación cualitativa con aporte de la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos, utilizándo se de las técnicas de visitas a domicilio; registro de apuntes de campo y entrevista semiestructurada, tras la internación de un familiar en un hospital universitario de Minas Gerais. Se llegó a cuatro categorías, señalando una categoría central, alrededor de la cual se analizaron las facilidades, dificultades y estrategias para el autocuidado del cuidador. Se evidenció, entre las dificultades, tiempo insuficiente para los cuidados con la salud y, entre las facilidades, el apoyo de otros familiares. Las principales estrategias fueron: apoyo en la fe, revezo en los cuidados y recursos en la comunidad. Se concluyó que orientaciones el momento del alta y el acompañamiento de enfermería tras el alta contribuyen para el autocuidado del cuidador, actuando sobre sus dificultades y estimulando sus potencialidades.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arsenicals/pharmacology , Cacodylic Acid/pharmacology , Ferric Compounds/pharmacokinetics , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Anions/pharmacokinetics , Colloids , Cations/pharmacokinetics , Histocytochemistry , Rats, Inbred Strains
20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(6): 886-890, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732809

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se identificar comportamentos e práticas sexuais de homens que fazem sexo com homens no contexto da vulnerabilidade ao HIV/AIDS. Estudo transversal, exploratório descritivo. Foi realizado em um local de sociabilidade gay de Fortaleza, no Estado do Ceará, entre novembro de 2010 e março de 2011, por meio de entrevista com 189 homens que fazem sexo com homens. Encontrou-se uma amostra composta, majoritariamente, por jovens, solteiros e com alto nível educacional. A história sexual demonstrou o início precoce da vida sexual, com prevalência elevada de relação sexual com parceira do sexo oposto. Houve alta frequência de testagem para o HIV. As práticas sexuais revelaram prevalência superior da realização de sexo oral e anal, bem como altos níveis de proteção no sexo anal, apesar de baixa no sexo oral. Constatou-se uma maior incorporação das práticas de prevenção em relação ao panorama nacional do início da epidemia.


The objective was to identify behaviors and sexual practices of men who have sexual relations with other men in the context of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. This was a cross-sectional, exploratory and descriptive study. It was carried out in a gay sociability place in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, between November 2010 and March 2011, through interviews with 189 men who have sex with men. The ethical aspects were respected. We found a sample consisting mostly by young, single, and highly educated men. The sexual history demonstrated the early onset of sexual activity, with a high prevalence of sexual intercourse with a partner of the opposite sex. There was also a high prevalence of HIV testing. Sexual practices revealed high prevalence of performing oral and anal sex, as well as high levels of protection in anal sex, despite the low protection in oral sex. A greater incorporation of prevention practices was found compared to the national scene in the beginning of the disease outbreak.


El objetivo fue identificar los comportamientos y las prácticas sexuales de los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres en el contexto de la vulnerabilidad al VIH/SIDA. Fue un estudio transversal, descriptivo y exploratorio. Se celebró en una sociabilidad local gay de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, entre noviembre de 2010 y marzo de 2011, a través de entrevistas con 189 hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Se encontró una muestra compuesta en su mayoría por jóvenes, solteros y con alto nivel de educación. La historia sexual demostró el inicio temprano de la actividad sexual, la alta prevalencia de relaciones sexuales con una pareja del sexo opuesto. Hubo alta prevalencia de la prueba del VIH. Las prácticas sexuales revelaron una alta prevalencia de realizar sexo oral y anal, así como altos niveles de protección en el sexo anal, a pesar de la baja protección en el sexo oral. Se encontró una mayor incorporación de las prácticas de prevención en relación con la escena nacional en el inicio de la epidemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Fluorouracil/pharmacokinetics , Liver/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoid Tumor/drug therapy , Carcinoid Tumor/metabolism , Floxuridine/pharmacokinetics , Floxuridine/therapeutic use , Fluorouracil/analogs & derivatives , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Infusions, Intravenous , Liver/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Rats, Inbred Strains , Tegafur/pharmacokinetics , beta-Alanine/analysis , beta-Alanine/analogs & derivatives , beta-Alanine/biosynthesis
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